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u ,

° (o rr,
:un t ion_No Qu ...tion Answ e ' _
• Answ ...._B An, w e '_C Answe ,_ 0 "-'
n Swl
l ,Whld' aero pla ne bt't><w'DU' w,1I .Sp lra l d ive . Buffe t",g Dutch roiL ,TUCk unOe.. C
.be co'rected by a yaw damper ~ j I -:;:-,--_. c-:ccccccc-c",,--- I;c
3 One disadva nta ge of the SWepl wing root .tall t ip sta ll will 'le ad Ing edge ,.t ip ' tall w ill occur first, ..
back wing is it', sta lling will occur first, occu r first, Slall will occur ,WhiCh produces a pilch-up

I 'e h.l, acle r;st ics. At the sta ll:

which produce s ,which prod oces
rolling ,a nose -down
fIrst, which
produces a
mo ment.

- 1. 6 ,lf an aeroplane flies in the

c::~nt l om
etn '---S:"" ~·''';:::c--j;;:::c";;:;;:"c:=,,.
it !>e lifl is
:~' O
,the effective ~he induced drag and lift are ."'duted.
,gro und eHe.:t iincre a sed and 'a ngle o f att a ck is ,a ngle of attack is

jlh.. drag is 'decre ased . :increa sed.

-c,,"-,C" " l l iCoC,,,c,,,,... ecreased --+'CO~o----*".",,,~,,o-tcc,,,~-------'

in a given configuralioo. the
,o ~" '1 . 12 VS. greater U'an vs. [,1.20 V$. c

-co-" ~'""""
irspeed at whichstiel< shaker
be,,:=:;c;;;; c;:;;:::::::-_~,
----'8 1 ~ ::~~::;.~~:I; : in8

. ncy to · OU~CI~!5' I "" ?·,,--JL

IRudder " .1Vaw damper jROIl spoilers. r=''':' '':mC':''' 'c.- - - - - ' I"

The high speed buffet is induced boundarylayer boundarylayer e . pansion 1.11 Shifi of the cenlre of
y 'separation due 'control,
to shock waves. I
waves on the
....ingupper side. I
Igravltv I A

---~" 2;w h e n "spoilers' are used as ,CLma. Of ''''''''~ ' :c,..... .,--oo''' - -;'at sam~-,---
- -''''
, o, I e of""';t
. sa~ angle of anack. ( 0 0
speed brake" polar curve is affect wh""l ,att ack, (l is increased and CL is
I', 'I inot affected. braking action re mains dccrc;>scd,
ij -------l-- 'during landing. ~ u na ff ected . I
---~" '!Wha t factors determine the [The wind and ~ he wind and ;The wind and ~he wind and the lift/drag :0
distance travelled over the the ae roplane', ,eLma. ....eight together ratio, which changes with
gtound of an ae roplane ina mass with power 'angle of anack
,glide ? loading. which is
,the ratio of
power output to

" t he centre of gravity moving aft ; nuease the

ill: e levator up
decrease the
:elevator up
the weight
I10t affect the increase or decrease the
klevator up or :e levalOr up effectiveness,
t ffeetivenesS, ieffectiveness, 'down jdep-e.nding on wing
effectiveneu . ilocatlOn.
- - ---;"';W"h:':' h::::"f:' 'h:,:<fo="o'w
= ,"'
" - - - - "' ::::,:,,,,: ,,'o
' ,, ,,,,= *,:::::::::::::,,- (;;O'",":"';;---JO'=
Increasing the Use of a T-tail ]lnueaSing ="= =the:::::::::::::;c:;cl,c-­
Istalemenls about stall speed is 'angle of sweep angleof swee p 'will decrease the ,the will eeereese the
,Icorrect ? :of
. the win, wi ll of the wing will stall speed. stall s.pee<!
= ._
Q uest io ns

. eSlion_ No Queslion ArlSwer _A Answe r_B Answer_C Answe r_D "-'

, ,
Ide CreJ Se the ,de cre ase t he
I :sta ll s peed. stall , pee d. I
----c,~, f.':':" l i :"
g ';-;M',:,:':":m::;
:" b:':" "::;O:,;-~: 500kts
i'! nd t heTAS is 400 kts . The
!spe e d 01 :;aund IS;
'320 kb '480 kts


l8 'When t he tr ai li ng edge fla ps a re 'no , e up. 'zero. de pendent on
'de fle cte d in level fligh t, th e I I 'e.g. locatio n.
r ose do wn.

.-l~a n ~e
in pitc h mo~e nt
- - --c22 iWhich ~ tateme nt with re s pe ct
,At con, t ant
~ '-----'" -L ::-::::;-::+C--::::;-;--~;-~I"l--
:At consta nt TAS At con~ta ntl AS ,IAt con~t an t lASthe TAS
:to th e climb is corre ct ? Mach num be r t he Ma ch the Mach decrease s

the lAS ;num be r numbe r

I increa se s ' de'c

:" " i,,='
:, ',",',''=;--~c::=::=:::;::::;----"b-
= ;0
23 ,The stalli ng s peed in lAS will-------'Wili'i':;rea,e -
cha nge accordi ng to the
during tum,
;Will decrease
wit h a for wa rd
,Will incre3 ~e 'May inc rea ~e du ring
,Wit h increased ,t urb ule nce a nd will always
, "
,fo llowing fact or.: jincre ase d mass !'-g. locat ion, lo ad facto r, icing incre ase whe n banking in a
,a nd a n aft e.g , :lowe r a ltitude :condit ions a nd :t llrn
'Io cat io n 'a nd d ue to t he mor e flap,
'slip stream from
'a prope ller on
'a n engine
'locate d fo rward
'of t he wing
24 'A jet tra nsport ae ropla ne is in a ,MO 'M MO. \J MO. 'VA,
:>tra ight climb a t a con sta nt lAS

'and constant we igh!. The

foper atio nall im;t that may be

,e" ee de d IS;

" I'tAJet ae roplane '. rolled mto a iincre a, e a ngle jincre a se thr ust lincre ase thrust a nd
,'ncrea, e thrust
r' ''''~
urn, while mainta ining a irspeed of attack and and Jngle o f
[a nd kee p angle
la nd ho lding alt itude. In suc h a 'ke e p t hrust a tta ck. 'of atta ck
lcase. t he pilot has to: :uncha nged , I ;uncha nged .

n 'After t ake -<lff the slats are :Be ca u ~' e

flA PS 'Be ca use SLATS Because '" "" ::

, ,',;-1,'.' ,' ,' ,,-,'. ' ,' M"'CA

'~ I w~ y ~ retracte d late r tha n the EXTE NDE Dgives :EXTE NDEDgives EXTEN DE D EXTE NDED is more
, , '
fla ps, Why ? 'a la rge decrea se :a la rge de crease prOVides a ~a v o u r a b l e compared to
in sta ll spe ed !in sta ll speed 'be tte r v,e w from r he FLAP S EXTE NDED
with re lat ive ly ;wlth relat iveiy ,t he cockp't tha n situat ion
jless drag. ile » dra g. iFLAPS
28 ;What me-eases the sta lling ;flaps " poile rs .fuse la ge slats
____~:~ a n g l e of attack ? U,e of : I I 'mo unte d speed­
Q u e st io ns

~ e s t i on _ N o Qu est ion Answe ' _A Answe ' _B Answe ' _C Answe' _D "-'
• tra Iling e dge flaps w hen
29 The
I,s ign ifica ntly ,i
S1g nlf!cantly
,brake s I
worsen th e be st I,ncrea se the zero loft angle C
'e ' t e nded ' 'increa se the lowe, t he d,a g ,a ngle of glide of atta ck
'a ngle of att ack
fo r ma , imu m
32 jGrou nd effect ha s t he following ccoceses. does not ,Incre ase s. only If mcre ese s.
ilnflue nce on t he la nding
id ista nce : ('"'. the la nding fla ps
'a re f ully
'e xte nde d.
33 'A light t win is in a t urn at 20 :t urn at a higher ,'turn at the sa me ,turn at a bigge r ,'t urn at a smalle r t urn a
'de gree s ba nk an d 150 kt TAS. A t urn , a te 't urn ra dius . turn ra dius " ad ius.
;more heavy jet ae roplane at the
Isa,me ban k and t he sa me .peed
35 )A commercIal wt aero plane" :VNE 'VO ' MMO 10
Ipe rfo , m ing a st raight descent at
la constant Mach Numbe r w ith
Ico n. ta m we ight. The
!o pe , a tio na l lim it t hat ma y be
,e xce ede d is:
36 !Why is VMC'G de t e rm ined wit h---'-B e:,:,:":,:.:---~=::::::::--\;::::::;;:::---';;::::::=::::==----f.--
,Be ca use t he Bec au , e the Beca use It mu st be !B
't he nosewheel steeri ng :no. ew he e l ,va lue of VMCG :no. e whe e l 'po SSible to abort the ta ke -
!d isco nnecte d ? , t ee rlng ha s no m ust a lso be iste e ring co uld )off even a fte r the
leffect o n the ja pplica ble o n bec o me , inose whe e l has a lready
i a1ue of VMCG. ,we t a nd/or . inope rat ive after 'bee n lift ed off the groun d.
!s lippe ry a n e ngine has
!runways , ,faile d.
40 ,Climbing at a co nst ant Mach I, e m aln decre ase . ,first incre ase, Incre a ",. B
,Numbe r up to FL 350 t he TAS
ico nsta nt . I It he n decre ase , I
4 1 w inglet s ,incre ase t he :cre at e an elliptica l lift IA
Ima noeuvrability 'ld ist ribut lo n,

« ,The bo undary la ye r of a w Ing IS

'ca u",d by:
,a tu' bule nt

ist re a m
,suct Io n at t he uppe r wing A

r -'­
,a round the
I Quest lIOQ.S
~u est i on_N o Question Answer_A Answer_B Answer_C AJiswer_D
Idue t o fr lct lon. I
48 Consider an aerofoil wit h a in t he . . Upper side Lower side In front of t he stagnatio n B
certai n cam be r and a positive ls ta gnation POint po int
angle of attack. At w hich
locat ion wi ll t he highest flow
u o ln r iti o c n t , I.r ?
.is always -+decre ases
so The buffet marg in: . , is always .
increases duri ng a descent 0
'g reatest after a dur ing a desce nt posit;ve at Mach with a const ant lAS.
,step climb h.>s ""it h a constant numbers below I
- - --;o1;:;;:-:" .,,"';;::= :-::-: ;,.= ::--;;o,
""' n e .e<uted. Mach numbe r. -;,MM0"
S l~ic/l 01 tile follOWing facto rs 'd e<:rea;;;;-' - ta ilwind
" '0 ::-=-_ _Io:=::-;,.==-==-=-­
headw ind 'faster do>scent speed
I I'
1 :-:=--~ '==-===-=::::::::;;-;;o;ci;, ;--
r,lIlead to an increa>e of 'aero plane
_~round dista nce d u ,, ~g_,_gl 'd e ? ;""eight
S3 ,Howdoes VMC G ch.>nge With 'inerea,es,
!increaSing field elevation and
t em perature ?
:because at a
:Iower dens ity a
increases, de creases,
because VM CG because the
:is relaled 10 Vl en gine thrust
Idecr eases, because VMCG C
liS(,.pressed in lAS aild the
lAS decre ases with TAS
larger lAS is !and vII aild decr ea:;es. Iconstant and decreasing
necessary to it ho~e ~peeds density ,
generate the linerea", if Ihe
,~e q u " ed rudder idenSity

___-;?~;=:::::_;==:::::-:-:="'-,';',",'' ,==_-
llo n g i t u """"c" " ,,,,-, f"" " ''''''''''''''
; '-~Ib.,:,:',
,. '.'_"" , ------j ,
SS :Rolling is the rota tio n of th e
e' op lane abcvt the

- - - ----+---
t _ .",..,_..
me , '
,No elevato' ,It depends On Down. 'Up.
, ""ill the po, ition of
!req ui,ed tl'M> cen t, e 01

,bl'cause t he g' illlity.

