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AP-T91/07

AUSTROADS TECHNICAL REPORT

Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review

Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review

Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review

First Published November 2007

© Austroads Inc. 2007

This work is copyright. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968,
no part may be reproduced by any process without the prior written permission of Austroads.

Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review

ISBN 978-1-921329-37-1

Austroads Project No. TT1220

Austroads Publication No. AP–T91/07

Project Manager
John Worrall

Prepared by
Dr Young Choi

Published by Austroads Incorporated
Level 9, Robell House
287 Elizabeth Street
Sydney NSW 2000 Australia
Phone: +61 2 9264 7088
Fax: +61 2 9264 1657
Email: austroads@austroads.com.au
www.austroads.com.au

Austroads believes this publication to be correct at the time of printing and does not accept
responsibility for any consequences arising from the use of information herein. Readers should
rely on their own skill and judgement to apply information to particular issues.

Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review Sydney 2007 .

Energy and Resources Tasmania ƒ Department of Planning and Infrastructure Northern Territory ƒ Department of Territory and Municipal Services Australian Capital Territory ƒ Australian Department of Transport and Regional Services ƒ Australian Local Government Association ƒ Transit New Zealand The success of Austroads is derived from the collaboration of member organisations and others in the road industry. consistency and uniformity in road and related operations ƒ undertaking strategic research on behalf of road agencies and communicating outcomes ƒ promoting improved and consistent practice by road agencies. Energy and Infrastructure South Australia ƒ Department of Infrastructure. advice and fostering research in the road sector. It aims to be the Australasian leader in providing high quality information. .Austroads profile Austroads’ purpose is to contribute to improved Australian and New Zealand transport outcomes by: ƒ providing expert advice to SCOT and ATC on road and road transport issues ƒ facilitating collaboration between road agencies ƒ promoting harmonisation. It is governed by a council consisting of the chief executive officer (or an alternative senior executive officer) of each of its eleven member organisations: ƒ Roads and Traffic Authority New South Wales ƒ Roads Corporation Victoria ƒ Department of Main Roads Queensland ƒ Main Roads Western Australia ƒ Department for Transport. Austroads membership Austroads membership comprises the six state and two territory road transport and traffic authorities and the Australian Department of Transport and Regional Services in Australia. the Australian Local Government Association and Transit New Zealand.

Moreover. However. if fuel costs continue to increase and the WMA product costs decrease (due to efficiencies linked to mass production) in the near future. Asphaltan B®. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is a type of asphalt mix requiring lower production temperatures compared to hot mix asphalt (HMA). it reportedly provides better stability to the mixes. Due to this high temperature (which is still lower than conventional hot mixes). The review found that the most obvious concern in the long term performance of the WMA products is moisture sensitivity. Thus. it should be noted that.e. At present. rut resistance etc. together with other benefits. where mixing and placement normally occur. the water in the emulsion evaporates rapidly during the mixing and placing process. Although bitumen emulsion mixes are normally used in the ‘cold mix’ applications (i. Reviewed technologies include foamed mix based products (Aspha-Min®. WMA products have recently been gaining attention due to the increasing emphasis on protecting the environment. the Evotherm emulsion is applied at higher temperatures (above 100°C). Emulsion application utilises emulsified binder in place of conventional bitumen binder. Organic additive products are based on their unique melting point characteristics. resulting in similar workability at relatively lower temperatures than conventional hot mixes. since these technologies are fairly new.) of HMA. resulting in hot-mix-like end products. on condition that the WMA products can provide satisfactory long term performance. long term performance monitoring (along with better understanding on environmental and economic impacts) is essential to evaluate the true benefits/risks of the WMA products. In addition. This report reviews various approaches to producing WMA and their laboratory and field assessments. Austroads 2007 — i— . This is due to the lower temperatures necessarily used in any WMA production process will result in less dried aggregate. the WMA could have a net economic benefit based on the fuel savings alone. WAM- Foam® and LEA). the increased cost of using WMA products appears to outweigh the associated fuel savings. the extra water normally incorporated in the WMA products (except wax based products) could affect the mix performance in a negative way. There have been numerous laboratory/field trials using some of the WMA products generally showing positive outcomes. a reduction in emissions is possible. produced at ambient temperature). there are other potential benefits as follows: ƒ cost savings by using less fuel for heating ƒ cleaner working environment due to a reduction in fumes and odour during production and placement ƒ safer working environment due to lower temperatures during production and placement ƒ the possibility of retaining the workability of the mix after longer haulage (due to lower limit in workable temperature and slower temperature reduction rate) ƒ the possibility of placement in cooler weather (thus extending the construction season). By lowering the production temperature. the increased cost of using WMA products could be justified. CECABASE RT 92® and Licomont BS100®) and finally the emulsion application (Evotherm® and WAM-Emulsion). These additives provide extra fluidity to the mixes at temperatures above 100°C. organic additive products (Sasobit®. The foamed bitumen mix approach utilises foaming action which temporarily increases binder volume and decreases binder viscosity. However. while aiming to maintain the desired post construction properties (durability. At service temperatures.

...........................................................................................................................3...3................ 15 4............................................................................ 8 3................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Background.......................3 WAM-Foam® ............................................................ 8 3............................................3 CECABASE RT 92® ................................................... 13 3............................................. 21 REFERENCES ....................... 2 2..............................................2.......................................................................2 Evotherm® ............... 5 3 ORGANIC ADDITIVES................................................................................................................ 2 2............................. 2 2.................................................................................... 18 6 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................................................................................................ 17 5 DISCUSSION .............................................. 15 4........................................................................ 15 4.......................2 Field Trials .......................................................... 9 3................................... 22 Austroads 2007 — ii — .......................................................................................... 12 3...........................................................................................................................................................................1 Background.........................................................................1 Background................................... 14 3.......... 14 4 EMULSION APPLICATION ............................2 Sasobit® ......................... 4 2....................................................................2 Aspha-Min® .....................................1 Laboratory Assessment ........................1 Asphaltan B® ............ Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review CONTENTS 1 INTRODUCTION .............3 WAM-Emulsion ............................................. 13 3.............................................................2.............. 8 3....2 Licomont BS100® ..............................3...............4 Low Energy Asphalt (LEA).................................................................................................................................................3 Other products ........................ 1 2 FOAMED MIX ASPHALT............................................

.................................................2: Difference in fume emissions from control mix and WAM-Foam mix....1: Sasobit grains....... 13 Austroads 2007 — iii — ..................................................................................................................................................3: Difference in fume emissions from control mix and Sasobit mix.................................... 6 Figure 3.. ..................... 2 Figure 2............ ..........................................................1: Aspha-Min powder.......... 6 Figure 2.............4: LEA plant diagram ..................2: Viscosity properties of Sasobit and control binders......................... Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review TABLES Table 5......3: LEA process concept diagram... 11 Figure 3.......... 9 Figure 3............................................................ 4 Figure 2............ ...........1: Summary of warm asphalt products.... ....................................... 19 FIGURES Figure 2................................................

