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# MECHANICS OF MATERIALS 3.

Torque

The mechanics of materials deals The component of the
with the internal effects and resultant couple that tends to
deformations that are caused by the twist (rotate) the bar is called the
applied loads. twisting moment or torque. It is
commonly given the symbol T.
ANALYSIS OF INTERNAL FORCES

1. Axial Force (Normal Force)

The component of the
resultant force that is
perpendicular to the cross
section, tending to elongate or
4. Bending Moments
shorten the bar, is called the
normal force. The component of the
resultant couple that tends to
bend the bar is called the
bending moment. It is often
denoted merely by M.

A pull represents a tensile
force which tends to elongate
the member, whereas a push is a
compressive force which tends to
shorted it. It is denoted by P.
SIMPLE STRESSES
2. Shear Force
Simple stresses are expressed as
The component of the the ratio of the applied force divided by
resultant force lying in the plane the resisting area or defined by the
of the cross section, tending to formula:
shear (slide) one segment of the
bar relative to the other segment, 𝑭
𝝈=
is called the shear force. The 𝑨
resultant shear force is usually
The stress is usually denoted by
designated by V.
the symbol sigma σ. The standard unit of
stress is commonly expressed in Mega-
Pascal (MPa) or N/mm2 in SI units and
pound-force per sq. inch (psi) in British
System of Units. Simple stress can be
classified as normal stress, shear stress,
and bearing stress depending on the
concentrated load F with respect to the
area of contact.

the stress is said to be tensile stress and compressive stress develops when the material is being compressed by two opposing forces. If the force is going to pull the material.NORMAL STRESS Normal stress develops when a force is applied perpendicular to the cross-sectional area of the material. 𝑷 P 𝝈𝑻 = P 𝑨 A 𝑷 𝝈𝑪 = 𝑨 P P A .

Calculate the normal stress in each segment in psi.1 1. For the truss shown in Fig.ILLUSTRATIVE PROBLEMS 1. Axial loads are applied as shown. σBC= 2780 psi ( C ).3 MPa ( T ). calculate the normal stresses in (1) member AC. (a). and (2) member BD. σBD= 74. The bar ABCD in the figure shown below consists of three cylindrical steel segments with different lengths and cross-sectional areas. Ans: σAB= 3330 psi ( T ).1 MPa (C) . The cross-sectional area of each member is 900 mm2. Ans: σAC= 59. σCD= 4380 psi ( C ) 2.

Neglecting the self-weight of the truss as shown below. Note: P is perpendicular to AH & HN.NAME: (Last. Let P=6kN. Find the maximum value of P in kilo-Newton that will not exceed a stress in steel of 140 MPa.01 sq. & Q is acting vertically downward. An aluminum rod is rigidly attached between a steel rod and a bronze rod as shown in the figure shown below. 2. in aluminum of 90 MPa. find the internal forces acting on the members in KiloNewton if the area of the each member is 0. First. Determine also the maximum stress of the member having the maximum internal force in MPa. MI) CRS/YR/SEC: ___________ SCORE: _______ SUBJECT: ES 313 (MECHANICS OF MATERIALS) DATE: ________ PLATE NO. 2Q P P 2P Q Q 2P 2P Q Q 2P H Q D J Q P P 2m B L A N C E I K M 6 panels @ 1m = 6m .m. Axial loads are applied at the positions indicated. & Q=7kN. or in bronze of 100 MPa. 1 1.