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Citizen’s Army Training

Hand Book
St. Andrew’s School

SUBMITTED BY:
Table of contents
I. Drills and Ceremonies1
A. Definition of terms
B. Composition of units and their head 2
C. Drills command3
1. School of soldiers without arms7
2. School of soldiers with arms 8
3. Close order drills 9
D. Military drills and ceremonies 10
1. Review
2. Parade
3. Drill commands 11
4. Supplementary commands
5. Mass command
6. Things to observe in giving a command

II. Military courtesy and discipline


A. Military courtesy 12
1. Salute
2. Rules in rendering hand salute
3. Types of salute13
B. Reporting an officer
1. Reporting indoors without arms
2. Reporting indoors underarms14
3. Reporting outdoors
4. Reporting for pay
C. Other courtesy to individuals
D. Honors to the national anthem or to the colors
1. Outdoor14
2. Indoor15
E. Display and salute to the flag
F. Military discipline16
1. Relation of courtesy and discipline
2. Importance of discipline
3. Maintenance of discipline

III. Arm forces of the Philippines history17


A. Brief history of the AFP
B. Significant facts to remember

IV. Military Ranks


A. Commissioned officers rank insignias and equivalent to other major services23
B. Enlisted personnel ranks
C. CMP and CATI ranks

V. Military leadership and command26


A. Definition
B. Command
C. Leadership
1. Two types of leader
2. Basic elements of leadership
3. Leadership responsibilities
4. Leadership traits
5. Leadership Principles27
6. Roles of a leader28
7. Objective of a leader

VI. Map reading


A. Definition28
B. Map colors29
C. Two main parts of the map
D. Marginal information
1. Top margin
2. Right margin
3. Bottom margin
E. Types of margin30
F. Uses and categories of military maps
1. Types of scale
2. Types of north31
3. Measuring distance
4. Location identifying
G. Military symbols34
1. Color
2. Figure
3. Military units
4. Unit representation35

VII. Preparatory Marksmanship36


A. Definition
B. Elements of marksmanship
C. Steps in preparatory marksmanship
D. Sighting and aiming exercise
E. Kind of sling adjustment
F. Position exercise
G. Trigger squeeze37
H. Important things to remember37
I. Zeroing the rifle
J. Organization of firing line

VIII. Basic weapon of the AFP38


A. The U.S. rifle caliber .30M1 (grand)
1. Main group of cal. .30M1
2. Characteristics
3. Other data
4. Sequence of disassembly
5. Operation
B. M 16 rifle (5.56 mm armalight)38
1. Characteristics
2. Functioning39
3. General data
4. Sequence of disassembly and assembly40
5. Parts of M 16 rifle41
DRILL AND CEREMONIES

All commands in CAT-I drills are given in Filipino language

TWO KINDS OF COMMANDS

A.) Preparatory commands


B.) Command of execution

- Preparatory command is written in small letters, while the command of execution is written in
capital letters as a rule.

FIVE COMMANDS OF EXECUTION

1. TA – For manual of arms


2. RAP – for facing and movement at rest
3. KAD – from rest going to motion
4. NA – while in motion to another motion
5. TO – while in motion to stop

DEFINITION OF TERMS

1. ELEMENT – is a part of unit for example, an individual is an element of a team or a squad, a team
is an element of a squad and an element is an element of a platoon.

2. FORMATION – The arrangement of elements in a prescribed manner

3. LINE – a formation in which the element are placed side by side with each other

4. RANK – a single line of individuals or vehicles placed side by side facing to one direction

5. COLUMN – a formation where the elements are placed one behind the other

6. FILE – a single column of individuals

7. FLANK – the right or left side of an individual, unit or formation

8. INTERVAL – the space between elements in line. Close interval is four inches while normal is one
arm length

9. DISTANCE – the space between elements in column

10. CENTER– Middle of a formation


11. ALIGNMENT – the arrangement of individuals or troops of a straight of a formation

12. GUIDE – an individual ahead or at the straight of a platoon or formation designated to control
direction and rate of march

13. PACE – a step of 28 inches, the length of full step in quick time

14. STEP – normal step in marching. A side step is 12 inches; a half step of 14 inches and a back step is
12 inches

15. CADENCE – the correct step and timing in marching

16. QUICK TIME – a normal cadence in marching at 120 steps per minute

17. DOUBLE TIME – a faster cadence in marching at 180 steps per minute

18. DEPTH – the space from front to rear of any formation, including the front and rear elements. The
depth of a man from his chest to his back is assumed to be 12 inches.

19. BASE – the element on which a movement is planned and regulated

20. FRONT – the space occupied by an element measures from flank to flank

21. HEAD – the leading element in a column


22. in order of march or advance

23. POST – the correct place for an officer of non-commissioned officer to stand in a prescribed
formation

24. COVER – aligning yourself if directly behind the man to your immediate front while maintaining
proper distance

25. HALF STEP – the rate of marching 60 steps per minute

COMPOSITION OF UNITS AND THEIR HEADS

1. SQUAD– composed of 7 or more men in formation (squad leader)

2. PLATOON – composed of 2 or more squads plus one guide (platoon leader)

3. COMPANY– composed of two or more platoons (company commander)

4. BATTALION – composed of two or more companies (battalion commander)


5. REGIMENT – composed of 2 or more battalions (regimental commander)

6. BRIGADE – Composed of 2 or more Regiments. (BRIGADE COMMANDER)

7. DIVISION – Composed of 2 or more brigades. (DIVISION COMMANDER)

TWO PARTS OF COMMAND

a. PREPARATORY COMMAND – Alert the troops or subordinates and prepare them for

the movement they are going to execute.

b. COMMAND OF EXECUTION – Tell the troops to do or execute the movement.

DRILL COMMANDS

ENGLISH FILIPINO ENGLISH FILIPINO

File…………………..Hanay Dismissed…………...Lumansag

Assemble…………....Magtipan Left Face…………....Harapsakaliwa, RAP

Squad……………….Tilap Right Face…………..Harapsakanan, RAP

Platoon……………...Pulutong Hand Salute………....PugayKamay

Company…………....Balanghay Count Cadence……...BilangHakbang, NA

Battalion………….....Talupad Forward March……...Pasulong, KAD

Regiment……………Sampanaw Halt………………….Hinto

Brigade……………...Bukluran March Time, March....LakadPatakda, KAD

Division………….......Danay Half Step March…….Hating Hakbang, AD

Fall In……………….Humanay Double time, March…TakbongHakbang, KAD

Attention…………....Humanda Quick Time, March….SiglangHakbang, KAD

Parade, Rest………...Tikas, Pahinga Route March…………LayangHakbang, KAD

Stand AT Ease……...TindigPaluwag Right Step, March……HakbangPakanan, KAD

Rest…………………Pahinga Left Step March……...HakbangPakaliwa, KAD

Fall Out..…………Tumiwalag
ENGLISH FILIPINO ENGLISH FILIPINO

Route Step…………..LayangHakbang, By the ……..................Sabaysa


March KAD Number Bilang

Sling Arms…………..SakbitSandata
Rifle Salute………….PugaySandata
Adjust Sling………….AyusinangSakbit
Unsling Arms………..Ibis Sandata
Unfix bayonet……….Alisinangsundang
Fix Bayonet………....Ikabitangsundang
Withdraw magazine…Alisinangpungluan
Raise pistol…………..Itaasang pistol
Insert magazine……...Isauliangpungluan
Open Chamber………Buksanang pistol
Take your …...………Sumalunan kayo
Sir, the parade………..Handanapoang pool
is formed parangal
Attention to ……...…..Makinigsakautusan
Orders
Report………………..Mag-ulat
Color………………….Iharappabalikang
Officers………………Mgapinuno puma- Reverse, March watawat, KAD
Center, March gitna, KAD
Unload………………..AlisPungla

Load………………….Punluan Cease Firing…………..ItigilangPutukan

Simulate Lead………..MagpungloKunwari Take Arms……………DampotSandata

Stack arms…………....BangkoSandata Adjutant’s…………….Panawagansa


Call Parangal
Sound the…………….Ihudyatangpagbaba
retreat ngwatawat Publish………………...Ipahayag and
the Order kautusan
Sound Off……………IhudyatangPangal
Details for……………...MgaNakatalaga
Attention to…………..Makinigsa the day Ngayon
the Order……………..kautusan
Commander……………PunongTanod
Officer of the…………PunongTagakalinga of the Guard
Day
Officer’s………………..Mgapinuno
By Order Of…………..Sautosni Post, March Balik, Kad

Staff Behind Me/ Change Post………………………………..MgaKagawadMagpalitngLunan


ENGLISH FILIPINO

In place, Halt……….Sa lunan, Hinto ENGLISH FILIPINO

File from the………..Sunuranmulasa Resume march……....Magpatuloy, KAD


Right/Left kanan/kaliwa
Columns of twos/…...Dalawang/Tatluhang/
Guide Left/………….GabayasaKaliwa/ Threes/fours Apatangtudling
Center/Right Gitna/Kanan
All present are………Naritopolahat
Stand Fast…………...Tatag, manatili, Accounted for napagalaman
Walangkikilos
Right oblique,……….Hilispakanan,
Left olique,…………..Hiligkaliwa, March Kad
March KAD
Inspection…………....Pagsisiyasat
Two Arms Length…...IbayongDalawang
Extended to the Left Pakaliwa, KAD Detail…………………Nakatalaga

Troop………………..Tipon Patrol…………………Taliba

One, Two,……………Isa, Dalawa, Take interval,…………Ibayongpatlang,


Three, Four Tatlo, Apat March KAD

Assemble to the………Magtiponsakanan, Unsling equipment……Ibabasagamit


Right, left, march Kaliwa
Company Mass……….Pulo-pulotongsa
Mount………………...Sakay Right/Left, March kanan

