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Name Amaury LLorens Lake Class 8-3 Date

9.1 An Overview of Environmental Health
Key Concepts
Environmental health hazards can be biological, social, chemical, or physical.
Epidemiology is the study of disease in human populations, while toxicology is the
study of how poisonous substances affect organisms’ health.
People respond differently to environmental hazards due to individual differences such
as age, sex, weight, health issues, and genetic makeup.
Risk assessment is the process of measuring the chance that an environmental hazard
will cause harm.

Vocabulary Preview

Define each vocabulary term in your own words. Then, write yourself a quick note on
how you will remember each. One term has been done for you.

Term Definition How I Remember

Environmental Environmental factors that can Because I read about it in the
health affect your health. book.

Hazard A hazard is something that I’ve known for a long time
maybe dangerous, there are
many types of hazards.
Pathogen Pathogen is a type of virus or Because I had learned about it
bacteria previously

Epidemiology The study of disease in the Because epi has to do with
human population epidemic, and ology has to do
with medicine, and study
Toxicology The study of how poisonous I know that toxic means
substances “poisonous”
affect an organism's health and –ology indicates the study
of a
Toxicity Determines how harmful a I looked it up in the book.
substance is.

Dose Amount of medicine to take I knew from before

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toxicology Toxicology: The study of poisonous substances. Main Ideas Details Types of hazards Hazards that are bad for humans. and hot they affect. mind relationship Risk Something that you have to risk in mind order to do something. Epidemiology and Epidemiologists: how disasters occur. complete the main ideas and details chart. styles etc. Biological hazards: Pathogens. bacteria. Chemical hazards: chemicals Physical hazards: Hurricanes tsunami. 150 . Social Hazards: Where we live. and how to manage them. Risk What you have to think about when mind assessment deciding of you are going to take the risk Reading Strategy As you read the lesson. our life. and organisms health. Name Class Date Term Definition How I Remember Response The effect that usually come from a Because its obvious cause Dose-response How the response relates to the cause. earthquake etc. viruses etc.

bacterium that causes strep throat 3. pet dander D. List three examples of physical hazards. population size. circle the letter of the correct answer. even. Environmental health is the study of how environmental factors affect human health and A. earthquake . length of life. social hazard. D. flu virus C. chemical hazard. People can choose whether or not to experience the hazards such as cigarette smoke. and environmental factors. Which of the following is not considered to be a biological hazard? A. Tornadoes. if it can affect them negatively. An earthquake is an example of a A. tsunami. 5. quality of life. biological hazard. cigarette smoke B. B. Some people are more sensitive than others to environmental hazards Many diseases have both genetic. 4. Explain the difference between social hazards such as smoking cigarettes and living near a factory that releases harmful chemicals into the water. 1. Name Class Date Main Ideas Details The role of the People respond different to environmental hazards than they do to individual different types of hazards. 2. C. D. C. population growth. physical hazard. Risk assessments help scientists decide if a substance is harmful Types of Hazards For Questions 1–3. how often humans are exposed to it etc. B. but sometimes people may not be able to control what goes on in the environment. Risk assessment Risk assessment includes figuring out what a hazard is.

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B 6. false 16. match each term with the statement that best describes it. Many diseases have either genetic or environmental factors. More15. dose a. 13. Some people have genes that make . 17. response exposed to d 9. toxicity substance f 11. the effect as a result of exposure to a a 10. threshold dose c. Name Class Date Epidemiology and Toxicology For Questions 6–11. True 14. People with compromised immune systems are often less sensitive to biological and chemical hazards than healthy people. the amount of a substance needed to cause a response 12. replace the underlined word or words to make the statement true. Which two factors does toxicity depend on? Toxicity depends on what the substance is. The Role of the Individual For Questions 14–16. genetics is also a considerable factor. People respond differently to the same environmental hazards. If the statement is false. write True if the statement is true. the study of disease in human populations f. how harmful a substance is e 7. the study of how poisonous substances affect health e. and how much of the substance is needed to cause harm. the amount of a substance an organism is c 8. Even though the environment is a large factor in the health of one person. Explain why someone who eats healthy food and does not smoke may still develop a disease such as cancer. Write your changes on the line. What is a dose-response relationship? The relationship between different doses of a substance and the responses they generate in an organism. toxicology d. epidemiology b.

152 .them less immune to some diseases.

. Identify the chemical. What are epidemiology and toxicology? Epidemiology is the study of diseases in human populations. bacteria. 22. What are three examples of pathogens? Viruses. Alcohol is bad for a fetus because it is more sensitive. What is the process of risk assessment used to determine? It is what you use to see how bad I s the risk. Sensitivity is different with different ages and even weight. fungi 23. Name Class Date 18. Risk Assessment 19. and the environment. 21. How are risk assessments of environmental hazards useful to policymakers? Policymakers use risk assessment. sometimes they even use animal testing. Explain why alcohol use may cause damage to a developing fetus even though it may not harm the health of the mother. to make policies that protect people. Describe the steps that a scientist takes when doing a risk assessment for a chemical hazard. figure out how much exposure we would have to it. Answer the questions to test your knowledge of lesson concepts. You can check your work using the answers on the bottom of the page. see how toxic it is. 20.

Why do people respond differently to environmental hazards? Because they have different genetics and sensitivities. 24.Toxicology is the study of how poisonous substances affect organisms. and they live in different environments 153 .