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**Why is multiobjective optimization considered better approach as compared to
**

single objective optimization in dealing with real world situations?

A) Single vs. Multiobjective Optimisation

**Many real-world decision making problems need to achieve several objectives:
**

minimise risks, maxi-mise reliability, minimise deviations from desired levels,

minimise cost, etc. The main goal of single-objective (SO) optimisation is to find

the “best”solution, which corresponds to the minimum or maximum value of a

single objective function that lumps all different objectives into one. This type of

optimisation is useful as a tool which should provide decision makers with insights

into the nature of the problem, but usually cannot provide a set of alternative

solutions that trade different objectives against each other. On the contrary, in a

multiobjective optimisation with conflicting objectives, there is no single optimal

solution. The interaction among different objectives gives rise to a set of

compromised solutions, largely known as the trade-off, nondominated, noninferior

or Pareto-optimal solutions.

Consideration of multiple objectives promotes more appropriate roles for the

participants in the planing and decision-making processes, i.e. “analyst” or

“modeller”– who generates alternative solutions, and “decision maker” -who uses

the solutions generated by the analyst to make informed decisions.

Models of a problem will be more realistic if many objectives are considered.

Single-objective optimisation identifies a single optimal alternative, however, it

can be used within the multiobjective framework. This does not involve

aggregating different objectives into a single

objective function, but, for example, entails setting all except one of them as

constraints in the optimization process. Thus, multiobjective methodologies are

more likely to identify a wider range of these alternatives since they do not need to

prespecify for which level of one objective a single optimal solution is obtained for

another.

Thus, single-objective approaches place the burden of decision making squarely on

the shoulders of the analyst, But multiobjective approaches allow the responsibility

of assigning relative values

of the objectives to the decision maker!

5. Explain pareto dominance in case of multiobjective optimization?

**A) In multi-objective optimization fitness assignment and selection have to take
**

into account all the different objectives. Among the different fitness assignment

strategies, the most commonly used are those based on aggregation, single-

objective, and Pareto dominance.

The Pareto dominance (or ranking) strategy is based on exploiting the partial

or-der on the population. Some approaches use the dominance rank, i.e., the

number of individuals by which an individual is dominated, to determine the

fitness values; others make use of the dominance depth, where the population

is divided into several fronts and the depth reflects to which front an

individual belongs.

Pareto ranking alone, however, does not guarantee that the population will

spread uniformly over the non-dominated points set. It is known that in the

case of Pareto ranking-based selection schemes finite populations converge to

a single optimum, a phenomenon known as genetic drift (Goldberg and

Segrest, 1987), implying a convergence to small regions of the Pareto-optimal

set.

7. “Evolutionary algorithms are naturally suitable for solving multiobjective optimization

problem”. Why / Why not?

**Evolutionary optimization (EO) algorithms use a population based approach in which more than
**

one solution participates in an iteration and evolves a new population of solutions in each

iteration. The reasons for their popularity are many:

(i) EOs do not require any derivative information

(ii) EOs are relatively simple to implement and

(iii) EOs are flexible and have a wide-spread applicability.

**For solving single-objective optimization problems, particularly in finding a single optimal
**

solution, the use of a population of solutions may sound redundant, in solving multi-objective

optimization problems an EO procedure is a perfect choice. The multi-objective optimization

problems, by nature, give rise to a set of Pareto-optimal solutions which need a further

processing to arrive at a single preferred solution. To achieve the first task, it becomes quite a

natural proposition to use an EO, because the use of population in an iteration helps an EO to

simultaneously find multiple non-dominated solutions, which portrays a trade-o among

objectives, in a single simulation run.

It is clear that EMO is not only being found to be useful in solving multi-objective optimization

problems, it is also helping to solve other kinds of optimization problems in a better manner than

they are traditionally solved.

**8. Briefly describe the working of Multiobjective Evolutionary Algorithms with suitable
**

diagrams and pseudocodes.

A)

The MEGA algorithm

The standard version of the MEGA algorithm operates on one population set, referred to as the

working population. The population of a single generation consists of the individuals subjected

to objective performance calculation and obtained through evolution in a single iteration. Note

that solution chromosomes are represented as graphs.

The first phase of the algorithm applies the objectives on the working population to obtain a list

of scores for each individual. The list of scores may be used for the elimination of solutions with

values outside the range allowed by the corresponding active hard filters. In the next step, the

individuals‟ list of scores is subjected to a Pareto-ranking procedure to set the rank of each

individual. Non-dominated individuals are assigned rank order 1.