;t h' USI line of I

,t tle e ngi n e~

~ue st ion_No Question Answer~A AnswecB AnswecC Answer_D "-'
nsw ,

I I I l

jP,t ch,n g mome nt zero? ,rem a ins
,uncha nged .
- -- --c" " f he lift force. acting o n a n is ma inlY;';" "':' " ", 'm'," "'m',' m
:::" '­ ,iS main ly caus e d ji ncre ases. pro port ional to C
;aN o fo ,1; 'by over pressure 'a n a ngle of by suctio n On ,t he angle of at ta ck unt,I4D
'a t t he underSi de 'att ack of 2 t he upper side 'd egree, _
_ __ ~~I I
'of the ae r% il. !degree, .
"' Io"-" ' O-'-" O'd"'-" ' o-o--co""" "'-O-W'
" -:"h-i!d·;;';-";~-d' -o ;-t"p ;;:'a rd
'of the ae rofoil.
on t he Ion the up go ing 'o n t he down going wing ,

s pee dbra ke, extende d. t he ro ll ,,t he up going ,jU going wing wong
' on Iy. ':o nly.
spOile r funct io n induces a wing a nd .a nd downward
Is poile r defle ct ion­
- lupwa rd o n t he io n the down
'down going 'gOing wing_
m""''':::d ' ',:::------+d~
:wing _
! 'oe s not

___~~ L __
,depe nd on
t eight
,increase' with ,incre ases wit h
,t he le ngt h o f t he ,:a n incre ase d
~",: ,~ gSpa n
decr eases wit h an
'Incre ase d we ight
,we igho'::;::=:::Ic, = = = = = ",= = = -!

68 Incre ase of wing loading will-

- lincrea se t he
'sta ll s peed s
I .

'de cre ase t he Increa, e Clmsx_ idecre ase t a ke off speeds_ (

:minim um gliding !

I :a ngle .

Code 7500 "

Whe n th;,===~,Wh en t~ e aircraft I, In

1 Questions
~est lon_ No Question Answe ' _A Answer_B Answe,_C Answe._D "-'
" Swl

;a ircraft on a st ra ight -in· VOR 'poss ible to I ~ nd 'a ircra ft is in aircraft has the jeo ntac! with the ground
'approach cont inue It s descend ~ isua l contact co ntro l t owe r in :b ul not with the runway in
with t he groun d sight 'Sig h t ye t
I""OW,",OW and w ith the
,run way lights in
, ,s ight
79 An approa ching aircraft ma y It he pIlo t " all menttoned t he pIlot ha s t he Ilhe a Ircraft ge ls rada r
'de sce nt be low t he MSA if: ifollowing th e anSwers are ,fi e ld an d the vect ors

I : ~: ;~:;~
correct ;underi Ving
'tN , a il) in s ight
proced ure ~a n d w ill keep it
:in sight
30 n ai rcraft is flying unde r
Instr ume nt Flight Rules in an
,a d o p t a VFR ,:Co ntinue flight , descend to En- Iland on the clo sest s
jllight lev",1 and onto route Minimum ;a ppropriate aerodrome,
a rea w here the visibilit y is cont inue flight idest inat io n, sa fe Altitude :t hen advise Air Traffi c
un limited and the sky is clear 'onto ,co mplymg w ith la nd jo in closest Serv ices of la nd ing
(fre e of clo ud s), w he n it tota lly 'de st inat io n ila S! re ce ived :~ i rf i e ld open to
lose s radI O comm u n "~3t l0nS .
f he procedure to be fo llowed is:
clearances t hen
,'Wit h filed flight
I'" 0,," " "0"'

'pla n
,blue A
:600 m fro m e
,t hreSho ld
i ~ne;:~rd~ ~~oOnn

t he en try
84 ,In order to me e t w ake light airc raft
tur bule nce criter ia, fo r a rr iving Ibe hind he avy
other medium be hind med ium he avy aircraft - 3 minutes
a ircraft a nd using t imed la ifcraft - 2 a Ircraft - 2 a ircraft -4
a pproache s, wha t min ima sha ll :minute s minutes minutes
be a pplied to a ircraft la nding
behi nd a he avy o r a med ium
aircraft ?
-... ,
es he pilot of an aircraft lo sing 7700 '7600 ) 000 a
itwo-wa y co mmu nicat ions sholl
,set th e trans pon de r to Mode A r'oo
,:Code :
86 Wh at will be you r action if you iFo llow t ~e ra dio 'into rm the ATC :a no n-stan dard it is pe rmitted to dev iate e
Q u est io ns
" _A
!u e s1 i o n~ N o Qu e st io n Answer A Answ er_B Answer_C Answer_D
not com ply w ith e sta ndard .com muntcatlo n ,im med iate ly a nd ho ld ing pattern t rom t he presc ribed
reque st a ho lding pattern at pilots
ho lding pattern' ;fa ilure
proc edure :re vise d
I" ,.,m'tt,' .
~d i s cr e t i o n .
I !cle ara nce .
87 ,Runway thresho ld lights sha ll Fixed light , Fixed Fixe d -Fixe d light s green co lours e
:be , IShowing green ~ u n i d i re c t i o n a l ,
lunid ire ct io na l
'o r white ;Iic hts show ing Ilights shOWing
co lours. green in t he white in the
,;d ire ct ion o f :direct ion of
;a pproach to t he ,:a pproach to t he
i' u~wa y ,runwa y.
aa SDA" (Acce le rat ion Stop he le ncth of :The le ngt h of IThe le ngt h 01 he length o r t he ta ke -olf A
Dista nce Ava ilable ) is: Il he ta ke -off run t he runway plus ,t he ta ke -o tt run run available plus the
ava Ilable plus le ngt h 01t he cle arway.
't he le ngt h of
:sto pway (if

: ~~:~:~ )
89 J or a category I prec ision
'a pc rc ech. the decision height
~a n n ot be lower than;
~ hich p ro ce dure do yo u fo llow
il du ring an IFRflight in VMC

ou ha ve two way

co mm Unication la llure ?

:lIic ht plJ n

I;n.e le ngth of IThe le ngth of the take-off A

,t he tak e-off run ( un ova l l~ b le plus t he
available plus le ngt h ol the S1opway.
ilhe l e n ~th o f the

Que stion "-'

'c1e a rway 'sto pway a nd
;availa ble (il Icle arw ay {if
providedl. :provide dl.
1500 fe et. 4000 fe et. 2 000 leet. c

A visua l m ano e uvre to be 'C
:co nducte d o nly in IMe.

100 iA pre cision approac h ru nway a RVR of 250

CAT. II is an instroment ronway imet e rs an d a
~erved by ILS a nd Visual a ids p Hof no t less
II,nt e nde d lo r o perations do wn ( ha n 200 ft.
,t o,

,treee o r .mo re ,a he ight ed o bstac le near c

101 What is a "ba rrett e" ,a CAT II or III 'a fra ngible
Iholdong !st ruct ure on ~ ro un d light s ~he runway an d/o r
POSitIon. !w hich a pproach 'close ly space d t a,dwa y.
are lixed .
i :~~~re~ st ~ bar
'of lights,
103 ,Dunng a CIrclI ng approach, what ,Req ue st a n
,tnttiate a m issed Descend to

IMa onta ln your c"c long

iact ion sho uld be ta ken if 'a me nde d lapp,o och OCLjAC Ha nd in a lt itu de a nd t urn t owards
Icontact is lost with t he 'cle a ra nce :t he ho pe th a t 't he aerodrome
:ae ro dro me on the dow n WindL the visibility Is
le ? ._ better at a lower
I 'alt it ude
104 ,Whe re State has not es tabl ishe d at le a5t 2000:--r,,:':e=,
' =,:,=,Cooo
' ' e:,:,:,:,ooo
""':-~\aI=,CC, e',',,'
:, o:oo":'=ee=,C:w=":o=,=, --r;--­
I I ,
-minim um IFR a ltitudes. t he feet within 8 'teet wit hin 5KM Ile e t with in 8 KM j5KM of t he est imated
iminimum he ight of an a ircraft 'KM of the 10f t he e'timated lof th e est imat ed -posit io n
,a bove t he highe st obs t acle over
,high terra in, o r in mount ainous
ia rea s ,ha ll be fo r a n IFR flight:
:e stimate d
;positio n
PO SIt io n
-POSitIo n

105!What i, the o utbound timing in '2 minu tes 30 i1 minute 30 ;1 minute. ;B

!a holding pattern above FL 1407 :se conds. secon ds.
i nswhat does th e abbreviat ion OER ;Olst a nce end 01 ,De pa rture e nd ', Oista nce end of IDe pa rture end 01 runway. ID
___ c:~:mc a n? :rOUle, .:-_ :-_ {;OI ro ute"'_ :-_ {irUnWay" ;;;;;;<::};;;;;;;;-;;;;;;;;;<b;;;=:::~=-
_ _ _ '."':
7§~ i-;""ay e dge lights sha ll be : :f ixe d s how in~ _ !Fixe d'showinl:, i Fi~;d '~~ow ing ]Fla shing.showini! blue. ' :A
Question s
Que stion ct_'
'blue. green. ye llow.
108 he STOPWAY is a defined ,An a ircraft An aircraft can (' landing 'A la nding aircraft can be

::~ ~~: : ~ ~ ~ ; ::~ :~ ~hr: ~ r o u n d

;t a king-off o r be sto pped in aircraft can be :st oppe d only in
:la nding can be :t he case of on 'sto ppe d if emergency,
-a valleble prepared as a SUitable :, to ppe d
",,,,a where;
ia ba ndone d
jta ke­
:ove rco ming the
'e nd of runway.
,oft .
,'An aircraft can
be stopped in
t he ca", of an
a bandoned
t ake -off.
109 lln a precision app roac h (ILS), ,Half a 'ca le One sca le ,A quarter of jOne ond a holf of sca le A
lo bsta cle cle ara nce surfaces deflect ion deflect ion. sca le cenececo. deflect ion
assume t ha t the pilot do e ' not
no rma ll y deviate from the
centre line, after be ing
,e sta bli, hed on t rack, mo re t han,
the weather Standa rd rate Prescnbed by th e aircraft B
'pe rm it s it urn, if not io pe rat ions.
:ot he rw lSe
iinst ruct e d by
0.8%. ,3 ,3%, '2.S%. '0

60 m,nutes ,n excess of the A

:e st imat ed ti me of
'd e pa rtu re .

114 !which of the following correcti¥l0ist ress 770GOist re « 7S00~0;>'

>' ''''';;;;C. -f,I'o'';><""'~
Hijacki ng » 77oo .
lists specia l purpose codes that IHijacking 7600. Hijacking 7700 . Hijacking 7SOO. 7SOO. Commun icat ion
a re to be used In conjunction ICo mm unicat io n 'Comm unicat io n :Comm unicat io n fa;lure 7600
with Secondary Surve illanc e
Ra da r (SSR)?
failu re 7SOO,
fa ilure 7600 .
fa ilure 7700 .
116 1The a ir traffic control unit ha, IThe radar ~ h e pilot does ~ h e a i rc r~ft is t o sil ion rep<:l rts may be !A
.."h_.', ~""_'_'"'_ity ,'_" ,__
{" po rte d 'rada r cont act '"w inot have to
h' _ i"",,",,-",_ _,: s~
u bj ect to ,o m itte.,o '-- ~I_
Qu e stion s

Questio n

does th at mean t o t he pilot? 'a ircra ft has follow up the positive contro l
,o.eo 'positio n of the
,e sta blishe d ;aircraft
117 Which of the fo llOW ing flight s ,:V IP (Head of iEme rge ncy Milit ary aircraft c
ha ' th e gre atest pr iority t o land ' tatel a ircraft
iSk k pe r",n

:ne ed lng
:imme diat e

,. .. i~::~~~~ n - _.­ -
118 fT he rada r ,epa rat io n minimu m
imay be reduced b ut not be low,
120 :You have rece ive d ho lding
13.0 NM. IS O NM

IEit he r "off set " 'Off set .

2.0 NM

Pa ra lle l.
( S NM.

