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Cold formed design example for double span parapet curtain walls

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1 Objective

To check the safety of using a single (4CS2X059, 33Ksi) section as a typical stud for a

double span curtain-wall with a parapet, given the following data:

The design is based on AISI-NASPEC 2001 with 2004 supplementary, using ASD method.

The wall typical span = 8 ft, and the parapet height = 4 ft.

The lateral bracing spacing is considered equal to the bridging members spacing.

The torsional bracing spacing is considered equal to the bridging members spacing.

The wind load factor for both strength and lateral deflection = 1.0.

The factor (Cb) = 1.0 for calculation of the lateral-torsional buckling stress.

The web-crippling check is considered, and the bearing length (N) = 1.25 in.

The maximum allowed lateral deflection = L/ 360, where (L) is the height of the supported span

and twice the cantilever height.

The absolute deflection at free end of parapet is considered in the deflection check.

Double Span wit h a Parapet Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

Page 1 of 22

2 Modeling with SteelSmart® System

Double Span wit h a Parapet Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

Page 2 of 22

3 Statical System, Loads for Strength, and Design

Forces

50.0

0.62

-3.57 -0.19

0.24

50.0

3.16

-0.16

Double Span wit h a Parapet Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

Page 3 of 22

4 Safety Check

4.1 Design for Flexural Moment (Mx)

Figure 2 shows the cross-section elements with their corresponding labels.

2

1'

2'

The major flexural strength of the section (M x-all) is the least of the flexural strength at the initiation

of the cross-section yielding and the strength for lateral-torsional buckling.

Considering (D) the section depth, (B) the flange width, (C) the lip width, (t) the section

thickness, and (R) the inside bend radius of the section corners; the flat widt hs of the elements

subjected to compressive stresses shown in Figure 3 can be calculated as follows:-

W 1 = C – (t + R)

W 2 = B – 2(t + R)

W 3 = D – 2(t + R)

Double Span wit h a Parapet Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

Page 4 of 22

W

2

W

1

W

3

The effective properties are calculated by loading the section by a stress gradient

(tension-compression) which has a value of (F y ) at the top fiber of the compression flange (Figure

4).

2 f F = 33 ksi

2 top

f and f

1-1 1-3

1

f

2-1

Mx

3 N.A.

Ycg0 = 2 in.

1' f

2-3

2'

F = Ftop = 33 ksi

bottom

Figure 4 Location of N.A., Stress Distribution, and Critical Stresses on the Fully Effective

Section for Initiation of Yielding

Double Span wit h a Parapet Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

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Iteration (1)

The section is assumed to be fully effective, i.e. the N.A. will be located at a distance from the

bottom fiber of the tension flange equal to half the section depth (Figure 4).

4.1.2.1.1 Element (1) and Element (2)

Element (1) is classified as an unstiffened element under stress gradient, thus, the

plate buckling coefficient (K) used for the calculation of the effective width of (W 1) is determined in

1

accordance with section B3.2 (a) in the 2004 supplement as follows:

D Yc go t R

= Fy = 4 2 0.059 0.1875 * 33 = 28.93275 ksi

42

D Y c go

D Yc go C

= F = 4 2 0.867 * 33 = 18.6945 ksi

D Yc go y 42

1

= f2-1/ f1-1 = 0.6461363 (Eq. B3.2-1)

1

K = 0.578/ ( + 0.34) = 0.5861259 (Eq. B3.2-2)

The effective width of (W 1) is then calculated in accordance with Section B2.1 (a) in the 2001

specification as follows:

2

2E t

Fcr = K (Eq. B2.1-5)

2 W

12 (1 ) 1

2

2 * 29500 0.059

= 0.5861259* = 141.2897 ksi

12 (1 0.3 2 ) 0.6205

f11

= (Eq. B2.1-4)

Fcr

28.93275

= = 0.4525219 < 0.673

141.2897

1

Supplement 2004 to the NASPEC-AISI 2001 for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members

Double Span wit h a Parapet Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

Page 6 of 22

d'1 = effective width of (W 1)

= W1 (Eq. B2.1-1)

Element (2) is classified as a uniformly compressed element with an edge stiffener, thus, the

plate buckling coefficient (K) used for the calculation of the effective width of (W 2) is determined in

accordance with Section B4.2 (a) in the 2001 specification as follows:

= Fy = * 33 = 32.51325 ksi

D Yc go 42

3

W t

Ia = 399t 4 2 0.328 (Eq. B4.2-10)

S

3

4 25.54237

= 399 0.059 0.328 = 1.809162 * 10-4 in4

38.5559

W t

Ia-max = t 4 115 2 5

S

4 25.54237

= 0.059 115 * 5 = 9.837454 * 10 in > Ia

-4 4

38.5559

W1 3 t Sin2

Is = (Eq. B4-2)