Close on………………Lumapitsaunang Garden on the Line……Mgagabaysahanay


Leading Platoon pulutong
Guide Post……………..Mgagabaysalunan
Gaiden on Leading…...Gabaysaunang
Platoons on Line pulutongnghanay Sir, the Battalion……….AngTalupadpo ay
is informed handana
Posts…………………..SaLunan
Persons to be decorated…Mgaparangalan at
Dismiss your………...Tiwalaginanginyong and all colors Center lahatngwatawat
Company balangay March pumagitna, KAD

Form the shelter tents….Magsisayosng


pagtatayongtolda
AT NORMAL INTERVAL

Dress right,…………...Tuntonkanan, Count off……………Sabayangbilang, NA


Dress NA
Call off……………...Tuluyangbilang, NA
Dress left,…………….Tuntonkaliwa,
Dress NA Center face………….HumarapsaGitna,
RAP
Cover………………...Panakip
Prepare for…………..Humandasa
At Close Interval,……MasinsinPagitan,
Dress right Tunton callow, NA Inspection Pagsisiyasat

At Close Interval,….....MasinsinPagitan, Open Rank,…………PabukangTaludtod


Dress left Tuntonkaliwa, NA March KAD

At Close Interval,….....MasinsinPagitan, Close Rank………….PasinsinTaludtod


Fall In Humanay March KAD

Close March…………Lakadpasinsin, KAD Right Turn,………….PihitsaKanan


March KAD
Extended March…….LakadPadalang, KAD
Pass In Review………Pasa, Masid
Column Right/……….LikoKanan/
Left March Kaliwa, KAD Backward,…………...LakadPaurong
March KAD
Column Right/……….LikoHulingKanan
Left March (Half) Kaliwa, KAD To the Rear,…………Pabalik,
March KAD
Incline to the………….Pagawingkanan
Right/Left Kaliwa, KAD Right shoulder……….Kanangbalikat,
Arms TA
Change Step,…………PalitHakbang
March KAD Order arms…………...Baba, TA

Left Shoulder………...KaliwangBalikat, Present Arms…………Tangha, TA


Arms Ta
Ready, Eyes………......HandaKanan/
Trail Arms……………Bitbit, TA Right/Left Kaliwa, Tingin

Port arms……………..Agap, TA Ready, Front…………..Handa, Harap

Inspection Arms……...Siyasat, TA

Right/Left…………….Kanang/Kaliwang
Flank, March Panig, KAD
ENGLISH FILIPINO

Sir, I present the command………………………... Ihahandogkopoangpamunuan

Sir, the Troop is ready for………………………… Handanapoangpangkatsa

Trooping for the line………………………………. LibutinangHanay

To the Left/Right, March…………………………. Pakaliwa/Pakanan, KAD

Column of the Platoon Leading Platoon………….. TudlingngpulutongUnangpulutong


by the Left/Right Flank, March Kaliwa/Kanangpanig, KAD

Don’t anticipate the command……………………. Huwagpangunahanangutos

Sir, the Honod Guard is formed…………………... Handan a poangTanodPandangal

D. The Salute ( Pagpugay )

1. Hand Salute - PugayKamay


2. Ready Eyes Right - HandaTinginKanan
3. Ready Front - Handa, RAP

E. Steps and Marching ( Hakbang at Lakad )

1. Count Cadence, Count - BilangHakbang, NA


2. Forward, March - Pasulong, KAD
3. Platoon, Halt - Pulutong, Hinto
4. Mark Time, March - LakadPatakda, KAD
5. Half Step, March - Hating Hakbang, KAD
6. Double Time, March - TakbongHakbang, KAD/ NA
7. Quick Time, March - SiglangHakbang, KAD/NA
8. Route, March - LayangHakbang, NA
9. In place, Double Time, March - Sa Lunan, TakbongHakbang, KAD/NA
10. Right Step, March - HakbangPakanan, NA/KAD
11. Left Step, March - HakbangPakaliwa, NA/KAD
12. Backward, March - LakadPaurong, KAD
13. To the Rear, March - Pabalik, NA
14. Change Step, March - PalitHakbang, NA
15. One, Two, Three, Four - Isa, Dalawa, Tatlo, Apat
2. SCHOOL OF SOLDIERS WITH ARMS ( PagsasanayngKawalna may sandata )

A. Manual of Arms ( PagsanaysapaghawakngSandata )

1. Right Shoulder Arms - SaKanangBalikat, TA


2. Left Shoulder Arms - SaKaliwangBalikat, TA
3. Order Arms - Baba, TA
4. Present Arms - Tanghal, TA
5. Inspection Arms - Siyasat, TA
6. Trail Arms - Bitbit, TA
7. Sling Arms - Sakbit, Sandata
8. Unsling Arms - AlisSakbit, Sandata
9. Fix Bayonet - IkabitBayoneta
10. Unfix Bayonet - AlisBayoneta

B. Manual of Gidon( ParaanngPagsasanaysaPaghawakngSagisag )

1. Order Guidon - IbabaSagisag


2. Carry Guidon - BitbitSagisag
3. Raise Guidon - ItaasSagisag
C. Manual of Arms for the Pistol ( PagsasanaysaPaghawakngPistola )

1. Raise Pistol - ItaasangPistola


2. Withdraw Magazine - AlisinangPistola
3. Open Chamber - BuksanangPistola
4. Close Chamber - IsaraangPistola
5. Insert Magazine - IsuksukangPistola
6. Return Pistol - IsauliangPungluan

3. Close Order Drill ( MalapitangPagsasanay )

a. At Close Interval, Fall In - Sa MasinsinPagitan, Humanay


b. Inspection Arms - Siyasat, TA
c. Port Arms - Agap, TA
d. Order Arms - Baba, TA

A. To Dismiss the Platoon (PagtiwalagngPulutong )

1. Inspection Arms - Siyasat, TA


2. Port Arms - Agap, TA
3. Dismiss - Lumansag

B. To Form the Platoons ( PaghahanayngPulutong )


1. Inspection Arms - Siyasat, TA
2. Port Arms - Agap, TA
3. Order Arms - Baba, TA
4. Call, Off - TuluyangBilang
5. Report - Mag-ulat

C. To Align the Squad ( PaghahanayngTilap )

1. Dress Right, Dress - TuntonKanan, NA


2. Dress Left, Dress -TuntonKaliwa, NA
3. At Close Interval, Dress Right/Dress Left -MasinsinPagitan, TuntonKanan/Kaliwa, NA
4. Ready Fort - Handa, RAP
5. Cover - Tumakip

D. To Change Interval while in Line ( PagpalitngpagitanSamantalangNakahanay )

1. Close March - LakadPasinsin, KAD


2. Extended March - LakadPadalang, KAD
3. Extended to the Left - IbayongLakadPakaliwa, KAD
E. Marching the Squad from a line ( PaglakadsaPangkatmulasaHanay )
1. Right Face - HarapsaKanan, RAP
2. Left Face - HarapsaKaliwa, RAP
3. Forward March - Pasulong, KAD
4. Column Right March - LikosaKanan, KAD/NA
5. Column Left, March - LikosaKaliwa, KAD/NA
6. Column Half Right, March - Liko Hating Kanan, KAD/NA
7. Column Half Left, March - Liko Hating Kaliwa, KAD/NA
8. Incline to the Left - PagawingKanan
9. Incline to the Right - PagawingKaliwa
10. Right Left, March - KaliwaKanangpanig, NA

F. Counting of Men ( PagbilangngKawal )

1. Count Off - SabayangBilang, NA


2. Call Off - TuluyangBilang, NA

G. To Change Interval While in Column ( PagpalitngPagitanSamantalangNakatudling )

1. Close, March - LakadPasinsin, KAD


2. Extend, March - LakadPadalang, KAD

MILITARY DRILLS AND CEREMONIES


MILITARY CEREMONIES
- The movement of the larger unit or troops in a prescribed manner from one place to another.

1. REVIEW
- A military ceremony held in honor of a visiting commander, official or dignitary. It is also a fitting
affair to present decorations and awards to deserving members or units of the command.

A REVIEW IS NORMALLY CONSISTS OF THE FOLLOWING ELEMENTS:


a. Formation of troops
b. Presentation of troops
c. Inspection of troops
d. Presentation of awards and decorations

2. PARADE
- A more formal ceremony than a review. In this ceremony, the appearance and movement of the
troops in the formation are the primary consideration. The preparation and organization of troops for
parades are similar to those of a review. The line on which the troops are to be formed and the route of
march of the participating units are marked or designated. The distance between the troops and the
commander for the parade formation is greater than that of a review.
TWO DISTINCT TYPES OF PARADES:
1. Evening Parade
2. Moonlight Parade

DRILL COMMANDS
- An oral of a commander

TWO PARTS:
1. PREPARATORY COMMAND
- States the movement or formation to be carried out and mentally prepares the
individual for its execution. It is a command which indicates the movement.

2. COMMAND OF EXECUTION
- Tells when the movement is to be carried out. It is a command which indicates when a
movement is to be executed.

EXAMPLE: FORWARD MARCH


Forward..................................Preparatory Command
March......................................Command of Execution

PREPARATORY COMMAND AND COMMAND OF EXECUTION

1. Fall in, Fall out - Humanay, Tumiwalag


2. Rest - Pahinga
3. As you were - Manumbalik
4. At ease - TindigPaluwag
5. Change step - PalikHakbang

SUPPLEMENTARY COMMAND
- The subordinate commander gives a supplementary command. He turns his head towards the
majority of his elements and gives command over his shoulder. He does not face about.