Direct .
inst ruct io ns for a rad io fi• . The o r "par a lle l".
'publishe d ho lding procedure is:
'a ll turns to t he right, 1 m inute
:out bo und, inbound MC05 2".
IYOUare a pproaching th e fix on
an inbo und Magnet ic Track
1232 >.5e leo;t the ava ilable entry
p rocedu re .
121 lCruiSing tc vcnra dur ing cru ise IWhe n QNH is jo nlv in a irspa ce ,ifthe obstacle ;Abo ve the tra nsit ion o
Iw ith in cont rolled a irsp ace sh all Ihighe r t han t he ,cla ss A f le ara nce is lalt it ude whe n app licable
be given as flight leve l (FL) sta ndard mo re th a n 2000
,pre ssure 10 13 :fee t
I , Pa
!h I
122 r hO is responsib le for an ATC he ATe. IThe air traffic 0 ~~ e pilot in he a ircraft o perator. C
clearance t o be safe in re spe ct service report ing comma nd.
to t e rrai n clea ra nce ? :,o ffice w hen
accepting t he
,f light plan.
123 :A n a ircraft inte rce pte d bV 1121.5 MHz· 121.5 MHz ­ '24 3 MHz - 125.5 1121.5 MHz- 243 MHz I,
[a not he r a ircraft sho ll 125.5 MHz 28 2.8 MHz M«
~ im m ed i ate lv atte mp t to
, a blish rad io co mmu nica tio n
,wit h the inte rce pt ing a ircraft on
,t he fo llow ing freq ue ncie s:
,Rocking the Execu tmg a ,R o C ~ lng wing' tWice and c
'Wings a nd 'climbing turn of I::~S-r~~g in front o f the
:flashing " " ' -__ ~O deg re es or
:uestion_No Question
Questio n s

Answe ,_ ,

Answe, 0
Answ e'_A Answ...._C - M~
]Comm unicate 10 Ihe inte rce pted dock -wise naviga tion al
more with OlJI
'a ircra ft · YOU MAY PRQCH O" ~ 'p att e rn. light s,
cro ssing the line
o f Ilighl 01 the
interce pte d
'a ircraft,
12S •CI" a rwav• ,s defined

rect angula r ar ea e"a blis h.ed to:


.= = :;----1<

130 ,If in an insl rume nt de pa rtu re

'procetl ure t he tr ack to be
If ollowed by t he aeroplane is
IPublis he d, th e pilot is expected,

132 ;A n aircraft iH o nsidered to be r/- 25-0 It ottbeii-

SOD ft of the 1+/ - 300 II of the t- 200 ft 01the a ls igned c

m'jinta"lin g its aSSIgne d leve l as ,a ssigned leveL a ssigned I" ve l. :a, , <gned leve l.
ng as t he SSR mode C derived
e l informal ion indICa ted Ihat
itu Wil h,n;
_ _ _ 133 ATIS broadcast me ssages below 9OOcm
"---,,bce low 2 000 m
,be low 1 SOO m (S.OOO ft) c
~ -­

:uest io n_No Question Answer_A Answer_8 Answer_C Answer - o

ico nta ining depa rture a nd arrival '(3 .000 ft) or
infor mation s hou ld include be low the
:(600 [t) or below :
jt he highest
r be low t he highest
Imlllim um se cto r a ltit ude,
~ I o u d cover, when the clo uds highe st m inimum se ctor whichever is th e greater
la re : Imlnimum , e cto r !a ltit ude,
'a ltitu de, Iw hiche ve r is t he
;whicheVN ;Sth e 19reat e r
greate r
135 ,, he MSA, which must be 15 NM 30N M 25 NM '10 NM C
,e st oblis he d a roun d a nav igat ion
Ifa cility, is in gene ra l valid wit hin
a sec to r of:
B 6 As ignal man w ill as k t he pilot to IAfms dow n , :Cross ing a rms ,Horizonta lly ,Ra ise a rm and han d, wit h .o
a pply parking brakes by the
follOW ing 5tgnals:
pa lms faci ng

