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Chapter

2
PLC Selection, Components,
and Communication

Objectives
• Identify important questions to determine
which PLC device to purchase.
• Distinguish between Allen-Bradley fixed and
modular SLC 500 processors.
• Select modular Allen-Bradley SLC 500
series processor and chassis.
• Select input or output modules for Allen-
Bradley SLC 500 PLCs.

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

Objectives

• Recognize how to connect sensors and
switches to PLC ports.
• Describe the different types of PLC memory.
• Describe the method to connect PLC devices
to programming modules.

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

PLC Selection

• Factors:
– Manufacturer’s support.
– Serviceability.
– Flexibility.
– Expandability.
– Programming software.
– Training.
– Documentation.

© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

. – I/O modules. select either: – Fixed PLC. – power supply. – Modular PLC. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. • In a single housing. a fixed PLC has – the processor (CPU).. Allen-Bradley SLC 500 Components • For Allen-Bradley SLC 500 PLC. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Inc.

Inc. Allen-Bradley SLC 500 Components (Cont.. – Processor. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. • Allen-Bradley refers to the central processing unit (CPU) as processor. – I/O modules. . Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.) • Modular Allen-Bradley SLC 500 PLCs: – Chassis. – Power supply.

(Used with permission of Rockwell Automation. Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. . – Input module.) © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Chassis • In an Allen-Bradley SLC 500 modular PLC. Inc.. – Output modules. provides electrical current to: – Processor.

Chassis (Cont. • Number of slots can be expanded to a maximum of 30 by interconnecting up to three chassis using cables. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. – Thirteen-slot. – Seven-slot. – Ten-slot.) • Four chassis sizes for the modular SLC 500 series processors: – Four-slot. ..

– Slot zero in the modular PLC is reserved for the processor.) • When installing the PLC components in a chassis: – Processor must be placed in slot zero. – Input and output modules can be in any other slot. Inc. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. .. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Chassis (Cont.

Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. • An I/0 module is referred to as Module Zero. – Processor. .) • A complete unit in an Allen-Bradley SLC 500 fixed PLC includes: – Power supply.. – I/O modules. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Chassis (Cont.

– Fixed PLC power supply provides power. a two-slot chassis can be added so two more I/O modules can be installed. . • However.. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Inc. Chassis (Cont.) • I/O port types and voltage or current rating cannot be altered. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

. and thus to the processor. and peripherals attached to the chassis. Power Supply • Provides power to the chassis backplane. Inc. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. modules. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. • Must be able to provide ample current to these components. .

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Processor • Allen-Bradley SLC 500 modular processors: © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Inc.. .

© Goodheart-Willcox Co. I/O Modules • Allen-Bradley SLC 500 series modules: – Digital (discrete) I/O modules. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. – Analog (variable) I/O modules. Inc. .. – Specialty I/O modules. – Distributed or networking I/O modules.

© Goodheart-Willcox Co. • For example. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. input module one may have sixteen ports. Inc.. and output module two may have eight ports.) • Each input or output module has several ports. I/O Modules (Cont. . or terminals.

) • Ports on the modules: – Specified when they are specifically used in a ladder logic diagram. Inc.. . © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. I/O Modules (Cont. – Addressed by their module and port number.

Inc. I/O Modules (Cont. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only..) © Goodheart-Willcox Co. .

. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Wiring Connection Diagram © Goodheart-Willcox Co. . Inc.

. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. • AWG 14 wire has more than sufficient ampere rating for carrying current for the PLC I/O ports. Inc. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Wiring • PLC I/O ports: – Typically rated for low amperage. – Ordinarily connected to I/O devices through American Wire Gauge size fourteen (AWG 14)..

the output devices require larger voltage and current ratings. Wiring (Cont. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. .) • In most applications. • PLC output port provides voltage and current to the input coil of the magnetic relay. • A magnetic relay should be used to connect larger voltage and current equipment to the output device.. Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

. • DC I/O modules labeled as sourcing or sinking. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. . © Goodheart-Willcox Co. • Sourcing device always attaches to a sinking I/O module. Inc. Sourcing and Sinking • The way current flows through the input or output module DC circuit. • Sinking device always attaches to a sourcing I/O module.

Sourcing • Sourcing occurs when the current flows out of the PLC port. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Inc.. .

Sinking • Sinking occurs when the current flows into the PLC port.. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. .

• System memory: – Stores information needed to execute the user program.. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. – About 75% of the total memory. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. PLC Memory Expansion and Usage • User memory: – Holds the ladder logic program. . Inc.

division. and comparison. shift registers. • Math and logic instructions’ status: used for instructions such as addition. © Goodheart-Willcox Co.. subtraction. PLC Memory Expansion and Usage (Cont. multiplication. sequencer. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. • Timers’ status: holds the preset values and the accumulated values of the timers. .) • Input status: holds the status of discrete input ports. • Counters’ status: holds the preset values and the accumulated values of the counters. • Output status: holds the status of discrete output ports. Inc.

.. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Inc. PLC Memory Expansion and Usage (Cont.) © Goodheart-Willcox Co.

• Programming devices. – Peripheral control components. • PCs. • Printers. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. PLC Communication Systems • PLCs communicate with: – Industrial input and output devices. Inc.. • Peripheral interfaces. . • Display panels.

© Goodheart-Willcox Co.. Inc. PLC Communication Systems (Cont.) • Allen-Bradley SLC 500 PLCs: – Channel 0 is used to attach peripheral devices. – Channel 1 is used to communicate with other PLCs and PCs. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. .