MASS COMMAND
- May be used to develop confidence and enthusiasm. All of the members of the unit being trained
speak in unison and execute them.

THINGS TO OBSERVE IN GIVING COMMANDS:

Inflection - The rise and fall of pitch and the tone changes of the voice

Cadence In Command - The uniform and rhythmic flow of words

Snap - The extra quality in command that demands immediate response.


REMEMBER

1. Correct commands have a tone, cadence and snap that demands willingness, correct and immediate
response.
2. The loudness of the command is adjusted to the number of men in the unit.
3. The best posture for giving command is at the position of attention.
4. The most desirable pitch when beginning a preparatory command is near the level of your natural
speaking voice.

MILITARY COURTESY AND DISCIPLINE

MILITARY COURTESY
- Is the expression or manifestation of consideration for others. It is a virtue that is expected of all
individuals from all walks of life. In the Armed Forces, courtesy is a great requirement because it is the
basic upon which military discipline stands. With courtesy and respect among members of the organization
would lose its orderliness and later disintegrate. Furthermore, courtesy promotes good
relationship, closer coordination and teamwork among members of the organization. It makes the
organization dignified and insures good relations with the public.

SALUTES
- Is the most important form of military courtesy. It is executed by raising the right man smartly
Until the tip of the forefinger touches the eyebrow or the front brim of the head gear when covered.
Forefingers are extended and joined palm facing the left forearm inclined at an angle of about 45 degrees
and the right upper arm horizontal to the ground. A person saluting looks at the person being
saluted. When the salute is returned, he drops the right hand smartly to the side.

RULES IN RENDERING HAND SALUTE


a. The salute is required on and off military installations during outside office hours
b. Persons entitled to the saluted:
1. All commissioned officers of the AFP, both male and female.
2. Commissioned officers of friendly nations when they are recognized as such
3. Officers of the Coast and Geodetic Survey and the Public Health Service when they are serving
with the AFP.
4. All civilian who are entitled by custom to salute
c. The salute is rendered at a distance of about 6 paces from the person saluted of at the recognizable
distances about 30 paces.
d. The salute must be rendered to those entitled to it. It is not rendered when running but at halt or walk.
Never salute with a cigarette, cigar or pipe in the mouth. The salute should not be executed in a haphazard
way or perfunctory manner. Salutes are exchange whether individuals are cover or uncovered.
e. The salute is rendered at once if the senior remains in the immediate vicinity and no conversation takes
place, the junior again salutes the senior when they are path from each other.
f. In making reports, the person reporting salutes first regardless of rank. An example of this case is when
the unit commander is reporting to the adjutant during ceremonies
g) Whom not to salute:
1. Standing to a horse or leading a horse
2. While at work. In case the officer calls, the soldier stops working, approaches and salutes him,
and again when they are part to each other.
3. Indoors, except when reporting to an officer or when the soldier is on duty sentry or guard.
4. When carrying articles with both hands or being so occupied as to make saluting practical.
5. When riding in a fast moving vehicle and the other is dismounted, the salute is not rendered.
Exception are when the vehicle is clearly marked to indicate a General Officer and when
saluting is a part of the ceremony.
6. When meeting a prisoner of war. Soldier serving as military prisoner are not entitled to salute.
7. In case of doubt due to absence of specific instruction, the salute is rendered.

The term “outdoor” is constructed to include such buildings as drill halls, gymnasiums and other
roofed enclosures used for drill or exercise of troops. Theaters, covered walks and other shelters open on
the side are also considered as outdoor.
“Indoors” include offices, hallways, kitchen, orderly rooms, recreation halls, washroom and
quarters.
“Under arms” means carrying arms having them attached to the person by sling, holster or other
means. In the absence of arms, the wearing of cartridge bells, pistol holsters and automatic rifle belts also
mean “under arms.”

TYPES OF SALUTES
a. Hand salute
b. The Rifle Salute at Order Arms
c. The Rifle Salute at Trail Arms
d. The Rifle Salute at Present Arms
e. The Rifle Salute at Shoulder Arms (Right Shoulder)
f. The Rifle Salute at Left Shoulder Arms
g. The Gun Salute
h. Eyes Right by men in ranks when Pass in Review

REPORTING TO AN OFFICER
The salute is rendered by a junior when reporting to a senior. He also salutes before leaving.

a. REPORTING INDOORS WITHOUT ARMS


A soldier removes his headgear, knocks at the door of the office of the officer and enters when told
to do so. Upon entering, he halts at about two paces from the officer and salutes and says, Sir Cadet Airman
Dela Cruz reporting to the squadron commander, Sir. The salute will be retained until he completes his
report and the officer had returned his salute, execute about face and leaves the office.

b. REPORTING INDOORS UNDER ARMS


The procedure for reporting is the same as discussed above except that the soldier remain covered. If
carrying a rifle, the soldier carries it and salute at trail arms. Otherwise, the hand salute is given.
c. REPORTING OUTDOORS
The procedure for reporting to an officer, the head gear is not removed. Rifles should be carried at
trail arms or at the right shoulder. The hand salute or rifle salute is given as the case may be.
d. REPORTING FOR PAY
The soldier reporting for pay answers “Here” when his name is called, approaches and salutes the
officer. He picks up and count his money and leaves without saluting. The officer does not return his salute.

OTHER COURTESY TO INDIVIDUALS


a.) When an officer enters the room or tent, officers’ junior to him and enlisted men present with uncover
(if unarmed and stand at attention until the officer directs otherwise or leaves the room). When more than
one individual are present the first one who perceive the officer will command “Attention” loud enough to
be heard by everybody present.
b.) When an officer enters a room or tent used as an office, working shop or recreation room, those at work
or at play are not required to come to attention unless addressed by the officer. A transaction of routine
business between individuals at work.
c.) When an officer enters an enlisted menus hall, the group is called to “At Ease” by the person noticing
him first. Men remain seated at ease and continue eating unless the officer directs otherwise. A soldiers
addresses stop eating and sits at attention until the conversation has ended.
d.) When accompanying a senior, a junior walks or ride on his left except when accompanying senior
during inspection.
e.) When entering a car or a small boat, the senior goes in first and others follow in the order of rank. In
getting off, he junior goes out first and others follow in the inverse order of rank.
HONORS TO THE NATIONAL ANTHEM OR TO THE COLORS
I. OUTDOOR
- Whenever/wherever the National Anthem or the colors is played, military personnel not in the
formation must observe the following:

1. At the first note of the music, stand at attention and render the prescribed salute except at
the escort of the color or at retreat when they will face toward the color or flag and salute. The salute is
retained until the last note of the music.

2. The mounted on animals will halt and render the salute mounted. Individuals loading
animals or standing to a horse will stand at attention having the salute.

3. Vehicles in motion will be brought to a halt. Persons riding on a passenger car or a


motorcycle will dismount and salute as described above. Occupants of combat vehicles such a tanks, half
trucks scout cars and armored cars will remain in their vehicles, but stand at attention and salute.

4. The above respect to the National Color is rendered to the National Anthem or colors of
friendly nations.

II. INDOORS
- When the national anthem is played, officer and men will stand at attention and face the music or
the flag, but do not salute.

UNCOVERING
- Officer and enlisted men under arms uncover when:
a) Seated as a member of or in attendance at a court or board. Sentinels guarding prisoners do not
uncover.

b) Entering places of divine worship

c) Indoors when not in duty

d) In attendance at an official reception

DISPLAY AND SALUTE TO THE FLAG


a. The Philippine flag represents our nation and should always be given a place of runner.

b. The National Flag is never dipped for salute, nor is it permitted to touch the ground. It is not used as a
costume, dress or a drapery. No lettering or object should be placed on it.

c. The flag is played in the following manners:


1. When hoisted at a flag pole, it should be hoisted fully at the top of the pole, blue part
up or above. During mornings, the flag is hoisted to the top of the pole first, then hauled down until the flag
is about midway of the length of the pole.
2. When the national flag is displayed with another flag, whether they are standing side
by side or with their staff, crossed, the National Flag is at the right side, blue part up.
3. When placed in the vertical manner, the triangle is up; the blue color at the right.
4. When displayed in the horizontal position, the triangle is at the right side, with the blue
part up.
5. When displayed over the casket, the triangle is in the direction of the head of the cadaver, with the
blue part on the right side.

During the ceremonies wherein the holstering or lowering of the flag is done or when it passes by
during parades or reviews all persons present, except those detailed in holstering, lowering and carrying the
flag, should face it at attention and salute while those in uniform remove their headdress with their right
hand and place them over their left breast. Women should salute by placing their right hand on their left
breast.
MILITARY DISCIPLINE

Military discipline is the mental attitude and state of training which renders obedience and proper
conduct instinctive under all conditions. It is founded upon respect for loyalty to properly constituted
authority. While it is primarily developed by military drills, every feature in military life has its effect upon
military discipline. It is generally indicated in an individual or unit by smartness of appearance and action,
cleanliness of dress, equipment or quarters, respect for senior and by the prompt and cheerful obedience by
the subordinates of both the latter and spirit of the legal orders.

RELATION OF COURTESY AND DISCIPLINE

The relation of military discipline to courtesy is clearly explained by the fact that discipline is
founded upon by respect and loyalty to superiors and lawfully constituted authorities. In other words,
discipline originates and develops mutual respect and goodwill among members of an organization.
Without courtesy and respect among members of an organization, discipline disappears, there will be no
peace and order in the organization hence, it will disintegrate.