12

= = 1.174616 * 10 in

12

Is

RI = (Eq. B4.2-9)

Ia

Double Span wit h a Parapet Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

Page 7 of 22

W t

n = 0.582 2 (Eq. B4.2-11)

4S

25.54237

= 0.582 = 0.4163809 > (1/3)

4 * 38.5559

Using Table B4-2;

RI n 0.43

5C

K = 4.82

W2

5 * 0.867 0.4163809

= 4.82 1 0.43 = 2.373424 < 4.0

1.507

The effective width of (W 2) is then calculated in accordance with Section B2.1 (a) in the 2001

specification as follows:

2

2E t

Fcr = K (Eq. B2.1-5)

2 W

12 (1 ) 2

2

2 * 29500 0.059

= 2.373424* = 96.9956 ksi

12 (1 0.3 2 ) 1.507

f2

= (Eq. B2.1-4)

Fcr

32.51325

= = 0.5789675 < 0.673

96.9956

b2 = effective width of (W 2)

= W2 (Eq. B2.1-1)

= W 1 – d1 = 0.6205 – 0.6205 = 0

= W 2 – b2 = 1.507 – 1.507 = 0

Double Span wit h a Parapet Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

Page 8 of 22

4.1.2.1.2 Element (3)

compression), thus, the plate buckling coefficient (K) used for the calculation of the effective width

of (W 3) is determined in accordance with Section B2.3 (a) in the 2001 specification as follows:

D Yc go t R 4 2 0.059 0.1875

= Fy = * 33 = 28.93275 ksi

D Yc go 42

Yc go t R

= Fy = 2 0.0569 0.1875 * 33 = -28.93275 ksi

D Yc go 42

3

K = 4 + 2(1 + ) + 2(1 + ) (Eq. B2.3-2)

3

= 4 + 2(1 + 1) + 2(1 + 1) = 24

The effective width of (W 3) is then calculated in accordance with Section B2.3 (a) in the 2001

specification as follows:-

2

2E t

Fcr = K (Eq. B2.1-5)

2 W

12 (1 ) 3

2

2 * 29500 0.059

= 24 * = 181.1102 ksi

12 (1 0.3 2 ) 3.507

f13

= (Eq. B2.1-4)

Fcr

28.93275

= = 0.3996901 < 0.673

181.1102

Rem3 = 0

Double Span wit h a Parapet Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

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Remt = the total removed length of the section due to local buckling

=0+0+0=0

2

= A g – (Remt * t) = 0.5383608 in (fully effective)

From the previous analysis, we can conclude that there is no need for more iterations because

Ycg (final location of the neutral axis measured from the bottom fiber of the tension flange) will be

equal to Y cg0, and the effective section modulus at initiation of yielding (S xe) can be calculated as

follows:

4

= Ix = 1.345668 in

3

Sxe = Ixe/ (0.5D) = 1.345668/ 2 = 0.6728339 in

= 0.6728339 * 33 = 22.2035 kips.in.

Mx-Y ielding = Mnx-Y ielding/ b = 22.2035/ 1.67 = 13.2955 kips.in.

2E

ey

K yL y ry 2

= (Eq. C3.1.2.1-8)

2 * 29500

= = 77.58378 ksi

48 0.78354842

1 2EC W

t = GJ (Eq. C3.1.2.1-9)

Ar02 K tL t 2

1 4 2 * 29500 * 1.560299

= 11300 * 6.24678 * 10

0.5383608* 2.534562 482

2

= 59.05328 ksi

3

Sf = Ix / (0.5D) = 1.345668/ (0.5*4) = 0.6728339 in

Double Span wit h a Parapet Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

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C b ro A

Fe = ey t (Eq. C3.1.2.1-5)

Sf

1 * 2.534562* 0.5383608

= 77.58378* 59.05328

0.6728339

= 137.2701 ksi > (2.78F y = 91.74 ksi)

Fc = Fy = 33 ksi

Since Fc = Fy , the section will not be subjected to lateral-torsional buckling.

of Safety

Mx-all = Mx-Y ielding

= 13.2955 kips.in

The major shear strength (V y -all) can be calculated in accordance with Section C3.2.1 in the

2001 specification as discussed in the following sections.

h = flat portion of the solid web

Double Span wit h a Parapet Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

Page 11 of 22

(h/ t) < EK v Fy

Aw = area of the flat portion of the web

2

= ht = 3.507 * 0.059 = 0.206913 in

Safety

Vny = nominal shear strength of the section

Vy -all = V ny / v

Double Span wit h a Parapet Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

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4.3 Design for Web-Crippling (Py)

As we avoid making punch-outs in the members at supports locations, web-crippling can be

checked at the location of vertical reactions at the three s upports (neglecting the effect of the clip

angles at supports in resisting crippling and as shown in (Figure 5)); in accordance with Section