) of HMA. adhesion etc. specifically in a temperature range above 100°C. Thus.e. The water in the emulsion evaporates rapidly during the mixing and placing process. ambient temperature). The production temperatures are normally around 160°C and compaction temperatures are around 130°C. This temperature is recommended to ensure that the binder is sufficiently fluid so proper aggregate coating and compaction can be achieved (which are critical factors for its short/long term performances). Emulsion application – Emulsion with a higher binder content (up to 70%) is applied at a higher temperature than conventional emulsion mixes (i. Various approaches to produce WMA have been developed and can broadly be divided into the following categories: 1. The potential benefits of producing asphalt mixes at lower temperatures are: ƒ reduction in energy consumption which could result in less greenhouse gas emission. while aiming to maintain the desired post construction properties (durability. This report reviews various WMA production methods and products. 2. depending on mix (particularly binder grade) types. Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is a type of asphalt mix requiring lower production temperatures compared to hot mix asphalt (HMA). With this goal. The foaming action increases the binder volume and decreases binder viscosity (due to incorporated air bubbles) making it much easier to mix and compact at HMA mixing and compaction temperature. Specifically the EU has agreed to reduce CO2 emissions by 15% by 2010. Foamed bitumen mixes – Water is added to mixes to create foaming action. 3. which temporarily alters the physical properties of the binder. where mixing and placement normally occur. WMA is manufactured by lowering the viscosity of the binder at a certain temperature range. This emulsion includes chemical additives to improve workability. due to the higher temperature used. under the terms of the Kyoto Agreement. the mixes can be heated to relatively lower temperatures (compared to conventional HMA) and still have a sufficiently low viscosity (fluidity) for optimum mixing and compaction. the hot mix industry in Europe has begun using WMA technology to construct asphalt pavements at considerably lower temperatures. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review 1 INTRODUCTION Asphalt mixes are generally produced and placed at hot temperatures. as well as cost savings ƒ cleaner working environment due to a reduction in fumes and odour during production (at the plant) and placement (at the site) ƒ safer working environment due to lower temperatures during production and placement ƒ the possibility of retaining the workability of the mix after longer haulage. rut resistance etc. These additives alter the temperature viscosity curve of the binder. lower production temperatures can be used to achieve the same level of mixing and compaction. By doing so. due to lower limit in workable temperature and slower temperature reduction rate (smaller difference between the mix and ambient air temperatures) ƒ the possibility of placement in cooler weather (thus extending the construction season). has made a substantial commitment to reduce greenhouse gases produced by all manufacturing. Organic additives – Low melting point organic additives are added to mixes. The concept of WMA originated in Europe (Jones 2004). Austroads 2007 — 1— . The European Union (EU). performance reports and case studies. The objective was to determine whether the warm asphalt may have technical or cost advantages over the existing hot mix asphalt used in Australia and New Zealand.

which has been hydro-thermally crystallised.g. The manufacturer states that Aspha-Min is basically a synthetic zeolite (sodium aluminum silicate). This allows proper workability and aggregate coating to be achieved even at relatively lower temperatures. By doing so. This foaming action temporarily alters the mechanical properties of the binder (i. in more recent years. The zeolites are framework silicates that have large vacant spaces in their structures that allow space for large cations such as sodium. the water evaporates creating thousands of tiny vapour bubbles trapped in the binder. Figure 2.1 Background When water is added to hot binder. many other benefits could also be gained (see Section 1). The following sections review currently available WMA products based on foamed bitumen technique. use of foamed bitumen in asphalt mixes (i. potassium. The trapped water in their structures can be driven off by heat in the temperature range of 85 ~ 182°C. creating foaming action. Bottrop.1) in 25 or 50 kg bags or in bulk for silos. Germany (Hurley and Prowell 2005a).e. It is available in a very fine white powdered form (Figure 2. However. Zeolites are characterised by their ability to lose and absorb water without damage to their crystal structures.1: Aspha-Min powder. volume and viscosity) providing an easier-to-mix condition when it is combined with aggregates or soil.2 Aspha-Min® Aspha-Min is a product of Eurovia Services GmbH. early developments mainly concentrated on cold mixtures and insitu pavement recycling (Koenders et al. This is due to the increased surface area of foamed bitumen (and considerably reduced viscosity) makes it well suited for mixing with cold and moist aggregates/soil. The Aspha-Min zeolite contains approximately 21% water by mass. The foamed asphalt appears to be a way to achieve this goal. Austroads 2007 — 2— . 2. 2002). The use of foamed bitumen dates back to the end of the 1950s when Csanyi (1957) realised the potential of using foamed bitumen in the soil stabilisation process.e. This trapped water is released when added to the mix at the same time as the binder. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review 2 FOAMED MIX ASPHALT 2. This is mainly due to environmental factors (e. An obvious way to reduce these emissions for the hot mix asphalt industry is by lowering the production temperature. 2002). green house gas emission control) becoming critical issues around the world. foamed asphalt) to lower the production temperatures has been gaining attention (Koenders et al. In Australia. barium and calcium and even relatively large molecules and cation groups such as water. it also has been mainly used for pavement stabilisation since the early 1970s (Nataatmadja 2002). Since then.

respectively). Aspha-Min was used to improve workability in cool ambient temperatures when placing an open grade friction course on the Florida Turnpike and on a trial section in New Hampshire (USA) during winter time (November 2006) (McKenzie 2006). they also carried out a field trial in Orlando (Florida. They used two aggregate types (granite and limestone) and two binders (PG 64-22 and PG 58-28. USA) in 2004 (Hurley and Prowell 2005a). better compaction) appeared to improve the modulus. They used the US SuperPave mix design to produce a series of samples under different compaction temperatures (88 ~ 149°C). However. The manufacturer stated that the product can be used in all commonly known asphalt and polymer- modified binders. ƒ Resilient modulus – Although Aspha-Min did not significantly improve the modulus. the author recommended that the optimum binder content determined from the control mixes should be used. which can result in a potential 30°C reduction of typical HMA production temperatures. They found that the trial was successful showing approximately 19°C reduction in production and compaction temperatures.e.e. Austroads 2007 — 3— . They found similar results from the Hamburg Wheel Tracking Device. no changes in normal mix design process are required (Hurley and Prowell 2005a). ƒ Cure time – There was no evidence that the gradual foaming action of Aspha-Min requires a longer cure time prior to opening to traffic. Although this might indicate a reduction in optimum binder content. They first observed the effect on volumetric properties. ƒ Aspha-Min improved the compactability in both the Superpave gyratory compactor and a vibratory compactor. ƒ Rutting potential – No significant change was observed. until more information is available.3% of mix by mass) to have a comparable material as used for the above laboratory trial. The findings from the laboratory study were: ƒ The addition of Aspha-Min generally lowered the air voids. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review The manufacturer recommended adding Aspha-Min at a rate of 0.3% by mass of the mix. as well as recycled asphalt. except that the field material contained 20% of reclaimed asphalt (RAP). No particular moisture sensitivity issues were reported up to one year after the construction. and then carried out a series of performance tests. They used a typical crushed granite aggregate and the same dosage of Aspha-Min (0. Other than using lower temperatures. In conjunction with the above laboratory study. when compared to those of corresponding control mixes (i. they recommended using the moisture sensitivity test and. mixes produced without Aspha-Min. under the same compaction temperatures). The laboratory tests performed on the field mix showed comparable results to the laboratory study. They also found that hydrated lime appeared to be effective in mitigating moisture sensitivity for the granite specimens. the higher density achieved by adding Aspha-Min (i. similar to C320 and C170 in Australia. In another field trial. depending on the result. A laboratory assessment has been carried out by Hurley and Prowell (2005a). ƒ Moisture sensitivity – Reduced tensile strength and visual stripping were observed. over the range of compaction temperatures used. with the same in-place density achieved. This reduction in temperature was reported to lead to a 30% reduction in fuel energy consumption. This was assumed to be due to lower production temperature resulting in less dried aggregate. hydrated lime could be added as an anti-stripping agent.

