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Neal S. Anderson

Dr. Donald F. Meinheit

WJE

Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc.

Northbrook, Illinois

Member Geometric Definitions

Back edge

de4 y

x

- In the field - V

c2

(de1)

Side

Edge

c1 (de3)

Front edge

ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004

Pryout Behavior

Back

bearing

(“kickback”)

Front

bearing

Stiff

element

ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004

Pryout Behavior

Q Occurs with short, “stocky” studs

Q hef / d < 4.5 normal weight concrete

Q hef / d ≤ 5.5 - 7.5 lightweight concrete

z More testing required

z Variability in LW concrete (Ec, ft ⇒ λ )

Q hef / d ≥ 4.5 steel failure likely in

normal weight concrete ( = AsFut )

y

Q 1 y row of studs

z 78 lightweight concrete tests

z 65 normal weight concrete tests

( hef / d ≤ 4.7 + )

Q ≥ 2 y rows of studs s2

z 27 lightweight concrete tests (y)

z 47 ( + 8 ) normal weight concrete tests

( hef / d ≤ 4.7 + )

Uncracked Concrete

ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004

Pushoff Test – circa 1970s

AISC Design Equation

fc E

b c

n = number of studs in anchorage

fc’ = concrete compressive strength

Ec = concrete modulus

Ab = stud cross-sectional area

Average Equation

ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004

PCI Design Handbook Equation

fc A

b

n = number of studs in anchorage

λ = lightweight concrete factor

fc’ = concrete compressive strength

Ab = stud cross-sectional area

Average Equation

ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004

Embedment Depth Influence

1.4

PCI ~ 800 Predictor Eq’n

1.2

Test / Predicted

1.0

0.8

0.6

r end

0.2 T Hawkins (U. Wash)

0.0

0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0

Embedment Depth Ratio (h ef / d)

Appendix D Step Function

D.6.3.1 - The nominal pryout strength Vcp

shall not exceed:

Vcp = kcpNcb (D-28)

where:

kcp = 1.0 for hef < 2.5 in.

kcp = 2.0 for hef > 2.5 in.

Eq. (D-4), lb. (tension capacity)

ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004

Proposed WJE Equation

0.5

V '

= 317.8 n λ f (do ) h

1.5

u, WJE c ef

n = number of studs in anchorage

λ = lightweight concrete factor

fc’ = concrete compressive strength

Ab = stud cross-sectional area

Average Equation

ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004

Equation Comparison

3.0

WJE Eq'n (317.8)

2.5 ACI Appendix D

Test / Predicted

y = -0.3472x + 2.7751

2.0

1.5

1.0

y = 0.0117x + 0.9556

0.5

0.0

0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0

Embedment Depth Ratio (h ef / d)

Basic Equation Statistics

Statistic WJE Equation ACI Appendix D

Mean 1.00 1.61

C.O.V. 0.165 0.502

Range

0.84 3.52

(max-min)

Count = 65 Normal Weight Concrete

ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004

Equation Comparison

3.0

WJE Eq'n (317.8)

2.5 ACI Appendix D

Test / Predicted

2.0

y = -0.4011x + 3.224

1.5

1.0

y = -0.0661x + 1.4072

0.5

0.0

0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0

Embedment Depth Ratio (h ef / d)

Basic Equation Statistics

Statistic WJE Equation ACI Appendix D

Mean 1.07 1.33

C.O.V. 0.183 0.532

Range

0.94 3.26

(max-min)

Count = 78 Lightweight Concrete

ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004

Data y-spacing influence

Q ≥ 2 y rows of studs

z 27 lightweight concrete tests

z 47 normal weight concrete tests

( hef / d ≤ 4.7 + )

z Zhao ~ 4 stud group at constant y

Q Mainly pushoff data

Q No non-pushoff tests w/ variable y

Uncracked Concrete

ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004

WJE tests for y-spacing

Test Series No. of Stud Spacing

(2x) Studs

PO4F-6_ 4 6d 3 in. (76.2 cm)

PO4F-12_ 4 12d 6 in. (152 cm)

PO6F-6_ 6 6d 3 in. (76.2 cm)

ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004

Test Plates

y = 3 in.

y = 6 in. Y = 6 in.

s2 =

y = 3 in.

y = 4.5 in.

s1 = x = 3 in.

(constant)

Test Parameters

Q Diameter = ½ in.

(12.7 cm)

Q hef / d = 3.62

Q f’c ≈ 6000 psi

(41.4 MPa)

Stud Height

Tests (y = 6d and 9d)

Tests (y = 9d)

Tests (y = 12d)

Tests (Y = 12d, y = 6d)

inclined crack

Lehigh – Test Behavior

V

gaps

crack

Y-spacing Influence

60

Normalized V test (kips)

40

20

Normal weight concrete

Loads normalized to

fc' = 5000 psi (34.5 MPa)

0

0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0

Y-Spacing (in.)

Load – ∆ behavior

60.0

Four Stud Pryout Tests

x = 3 in. (constant)

50.0

Applied Shear Force - V (kips)

40.0

30.0

20.0

PO4F-6A PO4F-6C PO4F-9A PO4F-9B

y = 3 in. y = 3 in. y = 4.5 in. y = 4.5 in.

V = 43.8 kips V = 32.6 kips V = 41.5 kips V = 45.4 kips

10.0

0.0

0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4

Average Lateral Deflection - ¬ (in.)

Load – ∆ behavior

80.0

Four & Six Stud Pryout Tests

Y = 6 in., x = 3 in. (constant)

70.0 PO4F-12A

Ductile failure y = 6 in.

mode V = 58.2 kips

60.0

Applied Shear Force - V (kips)

PO6F-6A

y = 3 in.

V = 60.1 kips

50.0

PO4F-12B PO6F-6B

y = 6 in. y = 3 in.

V = 56.8 kips V = 63.3 kips

40.0

30.0

20.0

10.0

0.0

0.0 0.5 1.0

Average Lateral Deflection - (in.)

y-spacing Influence (y=s2)

1.6

WJE Predictor Eq’n

1.4

(317.8)

Test / Predicted

1.2

1.0

0.8

n d

0.6 Tre

0.4

0.2

0.0

0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0

y-spacing ratio ( y / d )

Proposed y-spacing factor

s2

ψy =

4do

s2 = individual y-spacing of studs

do = stud diameter

limited to s2 /d < 20

ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004

Equation Comparison

3.0

2.5

Test / Predicted

2.0

y = 0.0152x + 1.4297

1.5

y = 0.006x + 0.9273

1.0

0.5

WJE Eq'n (317.8) ACI Appendix D

0.0

0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0

y-spacing ratio ( y / d )

NW & LW Concrete

ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004

y-spacing Statistics

Statistic WJE Equation ACI Appendix D

Mean 1.00 1.73

C.O.V. 0.12 0.324

Range

0.67 2.40

(max-min)

Count = 82 Normal & Lightweight Concrete

ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004

Proposed Design Equations

' 1.5 0.5

cp c y c,V

s2

ψy =

4d o

limited to s2 /d < 20

ACI Centennial – San Francisco 2004

Results / Details

Q Pryout Capacity of Cast-In Anchors:

Existing Composite Beam Literature

Review and Experimental Studies

(Tentative)

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