(C3.4.1) in the 2001 specification as follows:-

1.25 in

8 ft 8 ft 4 ft

Figure 5 Crippling Forces Values and Locations

Pny = Nominal web crippling strength

R N h

= Ct 2Fy Si n1 CR 1 CN 1 Ch (Eq. C3.4.1-1)

t

t t

Py -all-EOF = strength of the section in web-crippling resistance at left support

= Pny -EOF / w-EOF

R N h

= Ct 2Fy Si n1 CR 1 CN 1 Ch / w EOF

t

t t

Considering the flanges are fastened to support, and using Table C3.4.1-2 for C-Sections;

Py -all-EOF = 4 * 0.0592 * 33 * Sin901 0.14 0.1875 1 0.35 1.25 1 0.02 3.507 / 1.75

0.059

0.059 0.059

Py -all-IOF = strength of the section in web-crippling resistance at middle support

R N h

= Ct Fy Si n1 CR 1 CN 1 Ch / w IOF

2

t

t t

Double Span wit h a Parapet Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

Page 13 of 22

Considering the flanges are fastened to support, and using Table C3.4.1-2 for C-Sections;

Py -all-IOF = 13 * 0.0592 * 33 * Sin901 0.23 0.1875 1 0.14 1.25 1 0.01 3.507 / 1.65

0.059

0.059 0.059

Py -all-IOF = strength of the section in web-crippling resistance at right support

The critical combined corresponding values of bending moment (M x ) and shear force (V y )

were found at the locations of the middle and upper supports, and can be checked in accordance

with Section (C3.3.1) in the 2004 supplement as discussed in the following sections.

2

vV y

2

b M x

Interaction = must be ≤ 1.0 (Eq. C3.3.1-1)

2

M nxo Vny

2 2

3.568 0.237

Interaction = = 0.2839 < 1.0 safe

13.2955 2.5605

Act/ All = 0.2839/ 1 = 0.2839

2 2

4.80 0.213

Interaction = = 0.3705 < 1.0 safe

13.2955 2.5605

Act/ All = 0.3705/ 1 = 0.3705

2

Supplement 2004 to the NASPEC-AISI 2001 for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members

Double Span wit h a Parapet Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

Page 14 of 22

4.5 Combined (Mx) and (Py)

The critical combined corresponding values of bending moment (Mx) and crippling force

(Py) were found at the locations of the middle and upper supports, and can be checked in

accordance with Section (C3.5.1) in the 2004 supplement as follows:

Py M x 1.33

Interaction = 0.91 must be ≤ (Eq. C3.5.1-1)

3

P M

ny n xo

(Where = 1.70)

0.4243 3.568

Interaction = 0.91

1.3371 22.2035

0.4128 4.80

Interaction = 0.91

1.3371 22.2035

4.6.1 Lower Span

all = maximum allowed lateral deflection = L/ 360 = 8 * 12/ 360 = 0.267 in < (maximum

absolute deflection = 0.5 in)

act = maximum actual lateral deflection (using the wind load for deflection = wind load

intensity * stud spacing * wind load deflection factor)

3

Supplement 2004 to the NASPEC-AISI 2001 for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members

Double Span wit h a Parapet Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

Page 15 of 22

4.6.2 Middle Span

all = maximum allowed lateral deflection = L/ 360 = 8 * 12/ 360 = 0.267 in (maximum

absolute deflection = 0.5 in)

act = maximum actual lateral deflection (using the wind load for deflection = wind load

intensity * stud spacing * wind load deflection factor)

4.6.3 Cantilever

all = maximum allowed lateral deflection = L/ 360 = 2 * 4 * 12/ 360 = 0.267 in < (maximum

absolute deflection = 0.5 in)

act = maximum actual lateral deflection (using the wind load for deflection = wind load

intensity * stud spacing * wind load deflection factor)

5 Conclusion

Using a single (4CS2X059, 33Ksi) section as a typical stud for this curtain wall is safe.

Double Span wit h a Parapet Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

Page 16 of 22

6 Verification of SteelSmart® System

6.1 Forces and Lateral Deflection Diagrams

6.1.1 Bending Moment Diagram (Kips.in.)

Double Span wit h a Parapet Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

Page 17 of 22

6.1.2 Shear Force Diagram (Kips)

Double Span wit h a Parapet Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

Page 18 of 22

6.1.3 Lateral Deflection Diagram (in.)

Double Span wit h a Parapet Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

Page 19 of 22

6.2 Output

6.2.1 Span #1

Double Span wit h a Parapet Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

Page 20 of 22

6.2.2 Span #2

Double Span wit h a Parapet Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

Page 21 of 22

6.2.3 Span #3

Double Span wit h a Parapet Curtain Wall SteelSmart® System 7.0 SP2

Page 22 of 22

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