The algorithm then proceeds to calculate the efficiency score for each individual, which is used

to select a subset of parents via a roulette-like method [18] that favours individuals with high

efficiency score, i.e. low domination rank and high chromosome graph diversity.

The parents are then subjected to graph-specific mutation and crossover according to the

probabilities indicated by the user. The new working population is formed by merging the

original working population and the newly produced offspring. The process iterates as shown in

Figure 10. The execution of the algorithm completes when the user defined termination

conditions, typically a maximum number of iterations, are fulfilled.

12. Machine Learning is motivated by learning from experience. How is training performed

in Machine Learning? Illustrate it with a suitable example from load forecasting.

A)

Machine Learning is motivated by learning from experience, Tom M. Mitchell provided a

widely quoted, more formal definition: "A computer program is said to learn from experience

E with respect to some class of tasks T and performance measure P if its performance at tasks

in T, as measured by P, improves with experience E".[9] This definition is notable for its

defining machine learning in fundamentally operational rather than cognitive terms.

Machine learning explores the study and construction of algorithms that can learn from and

make predictions on data.[3] Such algorithms operate by building a model from example

inputs in order to make data-driven predictions or decisions expressed as outputs.

Machine learning tasks are typically classified into three broad categories These are[11]

**• Supervised learning: The computer is trained by a "teacher".
**

• Unsupervised learning: leaving it on its own to find structure in its input.

• Reinforcement learning: A computer program without a teacher explicitly telling it

whether it has come close to its goal.

**Training ML Models:The process of training an ML model involves providing an ML
**

algorithm (that is, the learning algorithm) with training data to learn from. The term ML

model refers to the model artifact that is created by the training process.

**The training data must contain the correct answer, which is known as a target or target
**

attribute. The learning algorithm finds patterns in the training data that map the input data

attributes to the target, and it outputs an ML model that captures these patterns. After data

collection, the available data has been pre-processed to train the ANN more efficiently.

For a daily consumption forecast one can use a say total of 1,581 data, 50% of those data, making

up the first subset, were used for ANN training and validation. The last 50% of the original data,

making up the second subset, was used to evaluate the prediction capacity of the developed ANN

model. The training data from the first subset was used for computing the ANN weights and

biases, and the validation, from the second subset, was used to test the accuracy of the ANN

model.

The first step for ANN training was take 85% of the data from first subset mentioned above for

ANN training and validation. During training, the last 15% was used to evaluate the forecast

capacity of the developed ANN model.

To achieve the mentioned model the ANN approach use 16 neurons in the input layer, 20 neurons

in the hidden layer and 1 neuron in the output layer. In the learning / training process a neural

network builds an input–output mapping, adjusting the weights and biases at each iteration based

on the minimization of some error measure between the output produced and the desired output.

Thus, learning entails an optimization process. The error minimization process is repeated until

an acceptable criterion for convergence is reached.

13. What is a Support vector machine? Briefly discuss its application in power systems.

A) “Support Vector Machine” (SVM) is a supervised machine learning algorithm which can

be used for both classification or regression challenges. However, it is mostly

used in classification problems. In this algorithm, we plot each data item as a point in n-

dimensional space (where n is number of features you have) with the value of each feature

being the value of a particular coordinate. Then, we perform classification by finding the

hyper-plane that differentiate the two classes very well.

HOW IT WORKS:

Linear SVM

Identify the right hyper-plane (Scenario-1): Here, we have three hyper-planes (A, B and

C). Now, identify the right hyper-plane to classify star and circle.

Here, maximizing the distances between nearest data point (either class) and hyper-plane

will help us to decide the right hyper-plane. This distance is called as Margin. Let’s look at

the image:

Non-linear SVMs:

**Find the hyper-plane to segregate to classes (Scenario-5): In the scenario below, we can’t
**

have linear hyper-plane between the two classes, These are classified by functions which

takes low dimensional input space and transform it to a higher dimensional space i.e. it

converts not separable problem to separable problem, these functions are called kernels.

Here, we will add a new feature z=x^2+y^2.

It is mostly useful in non-linear separation problem. The original input space can always be

mapped to some higher-dimensional feature space where the training set is separable.

Application in power systems:

SVM has wide range of applications in Power systems,

• Support vector machines for transient stability analysis of large-scale power systems.

• Support vector machine in machine condition monitoring .

• Fault diagnosis of power transformer based on support vector machine with genetic

algorithm.

• Support vector machines with simulated annealing algorithms in electricity load

forecasting.

• Classification of power system disturbances using support vector machines.