5/04. Inc.) • All of the Allen-Bradley SLC 500 PLCs have a Channel 1. and 5/05 also have a Channel 0. but only the SLC 5/03. © Goodheart-Willcox Co.. . Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. PLC Communication Systems (Cont.

PLC Communication Systems (Cont. Inc..) • Network communications: – DH-485. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. – DH+. . Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. – Ethernet.

. PLC Communication Systems (Cont.) • DF1: – Provides serial communications through an RS-232 interface. monitoring PLC status. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Inc. . © Goodheart-Willcox Co. and programming. – Can be used for remote communications through a modem or radio modem.

Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. PLC Communication Systems (Cont. – Half-duplex. © Goodheart-Willcox Co.) • Two types of DF1 communications: – Full-duplex. ..

PLC Communication Systems (Cont. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. • Half-duplex: – DF1 allows for communications in one direction at a time in a network of up to 255 devices. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Inc.. .) • Full-duplex: – DF1 allows for two-way communications between two devices.

.. ASCII • Allows for communications with other devices that use the ASCII protocol. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Inc. – Bar code readers. – Serial printers. • Takes place over the RS-232 interface or connector.

Serial Communication • Serial communication data: – Transmitted one bit at a time through one transmission medium. . © Goodheart-Willcox Co.. – Can be framed prior to transmission. Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

. Baud (Bd) Rate • Includes framing bits. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Inc. © Goodheart-Willcox Co.. – A PLC may operate at a rate of 19.200 Bd with the CPU and 2400 Bd with a printer. • A PLC communicates with its peripheral devices at different baud rates.

Framing • Process of indicating the beginning and ending of a transmission.. Inc. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. • Ensures each byte of data is the correct transmission of data. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. . • Device receiving the information is alerted when data transmission starts and ends.

) • Framing bits include: – Start bit. Inc. – Stop bit. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. . Framing (Cont. – Parity bit.. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

. © Goodheart-Willcox Co.e. .. Parity • Parity bit: – Turned on or off to make transmitted data to have either an odd number of ones (i.e.. Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. • Errors come in the form of lost or changed bits. even parity). • Parity bit check: – Used to find transmission errors. odd parity) or an even number of ones (i.

– Parity bit turns on or off to ensure the number of high bits in one byte of transmitted data is odd.. Parity (Cont.) • Even parity check. . – Parity bit turns on or off to ensure the number of high bits in one byte (8 bits) of transmitted data is even. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Inc. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. • Odd parity check. • No parity check.

• Device that responds to transmitted messages can also be referred to as a slave or responder. DTE and DCE • Data terminal equipment (DTE): – Initiate communication by sending messages. • Computers or master PLCs. Inc. • Data communication equipment (DCE): – Respond to the messages transmitted by the DTE.. • Device that initiates communication is also referred to as a master or initiator. • Modems or slave PLCs. . © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.

DTE and DCE (Cont. • Multi-master network: – Network with more than one initiator. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co.) • Single master/multiple slave network: – Network with one initiator and several responders. .. Inc.

Inc. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. – Full duplex. – Half duplex. Channeling Systems • Three ways to channel communication: – Simplex. © Goodheart-Willcox Co.. .

Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. . Channeling Systems (Cont. © Goodheart-Willcox Co.) • Simplex channeling: – When the DTE either transmits data to or receives data from the DCE.. – Will not do both. Inc. – Data flows only in one direction.

Inc.. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. . – Transmission and reception of data cannot occur simultaneously. Channeling Systems (Cont.) • Half duplex channeling: – DTE transmits data to and receives data from the DCE.

– Data flow to and from DTE and DCE is simultaneous. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Inc. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Channeling Systems (Cont.) • Full duplex channeling: – DTE transmits data to and receives data from the DCE through two separate transmission lines.. .

Programming Module (PM) • Three different types of PLC programming modules: – Hand-held. – Dedicated. – Personal computer. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Inc. ..

. (Used with permission of Rockwell Automation. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Hand-held Programmer • Typically used for programming smaller PLC devices. • After programming the PLC.) © Goodheart-Willcox Co. these temporary programming modules are disconnected from the system. Inc.. Inc.

Dedicated Programmer Module • Used for larger PLC systems.. • Permanently left in the PLC circuit. (Used with permission of Rockwell Automation. Inc.) © Goodheart-Willcox Co. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. • Maintenance personnel can use it to modify or troubleshoot the PLC programs. . Inc.

Inc. Personal Computer (PC) or Laptop Computer • Can be used to program a PLC. • A device that bridges communication between two different interfaces must be used between the PC or laptop and the PLC.. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. © Goodheart-Willcox Co. .

© Goodheart-Willcox Co.. Inc. . most PLCs have different hardware and software communication settings. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Communication Settings • To prevent unauthorized personnel from running or altering a PLC program.

Common Communication Settings – Off: System cannot run or be programmed.. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. Inc. but its program cannot be altered. – Run: System can run. . © Goodheart-Willcox Co. – Disable: Turns all the PLC outputs off or sets them to the inoperable state. – Offline program: PLC’s program can be modified while the system is not running.

© Goodheart-Willcox Co. – Forced: Allows system to run and allows the program to be modified while the system is running. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.. Common Communication Settings (Cont.) – Online Monitor/Run: Turns on to display the PLC program while the PLC is running. Inc. .

Inc. Forced Mode © Goodheart-Willcox Co.. Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only. .