3 WAM-Foam® WAM-Foam is a product of a joint venture between Shell International Petroleum Company Ltd. After a series of laboratory and field trials. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review 2. The foamed hard binder combines with the soft binder to achieve the required final composition and properties of the asphalt product (Anon 2006). emulsion and foam) to find the best way to make the hard component ‘mixable’ at such a low temperature. 2002). The manufacturer stated that the process incorporates two separate binder components (soft and hard grade binders) in the mixing stage. 2007b). producing high quality asphalt with significantly improved workability over conventional hot-mixture asphalt. The grade of the softer binder is selected to be applicable at this temperature. the manufacturer found that the foamed binder was most applicable (Koenders et al. In the second stage. In the first stage. Norway) (Jones 2004).2). The manufacturer claimed that temperature of the WAM-Foam production and laying could be reduced by up to 50°C (Anon. WAM-Foam is claimed to be suitable for any layer in the road. significant fumes and dust reduction could be observed (Figure 2.3 Austroads 2007 — 4— . as with traditional asphalt. Figure 2. Recycled Asphalt Plannings (RAP) can be incorporated into the mixture. the hard binder component is added into the pre-coated aggregates. 2007b).2: Difference in fume emissions from control mix (left) and WAM-Foam mix (right) (Anon 2007b). resulting in fuel saving and CO2 emissions reduction of around 30%. A case of using emulsion in WAM process is introduced in Section 4. This is done by injecting cold water into the heated hard binder as it is added to the mix. the manufacture tried various methods (i. in the form of foam 1 . The manufacturer reported that the WAM-Foam has a proven track record in both the low-temperature environment (Nordics) as well as in the high temperature and highly trafficked environment (Italy) (Anon. binder power. Additionally. 1 During the development stage of WAM-Foam. Additionally. (London. UK) and Kolo-Veidekke (Oslo.e. the soft binder component is mixed with the aggregate at approximately 110°C to obtain a degree of pre-coating.

) appear to be different. Johnston et al. The laboratory testing undertaken generally demonstrated the two mix types had similar characteristics in terms of aggregate composition.3 shows the concept of the LEA technique and Figure 2. 2. successful operation despite cold weather etc. reduction in emissions. Figure 2. (2002) carried out a laboratory study. The testing showed that the rutting susceptibility and resilient modulus properties of the control mix were marginally superior to the Warm-Foam mix. less fumes. completely coated mix. For the Warm-Foam product. resulting in homogeneous. The fundamental feature of the technique is the sequential coating process. 2006). binder properties. viscosity) as the binder used in the control mix. mixing ratio. The Warm-Foam process uses a similar concept to the WAM-Foam process (i. two stage mixing of soft and hard binder components). 2 If necessary. they observed a marked reduction in plant emissions. workability/compactability. and confirmed satisfactory performance of the pavement. permanent deformation.g. using 150/200A penetration grade asphalt binder. additional water could be introduced at the end of mixing in order to improve the workability of the mix. Various laboratory performance tests were conducted on the specimens manufactured using the mix samples acquired during construction.4 shows the LEA plant diagram.). Canada. The control mix was a conventional mix typically used for surfacing in that region. The binder contains an anti-stripping agent to assist the wetting of aggregate (by foaming action upon contact with the wet component) in the subsequent phase.g. blending analysis was used in an attempt to arrive at a composite binder that had similar consistency characteristics (e. Other than performance issues.g. volumetric properties. They also carried out a series of field trials in Norway in 1999 and 2000. aggregate compositions.e. penetration. for which dense WAM-Foam asphalt samples and conventional hot mix samples were manufactured and their performances compared using various laboratory tests (e. the aggregate is separated into two fractions: one containing the chippings (coarse aggregate and sand without fines) and the other containing fillerised sand with fines. and in- place air voids. The addition of wet sand and fines at ambient temperature leads to the complete coating of the mix by: ƒ spontaneous expansion of bitumen (i.4 Low Energy Asphalt (LEA) Low Energy Asphalt (LEA) is a warm asphalt production technique developed by Fairco and Appia in France (Davidson et al. It was a Marshall 50-blow designed HMA. but production details (e. etc. The heated chippings are then fully coated with the hot bitumen (around 140 ~ 180°C depending on its grade).g. Austroads 2007 — 5— . whereas the fatigue endurance of the Warm-Foam product was significantly greater that the control mix. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review Koenders et al. abrasion resistance). Only the chippings are dried and heated to a temperature lower than 150°C. as well as other expected benefits (e. In the LEA production process. They found that the performance of WAM-Foam mix was equal to that of conventional hot mix.e. foaming action) by interaction between water (contained in wet sand) 2 and hot binder (of coated chippings) ƒ accelerated coating of sand and fines by foamed bitumen ƒ heating of cold sand and fine elements by heat exchange with the hot chippings. (2006) performed a field trial using a product called ‘Warm-Foam’ in Calgary. They also found that the Warm-Foam mix was more susceptible to moisture damage and commented that increased moisture susceptibility could be an issue. soft and hard binder components. as well as work site fumes and odours.

They also commented that the technique is applicable to the recycling of asphalt by using cold recycling materials for the partial or total replacement of the sandy cold part containing the fines. without compromising the mix performance compared to the conventional HMA mix (Romier et al. 2004) Austroads 2007 — 6— .4: LEA plant diagram (Romier et al. Figure 2. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review The manufacturer stated that a mixing temperature lower than 100°C. 2004).3: LEA process concept diagram (Romier et al. and reduction of calorific energy required for manufacturing by more than half could be achieved. 2004) Figure 2.

2004). The following conclusions were drawn from the observations made at the trial: ƒ LEA mixes were homogenous and reproducible ƒ LEA could work with an application temperature between 60°C and 80°C ƒ LEA compacting conditions were identical to those of HMA ƒ LEA mix had a surface appearance comparable to that of HMA. Austroads 2007 — 7— . A total of 150 tonne of LEA mixes was manufactured and applied. including at joint locations. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review A series of field trials of LEA was carried out in Rhone-Alpes region in France in November 2003 (Romier et al.

2002). The manufacturer’s description of the production process is as follows: In the FT process. it is also known as FT hard wax (Hurley and Prowell 2005b). 4 Process involving the treating of white-hot hard coal or coke with a blast of steam.1) for direct mixing or fine flakes or a liquid for molten additions. synthetic gasoline. carbon monoxide is converted into a mixture of hydrocarbons having molecular chain lengths of 1 to 100 carbon atoms and greater. The synthetic gas is reacted in the presence of an iron or cobalt catalyst. It is important in the preparation of hydrogen and as a fuel in the making of steel and in other industrial processes. These additives. solid form and thereby imparts a stiffening effect to the binder (Damm and Hinrichsen 2003). while maintaining a similar viscosity range at lower temperatures (Read and Whiteoak 2003). on heating.2 Sasobit® Sasobit is a product of Sasol Wax (formerly Schümann Sasol). 3 Bitumens derived from paraffinic crudes. the flow improver changes to a finely divided. The manufacturers of such products stated that the synthetic waxes have more refined and stable characteristics than natural waxes. The gas is manufactured in vast quantities for commercial use. Opinion about the effect of wax on bitumen quality has varied over the years and sometimes has been contradictory (Edwards and Isacsson 2005). Thus. 3.1 Background Bitumen is a residue remaining from the distillation of crude oils. change from the solid to the liquid state at temperatures above 85 ~ 105°C (much higher than that of natural waxes) and thereby significantly reduce bitumen viscosity beyond this temperature. In fact. The liquid products are separated and the FT waxes are collected. For example. It is available in 2. At low temperatures. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review 3 ORGANIC ADDITIVES 3. long chain aliphatic hydrocarbon produced from coal gasification using the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process (Damm et al. It can be supplied in grains (Figure 3. 20 and 600 kg bags (Anon 2006). Sasobit is a fine crystalline. crystalline. waxes. natural waxes in bitumen normally have a melting point below the pavement temperature in service (less than 80°C) which could result in negative impacts on the permanent deformation characteristics of the mix. Negative effects of wax on bitumen are linked to its crystallising/melting properties. Engineers have noticed that waxy bitumens 3 typically displayed considerably low viscosity at higher temperatures. 5. naturally occurring montan waxes. or ozocerite. These are synthetic waxes produced by chemical processes. Recently. The starting point for the process is a synthetic gas which is a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The following sections review some of the currently available products. certain wax based asphalt flow improvers have emerged successfully from an extensive laboratory and field trial program to assess their suitability as modifiers for hot mix asphalt (Damm and Hinrichsen 2003). have found some use as ‘flow improvers’ in bitumens though the limited availability of these materials restrict their universal application (Richter 2002). heat is created and products such as methane. South Africa. Austroads 2007 — 8— . containing normally 4 ~ 6% of wax (Richter 2002). Sasobit is described as a modifier or asphalt flow improver. produced by gasification of coal 4 . and alcohols are made.