,a rms from

e Jcten ded
'po sit ion
,'e xte nded a bove ,moving his
"nwa rds, mo ving hIS hea d
iha nds, finge r>
,e xte nded, palms
row'" ,moo '
finge rs e . te nde d,
Iho rlZo nta llYIn fro nt of
'body , th e n clench fist

~~~C,C3'i'D u r i n g an iF'il- flight ~VMC· i n

;Inwa rds.
:La nd at t he Is'e le ct A7600 'De scend to the ;La nd at the nea rest ,
Ico nt rolle d ai r>pace yo u Inea re st suitab le :a nd co nt inue flight le ve l isuita ble a e rodro me and
le xpe r;e nce a tw o-way radio aerod rome ;acco rdlllll: 'subm itte d fo r ",f o rm ATC
lcc mmuntcauc n failu'e . You wi ll ,'ma inta ining :curre
, nt flight :that po rtion of
IVMC and info rm p lan to ,flight
138 ;What is t he outbo und t iming in
IATC 'destination I
130 seco nd, 11 minute c
la holding pattern up to FL 1407 I
- - - C,C,C,9 IDUring a'~' instr ume~ t approach, 50 m (164 It) '90 m (295 It) "

Ifollowe d by a m issed a pproach,

jt he mintmum o b, tade

id e a ra nce (MOC) in the

linte rmed iate phase of this

_ _ _7:~imi s s ed appfOac h is :
140 ~he pe rsa n w ho hasfi na l ~he aircraft ""lThe a irliner he commander he ATC co ntro ller if the C
a ut hOrity a , to t he dlsposltio n of 'Iowner o pe rat or a ircraft is flying in a


!a n a ircraft during flight ti me is: I 'co ntrolled

141 jlf visual re fe re nce i~ lost whIle
;circling to la nd fro m a n
'instr ume nt approac h, it i,

la nd ing run way. MAP.

'FAF. 'Flnai mIssed approach

'e xpecte d t hat the p ilot will

r Questions
~ue s li o,,_ No Question Answ''''_A Answer_B Answe,_C Answer ~D
towa rds the : I I -L I
142 StandMd a Irway hold ing pattern RIght ha nd t urn s ,Right hand t urns l e ft hand t urns I ILeft hand turns f 1.5


be lo w 14 000 ft' / 1 minute V1.S minu tes '1 m inute m;nute, out bound
- - - CCC l occccccc~cccc=====C"O;",o, " o'.o,",,'c= ~ o u t b o u n d _ _ -j!;~rans
14 3 1The p ilot of a departing a ircraft ~ r" ns it io n leve ilTh~ ',,,vel
"'",O ,,:­ __,I;::==cc==
i t ion TranSit ion laye r.
,flying unde r IFR ,ha ll cha nge t he is pe clhe d by ,alt it ude.
'ii lt ,m et ", sett ing from QN H t o IATC
'sta nda rd setti ng 10 13 ,25 hPa
'w he n paSSing :
144 ~ran S il ion from a ltitu de to -i i ig~t tra nsiiio
'oc-- tionly
==- at - - - t ==- - - - C=======-
at t ra nsit ion alt itude - -+;;-­
level, and vice·vcrsa is done : 'level during ,t ra ns it Io n :during climb a nd tran s it ion
Id imb and alt itude. Ile ve l during descent.
t ransit ion
a lt it ude d uring
de sce nt.
You are to
Iconta ct t he ass ume
cent re a t t he
'ne xt re port ing
'po int .
'Ialt itu de a bove
mean sea leve l

1'"""" '0.0
150 Re fe r to the follow ing TAF fo r 1000 FT. ,1500 m . '5000 FT. 1500 FT.
ur ich.lSZH 06 10 19

200 1SG30 KT 9999 -RA 5C1050

BKN080 TEMPO 23012 KT 6000 ·


l S18 230 20G35KT 4000 RA

IOVCOlO= The low est clo ud base

fo recast at ETA Zurich (1200

,UTe) is;

, ! i i i i
151 ,o u" ng t he fo rmatio n of "me Ice :s lowly an d do .slow ly a nd ,rap,dly and ,rap,d ly an d do no t sp rea d ,D
lin flight , water drop le ts fre e l e !not s pread ou t !spre ad out_ _ -{,!prea d ou t ,o ut I
lS2 ~ e temperature a t is :----t
Fi"u o l' +3~C " ----+O·C-·--­ 3·C -<- 7· C
What w ill the te m pe rature I
,be at Fl SO if t he ICAO st a nda rd _ _~ ..L L
'!leSlion . Quest ion Answe'_A Answer_B Answet_C Answef_D
" Mw'
:Iapse rate is appli ed?
153I he QNH" ""wilD the QFE If -
I - -~

- -
T actual ~ T
st andard

1S4 'f reezing rai n occur s when ice pellet s me lt = ===- 1,

, nstant wilh

___ ;;;:f",:",c;:,,::::::::=::::::=;-,I~,~o=~,=,=,"_e_'_+.c:c:;;
, =_ _ +.r tralOSPhere.
25 rn/wt

:::::::::;;--- -I;"=m::::""=,;--- - -\,,: - * Strat us.

10 NM ,

Rainfa IlC
,- - - \,'"C,o
" "O""CO=COld~hrOUR h melting~hroUgh melting of ice

,::~h alaver '1~::eUI:~ and the"l'Ofsll'e l gra,ns ;cryst als L
:are below O"C
166 Al tost ratus clOl.>lh areC,C,=,~
=d -~h igh -leve l clouds'"onVfitive _ m edium l eve,i-=;
, ,;o;;-";;"';
'' 'k"''d


Q u est io n s
~es ti on _N o Questio n Answer_A Answer_B Answe r_C Answer_D "-'

167 Wh ich 01 t he fo llowing
I, .clouds douds
, i '­
phe no mena sho uld be
:de scribed a s p recipitatio n at th e
,t ime they a re o bserved?
nO 'An a ircraft lands at an a irport 1375 FT. '1200 FT. 1105 FT. 1280 FT. "
{airpo rt e levat ion 1240 FT, QNH
,100 8 hPa ). The alt imete r i' set
t o 1013 h Pa. The a lt imete r will
:indicat e , I , ,
I 72 'How doe s temp er ature vary Incre ase s ,At first it Re mains 'De cre a se s o
:w it h incre a sing a lmude in t he iincre ase s a nd ( o n' t a nt
IICAO standa rd J tmosphe re ,highe r u p it
jbe low th e t ro P.?E.~_u., e ' ;decre a se s
173 :For a given airlield t he QFf is
~ 8 0 hPa J nd theQN H is 1000
t r a , The approximate e levat ion
1100 me tr es '160 ;;:;(, tre s ;600 metres
I'" m"~,
of t he airfield is
, , , ,
" ' IWhat t ype of front / O,c luSlon IWJ rm ,Cold fro nt . ,Wa rm fro nt. iCOld ocdus lon , jB
_ _ _ ~=i"UsUa I IY mov e s the fa , t e't? _ _~,:"ocdu' ion _-;C,--- I--;:;:-;:;;;::;;:;:-';CC:;:;C--;::;c--\;cc;;c::::;:;::;-;:;cc;c;;;;;c1
176 !viihi~h~ihe fo l lowi ~g----- 'It can on ly be ,ii-ca n be higher It ca n be used ,It can be used to estimate A
state ments is t rue of the dew e ocertc. or it han the to gether with ,t he a ir mass 's rel ative
po int of a n a ir mass? lowe r, t han t he ,t e mpe rat ure of ,t he a ir pressure ,humidity eve n if the a ir
'te mper at ure of t he air mass ,to estimate the ,te mpe rat ure is un known
t he a ir ma ss ,a ir mass's
re lat ive
,humid ity
pressu re vertical current s
re ma ins 'a re stro nges t
'co nst ant

180What s urface we a ther is iNS w ith hundersto rms . r

Questions ••
j Corn
:oestion_No Question Answer_A Answer_ B Answl'f_C AnSWfl_D "-'
I ssc ctat ed with a Slationary
Ihigh pll!ssure region ove r la nd
cont inuous ra in. snow sllowe" .
10',""'ow " II
r I ,
. the winte r?
181 ,
ich of t he followin cloud Cumulo nim ,,", irr Altocumulus ,Alto stra tus
OS! '"

iNa clear
rela tio nship
ie xists,

.,---- - (E Ie

,ca use air rame ICIng .

.. r:~:::;~='~~v: :ssam e ! :~~~atl: el W hen the Whe n the

'a ltimete r has no 'a lt ime te r Sl"lIing
At standard tempe rature. 0
alue a s de nsity a lt itude? Ite m perature is lpositio n e rror. (S
1011.2 hPa.

188which 01t he fo llOWi ng weat her 51GMH.

:re porh is a warn ing of
'co nd itions that cou ld be
Ipote nb ally ha l ardous to aircraft
lin flight ?
192 11he Iowe , t assumed 2 73"C 44.r c 100"C 56.S"C 0
;te mperat ure in t he
International Sta ndar d
Atmo. phe re (ISA] is :
193 WhICh of t he lo llo w,ng weat he r
- OOOOOKT 0100 FG WOOl ,
Ire po rts could be, in accordance i11/11 QI02S 8EC MG OSOO
w;lh t he regulatiOIl!>,
abbr eviated to "CAVOK"?

_ _ L

Q u esuc,
"s Com
:ues1Ion_ No Queslion Answ e' _A Answ er_B Answer
-' An.we,_ 0 "-'
196 Cefe, to t ile fo llowIng TAf

I B~= ~~~~~ol::~~~124

,OSOO fG WOOl What doe s the

:abbr ev;at io n ' PRmnO' me-an?
197 EHAM 281601140 10KT 6000 · 'l 4ll" / l O kt
,RA m 025 BECMG 16 18
~ E M PO 1823 3000 RA BKNOOS
IOVCO I O BECMG 230 1 2S020 KT
;aoooNSW BKN02 0· ETA 2100
lUTe .at [HAM . What surface
,WInd is fo reca st ?
198 How does moderateI"'''''
' '"''''''''*=====-'~===;-;=='''::::::==--';;:=======:---';
Large, abfUpt
~cha n ges in
and wm u .. c
COntln""d flIght ,R" pid l>at
a ffect an aircraft? ,
altitude or
'in t his
en ....ronment
t hyth mic bumpiness is
ex perienced w lthou!
'a tt itude Daur :w ill re s ult in appr«iable chan ges In
,but the air<:raft ,struct ural
may only be o ut 'dam age .

'o f «>nlrol

mome nta ril y.

199 1" whkh of t hese cloud ty~ NO; cu

:can icing be yirtua lly ruled o ut ? I I
200 ,An aircraft is flying al FL 80. The 8 350 FT. :saoo FT.
loca l Q NH is 1000 hPa .
IAfler the seccee a ltimele r ha s I
l>een adj us l e d 10 Ih... local QNH,
Ilhe . ...ading will be
aJl'PfOxlMal e l
' . ..
201 ,Wil h whal type of ~ Ioud is " Dr <U st <B B
precip it at ion mo st co mmonly "
esso crate d? I I I,
202 In wh ICh ZOn<' 0 1a tet sueam IS Aooul 12000 FT ~he co ld air SId... of t he D
,t h... , trong... st CAT to be 'above the COn!. c ore.
'expecle<l ?
203" Which 0 1 th ... follow ing
I I Ic
~l atemcn ts is an int e rpreta t io n
Iof th e SlGMET? 51GMET VAl iD
112 1420/1 2 18 20 e mbed IS obs
_ _ __ --'a
;:',':.:" ,, i n ~ p,3rt 01 3th' ''''i lir I
Q ue s,.Io ns


Answe r_A "-"

:uMt iOfl_No Quest io n AnswecB Answe r
-' Answe1_0

'move / intSI nc ~ ,:10 n" should

e ast 01Alh en'
be inte nsity, but
,la re stationary
,'' '
t huoo.:.rstorm
Iby 18 W UTe ,above the lone is moving
we st....n p;lrt of ;e a, t . Intensily is

-- 204 Re fe r to the follow,ng TAF for


6 km.

Ihe Athens FI R " o nsta nt

6 NM.
4km ,

10 km, A
Zurich. LSZH 2610 19

'20018G30 KT 9999 -RA scroso

'IBKN080 TE MPO 23012KT 6000



'1518 2302OG35 KT 4000 RA

:OVCOlOa The lo we st visibility

fo re cas t at ETA Zurich 1430 UTe


20S Refer 10 t he following TAF. ,more than 10 ,not le ss than 1.5 'a maximum 5 a minimu m 011.5 km and 8
'IEGBB 26 181 Z 280 15G25K1 9999 'km
km buI co uld be km. 'amaximum of 5 km,
:in e. cess of 10
;29018G35K1 5000 SHRASN


11821 1500 T5GR BKNOO8CB

:8f CMG 2124 26010 KT From tl>e

~AF a bove you can assume t l'lat

visibility at 2055Z a t (EGBB) will

206 t a;r we atl>er cumulus oft en is 'a high risk of turbule nce at poor "lSlb,llty at ,s moo th livIng conditions
an indication of ,t hunde rsto rms la nd be low the ( urlace below tl>ecloud leve l

207 What does the abbreviation
j ,Not signe d by jcJoud level= -,;=
,Na signilica nt
= ,-_ l=
No report
= = = :;-_

No weathe r related
~nO Slg. me an? ' ~ ;teo rolog~Ckan g"s - Jrece ivcd rPro ble ms

' 08 What is the meanong of the 5 . 7 oklas II - 4 oktas 3 . 4 oktas 1 • 2 o ktas

- - --0;; ~a
I bb rev lat lOn - 5Cr? -J .L
209 R e l al ~ hum idity de pe nds o n moIst ure ,I{'mperat ure of moist ure moiSlur e con te nt and
~c on ten t of the
'a ir o nly Itl\(> air only 'c o nte nt and
~e mpe ralUre of I
'pr" ssur" of the air

- - -,,;;1;;:;;;0;;;;;;:;::;;-;;;;:0;"':::"'- l ~he air