13. What is a Support vector machine? Briefly discuss its application in power systems.

A) “Support Vector Machine” (SVM) is a supervised machine learning algorithm which can be

used for both classification or regression challenges. However, it is mostly used in classification

problems. In this algorithm, we plot each data item as a point in n-dimensional space (where n is

number of features you have) with the value of each feature being the value of a particular

coordinate. Then, we perform classification by finding the hyper-plane that differentiate the two

classes very well.

HOW IT WORKS:

Linear SVM

Identify the right hyper-plane (Scenario-1): Here, we have three hyper-planes (A, B and C).

Now, identify the right hyper-plane to classify star and circle.

Here, maximizing the distances between nearest data point (either class) and hyper-plane

will help us to decide the right hyper-plane. This distance is called as Margin. Let’s look at the

image:

Non-linear SVMs:

**Find the hyper-plane to segregate to classes (Scenario-5): In the scenario below, we can’t
**

have linear hyper-plane between the two classes, These are classified by functions which takes

low dimensional input space and transform it to a higher dimensional space i.e. it converts not

separable problem to separable problem, these functions are called kernels. Here, we will add a

new feature z=x^2+y^2.

It is mostly useful in non-linear separation problem. The original input space can always be

mapped to some higher-dimensional feature space where the training set is separable.

Application in power systems:

SVM has wide range of applications in Power systems,

• Support vector machines for transient stability analysis of large-scale power systems.

• Support vector machine in machine condition monitoring .

• Fault diagnosis of power transformer based on support vector machine with genetic

algorithm.

• Support vector machines with simulated annealing algorithms in electricity load

forecasting.

• Classification of power system disturbances using support vector machines.

15.Briefly describe power system transient stability? How can Machine Learning help in

assessment of power system transient stability.

**Ans:- Power systems transient stability phenomena are associated with the operation of
**

synchronous machines in parallel, and become important with longdistance heavy power

transmissions. From a physical viewpoint, transient stability may be defined as the ability of a power

system to maintain machines’ synchronous operation when subjected to large disturbances. From

the system theory viewpoint, power system transient stability is a strongly nonlinear, high-

dimensional problem.

**Historically, T-D methods started being used before the advent of numerical computers: calculations
**

of very simplified (and hence of reduced dimensionality) versions of the system dynamic equations

were carried out manually to compute the machines’ “swing curves”, i.e. the machines’ rotor angle

evolution with time [Park and Bancker, 1929]. Another way of tackling transientstability is a

graphical method, popularized in the thirties, and called “equal-area criterion” (EAC). This method

deals with a one-machine system connected to an “infinite” bus and studies its stability by using the

concept of energy, which removes the necessity of plotting swing curves. EAChas been - and still is-

considered to be an extraordinarily powerful tool for assessing stability margins and limits, for

evaluating the influence of various system parameters, and more generally for providing insight into

the very physical transient stability phenomena.

**Actually, the EAC energy concept is a particular case of the Lyapunov’s general theory yielding the
**

Lyapunov energy-type function applied to a onemachine infinite bus system.

**15.Briefly describe power system transient stability? How can Machine Learning help in
**

assessment of power system transient stability.

Ans:- Electric power systems are large-scale non-linear systems where there are many kinds of stability problems.

One of them is transient stability, which is defined as the ability of a power system to maintain synchronism after

severe disturbances. The purpose of transient stability assessment (TSA) is to determine if the contingency may cause

power system into angle instability, that is, to predict whether the power system could maintain synchronous operation

of generators when subjected to large disturbances such as faults, load loss, capacity loss, etc.

Machine learning methods are promising tools for transient stability assessment (TSA) of power system. Support

vector machine (SVM) is used to assess the transient stability of power system after faults occur on transmission lines.

One of conventional methods used for TSA is the time-domain numerical simulation. This method consists of

simulating during and post-fault behaviors of the system for a given disturbance, observing its electromechanical

angular swings during a few seconds. It is usually used to estimate stability status and to provide detailed operation

information of the faulted systems as a benchmark. However, the simulation method is infeasible for on-line TSA

mainly due to its time-consuming computation.

In the transient stability assessment using machine learning method, the key step is the selection of system

variables. In power system simulation, generators with detailed model provide sufficient information in power

system stability and control. The single machine attributes can effectively predict the system state in transient

stability assessment. The attributes of generators with smaller inertia coefficient can give satisfying results.

16. What is the function of power system stabilizers? How will ANN and Fuzzy logic help

in design and implementation of power system stabilizers?

