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Present Work at WJE: Pryout

Capacity of Cast-In Anchors

Neal S. Anderson
Dr. Donald F. Meinheit

WJE
Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc.
Northbrook, Illinois

ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004


Member Geometric Definitions
Back edge
de4 y

x
- In the field - V
c2
(de1)
Side
Edge

c1 (de3)
Front edge
ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004
Pryout Behavior

Back
bearing
(“kickback”)
Front
bearing

Stiff
element

Laterally loaded pile analogy


ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004
Pryout Behavior
Q Occurs with short, “stocky” studs
Q hef / d < 4.5 normal weight concrete
Q hef / d ≤ 5.5 - 7.5 lightweight concrete
z More testing required
z Variability in LW concrete (Ec, ft ⇒ λ )
Q hef / d ≥ 4.5 steel failure likely in
normal weight concrete ( = AsFut )

ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004


y

Data Sources - Pryout x

Q 1 y row of studs
z 78 lightweight concrete tests
z 65 normal weight concrete tests
( hef / d ≤ 4.7 + )
Q ≥ 2 y rows of studs s2
z 27 lightweight concrete tests (y)
z 47 ( + 8 ) normal weight concrete tests
( hef / d ≤ 4.7 + )
Uncracked Concrete
ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004
Pushoff Test – circa 1970s

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AISC Design Equation

Vu, AISC = 0.5 n A '


fc E
b c
n = number of studs in anchorage
fc’ = concrete compressive strength
Ec = concrete modulus
Ab = stud cross-sectional area
Average Equation
ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004
PCI Design Handbook Equation

Vu, pci = 800 n λ '


fc A
b
n = number of studs in anchorage
λ = lightweight concrete factor
fc’ = concrete compressive strength
Ab = stud cross-sectional area
Average Equation
ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004
Embedment Depth Influence
1.4
PCI ~ 800 Predictor Eq’n
1.2
Test / Predicted

1.0

0.8

0.6

0.4 Zhao (U. Stuttgart)


r end
0.2 T Hawkins (U. Wash)
0.0
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
Embedment Depth Ratio (h ef / d)

ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004


Appendix D Step Function
D.6.3.1 - The nominal pryout strength Vcp
shall not exceed:
Vcp = kcpNcb (D-28)
where:
kcp = 1.0 for hef < 2.5 in.
kcp = 2.0 for hef > 2.5 in.

and Ncb shall be determined from


Eq. (D-4), lb. (tension capacity)
ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004
Proposed WJE Equation

0.5
V ' 
= 317.8 n λ f (do )  h 
1.5 
u, WJE c  ef 
n = number of studs in anchorage
λ = lightweight concrete factor
fc’ = concrete compressive strength
Ab = stud cross-sectional area
Average Equation
ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004
Equation Comparison
3.0
WJE Eq'n (317.8)
2.5 ACI Appendix D
Test / Predicted

y = -0.3472x + 2.7751
2.0

1.5

1.0
y = 0.0117x + 0.9556
0.5

0.0
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0
Embedment Depth Ratio (h ef / d)

ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004 NW Concrete


Basic Equation Statistics
Statistic WJE Equation ACI Appendix D
Mean 1.00 1.61

Std. Dev. 0.1655 0.8073


C.O.V. 0.165 0.502
Range
0.84 3.52
(max-min)
Count = 65 Normal Weight Concrete
ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004
Equation Comparison
3.0
WJE Eq'n (317.8)
2.5 ACI Appendix D
Test / Predicted

2.0
y = -0.4011x + 3.224
1.5

1.0
y = -0.0661x + 1.4072
0.5

0.0
0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0
Embedment Depth Ratio (h ef / d)

ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004 LW Concrete


Basic Equation Statistics
Statistic WJE Equation ACI Appendix D
Mean 1.07 1.33

Std. Dev. 0.1945 0.7074


C.O.V. 0.183 0.532
Range
0.94 3.26
(max-min)
Count = 78 Lightweight Concrete
ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004
Data y-spacing influence
Q ≥ 2 y rows of studs
z 27 lightweight concrete tests
z 47 normal weight concrete tests
( hef / d ≤ 4.7 + )
z Zhao ~ 4 stud group at constant y
Q Mainly pushoff data
Q No non-pushoff tests w/ variable y