210 [Dur ing th e dimb a fter take-off, lit is n ot possible 'It will decre ase 'It will Increase "I t will rem ain th e sam e
t he alt ime te r settIng is adju sted 0 gl"e a L l
I the tra nsitIOna lt Itude. If t he f""nitlVe
local QNH is 1023 hPa, what WIll answe r
Qu esti ons

:u Mt l on~No Quest ion Answ er_A Answer_8 Answ e r_C Answer_O

ct_ ,

Iha pp e n t o th e a ltime te r reading I

,during the re se tt ing proce du re ? i I
an Wit h wha t ty pe of clo uds a re
Cum ulonimbus_ Str atocumu lus_ Ni mbos t ratus . t rat us. ,
showers mo st like ly as, oci ate d? I , I I
212 ILFB D 1524 26015KT 99 99 SHR A ,Cont Inuo u ,LIght dnu le a nd Mod e rat e sno w ,He avy ra in showers
IiBKN0 20 TEMPO 1620 mode rate fa In ,howe rs
j260 20G30KT 8000 +SHRA
11800 UTe. Wha t ty pe of
prec ipit at ion is fore cast on the
_ _ _ -: :~ p r ':.~~'_
_ tO_~~ D"" ~~~~_+~~~~_ _+C"cc",~_ _l-cc~~~_~"~~=~~~~---+c-
213 ,What doe s the te rm SIGMET
briella nd ing ,
a ~oreca st, issu ed : : ::~i~g~; S
:A SIGM ET rs a flIght
by t he

i :~:~:;~il ~~~~:i~ t ;on

foreca st a dded , da ngero us
;t o t he actua l me teo rological
'cond itio ns
Iw"," em~"

f t MSLpre ssure f t MSLt e mpe ra tur e is
!te mpe rat ure is iis 1013 ,25 h Pa i15"C and pre ssu re is
'l S·C a nd the ja nd t he 1013.25hPa
,decrease in 'de crea se of
,te mpe rat ure ,te mpe ratu re
Wit h he;ght is w ith heig ht is
---=;!;;;;:c;C;========C;; Ii-c- -- l()()­","m'-+c"=-"","'-~c"""'-""'"'--+=
1 17What ty pe of clo ud Can prod uce T ra
11·c pe r 100 m
Illa ll showers?
1cs I
218 11nw hich of the follow ing METAR '1850Z 21OO3KT
Ire ports, is t he pro ba bility 01log 800 0 Se T250
,fo rmat io n in t he co m ing night 112/1008 Q102 8
t he highe st? 'NOSIG =
I ,

220 :How are high level ITh ro ugh w ate r hro ugh a :Onlv throu gh "n con d it ions of low
con de nsat ion tr ai l' for med t ha t va po ur re lea sed ,'de crea se in 'u nburnt fuel in hum id ity, through th e
ar e to be fou nd occasional ly during fuel pre ssu re , a nd :t he e . haust 'pa rt icle s of soot contained
;be hind jet a ircraft ' 'co mbust ion ,t he essocrared gase s in the e xhaust gase s
:"diabat ic drop in ;
,te mpe rat ure at
,'the w ing. t ips
,w hlle flymg __L L -'__
Quest io ns
~u"""ion_No Ques t ion Answer_A Answl!r_B An.wer_C An.w...._O "-'

221 TAF lSZH 250716 OOOOOKT 0100 Meteoro log ICa l
FG WOOl BECMG 0810 0800 visibihly 6
rela tively warm
but humid a ir
M e teo rologICal
visibility 2,5
,Met e o<ologil:a l IMe te oro lo g,cal VISIbIlIty
v,slb,lIly 800 IBOO me tres, vertical

Wool BECMG 1012 B OOSKT kilometre s, 'kilome tre s, metres, wind iviSibilllY200 fee t, calm
2 500 BKNOO5 TE MPO 1316 6OOO 'cloud base SOO ~Io ud base 500 from 230' , clo ud
SCT007 = Which of t bese t e e t, wind ;tee t. wind speed base sao feet
Ista te me nt s best desc"bes the I, spe ed 5 knots S knots
Iwea t her that u ln be e xpe<;te d a t
~ 12 00 UTC
221 The maximum amo unt of wate r j" "" ,~~,:,"~
;;;,;;;" ,:'~",
~ ",,,,~:;--~-j>"' " "."":;
~ " f',':;---I;
.. " .:w:''' ',"',------~:c--
~a POu r that the a i, ca n coma in I 'hum idity Ja ir
_ _ _-oc!;d,.,~
""',',n th e
224 W hich 01the fo lloWi ng
Seve re
I ecce",,.,
Mode rate to Mode rate to ~one of moderate to
I ' " , ' , J
iSla te me nt. IS a n inle rpretal ,on Itu rbule nce 'slro ng clear air ' e ve re c1..,a r aor ,\.eYere t urbule nce moving
'of the SIG MH ? lSAW lo b•..,rved below tu rbule nce of t urbu le nce to be ,t owa rds the a re a north of
~WI TZERLAN0 0307 SIGMH 2 :Fl 260 North o f 'co nst ant e . pe<:le d north 'the Alps, Inte nsily
,Vsue 0 30700/031100 LSSW ,t he Alps. Pilot s ,inle n5ity t o be ~' the Alps. lincre a sing, Pilots advi\.ed
, I ' '
mod to,;ev cat fcsI nort h of a lps advised tc cecss ie , peel ed nort h Inl ensity -tc cross t hiS area above fL
bIn fl 260 a nd II 380 / stnt / inlS' this .ne a abov e :of Ihe Alps in<;re asing. 1260
'1­ fL 380 I
Danger zone

, " ,""'.
f "=-O
f,'.-.C I
',--­.,­ ; S=,C="--=--'

o " '-~' " :""C.-"C"=",,.--,c,C

"­ li.iQuid
be tween Fl 260
'a nd FL 380
dlrect tc
[Solid d ir" ct 10 va pour
slate is known a s liquid sohd vapour
iublimat ion? I I !
226 iW!lat does t he te rm METAR ~ MHARis a 'A METAR is a IA METAR f MH ARis a wamingol
.flight forecast, la nding fore<aSl
' ISignifres t he id a ngero us meteoro logical
,ISsue d by the ,:a dd",d to the 'actua
, l ",e athe r ICOM,lions within a FIR.
meteo rological ...ctuar wea ther re port a t an
iSlat io n severa l 're port as a brief a er odro me and
it;me s daily ,Prog nostic .is ge ne rally
( e POrt . :issued in ha lf·
,h ourly inte<Vals.
- -- m;which o f the following wea t he r FS8 24008
-VR80 2 Ki 'LSGG 22 006KiILSZ 'B28Dii KT '9m;;--~
Ir",ports could be, In accorda nce ,9999 scroso :9000 BKN080 9999 BKN090 :OVClOO 16/ 12 0 1012
"" th t he reg ulat ions, 118/ 11 01017 21/14 0 1022 ,17/ 15 QJoo8 ,BECMG SOOll ~
'.abbre viate d to "CAVO""? (MSA r ERA NOSIG · NOSlG ~ { ERA NOS IG ~
:above groun d : lSZB 10000 FT, J
.llSZH 8000 FT, LSGG 12000 ~ ~ _
Out!'St ion

6 -8otus. 8 om •. o
The runway win o
be ­

,water vapour ;, ,
re lat ive 'te mpe ratu re and clew
prese nt. hum idity point a re nC ilrty eq w l.
I :re a( hc, 98%.
'FL no
'FL 130

" OO C

10 kt

~km a nd 1-5 ,4 km and 30-40 minutes
)3'>Ol 040121CT B'>Ol21~ 9':l99 'o
3000 0vc012 SCT040C8SCT100 26/18 I
04/03 Q1022 Q I016 TEMPO 2401SGJO


';1'1 mMf--t;otitu0::i6 in unstable atrnos.phert':

!~ of l
risk of orographic

mountain wave s thuf\d@rstorms
242 EHAM 281601 140100 6000 ­ 250 FT >00 m soo rr .>00 rr

201SG2 5 l(f SCT008 BKNOB
EMPO 1823 3000 RA BKN0Q5
I VeOlO BEC MG 2301 250201CT
_ _ _-'18~ NSW BKN020 = ETA 210?' J .L --' .L 'JL

Qu e sti on1
'ue1tOon_No Que stion
An1wer_A An1We r_ B An1W«_C Answe r_D "-'


,UTCa t EHAM Wha t is t he
lowest cloud base fo re cast for
~rriv al?
'" ~':":::~~~~~;~ I
e te mperat ure a t 10C100 FT in -35· C '· 5'C
. ~.;.-,

244 Which 01 th e followi



eo I,

247 W hat pre ssur e is defined as :The press ure ~he pre11ure ~ h e preS1ure at rn>"
pre ssure of t he c
!aFE? re duce d to sea ,reduced to 1<>a l ' ie 'd elevatioo 'a lt,met er
, ve l usinK ,1"",,1using ISA
lactua l t e mpe r31Ule1
!Ie mperat ures \ ,,-~-~~\c"''""---~~=~--!o
249 ;Which of the fo llowinK ' Me t eo r~ ~i: i ~~ 1 ;Me teo rologiul Me teorological ,RVRfor ru nway 14 800 ,0
Istate me nt' " an I nterpre t ~ t lOO 'VISIbilIty 200 y isibil,ty 200 'visibility fo r 'me tre s, ve rtical vi, ibility
Iof the METAR ? OOOOO KT 0200 :m e t res, RVR for feet, RVR for runway 14 800 ;100 feet, calm,
;R14/ 0800U R16!P1SOOU FI FG I'unway 16 1500 runway 16 mo re ,me tre s, fot: w'th me tec relcgical Visibility
rvvoo1 m0 3!m03 Q I022 BECMG ,met re" than 1500 ,hoar Ir01t, RVR limprovlng to 800 me tres in
(1800 : ,t e mpe ra ture - Ime t re1, vert ical ,fo r runwa y 16 ;t he ne><t 2 ho u~

13'C, vertICal visibility 100 m~ than 1500
!visibility 100 f e et. fog with me tre s
!me tre s hoa r frost I .'
" Corr,
~ti on_No Que st io n Answe'_A Answer_B An S \/ll '~"_C Answe'_D "-'
252 IDu" " g t he hfe cyde of iI AnvIl sl ilge . Mature slilge e
,t hundersto rm, w hich stage is
'cha rild e rit ed predo mina ntly by
do wndrafts?
253 In which of t he fo llo wing 1850 OOOOOKT 9999 '22004 KT 6000 · RB02KT 2500 SCTI10 ,

F e METAR reports, is Ihe ,SCT300 21/01 RASCTOll 14{ MOS 010]5 NOSlG ~

: ~~~;~~~~4=
Ipro b<l bility of fog formiluon, in 10 1032 NOSIG .
___" .f-he com ln~ " igllt, the hIghest?
2551How long from the time 01 1 hour.
'ObSI'NMion is iI TRE ND in a
250An altimeter ad justed 10 IOU .3006FT,
hPa ind icates an alt itude of
3600 FT , Should I his illtimet...
;be adjusted to the local QNH
va lue 01 991 hPiI, the altl lude
iindiCil l ed WQ\lld be
jSO" a .ygen, 40 21" cwgen, 78
'" "itrog...., and [% nit rogen, il nd
Ihe r<'St Olher jl he re,1 other
," ni trogen. and
lhe re st
i10 " oxyg...., 89 ,8 8 " o xygen, 9 % nitrogen,
0,"" ,,,=
gas$('s -ga sse s

2S9 [The RVR , as re po rted in a highest va lue of lowesl val.....o f val..... 'a ve rage val"" of the A-, 6- 'c
,METAR, is always th e 'Ihe A-, B- a nd C­ the A_, 8- an d c - 're pre se ntat ive !and ( -posi tion i
IPQ Sit ion posi tion :ol l he


I n the TAF for Ochli, d uring the

I'>() minutes.
l W minut e s.
ito uchdown tOrte
:] 0 minules.
20 min ul es,

ummer, 104" t he time of your

a nding you note: TEMPO TS.
~Ilat ist he ma ximu m limt' this
d ele riorat ion in weathl>r can
.. in anyo
.. ne instaMe ?
261 Re fer 10 the following TAf
'e xtract: BE(MG 1821 2000
ertica l v;sibilily Vertical visibilityR VR le ss tha n
100 fT, 100 m. ''''' ,feale r than 100 m a


fG WOOl What does tbe

.abbrev Iation ' WOO I" me an?
262 You are flying et FL130, and
~ u r true alt itude is 120Cl0fT.
Wha l is Inc temperalure
c evial ion from Illal ollhe
Q ues t!Ion s

~e s tion_No Qua t ,on Answer_ A Answ ."_B Answer_C Answe r_D
fta ndard atmosphere "t FL 130
i(QNH 10 U , 2 hPa) 1
263 ,In order 10 caicuratc QFE from Elevation and :Elellat ion o f thE> , em per a ture at Elevation o r th e aIrfie ld
,t he airf ield, 'a nd the tempera tu re at

Ib NH, which of t he following
'muS! be koown ?
t em pe rature at
'a irfie ld .

a ',
p"""" '~
,t he a irfie ld.

=:,,;;- ' lr$o:::;;;--C' ,,___-----J;A

_ __
26$ What is t he
'o f a 25-kno t wind, e xpresse d in

~,:,' ,i IOo m",iol~nl

etres pe
'---""e'5 kmj h

C""'~'---c-- -,,;:;""'--',.;;;,-----+."'..o---~"'c;C;C;:;c -----~

L km/h
1 kmj h

266 'The we ather report 1> SPEC!. MH All '9 hour TAF '0
:EO OM 241322 VRB03KT 1500 I
OVC004 BEC MG 1517
~ K T 0 5 00 FG w002 TEM I'OI
.. _­
0400 FG a :
267 iWhiCh one of the follow ,ng Pitch angle . Vert ical speed. Grounds peed . Iind icat ed airspeed.


,magnitude-. w,ll be the f" Slto

f ha nge its liar..., when
penetrating a windshca r ?
269 p ne of tl>e ma in charactef1SlIcs iO'curs only at a fa n O«ur at any lea n oc cur a t a ny ,o ccurs on ly at a low c
lOf windsh ear is t hat lt : 'low altit ude ( ,a ltit llde and o nly alt itud e In bo th alt ,tude (2000 ft) and
I2000 ft) and )n Ihe horil onta l ,t he ve rt ical a nd 'ne lle r in the ve rt ical plane
'ne ve r '1'1 the 'pla oe