e. At temperatures below its melting point (99°C). due to concerns related to homogeneous distribution in the mix.1: Sasobit grains. Since it is doubtful that the Marshall stability test would distinguish such a small change of the binder property. The manufacturer also stated that the melting point of Sasobit is approximately 99°C and is completely soluble in asphalt binder at temperatures higher than 116°C. the rut depth were only 3 mm after four years when using an asphalt containing bitumen modified with a FT wax. prior to aggregate mixing). resulting in a higher melting point. Nevertheless. Sasobit was blended into the binder. Figure 3. Brits (2004) reported that Marshall stability tests performed on mixes produced by the dry mixing method indicated no difference in stability or flow when compared to pre-blended mixes (i. The manufacturer recommended adding Sasobit up to 3% by weight of the binder.2. The predominant chain length of the hydrocarbons in Sasobit is in a range of 40 to 115 carbon atoms (natural bituminous paraffin waxes normally range from 22 to 45 carbon atoms). Richter (2002) reported that in one road trial in the Port of Hamburg (Germany) involving a section where rut depth of 50 to 75 mm was observed after just two years service. However.5%) and performed various characteristic tests. South Africa and Asia. The manufacturer also suggested blending Sasobit into hot binder. They produced a series of Sasobit modified binders with varying contents (0 ~ 4. such as softening point.1 Laboratory Assessment A laboratory assessment has been carried out by Damm and Hinrichsen (2003). Austroads 2007 — 9— . Sasobit forms a lattice structure in the asphalt binder and provides better stability often reported in field trials. 3. rather than directly adding the material into the mixing chamber of an asphalt plant. penetration and dynamic shear rheometer (DSR). in many commercial applications in Europe. The liquid form of Sasobit reduces the binder viscosity enabling production temperatures to be reduced by 10 ~ 30°C. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review The manufacturer stated that the main difference of Sasobit to naturally occurring bituminous waxes are the longer chain length and the fine crystalline structure. effectiveness of the dry mixing method still needs to be investigated. Sasobit has been added directly onto the aggregate as solid grains or molten liquid (Hurley and Prowell 2005b). For example. Adding more than 4% is not recommended due to the possible impact on the binder's low temperature properties.

compaction temperature). Austroads 2007 — 10 — . From these two binder grades. in this trial. Dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) tests before and after the rolling thin film oven (RTFO) ageing were performed. They also carried out a series of field trials and observed that. three different versions of Sasobit modified binders were produced. as control binders to the Sasobit modified PG 64-22 and PG 76-22 binders. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review They found that: ƒ at temperatures below 110°C the dynamic viscosity of the blends was greater (i. for mixing temperatures less than 150°C. similar to C320 and C170 in Australia. respectively) were used to evaluate Sasobit.e. Sasobit modified PG 70-22 binder (by adding 4% of Sasoflex 5 to the PG 58-28 binder). 2 and 4. 5 Compound of Sasobit and a polymer modifier (SBS) (Hurley and Prowell 2005b). than Sasobit modified binders. It clearly demonstrates the viscosity reduction in the production temperature range. They carried out a series of binder tests based using AASHTO MP1 (2004). the addition of Sasobit reduced the ageing effect of heat and air on the binder.g. The volumetrics confirmed that the Sasobit samples had better compaction (less air voids). while having similar (or slightly higher) viscosity at the in-service pavement temperature range. unmodified PG 64-22). as follows: 1. They used the Hamburg wheel tracking tester to monitor the resistance against permanent deformation and found that Sasobit modified SMA showed very satisfactory performance. Figure 3. stiffer) than that of the parent bitumen ƒ at temperatures above 130°C the viscosity falls noticeably as the Sasobit content increased. Sasobit modified PG 64-22 binder (by adding 2. Sasobit modified PG 76-22 binder (by adding 4% of Sasoflex to the PG 64-22 binder). In addition. 2. 3. They then produced a series of stone mastic asphalt samples with various Sasobit contents (0. Another laboratory assessment had been carried out by Hurley and Prowell (2005b). Two aggregate types (granite and limestone) and two binders (PG 64-22 and PG 58-28.2 shows viscosity versus temperature curves for the Sasobit modified PG 64-22 binder and the control binder (i.5% of binder by mass) under identical conditions (e.5% Sasobit to the PG 58-28 binder). and it was observed that the RTFO ageing increased the DSR value more in the control binders.e. This indicated that. they used unmodified PG 64-22 and PG 76-22 binders in the testing program. satisfactory compaction could be achieved.

The Hamburg wheel tracking tests indicated good performance of Sasobit mixes in terms of moisture sensitivity. They then produced a series of mix samples using the above binders. This may be related more to the decreased ageing of the binder. ƒ Cure time – Sasobit mixes did not require a cure time prior to opening to traffic. under different compaction temperatures (88 ~ 149°C).e. and then carried out a series of performance tests. mixes produced without Sasobit. over the range of compaction temperatures used. the author recommended that the optimum binder content determined from the control mixes should be used. However. Austroads 2007 — 11 — . They also found that an anti- stripping agent improved the performance to acceptable levels. when compared to those of corresponding control mixes (i. The rut depth increased with decreasing mixing and compaction temperatures. ƒ Rutting potential – The addition of Sasobit generally improved the rut resistance of the mixes. ƒ Sasboit improved compactability in both the Superpave gyratory compactor and the vibratory compactor. The findings from the laboratory study were: ƒ The addition of Sasobit generally lowered the air voids in compacted samples.2: Viscosity properties of Sasobit and control binders (Hurley and Prowell 2005b). until more information is available. ƒ Resilient modulus – The resilient modulus of Sasobit mixes did not show significant difference compared to the mixes with the same performance grade (PG) binder. ƒ Moisture sensitivity – Reduced tensile strength and increased visual stripping were observed in both the control and Sasobit mixes produced at 121°C. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review Figure 3. it was noted that the mixes containing Sasobit were less sensitive to the decreasing production temperatures than the control mixes. under the same compaction temperatures). Although this might indicate a reduction in optimum binder content. This was assumed to be due to lower production temperature resulting in less dried aggregate. They first observed the effect on volumetric properties.