Uncracked Concrete
ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004
WJE tests for y-spacing
Test Series No. of Stud Spacing
(2x) Studs
PO4F-6_ 4 6d 3 in. (76.2 cm)

PO4F-9_ 4 9d 4.5 in. (114 cm)


PO4F-12_ 4 12d 6 in. (152 cm)
PO6F-6_ 6 6d 3 in. (76.2 cm)

Normal Weight Concrete


ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004
Test Plates
y = 3 in.
y = 6 in. Y = 6 in.
s2 =
y = 3 in.

y = 4.5 in.

s1 = x = 3 in.
(constant)

ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004


Test Parameters
Q Diameter = ½ in.
(12.7 cm)
Q hef / d = 3.62
Q f’c ≈ 6000 psi
(41.4 MPa)

Stud Height

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Tests (y = 6d and 9d)

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Tests (y = 9d)

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Tests (y = 12d)

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Tests (Y = 12d, y = 6d)

inclined crack

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Lehigh – Test Behavior
V

gaps

crack

Ollgaard, Slutter, and Fisher [AISC Engineering Journal, 1971]

ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004


Y-spacing Influence
60
Normalized V test (kips)

40

20
Normal weight concrete
Loads normalized to
fc' = 5000 psi (34.5 MPa)
0
0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0
Y-Spacing (in.)

ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004


Load – ∆ behavior
60.0
Four Stud Pryout Tests
x = 3 in. (constant)

50.0
Applied Shear Force - V (kips)

40.0

30.0

20.0
PO4F-6A PO4F-6C PO4F-9A PO4F-9B
y = 3 in. y = 3 in. y = 4.5 in. y = 4.5 in.
V = 43.8 kips V = 32.6 kips V = 41.5 kips V = 45.4 kips
10.0

0.0
0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
Average Lateral Deflection - ¬ (in.)

ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004


Load – ∆ behavior
80.0
Four & Six Stud Pryout Tests
Y = 6 in., x = 3 in. (constant)
70.0 PO4F-12A
Ductile failure y = 6 in.
mode V = 58.2 kips
60.0
Applied Shear Force - V (kips)

PO6F-6A
y = 3 in.
V = 60.1 kips
50.0
PO4F-12B PO6F-6B
y = 6 in. y = 3 in.
V = 56.8 kips V = 63.3 kips
40.0

30.0

20.0

10.0

0.0
0.0 0.5 1.0
Average Lateral Deflection - (in.)

ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004


y-spacing Influence (y=s2)
1.6
WJE Predictor Eq’n
1.4
(317.8)
Test / Predicted

1.2
1.0
0.8
n d
0.6 Tre

0.4
0.2
0.0
0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0
y-spacing ratio ( y / d )

ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004


Proposed y-spacing factor

s2
ψy =
4do
s2 = individual y-spacing of studs
do = stud diameter

limited to s2 /d < 20
ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004
Equation Comparison
3.0

2.5
Test / Predicted

2.0
y = 0.0152x + 1.4297

1.5
y = 0.006x + 0.9273
1.0

0.5
WJE Eq'n (317.8) ACI Appendix D
0.0
0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0
y-spacing ratio ( y / d )
NW & LW Concrete
ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004
y-spacing Statistics
Statistic WJE Equation ACI Appendix D
Mean 1.00 1.73

Std. Dev. 0.1195 0.5607


C.O.V. 0.12 0.324
Range
0.67 2.40
(max-min)
Count = 82 Normal & Lightweight Concrete
ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004
Proposed Design Equations

V = 154 n λ f (do ) (hef ) ψ ψ


' 1.5 0.5
cp c y c,V

s2
ψy =
4d o
limited to s2 /d < 20
ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004
Results / Details
Q Pryout Capacity of Cast-In Anchors:
Existing Composite Beam Literature
Review and Experimental Studies

PCI Journal, Jan-Feb 2005

(Tentative)

ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004