IMPORTANCE OF DISCIPLINE

Mass discipline and morale are essential factors for securing cohesive action and for ensuring that
singleness or purpose which alone can triumph over the most difficult conditions of war. The successful
leader will teach his men to recognize and face fear because fear is the enemy of discipline and morale.
Fear unchecked will lead to panic and a unit that is panicky is no longer a disciplined one but a mob. There
is no same person who is without fear but with good discipline and morale, all will face danger, if not
willingly, at least resignedly, because of their inborn sentiment of duty, or courage, of loyalty and because
of their sense of pride in their country, in their unit and in themselves; in other words, because of their
esprit de corps.
The need for discipline is recognized in many places outside the Armed Forces. It reaches at highest
form in teams, wherein individual desires are subordinated to the interests of the entire team. The Armed
Forces are more in need of discipline for several reasons. First, the task of making war is not doing it
because we, as individuals have to do it in the interest of our country. Because of that, we cannot be
allowed as individual to decide which part of the job each of us will do or how each part to be done.
Second, the organization must be prepared for situations wherein leaders may be lost. Personal loyalty for
the commandment is not enough. If a leader is killed, his men must accept orders from his successor
immediately and without question to carry on the battle. Finally, the tremendous size of all Armed Forces
demands that there be uniform ways of doing things. Discipline subordinates personal and self
considerations to the interest of the group.

MAINTENANCE OF DISCIPLINE

Discipline is installed in men through instructions, pride and traditions and regulations. You will
develop appreciation of the other factors which build discipline as time passes. One must know and
understand the different laws and regulations immediately.
Discipline is maintained in much the same manner as it is attained. The article of war punishes
military individuals’ fairness and justice, high moral, pride, and responsibility contribute to maintain
discipline as to developing it.

CHAPTER IV
ARMED FORCES OF THE PHILIPPINES’ HISTORY

Brief History of the AFP


Commonwealth Act no. 1, otherwise known as the National Defense Act, was approved on 21
December 1935 which gave the basic organization of the AFP. General Douglas McArthur served as the
Military Adviser to President Manuel L. Quezon, Major General Dwight D. Eisenhower and Major General
James Ord, members of the McArthur’s Staff helped in the planting of the Philippine Military
Establishment as well as organizing it.

As President Quezon issued Executive Order no. 11 on January 1936, which formally established
the Army of the Philippines, he recalled Colonel Jose Delos Reyes of the Philippine Constabulary to active
duty and later promoted him to Brigadier General and designated him as Acting Chief of Staff of the Army.
Brigadier General Basilio J. Valdez and Colonel Guillermo B. Francisco were named 1st and 2nd Asst. Chief
of Staff, respectively.

In the same order, the Philippine Constabulary became the nucleus of the regular forces of the
Philippine Army. Filipino citizens were required to go training under the National Defense Act since 1936
that would compose reserve force. By the end of the ten year Commonwealth period in 1946, there would
have been a trained Philippine Army, Reserve pool of 400,000 officers and men, including the graduates of
the ROTC Basic and Advance Course in accredited colleges and universities.
When the Philippine Constabulary became part of the Philippine Army, the PC Air Corps which
was activated on 2 January 1955 was re designated Philippine Air Force on 3 July 1947.

On February 1939, an Off-Shore Patrol (OSP) was organized as a unit of the Philippine Army.
Initially equipped with three Q-boats (torpedo boats) and a handful of officers and men hurriedly trained in
the rudiments of Sea-Warfare the OSP squadron provided coastal support to the beleaguered Filipino-
American forces in the battles of Bataan and Corregidor. In October 1947, the OSP was renamed Philippine
Naval Patrol and on 5 January 1951, it became the Philippine Navy. The OSP was often referred to as
Mosquito Fleet.

When President Franklin D. Roosevelt of the USA declared the state of National Emergency on 26
July 1941 and ordered the induction of the Philippine Army units into the US Armed Forces in the Far East
under the command of General Douglas Mc Arthur, the Philippine Army had a reserve force of about
100,000 officers and men, at the time of the Japanese Imperial Forces attacked the Pearl Harbor, Clark
Field and other targets on 8 December 1941, The Philippine Army Reserve Force totaled around 200,000
officers and men.
The Philippine Army retained its own organization while serving with the USAFFE. After the fall of
Bataan on 9 April 1942, many officers and men of the Philippine Army continued resistance against the
Japanese by forming guerilla forces all over the country. These USAFFE guerilla forces along with other
units organized by civilians in various parts of the country fought the Japanese Forces from 1942 to 1945.
When the US Liberation Forces landed in Leyte on 20 October 1944, all the guerilla forces participated
actively on the liberation on their respective sectors of operations.

On October 1947, President Manual A. Roxas issued Executive Order No. 94 which organized all
government agencies. The Military establishment was not spared from its official designation as Army of
the Philippines and it became the Armed Forces of the Philippines. The ten pre-war military districts were
deactivated but 4 Military Areas were also activated to enhance the efficiency of the Constabulary
personnel all over the country.

The post-war Philippine Army eventually got its forces fighting another battle – the battle against
the armed elements of the Communist Party of the Philippines, the HUKBALAHAP, later renamed HMB.
For the anti0dissident campaign, Army Sector Command and Battalion Combat Teams were formed.
During the Korean war, the 10th, 20th, 11th, 19th, and 2nd BCT’s were sent as Philippine Expeditionary Force
as the member of the United Nations. PEFTOK served in Korea from 1950-1955. On 25 December 1950,
President Quirino issued Executive Order No. 389 renaming headquarters AFP to General Headquarters
AFP, and activating the 4 major services, The Philippine Army, Philippine Constabulary, Philippine Air
Force and Philippine Navy.

From the time the Philippines joined the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) in
September 1954, the AFP cooperated actively with the other member nations in the enhancing of military
preparedness in the area.
As a member of the UN, the Philippines also sent a Philippine Air Force Contingent of 77 officers
and men on a pacification campaign to the Congo Republic on 11 February 1963.

In 1966, the Philippine Civic Action Group (PHICAG) was activated to implement the provisions of
RA 4644. Composed of engineers, medical and rural community development teams, and security
personnel, the PHILCAG was sent to the Republic of South Vietnam and engaged in socio-economic
projects mutually agreed upon by the governments of the Republic of the Philippines and Republic of
South Vietnam.

The AFP has shown an increasing awareness of its arrival in the country and its vital role in the
political and economic development of the country by engaging are actively in civic action programs.
Pursuant to the Socio-economic Military Program under RA 2056, the Chief of Staff, AFP, ordered
the assignment of military personnel for public works construction, food production, land settlement and
rural development. Several civic centers of the AFP.

To give greater impetus on the civic action, the 51st Engineer Brigade consisting of 10 Engineer
Construction Battalion was activated on 10 March 1962. This unit had constructed several much needed
highways, roads and bridges in various parts of the country. The 52nd Engineer Brigade which was
organized on 1 July 1969 also performed similar functions to holster the national program for social and
economical developments.

Today, the AFP is employing all its resources in assisting the socio-economic development
programs of the government without prejudice to its primary missions of improving and maintaining the
effectiveness of the country’s defense posture.

SIGNIFICANT FACTS TO REMEMBER

MACTAN – place where the first revolt against Spain took place on April 26, 1951. The first
rebellion Spain flared up in Bohol and Leyte.

ANDRES MALONG – led the first major revolt in Luzon in 1660. He proclaimed himself as a
King of Pangasinan.
LAPU – LAPU – was the first Filipino hero.

MIGUEL VICOS – the Spanish Meztiso who assassinated Diego Silang on May 28, 1863.

RED WITH A FIGURE OF A SUN – color of the first flag of the Philippines in 1897.

ANDRES BONIFACIO – was the founder of the Revolutionary Society called Katipunan.

GEN. GREGORIO DEL PILAR – led the Filipino forces in the Battle of Tirad Pass.

AUGUST 29, 1896 – the date designated as the start of the revolution which was also known as
Cry of Balintawak.
DECEMBER 14, 1897 –date when the Treaty of Paris and Fact of Biak-na-bato was signed.

FACT OF BIAK-NA-BATO – an agreement between the Filipino and the Spanish authorities
on December 14, 1897 to stop all hostilities.

MARCELA AGONCILLO – designed and made the first flag of the first Philippine Republic.

JULIAN FELIPE – was the composer of the Philippine National Anthem.


EMILIO AGUINALDO – was the first president of the Philippines.

BALANAN, ISABELA – the place where Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo was captured. In 1922, the
US War Dept. authorized the establishment of the Dept. of Military Science and
Tactics under the supervision of the US Army. This was established in the
University of the Philippines.

MANUEL LUIS QUEZON – the first president of the Philippine Commonwealth.

COMMONWEALTH ACT NO.1 – is otherwise known as the National Defense Act issued by
President Quezon and approved on December 21, 1935 and gave the basic
organization of the AFP.

GENERAL DOUGLAS MCARTHUR – served as the Military Adviser to President Manuel L.


Quezon during the Commonwealth period that helped in the planning and
organization of the Philippine Military Establishment.
GEN/DOUGLAS MCARTHUR’S STAFF:

1. MAJ. GEN. DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER


2. MAJ. GEN. JAMES ORD

JANUARY 11, 1936 – the date President Manuel L. Quezon issued Executive Order No. 11 on
the establishment of the PA.

BRIG GEN. BASILIO J. VALDEZ – first assistant Chief of staff.

BRIG GEN. JOSE DELOS REYES – designated as the first Chief of Staff of the Philippine
Army.

COL. GUILLERMO B. FRANCISCO – 2nd assistant Chief of Staff. The PHILLIPINE


CONSTABULARY became the nucleus of the Philippine Army and the Philippine
Constabulary Air Corps (PCA) was activated on January 2, 1937.

