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Chapter – 1……..

ELECTRIC CHARGES AND FIELDS

Coulomb’s law:
The force of interaction between two stationary point charges in
vacuum is directly proportional to product of charges and
inversely proportional to the square of separation between them .

q1q2
here F  k
r2
, here k is proportionality constant.The value of
1
k
40
 9 109 Nm2 / C 2 .

Here  permittivity of free space , its value is
0 0  8.85 1012 C 2 N 1m2 .
 1 Coulomb is defined as that charge which when placed at a
distance of 1m from another charge of same magnitude in
vacuum , experiences an electric force of 9 10 N. In practice 9

we generally use mC or micro coulomb C .

If q1  q2  1C , and r  1m
1 1
then, F  9  109  9  109 N
12

Dielectric Constant or Relative permittivity:
The force between two charges q1 and q2 located at distance ‘r’
apart in medium may be expressed as :
Fvacuum 
1 q1q2
40 r 2
, Here  is absolute permittivity of medium.
0

Navin Physics Classes ,Whats App no. 92119992791| P a g e

21 kq1q2 kq q r  F12  2 r21  12 2 . r21  r12 . According to Coulomb’s law force between them is kq1q2 F r2 Let r is unit vector pointing from q1 to q2.Whats App no. 12 r r r Let r is unit vector pointing from q2 to q1 . Fmedium  1 q1q2 4 r 2 . It is also denoted by ‘K’ also known an dielectric constant of medium. 92119992792| P a g e . Therefore . Here  is absolute permittivity of medium.  Fvacuum F  K (r )      K 0 or Fmedium  vacuum 0 Fmedium K Coulomb’s law in Vector form: Let two like charges q1 and q2 are present at separation ‘r’. 21 r r r But since . here  is relative permittivity of medium with r 4 r 2 respect to vacuum. 1 q1q2 Fvacuum 4 0 r 2   Fmedium  q 1 1 2 q   r 0 . therefore F12   F21 . Limitations of Coulomb’s Law : Navin Physics Classes . r 12   r21 or . 12 kq1q2 kq q r  F21  2 r12  12 2 .

.Forexample : charge on a wire. 30 gravitational Superposition principle: The coulomb's law obeys the principle of superposition... F  10 F electric .. Navin Physics Classes . Ftotal  F12  F13  F14  . Relevant parameter is  which is called linear charge density.. (ii) The charges should must be point charges .. q3 and q4 are shown Continuous Charge distribution: (i) Linear charge distribution: In this distribution charge distributed on a line.(3) Forces acting on q1 due to q2.it is not directly applicable for extended charged body. This principle is used to find the net force exerted on a given particle by other charged particles. 92119992793| P a g e .  F1n - q3 +  q4 F13  + + F12 q1 q2  F14 Fig.(i) Electric charges should must be at rest..Whats App no.  Coulomb’s force is very much stronger than gravitational force . which means that the force between two particles is not affected by the presence of other charges. charge on a ring etc.

charge on a sheet etc. charge  Volume Navin Physics Classes . Relevant parameter is  which is called surface charge density . 92119992794| P a g e . charge  length (ii) Surface charge density : In this distribution charge distributed on the surface.Whats App no. charge  Area (iii) Volumetric Charge density :In this distribution charge distributed in the whole volume of the body. Relevant parameter is  which is called volume charge density i.e. For example : Charge on a conducting sphere. For example : Non conducting charged sphere..

q0  0 0 Electric field is a vector quantity whose direction is same as the force experienced by a unit positive test charge . The dimensions of electric field are [MLT A ] . The S. 3 1 +q -q Electric Field Due to a point charge : Navin Physics Classes .Electric Field: Eelctric field at a point is defined as the force experienced by a unit positive charge placed at that point. 92119992795| P a g e . unit of electric field is N/C or Volt per metre(V/m) . Electric Field Intensity: The electric field intensity is defined as force experienced per unit positive test charge placed at that point without disturbing the source charge . Mathematically .Whats App no. The charge which produces electric field is called Source charge (Q) and charge (q) which experiences force is called test charge .I. E  Lim qF .