:ho ril on ta l plane I
;t'oorilOot al
---'2"'oj" "-.-,~"-.-
,--- ,- " ,C,,,C-,.--c
- m,.---i,".',',""~o f t h e
hyd ro pla niog de pe nd s prima rily st aoding water
OfI the : 'o n the runway

la ircraft 's we ight , 's tre ngt h of the

'headw ind ,
:oo:," :'; '""':C""'-;'""' - -"A ­
'speed ,
I Ic
271 ,II airworthiness docume nu do 10%, '5"'. '15%, '20%.
,not shown any addit iona l
k orre et io n facto r for [;....ding
Ipe rfo rma nce determination on
!a wet runwa y, the landi ng

istance sha ll be Increa sed by:

itho ut w ind, t he t ip vc etces
" re ated by an a irpla ne a t take­
separate to t he lse pa rate on
le ft s ide .
,sta gnate on the !s<>parate to th e right sIde ,
)each side of the [!runw a y.
I I'
'o ff: ) run way. ..

,Ifro m lake off to I;WhIle at'7"-- nly durIng lake ,p"'C7-=""'---=-~*-

274 ,F light crew members on the

L 1 their oly du ring take off a nd "

Ifllght d eck shall kee pthe lf la nd l"@; stat iOn. 'o ff a nd landong' 'Ila nd ing and Whe nl'\ler
SafelYbelt fa ste ned. ~ :0e.:e ssary bv.1he
,'c omma nde r In t he interest
I _ "'-
.o f w fe lY ·
Q u est io ns

~ue st i on_N o Question Answe r_A Answer_8 Answe r_C Answer_D


0 , "e
27S :For the purpose of wa ke i3.7 km (2 N~l 7.4 km (4 NM) '9.3 km (5 NM) 11.1 km (6 NM) e
!tur buie nce separation, wha t is
It he ICAO minimum ra da r
Ise pa rat ion d IStan ce if a heavy

aeroplane is following directly

,be hond another h



lae roP I~ ne o n the a ppro ach to

it he same ru nwa y ?

276 1~ i P vortice s which a re ,spin up lift destr uctio n lift d rag :C

, nsible fo r wake turbule nce
'appear as soon as the fo llowing
:is established'
277 f n ae roplane s ulfers a n tra n, mlt a ;place t he seat to put On oxygen ,d,sco nnect t he autopIlot c
,,,, plos1ve dec ompression at a n MAY DAY be lts sign to ON Imasks
la ltit ude 0131000 It. What is the 'messa ge
linit ia l a ction by the operat ing .
Icrew ?
278 When the we ath e r conditions 1 hou r o f flight :2 hou r, of Ilight ,2 hou r5 of flight ;1 hou r of flight at cruising ,D
{eq uire a n a lternate aer od rome l" cr uising 'at cruising s pee d :at cruising speed 'speed with a single eng ine
~o be availa b l~ on ta ke-off t he 'speed with two 'wit h single 'wit h two
;Ia tte r sha ll be lo cated . fo r a engines ~eng i ne le ngineS
~won ' e n g i n e a ircraft. at a n
,e quiva le nt distance not
!e xceed ing ,
279 'Wake t urb-,'"' o' ,',CC"', ,c c,,Ch',','h" '"CC,:'wChC,'o' :. -- ­ w'h"'"""h:"':":---!'If.c-cc""cc-~:-:-=:-=c::-c::--*:--
Just befo re ~o i l ow ong a precedong
~p rece d i ng "ircraft h"s just la nding a m uch a ircraft at high speed.
la ircraft has 'per fo rme d a ;Iighte r a ircraft
jbriefly a pplied 'take-off at " Ihas lan de d at
It ake-off t hrust Iciose lYsit uate d ,,t he same .
j U5t prior to pa ra lle l runway ,runway WIth
I' ake oft . 'wit h a light heavy
~rosswi nd .
<~:-CC_f:=;;:c",:-_--!,:,:ossW i n"d,. --+;O""""""'--f-- -------- - lc­
28 1!" bra king act ion 01'0.25
a nd lunre liable
be lOWre porte d on a SNOWTAM ,
jIS: I ('''=-J'OOd

zaz Assuming contam inated runway '114 kt 100 kt 80 kt 1135 kt
condition s, if an aeroplane's
Imain whee l tvre pre ssure is 225

psi" t he a pproximate s peed

'a bove which dynam ic

:hYd ro p la n i n~. m"y ~ in the

Q ues , .Ions
C. ...
~ ues l; o n_N o Question Answ e' _A Answer_8 Answer_C An swer
o "-'
. . ~ " n t of applving is : ,
283,A cate gory I pre cisio n approa ch '.. de<:i sion l'Ieight 00 decisi<;l n ,a dedsion he ight e qua l to o
~equ a l lo at least heigh t
: : ~ ~:~tei~'~ ~
:(( I\T II has at teast 100 ft.
I, ,SOIt.
-t I I
284 jOO( 4444 (I( AO) eSla bl'she S.
it hat wake tu rbulence
IH 6 000 Kg o r
'mo re
Icsst han B6
0000 Kg but mor e
146000 Kg or more

[secaranc n m inima shal' be thao 126 000 Kg
,b ase d on a gro uping 0' a ircraft
into Illree cate goric s

pe s

c<:ording 10 the ma ., mu m

e rt ificat ed ta ke-off ma ss.

,,He avy (HI Category, a ' e all

ai rcraft types of:
286 DlJring a night fiight, an gre e n f1a sh,ng 1\'<1 ste ~ dy hght green steady wh' le st"ady l,ght a
'o bse rve r located in t he co<; kpil, 'light
je-- - - - - ..! light
:seeing an aircraft comi ng fro m
!t he front r !~h t w ill fi rs_~_e .. t h,, ;
287 !The cr iler ia l ak..n into . I( , !o a

consider ation lor class ification

'01 Aero planes by categories is
:the ind;cat e d a irspl:'t'(l at

,t hre , hold (Vat). Coffespond ing

,Ae ro pia ne Calegory whe n Vat is

,fro m 141 kt to 165 kt is

- 2-88 ,~he time of use ful 1 min"te . 15"-;' in,,\e s. '12~c';;ds . :30 seeeo es.
f onsc,QtJSl\('SS in t a o;e of a n
..xplosllle d e co mpr"'~ s iofl at a n
!a ltitude of 40 000 ft is:
289 For tur bo . jet a' rcraft . ,n the ,0 5 (2 xthe 0 .8l1.25 x t he 1° 6 (1 61 othe 10.7 l1 42 x th e act"al c
'flight preparatio n sta8e, t he ;a ct ua l la nd ing lact ua l la nd in g aetualla ndong ,Iand;r>g dist an ce }
and ing d i ~tance at the 'd ista nce ) d ,s t~ n c e ) distance)
$l;heduled d e st in ~ \ i on

:odr ome s hall be less than

availa ble la nd iog dista nce

. "It l pl l ~ d by a fa ctor of :
291 ,A n a irplaoe creates a wa ke flying at h igh us ing a h.igh
_ _ _ ",,,,it urb ule nce when : .speed. e ngine R P,M.
292 jl f the EPR pro be becomes iEqua, to the
f ow re d WIth « e, EPR ~cl ua l .

_ _ _ _"'indica l'o ns will be:

Q vesucns
Co m
:u~stion _No Quen ion Answ~ r _A Ans_ _8 Answer_C Answ"cO "_A
293 for the purpose of wake 3 m ,nute s ,4 m ,nute s 5 m,nutes A
~ ur b u l e n ~ e se paration, what is
~ he min'm um scparancn t,me

th a t is pe rmitted whe n a light
;a lrcra ft is ta king o ff !x-hind a
Ihe avy a;rcralt from an
';nter med,ale part of the same
!runwa y ?
~2 9 6 :Using an o.<'fgen diluter dema nd"T3" '0"00'ftc -­ - +.
""ftc-­ - --l25000 It 8000 ft A
'System. the regulator contro ls
,t he amount of a ir tha t ;s m ixed
with pure o xygen whe n the
F le<:to r is a t t he "norma l"
positio n. At what ap prox,ma te
:a lt it ude will t he regulator supply
,to t he m ask be come pure
loxyg,," o nly?
6OOm(' OOOft( W'm ('OOO ft( 'SOm "500 ft( 1" , m 15°o ftl 8
,no;r.e Climb, t he minimum
he,ght al w hich a power
~ed uetion s hoall !x- al lowed is :
298 iA dass B fore Is a lire 01: :liqUid or jsolid ma terial us"",l1y of
,liq ue fia ble solid rganic nature
299 .The t ime ne ede d for the 10 minutes.
chemica l
' 3 m inute s.
30 seconds. 1 minu te.

d iss ipat ion of a turbulent .... ake
jere at ed by a w i<!e·body aircraft
'd uring ta ke-off Is about ·
'OO~Unng an us proc edure, ,ftlle it lle m iddle ,tile start fonal t he oute r th e FAF ,

information tr ansmitted by the ma rke r. descent point marke r (OM ).
pproprl3te services and '(glide slope
eceived by tile crew cont ains intersection) .
parameters be low the crew's
Iopera honal m inimum s. the
poin t beyond wh i ~h the
approach must not be
icont inue d is:

301 'I:T he ter m decision height {D H} is :a conve ntio nal iil co nventional
used fo r : approa ~ h . approach.
_ ~~~~_I- 1
, •
:ue, j io n_No Qull!'St ion
Ans_ _A An.we,_ , Answ.,,_C Am ....e'_D "-'
nS wl

1 1 I ;~:U~uv re .
3Oi"~ h e wake t urbule nce i. grea ter high weighl a nd h,gh weig ht and lo w _ ighl a nd jlo,*, we ight and high speed
I t.,
---7., when the ,,"craft has a ,low speed ,high speed ~ow .~e~_--.j L
I si a il j ng-S~d
;on "n "lrcra ft on flight on dU<;e$
an IfI(rea:le m the;
304 IThe accum ';lat-oon of sno w or iCe 'rOil rale
va lue ol l h<:> stall ! lJI;k under
'Iangle of attack I

"" ,' he ~nti · ic ing fluid protecting !during strong :w hen th e ,'When the ',w hen the airplane i, into 'A
fll m ca n wear oH and redoce , -, ,,,,,
.'w --" u~ ' a.
... 0 'OlJt, ide temperature of
:the w ind.
Ico nside ra bly the prote ction I resen of the 'te m peratu re i. ~ t>e airpla ne skin

- - ace
,_t ime

otl>e< aircraft
engine. je t
~wa sh .
';;;'" cabin a ltitud e Incre ase . during ;ncreas'.','---
,level flight , the difterenli.'ll
c1o'e,: J

0' . c1<»e to O'C

a tta Ins
"",--- - ',0.',,'.::.=
... o
pre ssure : permitte d
I opera ting limit
: u se ~ because th e
:o xyge n units do not
,:o pe rate under smoke
r o nd itionS.

308 'Dunng an a..cra ft de- IClne!antl­ the (j(,',Clng fluid is apphed A

ing proced ure: ~kollt heat ing and the

309 ,A piece o f eqlJlprnent o n you r
!PUblic t ransport a irp lane fa ils
the JAIl OPS. ,t he flight 't he minimum ,
thoe operation ma nua l's
equipment list. ,icha pte r "Abnorma l a nd
r a n.....1.
'w hIle you a re still parked, The EmergenCy procedures·,
,rl'f('re nce document you US<:' to
deCide Ont he procedure to
ilollow is:
312iAcate gory I pl'ecision app roach 'OOm 'SSO m ''''m 800m ,
;fCATI) is an a pproa ch wh ich
....ay be carri('d o ut with a
~ u nw ay visua l range of al leasl :
3 .:~~ind she a r is: a ve n ical Or a ven ical Or a homonlal ,a ven ica l wir>d velocity
- ,S
Question Answe'_D "-'
'variat ion over a s hort

319 t <>r a given am bient

tem pe ral ure an d IVPE' o f de­
,FreeZing ra in teadysnow FreN ing fog 'f rost

icing fluid used, in wtlich One of
the following types of we ath er
:co nd il io n will t IM> holdover
_ _ _ -,; ,(pro tK tion) lime be s ho rtest ?
321 jThe greatest po s<lb ,I,ty of ee ,The:-:::
::O:' - -
atrcran TThe upper and Only the ootot a nd slal,e
'build-up, wh ile flying uode-r rOn1 a rea s. ,lo wN wine probes.
.,~dng cond itions, occur. on :
322 A piece of e qu i p~nt on yo ur t he min imum
th" JAil OOS.
'publiCtransport airplane fa ils leQuiPmef1t li st.

i; hile la _iing to the hol ding
The refer en ce docum e nt

,follow Is,
323~n Ihe JAR OPS, a run way is ;.
" ,','.~
I. o nsidered damp when:
isurface ,i I is covered
morsuee gilit's it wi th a film of
~ shiny 'w at"" o f less
• •,'m
' ''"
'w ale r of Ie"
i"ppearance. t ha n 3 mm. than 1 mm .
_ _ _ , ', '," IThe cor rect sta tem en t about
'A powder
. = "---'='====-- c
IBurn ing carllo in 'Halon ;s an
Q uesuc ns
:uestion_ No Quest ion An.wer -, An,wer_8 Answer_C Answer_ 0 "-'
"tingu ist!ing Agents o n boa rd ie xlingui' ,is a cargo· ,,e ffe ct ive for mino r nres.