FEBRUARY 9, 1939 – the Off-Shore Patrol (OSP) was activated and organized as a unit of the
Philippine Army. The Off-Shore Patrol was equipped with Q-Boats (Torpedo Boat)
and referred to as the “Mosquito Fleet.”
PRESIDENT FRANKLIN DELANO ROOSEVELT – President of the USA who set July 26,
1941 as the date for the declaration of State of National Emergency and at the same
time the induction of the Philippine Army to United States Armed Forces to the Far
East (USAFFE) with a total force of 160,000 officers and men.

GEN DOUGLAS MCARTHUR – was designated as the USAFFE COMMANDER.

DECEMBER 8, 1941 – the date the Japanese Imperial Forces attacked Pearl Harbor, Clark Field
and other targets.

APRIL 9, 1942 – fall of Bataan.

MAY 6, 1942 – fall of Corregidor.

MAJOR FERDINAND EDRALIN MARCOS – was the most decorated soldier during the
World War II and was a recipient of 27 medals.

OCTOBER 20, 1944 – the date the US Liberation Forces landed in Red Beach in Palo, Leyte.

JULY 3, 1947 – the date the PC Air Corps was re-designated as the Philippine Air Force.

OCTOBER 1947 – the Off-Shore Patrol was renamed Phil. Naval Patrol.
– the date President Manuel Roxas issued Executive Order No. 94 remaining
the Army of the Philippines as Armed Forces of the Philippines and
activating the 4 military areas.

ARAW NG KAGITINGAN – a day set to commemorate the Fall of Bataan, Fall of Corregidor
and Fall of Bessang Pass. Based on the historical records, the independence
of the Republic of the Philippines was on June 12, 1898.

JULY 4, 1946 – declaration of the Independence by the USA celebrated today as Philippine
American Friendship Day.

JULY 1950 – the Philippine Army was separated from the Gen. Headquarters Philippine Army.

DECEMBER 23, 1950 – President ElpidioQuirino issued Executive Order No. 389 renaming
the Headquarters, AFP to Gen. Headquarters, AFP (GHQ, AFP).

JANUARY 5, 1951 – the Phil. Naval Patrol was renamed the Philippine Naval of the
PHILIPPINE NAVY.

1959 – 1955 – the Battalion Combat Teams were sent to Korea to comply with the commitments
of the Philippines as member of the UN. The BCT was known as the
PHILIPPINE EXPEDITIONARY FORCE TO KOREA (PEFTOK)
SEPTEMBER 1954 – The Philippines joined the Southeast Asian Treaty Org. (SEATO)

APRIL 11, 1963 – the PAF contingent of 77 officers and men were sent to Congo Republic of
South Vietnam.
PHIL. CIVIC ACTION GROUP (PHILCAG) – the group of engineers, medical and rural
community development team and security personnel were sent by the
Philippines to the representative of South Vietnam.

FEBRUARY 22-25, 1986 – the bloodless peoples revolution which deposed Ferdinand Marcos
from the presidency and as Commander in elected President of the
Philippines, commonly referred to as the EDSA Revolution.

ACRONYMS:
BCT – Battalion Combat Team
GHQ – General Headquarters
HMB – HukbongMapagpalayang Bayan (HUKBALAHAP)
PHILCAG-V – Philippine Civic Action Group to Vietnam
SEATO – Southeast Asian Treaty Organization
OSP – Off-Shore Patrol
PEFTOK – Philippine Expeditionary Force to Korea
MILITARY RANKS

COMMISSIONED OFFICERS RANK INSIGNIAS


AND EQUIVALENT TO OTHER MAJOR SERVICE
ENLISTED PERSONNEL’S RANKS
Marines/Army Navy Constabulary Air Force
C – Cadet/Cadette M- Midshipman/Midshipwoman
CHAPTER V

MILITARY LEADERSHIP AND COMMAND

A. Leadership – is the art of influencing and directing men to an assigned goal is such a way to
obtain their obedience, respect and loyal cooperation. Leadership can be
exercised by anyone at anytime respective of the frame work of the command.

Command – is the authority which an individual in the military service lawfully exercised
over subordinates by virtue of his rank and assignment. Command and
leadership are inseparable whether the function of the command is complex or
simple, the commander should always be the controlling head.

B. TWO TYPES OF LEADER

1. Authoritarian – a leader who leads his men by means of rank and position.

2. Persuasive – a leader who leads his men by always setting examples.

C. BASIC ELEMENTS OF LEADERSHIP

1. Character – to be a leader, a person must be of good character. Some indications are


honesty, good manners, industrious, self-control and bravery.

2. Intelligence – is the ability to grasp knowledge easily. It includes native ability, good
common sense and judgment.

3. Alertness – is mental and physical watchfulness, vigilance and observance to his planned
and future activity.

D. LEADERSHIP RESPONSIBILITIES

1. Accomplishment of the assigned mission or task.

2. Work for the welfare of his men.


E. LEADERSHIP TRAITS

1. Knowledge – professional knowledge of the job. Understands the characteristics of his men.
2. Bearing – dignified appearance and behavior.

3. Courage – physical and moral ability to act in spite of danger or hardship.

4. Decisiveness – ability to decide promptly and correctly the proper time, and to announce his
decision clearly and briefly with authority.

5. Dependability – performance of duty with or without supervision.

6. Endurance – physical and mental strength to continue or complete a task.

7. Enthusiasm – interest in his work or task at hand.

8. Force – the ability to compel obedience.

9. Humility – state of being reasonable and proud but not arrogant and boastful.

10. Humor – ability to appreciate and narrate amusing incidents of everyday life.

11. Initiative – ability to start or originate an idea or work even when others are absent.

12. Judgment – power of mind to weight factors affecting a problem and to decide properly.

13. Integrity – good moral character.

14. Justice – impartiality in dealing with others, giving credit when due and punishment
when so demanded.

15. Loyalty - sincerity and faithfulness to superiors for the good of the unit.

16. Sympathy – mutual feelings to others.

17. Tact – ability to deal with people without hurting their feelings.
18. Unselfishness - avoidance of personal consideration that gives a disadvantage

to others.
F. PRINCIPLES IN LEADERSHIP
1. Know your job - must have thorough professional knowledge of his duties and responsibilities to
command and gain respect from his men.
2.Know yourself and seek self-improvement - a leader should analyze himself to determine his
good qualities and learn to recognize and correct his weakness.
3. Know your men and look after their welfare - understand each of your men personally,
psychologically in order to effectively lead them.
4. Keep your men informed - keep your men knowledgeable background in all aspects, its
organization and mission in order to function effectively.
5. Set an example -set a good example as a model in loyalty in superiors and subordinates, good
bearing and attitudes, pride and faithfulness to the organization.
6. Insure the task is understood, supervised and accomplished - a leader should give a clear and
concise order that can be understood. He supervises his men to accomplish the
assigned mission.
7. Train your men as a team - teamwork is a must within and among units from the
smallest to the largest. Each men should understand that he has a job to perform
and must cooperate with others in achieving the common objective.
8. Make sound and timely decisions - the ability to make raid estimate of the situation. Arrive at the
sound decision and announce his decision in the correct form of the proper is
essential to a leader. For any situation that may arise, the leader should be able to
act logically.
9. Develop a sense of responsibility among your subordinates - the leader should train his
subordinates to act in the absence of orders when the situation so demands. He
develops responsibility among his subordinates byproper delegation of his
authority and holding them responsible for theaccomplishment of their mission.
10. Employ your commands in accordance with its capability - the leader must have thorough
knowledge of the capabilities and limitations of his command. He must assign
objectives that is responsible to be attained. However, when the situation so
demands then men must be forced to action beyond their normal endurance so as to
avoid a harder or more costly consequence on their part.

11. See responsibility and take responsibility for your action - learn the senior's job for you
may assume his position later on. Take advantage of the responsibility delegated to
you and do not back out in case of failure.

ROLES OF A LEADER

1. The leader is a model soldier


2. The leader is a commander
3. The leader is an instructor
4. The leader is a personal manager
5. The leader is a councilor
6. The leader is a custodian of his men's welfare

OBJECTIVES OF A LEADER

1. MORALE - the mental and emotional state of an individual


2. DISCIPLINE - the prompt and willing obedience to orders. Complying to
regulations and initiating appropriate action even in the
absence of orders.
3. PROFICIENCY - the technical, tactical and physical ability of an individual
to perform their mission.
4. ESPRIT DE CORPS - More than the aggregate personality it is how the
individuals feel about their unit. Jealous of, enthusiastic
for, pride in; and devotion for.

MAP READING

MAP - is a graphical representation of the earth's surface drawn to a scale on a


plane. When you look at the map, you are actually looking at a picture of
the ground from a high spot in the air.
MAP COLOR - different colors are used on the printing of the map's to assist the use
understanding it.
A. GREEN - represents all types of vegetables
B. BLUE - signifies bodies of water, such as rivers, lakes, swamps and streams
C. RED - indicates first class roads and prominent locations such as the
Provincial or Municipal Capitals. May be used to stress the significance of
important map locations

D. BROWN - depicts contour lines which are representation of the relatives elevation and
relief of the terrain
A MILITARY MAP HAS TWO MAIN PARTS: The MAP ITSELF and the MARGINAL
INFORMATION. Printed in the margin around it.

MARGINAL INFORMATION - in order to use your map intelligently you must read and be able to
understand the information printed in the margin. This information is like a book of instructions telling
what is printed on the face of the map and how to use it. The marginal information is divided into three
parts such as TOP MARGIN, RIGHT MARGIN and BOTTOM MARGIN.

