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Design and Development of Microcontroller

based Anaesthesia System for Biomedical Applications

Dela Cruz, Joshua
Dimalig, Richnell
Garcia, Kenneth Patrick
Placido, John Mathew
Ramchandani, Prem J
Satur, Dante Jr. P
Ventayen, Gabriel Paolo O.

Technological Institute of the Philippines
Manila

As of

October 19, 2017

Chapter 1

Key words: Microcontroller. thereby reducing manual efforts for giving anaesthesia to patients more than once whenever required. Due to this the demand for embedded systems in every field increases. One such application of embedded systems in biomedical field is Microcontroller based Anaesthesia System. Sometimes the patient may take longer time for recovery after operation due to over dosage or may recover early during operation itself due to insufficient dosage (which may require an anesthesia for the second time during operation). This system consists of Keypad for entering the speed of dosage. This system gives anesthesia in small dosage continuously to avoid over and insufficient dosage. In the present scenario of operation being carried out on the patient. The anesthesia is given before starting of operation. Anaesthesia. stepper motor connected to injection mechanism. This is an autonomous system that helps in giving the anaesthesia to the patient continuously till the end of operation in appropriate dosage. Speed Switches to inject anaesthesia slower or at medium speed or faster. LCD to display the status. . Heart beat sensor for detecting the patient heart beat whether it is high or low to take the decision of injecting. Biomedical In present scenarios of the world embedded systems are more popular due to their manual less operations. They are also preferred for automated control systems. The possible way is to give anesthesia in proper small dosage continuously avoiding the above mentioned issues. Especially in the field of biomedical engineering. PROJECT BACKGROUND The Project Abstract— The 21st century is the era of Embedded Systems with its increasing applications in various fields of biomedical engineering. To address this Microcontroller based Anesthesia System plays an important role. embedded systems are playing vital role. status led and buzzer to indicate the refilling of injection if required. giving anesthesia is important to carryout painless operation. And also it may reduce over and insufficient dosage of anaesthesia to the patient.

to decide whether to inject or not. The injection mechanism can be reversed by selecting appropriate switch in order to bring back injection to its initial position. Red LED to indicate injection is empty or reached its final point. Anesthesia may be used to: Relax you. stepper motor connected to injection mechanism. Green LED when injection or reversing is going on. enable or disable switch to enable or disable system. Specific Objectives The project specifically aims to design the following:  System gives anesthesia in small dosage continuously to avoid over and insufficient dosage. stepper motor attached to injection mechanism.  Status led and buzzer to indicate the refilling of injection if required .  LCD to display the status. and reversing switch to reverse back the injection to its initial position or start position.  Keypad for entering the speed of dosage. blood flow. buzzer to be on when injection reaches its final point. The heart beat sensor detects the heartbeat. The injection or reversing process is selected. Blue LED to indicate that system is injecting. LCD to display status whether it is injecting or reversing. It can help control your breathing.apart from this an injection switch to inject. the system even stopped when injection is empty or when injection has reached its final point. Block pain. and heart rate and rhythm. The system even buzzers whenever injection reaches its final point. blood pressure. Yellow LED to indicate system is reversing injection. If doctor stops injection process then the system stops injecting process. Not only this. General Objective The main aim of the project is to develop a device to be used for injecting the Anesthesia while operation is on-going to control pain during a surgery or procedure by using medicine called anesthetics.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE . paralysis (muscle relaxation). It may include analgesia (relief from or prevention of pain). or unconsciousness. anesthesia is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness. A patient under the effects of anesthetic drugs is referred to as being anesthetized.The Client The target clients for this project are the following:  Hospitalized people who need surgery In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry). amnesia (loss of memory).

Many of the early innovations in U. a simplified anaesthesia delivery system invented for the British armed forces. and anaesthesiologist assistants to support the administration of anaesthesia. such as the TriService Apparatus. . and patient monitoring devices.k. is referred to as a relative analgesia machine.a. with the help of a set of bellows. A large number of draw-over type of anaesthesia devices are still in use in India for administering an air-ether mixture to the patient. in order to keep their patient in a conscious state while depressing the feeling of pain. but the development of heavy. mixed with an accurate concentration of anaesthetic vapour (such as isoflurane). and deliver this to the patient at a safe pressure and flow. The most common type of anaesthetic machine in use in the developed world is the continuous-flow anaesthetic machine.S. the dentist can administer a mild inhalation sedation with nitrous oxide and oxygen. Simpler anaesthetic apparatus may be used in special circumstances. In dentistry a simplified version of the anaesthetic machine. the Guedel-Foregger Midget) and diffusion of such equipment to anaesthetists within the United States can be attributed to Richard von Foregger and The Foregger Company. Prior to this time. which is designed to provide an accurate and continuous supply of medical gases (such as oxygen and nitrous oxide). including the closed circuit carbon-dioxide absorber (a. The anaesthetic machine is usually mounted on anti-static wheels for convenient transportation. suction unit. which can be enriched with oxygen. This device has unidirectional valves which suck in ambient air which can be enriched with oxygen from a cylinder. The anaesthetic machine (UK English) or anesthesia machine (US English) or Boyle's machine is used by anaesthesiologists. bulky cylinder storage and increasingly elaborate airway equipment meant that this was no longer practical for most circumstances. The original concept of Boyle's machine was invented by the British anaesthetist Henry Boyle (1875–1941) in 1917. anaesthetists often carried all their equipment with them. which is light and portable and may be used effectively even when no medical gases are available. By using this machine. anaesthetic equipment. Modern machines incorporate a ventilator. nurse anaesthetists. without a ventilator or anaesthetic vaporiser.