According to Coulomb’s 0 Law .Whats App no.The direction of E is that of the force on a positive charge. In other words. Electric Field Due to a System of Charges Since the principle of superposition is valid for Coulomb's law. 0 r . the magnitude of electric field is E 40 r 2 . the force on charge q is . 92119992796| P a g e . here r is a unit vector in direction from q to q . and negative charges experience forces opposite to the field Once the field strength is known. 1 qq F 0 4 r 2 0 0 Electric field at point P is 1 qq0 r F 40 r 2 1 q E   r q0 q0 40 r 2 1 q Therefore . Proof : O r P F sourcecharge q0 test charge Let us consider a point charge q placed at origin O . To calculate the field strength Navin Physics Classes . Let us place another test charge q placed at point P. 1 here E r2 . the electric field created by a point charges q is given by kq E r r where the unit vector has it's origin at the 2 source charge q. it is also valid for the electric field. the force on any charge q can be found from F  qE From Coulomb's law. positive charges experience forces parallel to the field.

. Navin Physics Classes .. E2 due to q2 and so on.at point due to a system of charges.(6) Electric field at a point is the superposition of individual contribution of each charge.. 92119992797| P a g e .. Electric field at a point is the superposition of individual contribution of each charge.  E n  q2 E1 -  E2 P  E3 - q3 + q1 Fig.Whats App no. we first find the individual field intensity E1 due to q1... Charge particles : For N point charges. the resultant field intensity is the vector sum E  E1  E2  E3  ..

Whats App no. 92119992798| P a g e .Navin Physics Classes .

Navin Physics Classes .Whats App no. 92119992799| P a g e .

radius a andcentreO held perpendicular to the plane of the paper. We have to determine electric field intensity at any point P on the axis of the loop.Electric Field Intensity at any Point on the Axis of a Uniformly Charged Ring Consider a circular loop of wire of negligible thickness. Let the loop carry a total charge q distributed uniformly over its circumference. where OP = r. Navin Physics Classes .Whats App no. figure below. 921199927910| P a g e .

Consider a small element AB of the loop. cos    2 CP (r  a 2 )1/2 Navin Physics Classes . Charge on the element AB is dq  2qa dl .  dE sin   0 Hence the resultant electric field intensity atP is | E |  dE cos  OP r In DOPC.Whats App no. For a pair of diametrically opposite elements of the loop. whereas the components along the axis of the loop will add.. 921199927911| P a g e . As the loop can be considered to be made up of a large number of pairs of diametrically opposite elements. (1) Electric field intensity at P due to the charge element AB is 1 dq | dE | 4 CP along PC´ at  with the axis. dE cos  along PX. 2 0 1 dq | dE | 40 (r  a 2 ) 2 dE can be resolved into two rectangular components. perpendicular to the axis. therefore. components of electric field intensity perpendicular to the axis will cancel. Let length of element AB = dl and C be the centre of the element. and dE sin  along PY. the axis of the loop..

the axis of the loop. 1 dq r  | E |  40 (r  a ) (r  a 2 )1/2 2 2 2  q dl  Using (1). P lies far off from the loop). Hence a circular loop of charge behaves as a point charge when the observation point (P) is at very large distance from the loop. E 0 (ii) When r >> a (i. therefore from (3). compared to the radius of the loop. Navin Physics Classes . neglecting a2 in comparison to r2 in (3). 921199927912| P a g e .e.Whats App no. Special Cases (i) When P lies at the centre of the loop. we get qr q | E | 40 r 3  40 r 2 . alongPX This is expression for | E | at a distance r from a point charge q. r = 0. we get | E |  41   2 r = 4 2aqr(r  a )  dl = 0  2a  ( r  a ) 2 3/2 2 2 3/2 0 qr (2a) 40 2a(r 2  a 2 )3/2 | E | qr 40 (r 2  a 2 )3/2 ………(3) The direction of is along PX.