TOP MARGIN:

1. SERIES NAME AND SCALE – indicates the name of the map series of which particular
map is apart. The series name is followed by the numerical scale of the map.
2. MAP TITLE – it is the title by which the map is referred to. It is usually the name of the
most prominent geographical place found in the map.
3. SHEET NUMBER – represents the specific sheet number of the map in relation with the
other sheets of the same map series of which it is a part of.

RIGHT MARGIN:

1. INDEX TO BOUNDARIES – indicates the relative location of boundaries of provinces and


Municipalities included in the place.
2. COVERAGE DIAGRAM – represents the manner by which the information included in the
map on every particular area were compiled. It signifies the degree of reliability of
information of a part of the map compared with others.
3. INDEX TO ADJOINING SHEETS – shows the location of different adjoining map sheets in
relation with this particular map. This information is important when requesting for
sheets of adjoining areas.

BOTTOM MARGIN:

1. LEGEND – list of all symbols used in the map and their respective meanings
2. GRAPHIC SCALE – it is the graphic representation of the map scales. It is used in
converting map distance without going through mathematical computations.
3. CONTOUR INTERVALS – indicates intervals in meters of contour lines used in the map as
reckoned from the mean sea level.
4. DECLINATION DIAGRAM – shows relative location of the grid and magnetic north in
relation with the true north. Tis information is particularly important when you are
orienting your map.
TYPES OF MAP

1. PLANIMETRIC MAP – A map which represents only the horizontal position for features
presented. It is distinguished from Topographic map
2. TOPOGRAPHIC – A map which portrays terrain and landforms in a measurable form, as well as
the horizontal position of the features presented.
3. PLASTIC RELIEF MAP – A topographic map reprinted on plastic material and formed by heat
and vacuum, over a reproductive positive mold thus giving the same information as contained on
topographic map.
4. PHOTO MAP – A reproduction of an oral/aerial photograph or photomosaic made from a series
of photographs upon grid lines, marginal data, places name, route members, important
elevations, boundaries, approximate scale and approximate direction have been needed.
5. JOINT OPERATIONS GRAPHIC MAP – Use for ground and air operations. The maps are
published in ground and air direction.
6. PICTO MAP – It is a map on which the photographic imagery of standard photomap has been
converted into interpretable colors and symbols.
7. PLASTIC RELIEF MAP – A photomap made on plastic in the same manner as a topographic
map.
8. PHOTOMOSAIC MAP – An assembly of aerial photograph to form a composite picture.
9. HYDROGRAPHIC MAP – A nautical map used as a navigational aid either below or above
surface.
10. MILITARY CITY MAP – A topographic map usually 1:12,500 scale of a city, delineating
streets and showing street names and showing important buildings and other urban elements of
military importance which are compatible with the scale of the map.
11. SPECIAL MAP – Maps for special purposes such as traffic, ability, transportation, boundaries,
population, etc.
12. TERRAIN MODEL – It is designed to provide means for visualizing the terrain for planning or
indoctrination purpose and briefing assault landings.

USES AND CATEGORIES OF MILITARY MAPS

SCALE – Is expressed as a fraction and gives the ration of map distance to ground distance.

TYPES OF SCALE:

1. SMALL SCALE – Maps at scale of 1:600,000 and smaller are used for general planning and
strategical studies at high echelons. The standard small scale is 1:1,000,000

2. MEDIUM SCALE – Maps at scale of 1:600,000 but smaller than 1:75,000 are used for planning
operations, including the movement and concentration of troop supplies. The standard medium
scale is 1:250,000
3. LARGE SCALE – Maps at scale of 1:75,000 and larger are used to meet the tactical, technical
and administrative needs of field units. The standard large scale is 1:50,000

THREE TYPES OF NORTH:


1. GRID NORTH – Always vertical. It is established by the vertical gridlines on the map. Grid north
may be symbolized by the letters Gn or the letter Y.
2. TRUE NORTH – A line from any position of the earth’s surface to the north pole. All lines of
longitude are true north lines. True north is usually symbolized as a star.
3. MAGNETIC NORTH – The direction to the north magnetic pole, as indicated by the north seeking
needle of the magnetic instrument. Magnetic north is usually represented by a half arrowhead.

MEASURING DISTANCE – Since the maps are drawn to scale, it is possible to determine the actual
ground distance between two points depicted in the map. We have ways or methods in getting the distance
of two points. To convert map distance to actual ground distance.

a. USE OF NUMERICAL SCALE – Represents the equivalent in the ground distance of every unit of
measurement use in the map. Hence, the scale is 1:50,000. Meaning if the distance of two objects on
the map is measured to be 1 cm., the actual ground distance between them on the ground is 50,000
cm or 500 m. (100 cm = 1m) therefore, when converting map distance to ground distance, it is
simply multiplying the map distance to the right figure of the ratio.

MAP DISTANCE – the measurement of two points depicted on the map

EXAMPLE:

Scale is 1;25,000 Question: What is the actual ground distance?


Map distance: 3cm

3cm x 25,000 = 75,000 cm 75,000 ÷ 100 = 750 meters

b. USE OF THE GRAPHIC SCALE – This is a faster way of converting map distance to actual ground
distance. You may use a strip of paper or piece of paper on relatively straight. For example, you are
using a piece of paper, transfer the map distance on a paper strip and lay them or put them over the
graphic scale, see to it that one end of the distance is on the zero mark. Read the whole unit of
measurement on the scale, right of the zero mark (primary scale). If there is a fraction of a unit, lay
the right end of the paper on the mark of the nearest graduation of the primary scale and read the
fraction of the unit that extends beyond the zero mark into the secondary scale. That is your actual
ground distance.

LOCATION IDENTIFYING – Procedure on how to locate grid square (GS) and grid coordinates
(GC)
GD = 2.16 km (216,00) I km = 100,000 cm

RF = 1/X= 4.32/216,000 cm OR 4.32 X = 216,000

X = 216,000/4.32 X = 50,000 therefore

RF = 1/50,000 OR 1 : 50,000

The amount of time required to travel a certain distance on the ground is an important factor in most
military operations. This can be determined if the map of the area is available and graphic time distances
scale is considered/constructed for used with the map as follows;

R = Rate of travel FORMULA:


D = Distance (ground distance) T = D·B
T = Time

FOR EXAMPLE:

If an infantry unit is marching at an average speed of 4 kilometers per hour (R), it will take
approximately 3 hours (T) to travel 12 kilometers (D).

12(D) ÷ 4 (R) = 3(T)

PROBLEM:
You are a flight leader of the 1st flight of Alpha sqdn. Your flt CP (command post) is located at the
school at GS 0736. You just received a radio message directing you to report at the sqdn CP and the sqdn
CP is 16.5 km.

QUESTION:

1. If your service jeep will be traveling at an average speed of 30 km/hr.


a. What will be your travel time in minutes?
b. What time will you arrive at the company CP. If you will at 0830 H?
GIVEN:

D = 16.5 km

A. T = 16.5 km ÷ 30 km/hr = .55 hrs = 1/60 minutes


T = 60 x .55 = 33 minutes

B. 0830H + 0033H = 0903 H


GENERAL RULE IN MAP READING – READ RIGHT UP

You must read the vertical grid lines from left side going to the right and read the horizontal
grid lines from the bottom going up.

EXAMPLE OF GRID SQUARE


The grid square id in four (4) digits meaning the first two digits represents the vertical grid lines then the
second two digits represents the horizontal grid lines.

GS – 1701 GS – 1824

GRID COORDINATES (GC) Nearest to 100 meters (6 digits)

GC – 173017 GC – 18422467

Before reading of locating the grid coordinates, you must get first the grid square then after getting the grid
square divide it into ten (10) equal parts vertical and horizontal, then apply the basic rule.

GRID COORDINATES (GC) Nearest to 10 meters (8 digits)

GC – 17320174 GC – 1842124671

The same sequence in nearest to 100 meters, but after getting the grid coordinates in 100 meters, divide it
again into 10 equal parts vertical and horizontal.

GRID COORDINATES (GC) Nearest to 1 meter (10 digits)

GC – 1732101743 GC – 1842124671

The same sequence in nearest to 10 meters, but after getting the grid coordinates in nearest to 10 meters,
divide it again into 10 equal parts vertical and horizontal.

The situation may arise where a map or sketch map has no RF (represented fraction or scale). The RF must
be determined so that you can determine the actual ground distance by using numerical scale.

a. Measure the distance between two points on the map (MD)


b. Determine the actual ground distance of two points by using the graphic scale.
c. Utilizing the RF formula and remembering that RF must be in general form.

1/X x RF = MD/GD

d. Both the MD and GD must be in the same order of unit of measurement and the MD must be
reduced to one (1)

MD = 4.32 CM
MILITARY SYMBOLS – a symbol used by the map user when he wants to show the disposition of the
troops and overlaying of military installations.

A. COLORS
1. Blue or Black – color used to indicate friendly units/forces, installation, equipment and
activities.
2. Red – color used to indicate enemy/hostile units/forces, installation, equipment and
activities.
3. Green – color used to indicate engineering obstacle activities either enemy of friendly
units/forces.
4. Yellow – color used to indicate contaminated areas such as gases and radioactives( chemicals,
biological and radiological )

B. FIGURES

1. Troop units – Fire team – Company – I Division – xx


Squad -• Battalion – II Corps – xxx
Section - •• Regiment – III Army – xxxx
Platoon - ••• Brigade – x Army Group – xxxxx
2. Military units

Troop units First Aid station Engineering

Quarter Master Message Center Finance

Artillery Airborne Infantry Armor

Ordinance Airborne Cavalry

Anti- Aircraft Infantry Transportation

Armored Cavalry Air force Military Police

Observation Post Signal Engineering Airborne


Supply Installations Medical Civil Affair

Chemical Shipyard

3. Unit Representation
SUB SIZE

SUB – SUB BRANCH OF MOTHER


SUB – UNIT SERVICE UNIT

EXAMPLE:

••

4/6 1 - 4th section, 6 platoon, 1st Armor company


•••

9/6 5 – 9th platoon. 6th company, 5th Infantry Battalion


2/6 7 - 2nd squad, 6 section, 7th Medical Platoon

BASIC COMMUNICATION
RADIO COMMUNICATION

Communication – A two way process of conveying information from one person to another.