~rOPlar>e'S is: ~u itable fo< ,aerop lane is e xtingUishing
~ x l ingu iSh ing a usually agent for use in
,'coc kpit fiIre , :e xt ingui, he d by aeropla r>e'S ,
;u, ing carbon
;d io xide.

325 ,1 1'1 ca ,e o f a s.crlOus threat based ,you clim b to t he ,y ou go down to <I carry
out an
Io n th e p re se nce of a bomb on ,ma., mum flighl the
level tmergen(y de " e nt to
'level which does~orres l'Ond,ng
!boa rd a presw.ri zed aircraft. an d C :re«h the safety a ltltlJde.
,d lSre,gard ,ng any fuel not need the to th e jndicated
Ic o n" dera tions: se of lca bin a lt itude
'pressuriza tio n. la nd ke e p Ihe
',a irpla ne in a
'clea n
'u ntil the fi....1
lapp r~h ,
~t the end of
the second
ia t he e nd of the
'first 'tage {de ·
~t a ge (anti-icing 'iCing stage].
" tage l.
327 jDuring a n e xplosiOJe ~o war n the ATC ,to co mfort your ,to put On the to se lll>l' tr a nsponde r 10
decomp",ssion al flighl le ve l
? 70 IH 3701. your first act io n
,w ill be :
I "' ~"'" I","" m
... !n oo

328 jThe grea te.1 wa ke tur bulenc e ltarge . heaw. at ,Sma ll , lighl. at Small. light, at La rge. he a\'Y. at low '~d 0
«curs when t he ge nNating ,ma ximum spee d:lo w s ~ d in :maximum speed in dean configuration
'a ircraft is : 'in lull flaps Icle an 'in full fla ps
I __ ~"On
~ fig u rat i on 'c onfigura tio n 'configurat io n
' " ,'In pu blic tr an' POrI. prior 10 'po ssib le ice
:ta ke -oH in icing cond,tions. t he a ccre tions do
·e xterna1
surfaces are f'ee
'e xte rna l ,
'e xte",a ls;;;!ace s a re still
surlaces a'" free :c ove red wit h a nt i·icing
aptain m Ull check thet: inot cause 10 fro m a ny ice from any ice Iluid.

..n eed we ighl la ccre tio n which 'a ccre lion

\and balance ;may Impede the 'g re ater tha n S

' ;~ ~~;;an ce
,'a nd
,ma noe w ra bility. L 1
Questi ons
~t lo n_ N o Quest ion Ans_ _A Answe r_B Answ l!'r_C Answer_D "-'
e xce pt witl'l in
't he limits
:specified by the
,flight manua l.
an An aircraft which exper iences a 80 kt. 40kt . 6Okt . 20kt. A

r 'w'"' of "'''
its way to wards w"", m,of
the ce ntre
m icrobu r~ t may e xpec!. when
" "a

I ro, sing the microbu rst, to face

a wlndshear 01 :
332 -Fo r ae ro p la ne~ h ~v in g a seat ing 60 seco nds

'90 ",wnds 132 seconds
120 seconds
b pacity of mere than 44
Ipasse nge rs, it must be shown by
la" ual demonstr at ion that the
!maximum se ating ca pac ity,
iind ud ing the requi red numbe r

1~: ; : ~:t :el%~r:h ~ aa~ ~:P l a n e

'to the ground in ;
3H ~he velOCIty of so und at t he sea 644 kt 332 kt 661 kt 1059 kt c
level in a sta ndard at mo,phere
334 In the e ve nt of a co nllitt , the
CA5 (Traflic Collisio n
urn left/turn
low terrain I,, ,, "0," Id mb/, ,,, ,,, I,
f vo ida nce Syst e m) wiII give
pnlo rmat lo n such as :
3S "he e rro r In a'ii i mei~7"rea d ings posit ion
, ,ba rometric instrume nt hy~ teres l, effect ,
- ,
ausa d by the vanatro n of the
statlc p r e ~ ~u r e near t he source
,is known as,, ,-,--,-,,,
press ure e rro r,

passes Over t he
IlS inner

I ,
,desce nd. below passe. Overt he oute r
a pre·se t rad io ma rker.
ma rker. 'alt itude .

338 he Ground Proximity Warn ing ,t he ground to

'soIt to 2 SOO It
ithe ground to 1 30 It to S 000 It e
yste m (GPWS) is a system SOO It OO<>h
working atco rding to a height

Ispa n rang ing from:

340)f the static r.o urce of an

ontinue t o gradually under-read rn dicate a height ,A
_ _~~ It imeter beco mes blocked _ d isplay the ind icat e zero L __ ----.l.QUivale nt to the ~e tt in g---l
Qu est io ns
",e""ion_No QuestIon Answer_A Answ er_B Answ er_C AnsWl!1'_D "-'
,d uring a eescee t the instr ume nt rea ding at on the mill ibar subseale
'will: wh ich tl\(>

341 ftlarms are sta nda rdise d and
iO(:cUfred I, nashing red a mbe' o
1ollow a code o f colours. Those
ireq u'r1 ng act ion but not
i,mmed,ately, are SIgnalled by
,t he colour:
342 f stall warn ing system Is ba ....d lalrspeed , a ltit ude ground. peed . 'ae rody na mic inCid...nce.
jon a measure o f :
- -- - ,c" ,i jThe verti cal speed ind icat or of
",,",,,.=,": -­ -0'500
It/min'.- -
I300;;;''"'''.='":-- - I150 ft/min
'a n aircraft Ilying at a t ' u(­
lairspeed of 100 kt, In a descen t
'wil h a slo p<' o f 3 d(-g"",•.
ind ica tes :
- - - 344 'If the st abc source to an - ­ -o:' <onl
;::; '­ ;;;;-to l.Iooe r-read -r;;ve r. r:" .:,c--- O,:..
:;; ze ro - - -- - --';t:
lairspeed indicator IASI)
:ind icat e the
jbec:omes blocked dur ing a
r peed
r e nt the inst rume nt will:
!"pplicable to
,t hat at t he time

o f the blockage

- --;"co, io'A ~ reso lut ion dYisory" { RA) is ' am be r full

're,j iull squa=:i
=-i blue o r Wh;;":' - -\: ::::=== -',
blue or white e mpty
ire prese nted on the display
system o f the lCAS 2 (Traffic
luili ozeng(-, lo,enge
,'Coll isio n Avoidanc" Syste m) by
.a ,
347 !The ma<:h number IS the. ,co rrected lindICated 'equIValent ec
:t rue a.rsp d (lAS) dwided '0
'airspeed lCAS) lairspeed liAS) airspeed (E AS) by the local speed o f
;divided by the 'd ivided by the d ivided by t he
~I speed of
,,local speed of 'local speed of
so und ,sound :. ou nd
:t ra nsponde r, ,airbo rne
fined io t he 'weat her radar
air"aft s¥'>tem
;be just as ~how the actual love r read.
icorred as ,he ight above
gro u n"'c.~~_-{~--,~",_--,_~~~+._

~~" "",,,,,
~-c,o , c,,-,- :height 01the
be fore.
;h eight of the aircraft with 'c
air" aft . ;Io west wheels !<'gard to t he runway,
~e st i " n _ N o Question Answer_A Answer_B An.wer_C Answer_D d_'
al"" of 650 ft. This is an {"ga rel to the with ,,,g a rd to
lindiCatiOn olt~ true : ( unwa y. ,t he gro und a l
.a ny time.
351 VLD .s t he ma .,mum .


read a littl" h igh.'read a littl" low.

ibot h th" rep lies fro m t he A

~ ranspo nde r<; 01 other
aircraft and the ground­
based radar ech oes

"l :;;""';;;DI
Id isplays informa tion ded icat ed
358 he rete -of-tum is t he , ya w rate in a t urn

360jWhe n t he intr uding a ircraft is traffic ad ~i", ry · and

Quipped with a se rvicea ble ...."rtlca l "resolut ion
Quest io ns
~u e ~ io n_ N o Question Answer _A Answer_8 Answe r_( AlI$wer_D
'mode ( t ra nsponder, lhe TCAS II horizonla l 've rt ical a nd 'a dvisory",
:(Trafli' Collisio n A'IOi(lan, e l"reSo iution ho rilOntal

r ystem) ge....rales a , advisory".

l"r..,SOlul ion

altime ter only.

a"speed ond"" to r,
r ltime ter and ven lQ l

r peed ind,catOL

364 During a "'Iegory II automatic

t ppro..rn, the height
___ -,,"'inlormalio n is supp! i~~ th e~
;e ncod ing
laltimel er. I::-:::::-::::::::;~l
altime ter. rildio altimeter
.I GI'S (Global Positioning

36S :With ;l pitot probe blocked due ,de<:reasing (o nsl ant speed, '''''''asing :fluctu. ting speed.
to ice bu,k! up, the aircraft speed . speed .
lairspeed ind iea tor will ind" a te
'in de seen t a :
366 :Th~ '~t~t; ~
air te mpe rature lSAT) ja rela t i~~ 'a n absol ute ~.Cd"ff.".
" ;;: 'o"".",---1,.;-;,",".C,=
~,.,::: empe rature ==--i"
,'5: Ite m perature le mperatu'e te mpe ratu'e e ,pressed in degrees
e ,pres~ d in e' l"esse d in 'e xpressed in Cels;us

,,,I £ is t he ma.imum speed:

;degrees Kelvin 'degree , Celsius
with flaps 'which must
:d egrl-'<'S Kelvin !
not 10 be !a"'W"" " ':::"' .:::" ',"C" ,'o' o'.' ''''
:;:' '
;e l<l;e nded in , ,ne ver be 'e _eeedcd except lcan be l ully deflect ed
landing poSlt ,on 'le XCl-'<'ded in still air and I
368 1the GPWS (Ground Pro,imity
I!d uring take-off lhe airaaft
,wil h cautio n
'at too low t he aira af! e.per ienees an A
~x periences an 'alt it ude. the ~ne, peaed proximity 10
w arn,ng System) act ivates, and 'o r missed
I,ale rts t he p,lot w,lh an aura l I,i1 PprOa, h ~ """ pecte d 'aircraft has an ~ ..rrain, wit hout landing­
warning "OON'T SINK" (twice ',m a noe uvre. lhe pro..m,ty to t h.. 'e " essive rate o f ,fla p selected.

__~= r imes ), it is beea use : ;"ira aft has 'terra in, with
~t a rted to loose )a nd ing gear
'alt it ude , retra cted.

369 iThe tot al air tem pe' ature (TAT) ilowe r than !higher tha n :highe r or lower 'highe r tha n Stat iCAir
is alw. ys: Stat ic Air Static Air t h ~ n Static Air t e mperature (SAT)
~e m perat ure, Te m perat ure , iTe mpe ralure , ld epending o n the altitude .
:(SAT) depend,ng (SAT) depend Lng ISAT) de pend,ng
'o n the ude, ;on the 'o n Ihe
ICalibraled Ai' Calibra ted Air
iSpeed (CAS). Speed {CAS}.
371 n 3 sta ndard atmospher e and nde pende nt of ,hiShe r than l he lower tha n the ,equal to the true airspeed lD
ll;3t the sea level, the calibrated :t he tr ue t rue aif\PE.'l'd ,t rue airspeed lHA'i).
_ _ _--'ia"irsp..,ed
' (CAS) is
_ airspeed (TAS) _,1_'_" _)'_ ,(T,'OS,' --'
~ estion _No Quest ion Answer_A Answe._B AMwe._C Answe r_D "-'
372 A 5tand-by-oonlon or pnly worl<s o f (onu ,ns ,ts o wn Is automallcally liSfully ,ndependent of ,
:emergeocy attitude Ind icator: ~ h(, re is a se parate gyro 'connected to e'lernal energy resouoces
~ om plet e the primary in a n
, 'elect. iCill failure vert ical gyro if
Ihe generator

t---cc~~---,,- J fails

373 uring a climb after ta ke-off Increases ,,increil,..... 'decreases ~ rea ses abruptly
Iro m a contilminaled runway, if 'steadily abruplly ~Slead i ly t oward s aero
he toUI pressu.e probe of Ihe towards VNE
irspeed indicalor is blocked ,
he pilot f'nds tha t indicated
_ _ _ ~c.:il
' ; rspe ed :
374 hen climbing al a con stilnt

Mach numbe r be low Ihe
' popa u.\e, in l$Acondi tians,
he Cahbrated Airspeed (CASl
I,ncrease at a n decrease
e xponent,al rale

i l"~c;cc::;:;:=:::-=:::=c:;::-;-I:-:;;::=c:::-;-t,c::~
,,\Crease at a
'linear ra te

rema ,n conslant

375 :1..-radiOallimete r can be defined f elf-conUined ground rad 'O aid t" ,:,:
o: "C,;C:'"" .:':" '!"~:ff .con t a i n e d on·boa rd o
:as a : iOn·board aid 'used to rneasure ,used 10 meaSure :aid used 10 me asure the
:used to It he t rue he ight t he true altitu de t rue he,ght of t he aoreraft

_ _ _ _ _ _~,~"c.
,measure t he
,t rue altitud e of
'" ~ "cra f t _
1 01t he aircraft ,Of

'I tt>e aorcra

' -_ _ _
J C ,
376-'11 t h; ,tat ie so'",,'~'
'' '''o'.' ,' '" "., ," , 'ally return conuoue "0' '"""
- ",,,,-.
,,'Ob, e ver-reed '.a
alt;meter becomes blocked ~o aero 'inda te the an amounl