**The Power System Stabilizer (PSS) is a supplementary excitation controller used to damp generator
**

electro-mechanical oscillations in order to protect the shaft line and stabilize the grid. System

disturbances due to sudden load changes or faults lead to an imbalance between electrical power

delivered by the generator and the mechanical power being produced by the turbine. The imbalance

results in a shaft torque with an accelerating or decelerating effect on the shaft line. The basic function

of a Power System Stabilizer (PSS) is to damp such power oscillations, by producing electrical torque

using the excitation system. The integration of huge amounts of volatile renewables (solar PV, Wind)

mean that power system operation is increasingly characterized by a wide-range of operating

conditions, random load changes and various unpredictable disturbances. Adaptive PSS systems

address these challenges by providing effective damping over the entire generating range.

FUZZY

A fuzzy logic power system stabilizer is basically a fuzzy logic controller. Speed deviation, and active

power deviation, or derivative of speed deviation of the synchronous machine are chosen as the FLPSS

inputs. The output control signal is the input to the automatic voltage regulator (AVR). Each of the

FLPSS input and output variables, are scaled through input gains and interpreted into seven linguistic

fuzzy subsets varying from Negative Big (NB) to Positive Big (PB). Each subset is associated with a

triangular membership function to form a set of seven normalized and symmetrical triangular

membership functions for each fuzzy variable. A symmetrical fuzzy rule set is used to describe the

FLPSS behavior, where the rule is “if-then”.

ANN

The trained and optimized GA-ANN based PSS has been tested on non-linear power system dynamics

under the different operating conditions, various disturbances and faults in the power system. The error

between the system's output and the desired output is calculated and then the error is back-propagated

through the whole network to adjust the network parameters to reduce the output error at each step.

Training input data are presented to the network and the network computes its output. The GA-ANN

based PSS has been designed for improvement of the small signal oscillations and the transient stability

of a power system with long transmission lines and generating unit equipped with high-gain and fast

acting excitation system.

17. Briefly discuss control of Synchronous Generator when subjected to

transient three phase short circuit using Artificial Intelligence techniques.

**ANSWER:-A turn fault in the stator winding of a generator causes a large circulating current to flow in
**

the shorted turns. If left undetected, turn faults can propagate, leading to phase-ground or phase-

phase faults. Incipient detection of turn’s faults is essential to avoid hazardous operating conditions

and reduce down time. At present the synchronous generators are protected against almost all kind

of faults using differential methods of protection. All kind of faults develops into inter winding fault

by damaging inter winding insulation. So it is necessary to protect the synchronous generator from

inter winding faults which represents the protection against all kind of faults. There are different

method based techniques for analyzing generator incipient/inter turn faults on stator side. They are

circuit based, field based, wavelet based, artificial intelligence based, fuzzy based, artificial neural

networks based. Machine performance characteristics that could be monitored to diagnose the stator

inter-turn fault in generator include line current, terminal voltage, torque pulsations, temperature rise

due to excessive losses, shaft vibrations, air-gap flux and speed ripples. So in this we are developing a

mathematical model or method based on online/offline condition monitoring system by analyzing

various conditions and collecting various samples of voltage and current (i.e. normal and abnormal)

for protection of generators against faults (i.e. means incipient/inter turn faults) on stator side. The

main Objective is to develop a mathematical model or method based on online/offline condition

monitoring system by analyzing various conditions (i.e. normal and abnormal) for protection of

generators against faults (i.e. means incipient/inter turn faults) on stator side.

**Finite element analysis (FEA) techniques are useful to obtain an
**

accurate characterization of the electromagnetic behavior of the magnetic components, such as

synchronous generators. Once a model of the magnetic component is defined, the values of its

parameters can be calculated using the FEA techniques. Finite element analysis has typically been

coupled to circuit simulation using time-stepped field solutions. This approach can be very accurate,

but it involves long simulation times. Therefore, the use of the finite element method in modeling a

short circuit fault in a synchronous generator provides a significant advance in the degree of accuracy.

21. Briefly discuss the application of fuzzy logic in control of robotic manipulators

under uncertainty, highlighting its advantages and disadvantages over conventional

controller.

**Traditional AI approaches decompose robotic behaviors into a sense-model-plan-act type of hierarchy.
**

The sensors provide perceptual information, which is used to build a model of the current

environment. The planner generates a plan that enables the robot to accomplish the given task. A

controller executes the actions commanded by the planner without taking novel sensor information

into account. The utility of this model-based reasoning approach for the design of intelligent robots is

limited due to uncertainties inherent to unstructured environments, unreliable and incomplete

perceptual information and imprecise actuators. Fuzzy systems employ a mode of approximate

reasoning which enables them to make robust and meaningful decisions under uncertainty and partial

knowledge. Therefore, the difficulties arising from the lack of precise and complete information on

the environment make fuzzy control a suitable method to implement the behavior of a mobile robot.