Two-way process
1. Talking 2. Listening

Means of communication:

1. RADIO – Has speed and flexibility


2. WIRE – More secure and reliable than radio
3. MESSENGER – More secure and reliable means
4. VISUAL – Limited in use ( must have pre arrangement meaning )
5. SOUND – Limited in use ( must have pre arrangement meaning )
PRINCIPAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RADIO:

1. Types of Radio Sets:


a. Portable – handy from one place to another; operational while moving
b. Transportable – not operational while moving
c. General use of utility – combination of portables and transportable types
d. Vehicular – operates through the use of the battery of a vehicle

2. Types of Modulation:
a. AM –amplitude modulation
b. FM – frequency modulation

3. Types of Emission:
a. CW or MCW – continuous wave or moderate continuous wave
b. Voice – AM, FM, SSB (single side band )
c. KSK – frequency shift keying

4. Frequency Spectrums
a. AM – FM – medium wave = .3 to 3mhz ( 300-3,000khz )
b. HF – high frequency = 3 to 30mhz
c. VHF – very high frequency = 30 to 300mhz
d. UHF – ultra high frequency = 300 to 3,000mhz

5. Transmission Range – depend on Radio type used


6. Power Source
a. Dry cell
b. Wet cell or secondary battery
c. Generator
d. Alternating current

ADVANTAGES OF RADIO

1. Speed installation
2. Can be integrated with wire
3. Flexibility
4. Provides aid to ground communications

DISADVANTAGES OF RADIO

1. Least secured communications


2. Subject to interference

FACTORS AFFECTING THE RELIABILITY OF RADIO

1. Antenna sighting 3. Operator training


2. Antenna choice 4. Circuit discipline
SAMPLES OF RADIO SETS
A
AN - system indicator
P - Portable
R - Radio
C - Communication
77 - model number

AN/URC 77 * Never operate the radio without antenna


AN/URC 734B – utility

AN/PRC77 – 30 to 75.95 mhz.

Modulation – FM
Emission – voice
Transmission Range – 5 miles
Power output -1.5 to 4 watts

FACTORS TO CONSIDER IN THE PROPER USE OF RADIO SETS:


1. Same emission 2. Modulation
3. Frequency

HOW TO ESTABLISH RADIO STATIONS


1. Individual 2. Net
3. Collective

INTERNATIONAL MORSE CODE – standard of naval communication transmitted by flashing of radio


telegraph. It is dot-dash system.

LETTER PHONETIC ALPHABET INT’L MORSE CODE PRONUNCIATION

A ALFA •˗ ALFA
B BRAVO ˗••• BRAH VO
C CHARLIE •˗•˗ TSAR LEH
D DELTA ˗•• DELL TAH
E ECHO • ECK OH
F FOXTROT ••˗• FOKS TROT
G GOLF ˗ ˗•• GOLF
H HOTEL •••• HOH TELL
I INDIA •• IN DEE AH
J JULIET •˗ ˗ ˗ JEW LEE ETT
K KILO ˗•˗ KEY LOH
L LIMA •˗•• LEE MAH
M MIKE ˗˗ MIKE
N NOVEMBER ˗• NO VEM BER
O OSCAR ˗˗˗ OSS CAR
LETTER PHONETIC ALPHABET INT’L MORSE CODE PRONUNCIATION

P PAPA •˗ ˗• PAH PAH


Q QUEBEC ˗ ˗ •˗ KEH BECK
R ROMEO •˗• ROW ME OH
S SIERRA ••• SEE AIR RAH
T TANGO ˗˗ TANGO
U UNIFORM ••˗ YOU NEE FORM
V VICTOR •••˗ VIK TAH
W WHISKY •˗ ˗ WISS KEY
X X-RAY ˗••˗• ECKS REY
Y YANKEE ˗•˗ ˗ YANG KEY
Z ZULU ˗ ˗•• ZOO LOO

NUMBER

1 ONE •˗ ˗ ˗ ˗ WUN
2 TWO ••˗ ˗ ˗ TOO
3 THREE •••˗ ˗ THUH REE
4 FOUR ••••˗ FO WER
5 FIVE ••••• FII VIV
6 SIX ˗•••• SIX
7 SEVEN ˗ ˗••• SEVEN
8 EIGHT ˗ ˗ ˗•• ATE
9 NINE ˗ ˗ ˗ ˗• NINE
0 ZERO ˗˗˗˗˗ ZERO

SURVIVAL

SURVIVAL – continuation or method by which life can exist

S – Size up the situation


U – Undo ways and wake ways
R – Remember where you are
V – Vanquish fear and panic
I – Improvise
V – Value of living
A – Act like a native
L – Learn basic skill

JUNGLE AND SEA SURVIVAL

POLAR COORDINATE – It has specific starting point and has direction


ROUTE SECTION

1. Terrain Analysis 5. Traveling the mountain


2. Following a ridge 6. Crossing the water
3. Following streams 7. Vegetation route
4. Following shore lines / coast lines

GORGE - a deep narrow cut in the mountain often with river on the bottom.

WATER SOURCES
I. FINDING WATER
A. Ground of surface water or surface water
1. rivers 2. springs 3. streams 4. swamps
5. ponds 6. lakes 7. sea
B. Earth's water table, run-off water for soil
1. rocky soil 2. loose soil 3. along the sea shore
4. indecent or arid lands 5. on mountains
C. Plants
1. plant tissues 2. vines 3. palms
4. coconuts 5. plants that catch and hold water (bamboo)
II. IMPURE WATER
- is dangerous to drink classified by:
1. stagnant water
2. muddy water
3. polluted water

III. IMPURE WATER ( treated to become potable )


1. Boil for at least one (1) minute
2. Clear it by letting it stand for 12 hours or pass it through about 3 feet of bamboo
filled with sand and staff with grass in one end to keep in or pour in into a clean
clothe with sand.
3. All charcoal from the fire to get rid of odors.
4. Let it stand for about 45 minutes before drinking.
5. Use water purification tables if availabe.

FOOD SOURCES
I. VEGETABLE FOODS
A. Wild plant foods
1. Roots and other underground parts.
a. Tubers Ex. wild potato
b. Roots and stalks Ex. maniac plant, cattail and wild onion
2. Shoots and stems - Ex. bamboo, ferns
3. Leaves - Ex. papaya, lotus and lily
4. Nuts -Ex. pine nuts, coconuts and cashew nuts
5. Seeds and grains - Ex. rice and beans
6. Fruits - Ex. will grape vines
7. Barks
8. Fungi - Ex. Mushrooms
9. Senweeds - Ex green, brown, red, fresh water algae
B. Cultivated Foods
II. ANIMAL FOODS
A. Water Foods
1. Fish, frog and salamander
2. Mollusks - Ex snails, clams mussel, and sea orchids
3. Crustacean - Ex. crabs, crayfish, lobster and shrimps
B. Reptiles - Ex. snakes, lizards, alligator, and turtles
C. Insects - Ex. grasshoppers and termite
D. Birds and mammals
FIRE MAKING
Fire - is very important to our daily needs. It is used for cooking, boiling water and heater. \
HOW TO PRODUCE FIRE
1. Eye glasses or glass * Don't panic in the
2. Flint or steel JUNGLE
SURVIVAL IN THE JUNGLE NEEDS:
1. Discipline 2. Teamwork
THINGS TO REMEMBER ( FOR JUNGLE SURVIVAL )
1. Native - be friendly with the native
2. Jungle
a. primary jungle
b. secondary jungle
c. cultivation jungle
d. tropical rain jungle
TRAVELING ON THE MOUNTAIN
1. Travel by day
2. When traveling by night pick the easiest way possible
3. Travel along with the animal tracks
4. Travel along with stream
5. Travel in steady phase
6. Use loose clothing

SURVIVAL IN SPECIAL A

EVADER - a person that includes by dexterity or stratagem


ESCAPEE - any person who is captured and freed himself
RETURNEE - any person who captured and returned to his troops
E & E NET - An escapee net
BODY - a person who pass through the net
DEAD BODY - any person who pass through the net who is blind folded and know who is his contact
RECOVERY POINT - a friendly point or area in which the net personnel contacted
SAFE HOUSE - a safe area or building guard by security personnel;

S - selected FACTORS CONSIDERED IN ESCAPE/EVASION


A - area 1. Terrain Physical
F - for 2. Location of neutral territory
E - evasion 3. Counter measures of enemy

1. Preservation of man power


2. Safe guarding military information
3. Enhance moral of troops
4. Provides good source and latest information

TYPE OF E&E
1. Uncontrolled escape
2. Controlled escape

OBJECTIVE OF E&E
1. Train the officer and men the technique
2. Enhance the information regarding the subject
3. Familiarize everybody the technique
4. Familiarize each of leadership
5. Instead everyone

CLASSIFICATION OF EVASION
1. Short range evasion
2. Long range evasion

A SUCCESSFUL
1. Prepare
2. Survival
3. Observe the elementary movement, comouflage/concealment
4. Conserve food
5. Conserve so much strength
6. Rest/sleep as much as possible

TECHNIQUE OF EVASION
1. Initial action
2. The time that remains in the initial condition

1. Travel - scouting/patrolling
As major rule - avoid the major trial/tracks and populated areas
2. Concealment camouflage
3. Day versus night travel
4. Maps
5. Progress and many stop point
6. Shelters
7. Speed and distance is primarily needed

OBSTACLES
1. Natural obstacles - river, streams and mountain
2. Human obstacle - guard and patrol
3. Artificial obstacle - contaminated area, unexplained dead animals
4. Boarder crossings
5. Front-line crossing
6. Distance and friendly force

CONDUCTS OF ESCAPE AND EVASION LINES


1. Advantage of early escape attempt
2. Opportunity of early escape
3. Air stink train.
PREPARATORY MARKSMANSHIP
A. DEFINITION
MARKSMANSHIP – Is a skillful art of shooting and hitting a target at a given or known
distance.