It was concluded that the workability of control and Sasobit mixes was nearly identical at two different compaction temperatures (125 and 150°C).9 m in width. There were no changes made at the production plant. stone mastic asphalt and Gussasphalt (Hurley and Prowell 2005b). by weight of binder). the study confirmed the viscosity reduction capability of Sasobit at production temperatures.5% SBS + 0.2. The project was carried out by Graniterock (USA) on Quarry Road. Sample 2 – A15E with Sasobit binder (4. Opinions expressed by the expert did not necessarily reflect those of the author. The Servopac compaction curves (based on APRG 18) were monitored to compare the workability index. The Sasobit was pre-blended with the binder before it was pumped into the asphalt tank. However. by weight of binder). California (Anon 2007a) and used 330 tons of the Sasobit mix. 3. by weight of binder). may be too optimistic. including dense graded mixes. can be irreversibly broken by a single stress event. and suggested that this function alone could be sufficient to make it cost-effective. Additionally. The mix was paved in a one lane that was 540 m in length and 3. Three AC10 dense graded mixes (binder content of 5. Cunningham also commented that the failure of the crystallised structure appeared only to change the binder properties back to the base binder properties. The expert also commented that the work was a preliminary study and a more comprehensive work would be necessary to ascertain the difference. Sample 1 (Control) – A15E with control binder (5% SBS. The placement and compaction temperatures were lowered accordingly for the Sasobit mix. The only difference for the Sasobit mix compared to the control mix was the addition of 1.2 Field Trials There have been numerous field applications of Sasobit mix around the world. 2.3). other than lowering the mixing temperature (121 ~ 132°C for the Sasobit mix. However.5% of Sasobit by weight of the binder. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review ƒ Based on the study.0% Sasobit. Cunningham suggested that the expectation of better rut resistance. with the asphalt of 64 mm in thickness. as follows: 1.0% SBS + 1. 3. Sample 3 – A15E with Sasobit binder (4. Cunningham (2000) performed extensive laboratory tests on a series of Sasobit modified binders (using Australian refined bitumens). The projects include a wide range of aggregate types and mix types. resulting in a noticeable difference in fume reduction from the Sasobit mix when dumping the truck load (Figure 3. rather than having a negative effect. An industry expert 6 has reported to the author that a company in Australia performed a laboratory study to observe the temperature reduction capability of Sasobit. 152°C for the control mix). which supposedly provided better stability to the binder. 6 The interviewee preferred anonymity. In Australia. Austroads 2007 — 12 — .8%) were produced. a minimum mixing temperature of 129°C and a minimum compaction temperature of 110°C were recommended. the expert pointed out that the workability index may not be that sensitive to the binder types.5% Sasobit. due to the increased viscosity at service temperature. A control mix (a typical HMA) section was built next to the Sasobit trial section. This was due to the crystallised structure of Sasobit wax. One of the major field trials in the USA was the Quarry Road project.

It was covered using a heat shield sheet laid over the top of the asphalt.3 Other products 3. Germany.1 Asphaltan B® Asphaltan B is a product of Romonta GmbH. together with three layers of carpet underfelt.g. (2007) reported a particularly long haulage trial carried out in Broken Hill (NSW). Bornmann et al. and showed satisfactory workability and compactability. A Sasobit modified mix was produced (similar to the above trials) at a plant and loaded into trucks at 180°C. added during the dry mixing cycle just prior to the binder addition.3.7% under the normal compaction pattern with an average of 28°C temperature reduction. laid and compacted without any obvious difficulties or defects (e. The Maryland State Highway Administration (SHA) in the USA used Sasobit to produce mix for repairing deep patches (NCAT 2005). The manufacturer describes the product as a mixture of substances based on Montan wax constituents and higher molecular weight hydrocarbons. These trials were mainly focussed on observation of temperature reduction capability and longer haulage. They also produced an SMA binder layer with Sasobit in July 2005. Typical dense grade mixes (AC14 and AC20. By that time. The transportation time was 9. 3.3: Difference in fume emissions from control mix (left) and Sasobit mix (right) (Anon 2007a). It is available in granular form in 25 kg bags (Anon 2006). Austroads 2007 — 13 — . bleeding) usually associated with long haulage mixes. the mix temperature measured near the side walls was as low as 100°C. Amsdorf. The manufacturer’s description of the production process is as follows. satisfactory compaction was achieved resulting in field air voids of 5 ~ 6% in average. 2007). The trial appeared to be successful since mix was transported.5% of binder by mass). and finally the usual tarpaulin covers. In Australia in 2006. compared to the control mix.g. which reduced production temperature by approximately 28°C. the Roads and Traffic Authority (RTA) and Boral Asphalt in New South Wales jointly carried out a series of field trials using Sasobit mixes (Bornmann et al. rut development) in service. slumping. Although they used lower production (130 ~ 140°C) and compaction temperatures (90 ~ 120°C) than conventional mixes. while the surface and core temperatures were measured to be 15 ~ 35°C higher. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review Figure 3. The Sasobit mix showed satisfactory compaction of 97. RTA 2001) were produced with Sasobit (1. A marked reduction in fuming was observed during the placement stage. rather than performance monitoring (e. As part of the above trials.5 ~ 12 hours before the asphalt was loaded into the paver. Sasobit was added as a compaction aid for a stiff 19 mm mix containing recycled asphalt materials.

The manufacturer claimed that production temperature reductions would be around 35°C and compaction temperatures for the mix could be as low as 95°C. No published documents on the product details. 3. 3. in an interview with the author. including Sasobit.g. reported that a company in Australia is examining a wax based product ‘CECABASE RT 92’ which is manufactured by the French company CECA. It is a low-molecular fatty acid diamide and supplied in both granule and powder form.3. GAUER 2006) performed a comparison study using various viscosity reducing agents. No published documents of laboratory or field trials have been found at the time of writing. Wax which once protected the plant leaves from extremes of climate did not decompose. No published documents on the product details have been found at the time of writing.4% by weight of the binder.3 CECABASE RT 92® An industry expert. compactability. Austroads 2007 — 14 — . The function and expected performance improvements (e. rut resistance) of Asphaltan B appeared to be similar to that of Sasobit (see Section 3. and commented that a product named Licomont BS100 showed very satisfactory performance.2). The manufacturer recommended adding Asphaltan B at 2 to 4% by weight of binder. especially for low-adhesion aggregates (such as quartzite or granite).-ING. Eastern Europe and areas of the USA in certain types of lignite or brown coal deposits that have formed over millions of years by the transformation of fossilised sub-tropical vegetation that flourished in the Tertiary Period.2 Licomont BS100® A company in Germany (INSTITUT DR. After mining. The manufacturer’s recommended minimum dosage was 0. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review Crude Montan Wax is found in Germany.3. laboratory and field trials have been found at the time of writing. Due to its high stability and insolubility in water. The manufacturer stated that it also has adhesion improvement potential. the Montan Wax is extracted from the coal by means of a toluene solvent that is distilled from the wax solution and removed with super-heated steam. especially for application in SMA mixes. the wax has survived over long geological time periods. The product is liquid at temperatures above 14°C and can be injected in line in the bitumen stream and blended via a static mixer or alternatively it can be poured into the bitumen tank and homogenised for 2 hours by a recirculating pump. but instead enriched the coal. It can be added to the asphalt mixing plant or directly by the binder producer and can also be added to polymer-modified binders.