**The robotic behavior is constituted by a set of fuzzy rules, which can be designed without requiring
**

the complexity and precision of mathematical or logical models. The fuzzy rules describe the relation

between the external and internal states of the robot and the set of possible actions. The

performance might deteriorate if the robot is transferred to an environment that differs from the

prototype. In order to achieve true autonomy a robot depends on the ability to adapt its behavior to

changes in the environment. Training the robot with noisy and incomplete sensor information

enhances the robustness of the behavior. A robot that learns from past experience can exploit

particular regularities of its environment and perceptual apparatus and thereby improve its

competence to achieve its goals. An evolutionary algorithm can in principle design a robust fuzzy

control system that is able to cope with the uncertainty and imprecision inherent to real-world

situations.

Advantages and disadvantages over conventional controller

**Traditional P controller can be a challenge, especially if auto-tuning capabilities to help find the
**

optimal P constants are desired. However, the theory of P control is very well known and widely used

in many other control applications. On the other hand, fuzzy control seems to accomplish better

control quality with less complexity. FLC performs much better than the P controller; the response

obtained shows that the robot reaches a steady state much earlier with a FLC than a P controller.

22.What is load frequency control of interconnected power system? Discuss the application of

artificial intelligence techniques like ANN and Fuzzy logic in load frequency control of interconnected

power system.

**Ans:- Automatic Generation Control (AGC) or Load Frequency Control is a very important issue in
**

power system operation and control for supplying sufficient and reliable electric power with good

quality. AGC is a feedback control system adjusting a generator output power to remain in defined

frequency. The interconnected power system is divided into three control areas, all generators are

assumed to form a coherent group .Load Frequency Control (LFC) is being used for several years as

part of the Automatic Generation Control (AGC) scheme in electric power systems.

**One of the objectives of AGC is to maintain the system frequency at nominal value (50 hz). In the
**

steady state operation of power system, the load demand is increased or decreased in the form of

Kinetic Energy stored in generator prime mover set, which results the variation of speed and

frequency accordingly. Therefore, the control of load frequency is essential to have safe operation of

the power system . A control strategy is needed that not only maintains constancy of frequency and

desired tie-power flow but also achieves zero steady state error and inadvertent interchange.

**The Artificial Intelligent controllers like Fuzzy and Neural control approaches are more suitable in
**

this respect. Fuzzy Load frequency control of three area interconnected hydro-thermal reheat power

system using artificial intelligence and PI controllers system has been applied to the load frequency

control problems with rather promising results .

**The salient feature of these techniques is that they provide a model- free description of control
**

systems and do not require model identification. The fuzzy controller offers better performance over

the conventional controllers, especially, in complex and nonlinearities associated system. However,

it is demonstrated good dynamics only when selecting the specific number of membership function,

so that the method had limitation. To over come this Artificial Neural Network (ANN) controller,

which is an advance adaptive control configuration, is used because the controller provides faster

control than the others .

24.Briefly discuss the application of fuzzy logic in process control under uncertainty, highlighting

its advantages and disadvantages over conventional controller.

Ans:-In the industrial world Fuzzy logic applications have been in use since long time. Fuzzy logic’s

expert high grade decision making ability has allowed it to be used in areas such as flow process

plants, power plants, thermal process plants, oil refineries, diagnosing medical problems, etc.

Chemical processes are well-known for difficulties such as large variations in output responses and

non-linearity. Thus it is difficult to control these processes using the conventional regulating

mechanisms.

**One of the applications of automatic control system is process control. Fuzzy logic has been
**

successfully applied to various processes in chemical engineering, especially flow control processes.

Any product whether it is a chemical, for e.g. gasoline, gas agents or any consumable, for e.g. a food

product, can only be manufactured by passing the raw materials through a process. Chemical

engineering largely involves the design, improvement and maintenance of processes involving

chemical or biological transformations for large-scale manufacture. Chemical engineers ensure the

processes are operated safely, sustainably and economically. Complex industrial processes such as a

batch chemical reactors; blast furnaces, cement kilns and basic oxygen steel making are difficult to

control automatically.

**PID controllers as they provide a linguistic control strategy based on high-grade judging knowledge
**

of an expert. The poor capabilities of conventional PID controller to control processes which are

nonlinear in nature. PID controller tuning is difficult as knowledge of process parameters is

insufficient in Having so many advantages over conventional PID controller, it is evident that many

efforts have been made in order to replace the PID controller or combine both the controller design.

case of nonlinear processes.

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