B. ELEMENTS OF MARKSMANSHIP
1. Aiming 4. Sustained fire
2. Position 5. Sight setting
3. Trigger squeeze

C. STEPS IN PREPARATORY MARKSMANSHIP


1. Sighting and Aiming exercise
2. Position exercise
3. Trigger squeeze exercise
4. Sustained fire exercise
5. Effect of wind, sight changes, use of score card
6. Examination before range fire

D. SIGHTING AND AIMING EXERCISE


1. CORRECT SIGHT ALIGNMENT – When the front and rear sight are both into correct
adjustment with the eye, the sights are said to be in alignment.
2. SIGHT PICTURE – Is the pattern seen by the riflemen when he aims his rifle. This includes the
front sight and rear sight and if the bull’s eye of some other object if aimed at it includes the
object.
3. TO GET THE CORRECT PICTURE OF THE SIGHT ALONE:
A. Look through the rear sight.
B. Move your rifle until an imaginary horizontal line passing through the center of the rear sight
passes through the center of front sight.
4. COMPLETE SIGHT PICTURE
A. Is made by adding the bull’s eye.
B. The bull’s eye should be centered over the front sight and should appear to barely touching
it.
5. SIGHTING AND AIMING CONSIST OF THREE EXERCISES
A. Practical exercises on correct sight alignment and sight picture with the use of the sighting
and aiming bar.
B. Making correct sight alignment and correct picture using the rifle sights.
C. Testing your sight picture by having three sight picture marked at distance of 50 ft. These
three markings will form a shot group ( Triangulations )

E. KINDS OF SLING ADJUSTMENT


A. Loop sling ( web for Prone, Sitting, Squatting and Kneeling position )
B. Hasty sling ( web for Standing position )
F. POSITION EXERCISE ( FIRING POSITION )
1. Prone position 4. Kneeling position
2. Sitting position 5. Standing position
3. Squatting position
G. TRIGGER SQUEEZE
It is defined as the independent action of the forefinger straight to the rear, with uniform increasing
pressure has been taken up so that the riflemen does not know the instant falling of the hammer.
H. IMPORTANT THINGS TO REMEMBER :
A. Squeeze the trigger in such a way as to fire the rifle without affecting the aim.
B. Hold the aim and align accurately as possible on the target and maintain a steady increasing
pressure upon the trigger, until the hot is fired. Slight movement of the sight will spoil a good
shot.
C. Sequence in trigger squeeze.
B – Breath – Hold Breath
R – Relax – Release a little air and hold it
A – Aim – Complete sight alignment
S – Slack – Take slack with heavy initial pressure
S – Squeeze – Apply correct squeeze to the remaining resistance

I. ZEROING THE RIFLE


A. Each rifle has certain characteristics and you must be familiar with them. Correcting the
characteristics by adjusting the rear sight is called ZEROING THE RIFLE.
B. Initial setting of the rear sight.
1. ELEVATION – 12 clicks up from the bottom
2. DEFLECTION – zero or at the center of the index line

J. ORGANIZATION OF FIRING LINE ( PURPOSE )


1. To ensure safe and orderly conduct of firing
2. To facilitate supervision
A. Line of Scores
B. Telephone Operators
C. Ready Line
D. Line of Rifle Racks and Cleaning Racks – 5 yards at the rear of the ready line
E. Line of Ammunition Table
F. Individuals who are to fire

REAR SIGHT
REAR SIGHT

COVER

FRONT SIGHT
FRONT SIGHT

Correct Sight Alignment Correct Sight Picture


THE U.S. RIFLE CAL. .30M1 (GARAND)
INTRODUCTION:
The CAL. .30M1 is basically an infantry weapon. Its capabilities and limitations are
guiding factors on how this weapon will eventually help an individual. Every soldier should have a basic
knowledge of the organizational and maintenance of this rifle because in the event of war all regular and
reserve forces will need this weapon very badly to achieve victory. Therefore, it is our prime duty as citizen
of the Phil. to learn how to repair and maintain this weapon for the future use and thus be of service to our
country. This weapon was invented by JOHN GARAND.
THREE MAIN GROUPS OF CAL. .30M1
1. Trigger Housing Group
2. Stock Group
3. Barrel and Receiver Group
CHARACTERISTICS
S – Semi-Automatic
C – Clip Fed
A – Air Cooled
G – Gas Operated
S – Shoulder Weapon
OTHER DATA
Diameter of Bore - .30” Overall Length w/o Bayonet – 43.6”
Weight Without Bayonet – 9.5 lbs. Maximum Range – 3,500 yrds
Weight with Bayonet – 10.5 lbs. Effective Range – 500 yrds
Weight with Bayonet and sling – 11 lbs. Chamber Pressure – 50,000 lbs/sq in
Length of Barrel – 24” Muzzle Velocity – 2,600 – 2,800
ft/se
Sustained Rate of Fire – 16 rnds/min. Clip capacity – 8 rounds
Maximum Rate of Fire – 16 rnds – 32 rnds/ min
Trigger Pull – 4.5 Minimum Approximation – 6.5 Maximum

SEQUENCE OF DISASSEMBLY
1. Trigger Housing Group
2. Stock Group
3. Barrel and Receiver Group
A. Follower Rod E. Follower Arm Pin
B. Operating Rod Spring F. Operating Rod Handle
C. Bullet Guide G. Bolt
D. Operating Rod Catch Assembly
OPERATION
The clip holding 8 rounds is inserted with the gun locked. To load, pull the operating handle up to the point
where it catches and breach open. Press the clip on the receiver until it engages, the bolt will move forward
automatically. To unload, pull back and hold the operating handle and press the clip catch.
M16 RIFLE ( 5.56 mm ARMALITE)
CHARACTERISTICS:
A.SHOULDER WEAPON – It is an individual weapon fired from the shoulder.
B. GAS OPERATED – The rifle goes through the entire sequence of firing by the action of the expanding
gas on its machine
C.MAGAZINE FED – The ammunition is fed into the rifle through either a short magazine ( 20 rounds) or
a long magazine ( 30 rounds )
D. BOTH AUTOMATIC AND SEMI-AUTOMATIC MODE – The weapon by changing the setting of
the selector lever can be made to fire either automatic or semi-automatic.
E. OTHER CHARACTERISTICS – The rifle is equipped with a flash suppressor mounted on the muzzle.
The barrel is surrounded by a heat resistant material made of fiberglass which is shaped into a handguard.
A rubber pad is mounted on the butt of the stock to help absorb the recoil of the rifle when firing. The
weapon has a forward assist assembly which is located on the rear of the upper rear receiver. Pressure on
the assembly will assist the action spring in driving the bolt fully home should it fail to do so.

2. FUNCTIONING:
A. FEEDING – This action occurs when a round of ammunition is placed in the receiver ready for
chambering. This is accomplished by the pressure of the magazine spring when you pull the charging
handle to the rear.
B. CHAMBERING – In this action the first or new round is securely placed inside the chamber. This action
takes place almost simultaneously with feeding.
C. LOCKING – In this action, the bolt rotates in a counterclockwise position. Locking is complete when
the slugs on the bolt and barrel extension are aligned. This is necessary to prevent the loss of gas pressure
until after the projectile has left the muzzle.
D. FIRING – In this action the explosive composition of the primer after it has been struck by the firing
pin, ignites and explodes the propellant powder inside the cartridge shell. The explosion forces the bullet
out of the barrel.
E. UNLOCKING – After the firing, the bolt as it move to the rear rotates clockwise until the locking slugs
of the bolt are no longer aligned with the slugs in the barrel extension.
F. EXTRACTING – In this action, the bolt carrier continues to move rearward and withdraws the extended
cartridge shell from the chamber by the extraction claw.
G. EJECTING – Here the ejector is compressed into the face of the bolt. As the bolt carrier clears the
ejector port, the empty cartridge is thrown out by the ejector and spring.
H. COCKING – In this action, all the operating parts of the rifle are again position in readiness to fire
another round. Here, the lower hook of the hammer is engaged by the disconnector and is caught by the
nose of the trigger preventing the hammer from going forward.

3. GENERAL DATA:
A. WEIGHTS B. LENGTHS
Rifle without magazine and sling - 6.5 lbs. Rifle with m7 Bayonet – 44.25
inches
Magazine - .2 lbs. Rifle with Flash Suppressor – 39 inches
Full Magazine ( 20 rounds ) - .7lbs. Barrel with Flash Suppressor – 21 inches
Sling - .4 lbs. Barrel w/o Flash Suppressor – 20 inches
C. MUZZEL VELOCITY – 3,250 ft. per sec. D. CYCLIC RATE OF FIRE – 700 – 800 rnd/min
E. MAXIMUM EFFECTIVE RATES OF FIRE F. RANGES
Semi-automatic mode – 45-65 rnd/min maximum – 2,653 meters
Automatic mode – 150-200 rnd/min maximum effective – 460 meters
G. SUSTAINED RATE OF FIRE – 12-15 rnds per min