under different compaction temperatures (88 ~ 149°C). The following section describes an innovative way of using bitumen emulsion to produce the warm mix asphalt. The manufacturer reported that field testing demonstrated up to 38°C reduction in production temperatures resulting in significant reduction in energy consumption and emissions. water and other additives to assist in formation. to the same temperature. unlike the cold mix application (see Section 4. they are still high enough to accelerate the evaporation of water in the emulsion. or trench covering materials. However. Two aggregate types (granite and limestone) and two binders (PG 64-22 and PG 76-22. the emulsion breaks allowing the bitumen globules to deposit on the aggregate surface.1). two different Evotherm emulsions were manufactured using these two control binders. bitumen emulsion mixes are normally used for patch repairing.). This removes the need for a heating system for the entire construction process (storage. The Evotherm emulsion is stored at 80°C and the residual binder content is approximately 70%. This could take up to several weeks depending on weather condition and pavement thickness. When the emulsified binder is mixed with aggregate. Thus the properties of the residual binders after curing of the emulsions would be expected to be similar to the corresponding control binders. stabilisation and to modify the properties of the emulsion. The bitumen is dispersed throughout the water phase in the form of discrete globules. USA) (Anon 2006). Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review 4 EMULSION APPLICATION 4. mixing and compaction) which could provide many benefits (e. transport. Therefore. it is likely that evaporation of that much water would considerably cool down the mixing temperature. The emulsion is then mixed with the aggregate in a conventional hot mix asphalt plant. most of the water evaporates during production resulting in conventional hot-mix-like-products. Therefore. although the total fluid content needs to be accommodated. and a series of performance tests were carried out. for the same duration. The findings from the laboratory study were: Austroads 2007 — 15 — . South Carolina. 4. Thus it is expected that. The water in the emulsion then gradually evaporates leaving the residual bitumen to form a binder/aggregate structure similar to conventional hot mixes. rather than for major pavement works. During production. until the incorporated water evaporates leaving a more stable binder/aggregate structure.1 Background Bitumen emulsions are two-phase systems consisting of bitumen. The effect on volumetric properties was observed. bitumen emulsion mixes typically require a significantly longer setting period. similar to C320 and C600 in Australia. fuel savings.g. Evotherm is used as a direct replacement for the traditional binder. The manufacturer states that Evotherm emulsion incorporates emulsification agents with various additives to improve workability and adhesion properties. Since emulsion is already in liquid form.2 Evotherm® Evotherm is a bituminous emulsion product developed by MeadWestvaco Asphalt Innovations (Charleston. Although lower mixing and compaction temperatures (compared to conventional hot mix production) are used. the mixing process of Evotherm would require relatively more heating energy than mixing of a conventional mix of the same quantity. respectively) were used to evaluate Evotherm. A series of mix samples were produced using the above binders and emulsions. bitumen emulsion mixes can be produced and compacted at ambient temperature (thus often called cold mix). A laboratory assessment has been carried out by Hurley and Prowell (2006a). which are held in suspension by electrostatic charges stabilised by an emulsifier (Read and Whiteoak 2003). Additionally. no fume/emissions during production etc. However.

ƒ Based on the study. McKenzie also reported that water in the Evotherm mix caused no issues in the baghouse. This may be related more to the decreased ageing of the binder. until more information is available. produced at 121°C. mixes produced using control binders. binders. as well as in the City of Calgary. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review ƒ The Evotherm emulsion mixes generally showed lower air voids at the mix design. Davidson et al. McAsphalt Industries placed three trials of warm mix asphalt using the Evotherm technology (Davidson 2005. The rut depth increased with decreasing mixing and compaction temperatures. Conclusions drawn from the trials were: ƒ the warm mix technology can be implemented easily into the hot mix plant with minimum disruption or change to the plant configuration or operation ƒ the mixing temperatures in the plant can be decreased up to 30°C and the compaction temperatures can be lowered up to 50°C without compromising the physical properties of the asphalt mixes ƒ the lower production temperatures substantially lowered the ageing properties of the asphalt binder. it was noted that the emulsion mixes were less sensitive to the decreasing production temperatures than the control mixes. tests on recovered binders. In Canada. ƒ Moisture sensitivity – Visual stripping was observed in the control mixes with both aggregates and the emulsion mix with limestone aggregate.e. The limestone emulsion mix also showed low tensile strength ratios (TSR). during 2005. They performed a series of laboratory and field testings including a resilient modulus test. The trials were placed in Aurora and Ramara Townships. near Orillia in Ontario. production equipment. Although this might indicate a reduction in optimum binder content. compared to the control mixes with the same grade binders. for which warm mixes were produced using Evotherm by Milestone Contractors LP. ƒ The emulsion mixes displayed improved compactability in both the Superpave Gyratory compactor and the vibratory compactor. which suggests that the service life of warm mixes would be increased ƒ the lower production temperatures significantly reduced the energy consumption throughout the process (fuel saving of around 50%) ƒ the emission of greenhouse gases was significantly reduced by 40 ~ 60% Austroads 2007 — 16 — . The mix was produced at 149°C at the plant and laid at 99°C and had significant emission reductions. McKenzie also reported a project in the USA. the emulsion mixes generally showed higher resilient modulus. when compared to those of corresponding control mixes (i. during the course of the research. However. the author recommended that the optimum binder content determined from the control mixes should be used. under the same compaction temperatures). However. McKenzie (2006) reported that there are 10 to 12 Evotherm projects around the world which showed successful applications on wide ranges of aggregates. 2006). the Evotherm manufacturer sent an upgraded emulsion package with slightly different composition of additives. over the range of compaction temperatures used. Alberta. a minimum mixing temperature of 129°C and a minimum compaction temperature of 110°C were recommended. The new Evotherm emulsion mixes demonstrated noticeably better performance with increased TSR values and no visual stripping. The mixes have been made to both Superpave and Marshall designs. Triangle Asphalt paved 660 tons of the mix on a country road in Indianapolis. ƒ Resilient modulus – At a given compaction temperature. emission testing at the plant and monitoring of fuel consumption throughout the trial. ƒ Rutting potential – The Evotherm emulsion mixes generally showed improved rut resistance.

ƒ TSR values for the Evotherm specimens were lower than those for the control specimens. a full scale test was conducted in Randwick. They used the Evotherm mix in one of the trial sections. despite the heavy trafficking. However.e. compared to the control. Preston (2001) reported a series of warm mix trials based on a technique used in WAM-Foam (see Section 2. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review ƒ resilient modulus and dynamic modulus tests performed on conventional mix and warm asphalt mix samples collected from the Ramara Township trial demonstrated no difference in performance. The air voids contents of the Evotherm samples had greater variability. the Evotherm mix was produced at around 107°C. 4. The control mix for the Evotherm trial was manufactured using the same grade binder (PG 70-22) as the base binder of Evotherm emulsion. while the other trial sections used Sasobit mixes. (2007) reported a series of field trials using WMA products in Virginia. loose samples of Evotherm and control mixes were collected at the plant for testing. although the difference was not statistically significant. a feasibility trial was carried out in Wallgrove in NSW in 2000. using a gyratory compactor. Although the Evotherm trial did not show superior performance to the control mix. Both control and Evotherm mixes contained 20% RAP. for this trial the hard binder was mixed as an emulsion. 85°C for the emulsion (i. A small portion of the loose mix was sampled from the trucks to manufacture specimens in the lab. instead of a foamed binder. The trial appeared to be successful showing no signs of early distress. During production. NSW in 2001. USA. Temperatures of the components were 120°C for aggregate. Austroads 2007 — 17 — . Since the test section was on a road to a busy working quarry. including asphalt fume testing. The mix was a dense graded 10 mm wearing course and produced using the WAM-Emulsion process. 110°C for the soft binder component. Firstly. whereas the control mix was produced at around 152°C. The mix discharge temperature from the paver was around 80°C. A specially manufactured soft binder was used for the soft component. the author noted that the production temperature reduction capability was noticeable and worth investigating further. hard binder component).3). the paved asphalt was immediately trafficked by heavy quarry vehicles. Modulus tests and wheel tracking tests were performed on the specimens.3 WAM-Emulsion In Australia. A typical C600 binder was used for the hard component. the author commented that the WAM-Emulsion mix showed encouraging results in terms of deformation resistance. Diefenderfer et al. This was to control the combined binder to have similar properties to a typical C320 binder. hard:soft). At the production plant. were performed and the following conclusions were drawn: ƒ Air voids contents of Evotherm specimens were slightly higher than those of the control specimens. Various tests. ƒ Rut resistance testing showed relatively poorer results in Evotherm specimens. ƒ Asphalt fume testing performed at the trial site showed that both mixes produced non- detectable levels of airborne asphalt fumes. after the two components were mixed in a certain ratio (70:30. Although no control mix was used for a direct comparison of the performance. After the success of the above trial.

it was generally agreed that long term performance monitoring is essential to evaluate the true benefits/risks of the WMA products. compared to conventional hot mixes.. The manufacturers of such products generally state that this extra water is likely to evaporate during the production stage. the increased cost of using WMA products could be justified.1 briefly summarises the key aspects of the WMA products 7 .3. refer to Section 1). However. Moreover. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review 5 DISCUSSION A major comparison study on various warm asphalt products was carried out by Kristjánsdóttir et al.1. confidentiality). 7 Licomont BS100 and CECABASE RT 92 (see Sections 3.3). WMA could have a net economic benefit based on fuel savings alone. Thus. the extra costs of using the WMA products were greater than the cost saving of using less fuel. WAM-Emulsion (see Section 4. less fume etc. that the most obvious concern in the long term performance of the WMA products is moisture sensitivity. Table 5. there are a number of other WMA products being evaluated by private companies. since the mixing and compaction temperatures of WMA products are typically higher than the boiling point of water (100°C). The author proposed that. This is due to the fact that the lower temperatures necessarily used in any WMA production process likely can result in insufficiently dried aggregate.3. lack of published documents. easier handling.g. the foam mix technologies need to introduce water to create the foaming action.2 and 3. based on information gathered from the manufacturer’s descriptions.g. WMA technologies normally utilise extra water in their products (except the wax based products). longer haulage and cold weather paving).g. from Table 5. Aspha-Min. However. It should be noted that. and found that. Austroads (2007) commented that the dryness of aggregate is one of the key factors affecting the moisture sensitivity of a mix. Hurley and Prowell (2006b) also commented that the WMA has other potential benefits than just fuel saving. which could be more important issues in some situations and areas (e. it is possible that consumers may demand the use of WMA products based on other issues than just the cost of the product. in most cases. whereas a significant amount of water (around 30%) is already contained in the emulsion products. on condition that the WMA products can provide satisfactory long term performances. For example. However. It can be seen. (2007). laboratory assessments and field trial reports reviewed in this report. For example. with other potential benefits (e. The Australian experts who provided comments for this report also pointed that the other important factors would be better understanding of general environmental and economic impacts.g.3) were not included due to lack of information. Their objective was to examine the costs. in places where fuel price was relatively expensive (e. benefits and risks associated with various WMA technologies. They reviewed and compared the WAM-Foam. Iceland and Hawaii) the energy savings alone could offset the increased cost of the WMA. if fuel costs continue to increase and WMA costs to decrease (due to bulk use and mass production) in the near future. the extra water could exacerbate moisture sensitivity of the mix.3) was not included since the WAM-Foam process was the preferred method by the manufacturer (see Section 2. although not introduced in the report due to various reasons (e. Sasobit and Evotherm products. Austroads 2007 — 18 — . An industry expert commented that these alternative products appear to have similar potential to the reviewed products in this report and also worthy for investigation. Laboratory studies and field tests generally demonstrated that the reviewed products were capable of lowering the production temperature as claimed by the manufacturers.

Austroads 2007 — 19 — . or added dry to the binder (residual binder mix mix.76 US$/kg Not known 7 ~ 10% more than asphalt binder Production temperature ≈ 30°C ≈ 50°C ≈ 60°C ≈ 30°C Not known. such as fuel savings or plant modification (if any).3% of total mix by mass N/A N/A 0. or added dry to the binder. the FT process foaming action separately followed by addition of cold wet fine aggregate. The cost does not include/consider other associated factors. The water in fines interacts with hot binder creating foaming action Application Added to the mix with Produced in a specially Produced in a specially Pre-blended with the Pre-blended with the Direct replacement of binder modified plant modified plant binder. but assumed to ≈ 40°C reduction be similar to Sasobit Plant modification (other Feed Material Requires some Requires some Feed Material Feed Material None than lower temperature used) modification modification 8 Reported by Kristjánsdóttir et al (2007) and only applicable in USA.8 ~ 3% of binder by mass 2 ~ 4% of binder by mass N/A Cost of material 8 1. creating foamed binder are mixed coated with hot binder.32 US$/kg N/A N/A 1.1: Summary of warm asphalt products. content) Dosage 0. Product Aspha-Min WAM-Foam LEA Sasobit Asphaltan B Evotherm Manufacturer Eurovia Services GmbH Shell & Kolo-Veidekke Fairco and Appia Sasol Wax Romonta GmbH MeadWestvaco Description Zeolite powder which Two stage process where Sequential coating process Synthetic wax produced Montan wax extracted from Asphalt emulsion applied at releases water during softer binder and harder where coarse aggregate is from coal gasification using coal over 100°C production. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review Table 5.

and extra temperature. and extra temperature (no water temperature (no water temperature. water in emulsion Low temperature cracking Low temperature cracking due to extra stiffness due to extra stiffness Assessment (including field Not known Not known Not known Yes Not known Not known trials) in Australia (refer to Section 3. used). and extra temperature. and extra water for foaming water for foaming water for foaming used). Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review Product Aspha-Min WAM-Foam LEA Sasobit Asphaltan B Evotherm Performance improvement None None None May improve rut resistance May improve rut resistance Various additives (other than good compaction due to crystallised structure due to crystallised structure incorporated in the product at lower temperatures) of the wax at service of the wax at service may contribute to better temperatures temperatures performance Potential risk Moisture susceptibility due Moisture susceptibility due Moisture susceptibility due Moisture susceptibility due Moisture susceptibility due Moisture susceptibility due to lower production to lower production to lower production to lower production to lower production to lower production temperature.2) Austroads 2007 — 20 — .

resulting in hot-mix-like end products. Reviewed products were Sasobit. while aiming to maintain the desired post construction properties (durability. produced at ambient temperature). Organic additive products are based on their unique melting point characteristics. the Evotherm emulsion is applied at higher temperatures (above 100°C). where mixing and placement normally occur. Although emulsion mixes are normally used in cold mix applications (i. rut resistance etc. This report reviewed various approaches to produce a WMA as well as laboratory and field studies. they are reported to provide better stability to the mixes. the water in the emulsion evaporates rapidly during the mixing and placing process. At the service temperatures. It is generally agreed that data on long term performance (along with better understanding of environmental and economic impacts) is essential to evaluate the true benefits/risks of the WMA products.) of HMA. Asphaltan B. The foamed bitumen mix approach utilises foaming action which temporarily increases the volume of the bitumen (the foamed bitumen also has decreased viscosity due to incorporated air bubbles). it is recommended that: ƒ information on the reviewed products and other available products should continue to be collected ƒ laboratory/field studies should be undertaken using locally available materials to observe volumetrics and basic performance of WMA products ƒ long term performance monitoring on the field sites should be undertaken ƒ environmental and economic impacts should be more comprehensively assessed. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review 6 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS Warm mix asphalt (WMA) is a type of asphalt mix requiring lower production temperatures compared to hot mix asphalt (HMA). Therefore. A case of WAM- Emulsion application was also briefly introduced. Emulsions use an emulsified binder in place of conventional bitumen binder. resulting in similar workability at relatively lower temperatures than conventional hot mixes. Reviewed products were the Aspha-Min powder. WAM-Foam and LEA. These additives change the viscosity behaviour of the binder and hence the flow characteristics of mixes at temperatures above 100°C.e. Austroads 2007 — 21 — . Due to this high temperature (which is still lower than conventional hot mixes). CECABASE RT 92 (synthetic waxes) and Licoment BS100 (fatty acid derivatives).

html. ‘Shell Ecophalt Ultra – WAM Foam’. pp 521-526.3. ‘Warm mix asphalt’. KK & Donaldson. Washington DC. Abraham J.com/home/Framework?siteId=bitumen-en&FC2=/bitumen- en/html/iwgen/about_shell_bitumen/zzz_lhn. Virginia Transportation Research Council. J 2000. report 100035/S9/2004/11/05/CHB/av/1. Choi. BM 2007. pp.graniterock. KW & Hinrichsen AJ 2003. ‘Standard specification for performance-graded asphalt binder’. Virginia.dot. Cunningham. March. technical report AP-T76/07. pp 281-309. Transportation Research Board.fhwa. ‘Sasobit’. Geostrada Engineering Materials Laboratory. Charlottesville. Austroads. SD. by Y. ‘Asphalt flow improvers – a new technology for reducing mixing temperature of asphalt concrete mixes with high resistance against permanent deformation’.6.com/tnwarmmixasphalt. T. McGhee. Washington. ‘Fischer-Tropsch wax bitumen modifier: overcoming temperature and time constraints’. DC. pp 106-122. Davidson. ‘Evotherm Trial: Romara township (Road 46)’. Pinelands. Butz. ‘Paving the way to environmentally friendly pavements through innovative solutions’. Accessed May 16. S 2007. Hildebrand. final report VTRC 07-R25. Canada. JK. G & Riebeschl. Csanyi.html&FC3=/bitumen- en/html/iwgen/about_shell_bitumen/sustainable_development_wamfoam_0112. 2007. CH 2004. Edwards. LH 1957. ‘Sasobit Investigation’. MP 1a-04. Sabita Digest 2006. ‘Foamed asphalt in bituminous pavements’. Roads and Traffic Authority. US Department of Transportation. Charlottetown. Davidson. pp 36-69. Austroads 2007 — 22 — . R & Strydom. no. JK 2005. www. ‘Asphalt flow improvers as intelligent fillers for hot asphalts – a new chapter in asphalt technology’. 2007. F. Bornmann.98-121. www. Hiley. Journal of Applied Asphalt Binder Technology. Y & Isacsson U 2005. S & Croteau. Damm. NSW. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. ‘Wax in bitumen: part 1 – classifications and general aspects’. Canada. KW. Ontario. Federal Highway Administration. report for McAsphalt Engineering Services Research Centre. www. Anon 2006. Journal of Road Materials and Pavement Design. Anon 2007b. NSW.shell. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review REFERENCES AASHTO 2004. ‘Warm mix technologies and research’. Shell Bitumen. Proceedings of the Canadian Technical Asphalt Association Annual Conference. 51st. ‘Case study and test method review on moisture damage’. Prince Edward Island. South Africa. Tighe.K. Accessed September 22. Anon 2007a. Damm.gov/pavement/asphalt/wma. Sydney. Accessed March 27. USA. 2007. Brits. Zurich. G 2002. Technical Note. Diefenderfer. vol. RTA report. Transportation Research Record 160. pp 88-95. Switzerland. South Africa.cfm. South African Bitumen Association. 6th International RILEM Symposium. Toronto. ‘Installation of warm mix asphalt projects in Virginia’.html. Austroads 2007. JM 2006. Graniterock.

19. USA. Hurley. 2005a ‘Evaluation of Aspha-Min Zeolite for use in warm mix asphalt’. A. USA. Hurley. W 2004. INSTITUT DR. Washington DC. Denmark. pp. Copenhagen. A. BD.2. Michael. 2006b ‘Evaluation of potential processes for use in warm mix asphalt’. 2007. ST. Bird. NCAT report 06-02. Special Issue 2. K. J & Forfylow. Auburn. Prince Edward Island. vol. Vic. Charlotte town. pp 8-11. N 2001. Section 1:4-1. ‘Foamed bitumen mix: soil or asphalt?’. Audeon M. Yeung. TRB.76. National Centre for Asphalt Technology (NCAT). Proceedings of 9th International Conference on Asphalt Pavements. Regenstauf. Nataatmadja. JM & Whiteoak. Roads and Traffic Authority. BD. RTA 2001. pp 34-35. asphalt production at lower operating temperatures’. ‘Initial Canadian Experience with warm mix asphalt in Calgary.1-5. Association of Asphalt Pavement Technologists. Auburn. vol. 'Warm mix asphalt pavements: technology of the future?'. no. B 2006. Koenders. GC & Prowell. Auburn. Larsen. GC & Prowell. Stoker. Alberta’. ‘Asphalt producer: taking a closer look at warm mix’. Thomas Telford. Alabama. no. Queensland. ‘Asphalt (dense graded and open graded)’. ‘WAM-Foam. Asphalt Technology News. Romier. report no. GAUER 2006. 5th edition. pp 370-386. Transportation Research Board 86th Annual Meeting. Section 1:4-2. C. Y 2004. NSW. P 2006. Jones. ‘Asphalt stability improved by using synthetic wax additives’. ‘WAM technology: asphalt production at low temperatures’. Alabama. L & Burke. Proceedings of the Canadian Technical Asphalt Association Annual Conference. 5021-T2-I. Kew. NCAT report 05-04. O & Johansen J 2002. Better Roads. Comparative study of asphalt and binding agent properties using various viscosity-reducing additives. Surfers Paradise. ‘NCAT evaluates warm mix asphalt’. Journal of AAPT.64- 69. 72. Australia. 2006a ‘Evaluation of Evotherm for use in warm mix asphalt’. Alabama. ‘Low-energy asphalt (LEA) with the performance of hot- mix asphalt (HMA)’. no. Washington DC. 'Assessing the potential for warm mix asphalt technology adoption'. Austroads 2007 — 23 — . O. Copenhagen. DA. ‘Shell bitumen handbook’. Johnston. Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review Hurley.-ING. issue 6. Canada. NCAT 2005. GC & Prowell. Kristjánsdóttir. Read.3. 8. Australian Asphalt Pavements Association. F 2002. 2005b ‘Evaluation of Sasobit for use in warm mix asphalt’. vol.17. pp 53-102. BG.10. Hurley. Muench. Proceedings of 9th International Conference on Asphalt Pavements. pp 20-29. Robertus. USA. National Centre for Asphalt Technology (NCAT). 51st. Preston. Germany. DC 2003. Seeking improvements: AAPA Pavements Industry Conference. A 2002. David J & Martineau. London. BD. Richter. pp. Revue Generale des Routes et Aerodromes. NCAT report 05-06. European Roads Review. Volume 75. BD. QA Specification R116 (Edition 5). National Centre for Asphalt Technology (NCAT). G 2007. Asphalt: the magazine of the Asphalt Institute. Better Roads. vol. Denmark. GC & Prowell. McKenzie.

Reviewed technologies are the foamed mix based products (Aspha-Min. INFORMATION RETRIEVAL Austroads. Although many laboratory/field trials using some of the WMA products typically demonstrated positive outcomes. long term performance monitoring (along with better understanding on environmental and economic impacts) is essential to evaluate the true benefits/risks of the WMA products. The lower production temperatures used in WMA processes may lead to increased moisture sensitivity issues for the mixes. . Abstract: This report reviewed various approaches to produce warm mix asphalt (WMA) and their laboratory and field assessments. field study. The WMA products appeared to have many potential benefits. it appears to be a useful technology for the industry and worth further investigation. warm mix. WAM-Foam and LEA). Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Review. Although using WMA is likely to have higher initial construction cost at present. Asphaltan B. organic additive products (Sasobit. Sydney. 2007. CECABASE RT 92 and Licoment BS100) and finally emulsion based products (Evotherm and WAM-Emulsion). A4. AP-T91/07 Keywords: Asphalt. laboratory study. 31pp.