d uring a climb, the instr ume nt reading a t which .equ;vale nt to
'Will : the bio ckage the readi"l!: a t
occurred t he time tbat
.t he inst rume nt
became blocked
378:After an .""aft has passed ,'rocreas es mcreases decreases 'decreases stead 'ly 10
Ihrough a voka nic cloud which
has blocked the tcter pressure
'towa rds VNE
stea dily
:a brupl ly
,t owa rdSINO I
pro tle inlet o f the airspeed
indicator. lhe pilol begins a
tabililed desce nt and finds that

he indicaled airspeed :
380 j e PlIrpose of co mpa.. /On an lv one a t any lal,tude ill a gwen 0
f wing,ng is to dele rmine the
r evlallo n o f a magnetic

!COmpass ,
r I.ltitud e

'0' ,,,',"

:u." tion_ No Question Answe'_A Answ e ,_ , Answfl"_C AMwe' _ c

by t h.e VM Q ,n ,
" Init Ially by th e MMO. I hen ,0
still air by thl'! VMO belo w;)
certain n ighl level

382 ,W E is t he maxim um speed:


'at which Ihe flaps can be


". e stalling speed of an ,lOW grou rna" tow

gross mass Ihig h g ross mass ;hig h gross masS and o
ropla ne will be highest whe n and fo rward
'lIS loaded w,t h a. :cent re of 'graVIty. ,gravity . I
...nd aft (enlre o f iand aft centre 01 fo rward centre of gravity.

___"'~""'=-=-""""-,-""""'=- __ ,gravIty
385 ~ he ilclual7.ero Fuel Ma ss' Is 1B asicEm. pty Actual l a nd ing ,Ory Operating iOper at ing Mar.s plus a ll t he :C
:e q ua l to lh.e
,Mass plus the
:f uel loaded.
:Mass plus tri p
1M3" plus the t raffic load.
t raffic 10a.,.,, ,,,,,,, ",-,-_-,,­
: A (t~~ i ~ nding :Ory Ope rating Mass plll' 0
386IilIe actual 'Ta ke-oil Mass' is
equivale nt to :
!Aclllal Ze ,-;' Fuel lO
IMass plus the
It rafflC load
ry Operating
Ma» plus tile IMass pitt< tile :t a ke-off fue l and the traffIC
,t ake-o ff fuel , t a k e -o ff",f~
"C'cc,;:'Oo'o': ",cc,--",,,,,---,-_t-_
389 111 a n aerop la ne is a t a higher ,re main 're ma,n -~ greater, drag 'be decreased, drag wilt ic
mass t han a nt ic,pa tiKl, fo r a :co nsta nt, drag Ico nsta nt, d rag 'Will increase and 'd ecrease and endura nce
'give n airspeed Ihe angle of :will decrease Iw;;1increase a nd en dura nce will Iwill increase,
a ttack will 'a nd e ndurance le ndura nce will 'decrease . I

j ,will decrease. :~o:, ;:-;:;-_+1 ::==;;:;;;,-+.;;;;;:::::::::::::,-__.!;;_

390 With Ihe ce ntre of gravity on IAd ecrease in A decruse o f :Ate nde ncy to A decrease in range. 0
the forw ard limit which of Ihe It he landing 'the stalhng 'ya w to the right
_ _ _ " , .'ollowing is to be e xpected? ispeed. speed . p n take-oH.
3911" t he centre of gravity is near
t he forward limit t ile aero plane
:r~q U ire elevator
t nm whICh w ,1I
res ult in an
ibe nefi t f,om
'red uced drag
Id ue to the
" "'Iuin, less
'powe r for a
'give n ai" peed,
1,,0""'"ro"" ''''0' r
ta ke.., ff.

'increase in fue l decr("ase in

~ng le o f attack.
Ico m umpt io n.
392 ,During ta ke-off you not ice, It he ce ntre of tile eeoee of ,t he iK' roplafle is ,t he centre of gravity is too
'Ifo, a give n elevato r mput, the IP,ess ure is aft grav,t y may be 'overloaded, fa r fo rward,
aer o plane ro tates much mo re 'of the centre of toward s t he aft
Irapid ly t ha n e xpected. This is a n :gravity. :Iimit
:indicatio n
___:":':L..,ss~ng g ross mass, alt it ude . ..igher stall ,towe r optimum ,e d uc:.: ':..._ _~i r"ICr ea sed cruise ra nge. c
~nd ~ '~1'H'd

movement of the

\Cl!<'Ilte of er-tv fmm the

forwa rd to the " It limit .... ;11


19S If the cen tre of gr.....,ty of an become heavier be<::ome lighter eeceee heavier become Ilghte , ma ting the A
'" " ro pla roe r"OOVt'S forN ard F·;nc the mak inc the m"kingthe ....rogqroe more easy to
d.." ,n&Ill£hl (I'e e lev'Hor ,aeropla ne more aeroplane mo~ aeroplarw- mo re manoeuvre in pitch .
le onlrol will : ,'d itfK;ult to diHiocult 10 " a. Vla
,manoeuvre In manoeuvre in manoeuvre in
:pilch ,pi tch . 'pit ch.
" 'IWhen consideriflg the .. flect, of ;Sta lling spCt'd, ISllIlling speeds Grad,enl of Hghl en.dura nc:e wilt be A
incrused mass on a n
[aerc craoe. whICh of t he
,follow ing is 1'''''',':::::::::::::::::::_
....ill be highe r. !w ,1I be lower.
: ~:~:::~ i~i; e fl l: i nc:reased '
:will be higher. ..
397 'A flight b- .- ,-efits Irom it st ronK ithe landi og It he a pproach t he approach 't he l afld in~ diSC,', ',', ',-- - "o
.taHwind which was no t ,dista
, nce will be path w ill be 'path will be Irequired will be 10flge,­
fo recast. On arrival al 'unaffected. stee per, s teeper and
:d e lt ina tio n it st ra ight in t hreshold speed
.. pproach and im medial e higher.
~a nd ing clearance is gi"" n. The
~a nd ing mass will be h,gher than
,....,flannecl and
- - -400IThe Dry Operati,,« Mass of an ,Fuel and pa ~'k', ',:,.::::--,,=:::::::::;=:::--"",c::;:;:-,,:;:::::::=c:-(C-­
," O ew and uew Uflusable fuel and reserve (:
aeroplane includes : passeneers baggage and baggage. fuel. I
baggage and
u rgo. "

""l Ulpment,
pocable waler
and lavatory
c!lerma ls.
, imum certiflUled take· a lake · off limited by- the c
off mass is : limiti"flmass ,'unway lake off which may not whiCh is affK1ed by- the
whid> is distanc:e be exceeded for aerodrome altitude and
governed by the available. It is any ta ke - off, temperature.

'gradient of tabulated in the
~c lim b after f light Mam,,,!.
:reaching V2 . I
402 he cent re of .gravity 10000tion ,,', ,
0!.l.or i~o ~tal axis, I I On g i t ud i fl;,,"~.;~;~,,.I:;(_,,;.;,;.;, ;, ;,,;':.==~;;;,"~;;:=====ja,=~
Q ues,.Ions

' ....tion_No Question Answec A A n ~wer_ B Answer_C AnsWff_O "-'

n ~W I

r- aero pla ne IS norm ally
_ _ _""Iw mputed along the:
403jThe cen tre 01gravity of a bod y
I, that potnt
!t7 ,-"C"C,c,-wc,c<c,--+lwc,, ,,-.C7,C"''--,"-m,-lw-'h-'C~'--,O,.,-,_-=-IW"""
,t he sum o f the 'of the moments '0 1t he e xte rna l 'd atum whe n comp ut ing

7C"" ~

fo<ce, of all t ra m the ,forces i, eq ual ,mome nt' .

~asses of the ,exle rnal forces to zero.

body is la ct ing on the

:co nsidcred to :body is eq ual to

~~-;"O ~T h e take-off mass of an :act . ' -;:--~4:1;99:"",0"000,"",---\";;;;;;;:----I;:;c,,,;o;:--------\c-

-+71 000 kg kg 53 000 kg c
aeroplane i, 111 000 kg.
co mprising a traffic load o f 18
000 kg a nd fuel 01 46 000 kg. I I
_ _ _"'.,W hat is the d ry operating mass?
406 ,Ma Ximum and m-i~; ;" um values IV Rand VMCG-----:v
I,··;Z;nd VMCA -IVR a nd YMCA 1"'2 and VMCG I'

_ __ iol VI are limiled by, " _ : ::::::::-:;-_ - \

401',Wit h rega rd to a take -off from a iseree n hel~ screen ,Whe n the :In case 01 a reve rse r 'e.
wet run.....ay, which 01 t he leannot be height can be 'runway i, W<'I, inope rat ive the weI
, " ,
'following ~ta lemen t, is correct? red uced. ilowe red to t he VI reductIOn runwa y pe rlo rma noce
ired uce the ma ss ,IS suffICient to linfo rmat io n can SIIII be
pe naltIes. ma IntaIn t he 'u,ed.
same margins
:on the runway
e n h. ,
::::-=::::c:<+::-=::::-=::::c:<t;l:; ,::-;:;-;::::CC,--::=CCCC-!:­
408 ~h e firsl segme nt ofthe t a ke·o ff' at completiool of 'a t com pie tion o f !at reach,ng V2 . a t 35 ft above the runway, A
~_-cW;~ i g h t path eods k ear re tract ion. flap retraction. I
I , I
lanoced VI is se lected ifo r a ru nway 'if it i~ eq ual to ,if the accele rate ifo r a runway length limIted C
len gth I,m,ted ,V2. ,s to p d"tance is ita ke-off with a stopway to
take-off with a ,equal to t he o ne :g've the highest mass.
dear.....ay to give e ngine o ut ta ke­
the h ig he~ t off eutaoee.

"';;Cm:::::::::::::::-:::::::::::::;iimass. I

411 ~:?o~~:~:i~'h~ :~~ :~t~~:~:tr !~~i~: ~i=a t ;~i~:~~~:" n ,~i:~~~in

[30 min ute~ flying time at
t he nor mal cruising speed.

" route, whe re rlO SUita ble the approwd still air a t t he ~tillair at t he
lairport Is wit hin a n a rea of lone engIne c ut .apprc ved one :nor mai eru i~ing
le n g ine'~~,,'5peed
"4 .
-- - --,'" I l
ow is V2 affect ed il TIO flaps 'I
a u" e ,peed.

412 L=-;:-;;;-;;;:::;::::-:;;,"",=;--\;c;;==:;:::::;-
V2 increases In ItV2
has '
2' decreases 'f 1
;';;;;;;;::;;:;C;= =,n;---7
has the sa me value "

_____. O' Ischose n instead o f ito ,pro port "

IOn to cc nnecnc n with Iinot restricted by ,bot
' h cases. __L
Que stio ns
' "m
'\leSl io n_ No Quen ion An swe'_A Answe'_ e Ans....er_C Answ ef_D 0-"
f!<I ps 10 • ?
It he angle at


:w hlch the flaps

Jimil' t he
[manoe""' ing
lload factor at I
- - -.""\",,,-,,cc-,.--,.cc-"OCCCCC..fh igh altit ude s.
unchanged . higher . c

t a ke -<;Iff clim b
i spee d o. spee d
131 3 5 ft.

42 1 hf t ile ant i, kid syste m i. ,It lia s 110 etled Ir ake-off w ith jThe ace",le,at" jThe ecceerate SlOp
"noperat lve, w hich of t he
t OllOWing stateme nts is true?
o n the
;acce le rate sto p
'd islilnce.
,a nti, kid
'ino pe ra tive is
'not permined.
stop distance
Id ,sta nce decrea ses

422 W hich of the fo llowing ~ RH iV-R " MCA ' V~2-"-------\;-
Irepresents t ile maximum villue
,' or VI assuming max tv'"
,and max brilke ene'iY speed are
__--,,,ir o lImiting? :;;-;;;;;1;;;::;;:;:;;;;;-!;;;::;;;;;:;;:,--I;;:;:-;;;;;::;;;:--,!;;;::::-:=
4H ,A 'B<llanced Field l e ngt h' is said

= ;;;;C;;;;;;-!;­
:' 0 ... isl whe re :

~ u e . l io n_ N o Que n ion A n swef_A Answ ec D Answ er_ c An.we' _D "-'
fon tino.oe (lr not ,re tract flap s ,,,eroplaoe ;s
;t he t ..<('-af! in w ithout sla ll ,lu nder coo tr<;>1
t he ca"", of an prob lem s. .....t h
len ~ i oe failu re. aerodynamiC
is''' face. in the
:Cas.. of an
~er'lg i n .. fa ilure.
speed for best st alling s pe e d or ~fetv spee d for :design st ...." speed, e
..... speed VS is define d as
specific ral1£e, minimum ste ady lak e-off in case
, flight ,pet'<! al ,0 1 ill
wh ich th e oontam il'lated
:aeroplane is irunwav.
coolro llable.
426 A h,ghe r ou tSi de air ,does net have reduces the re duce. t he me....ases Ihe a ngle of c
t empcra w re :any IlOticeable angle of cli m b angle and the 'd imb bu l decreases the
'<'!He<t o n cli m b but increa~s rate of climb. 'rate o f clim b.

", ~ring the flight preparation a

:perform'InC" .

he , top
'Ihe ra te of
~irn b_
jThe 0"" eng ine V2 may be too
ilt may lead to over­
'lot make' a m i ~t ake by ,distance , out take-off ,'high so that ,rot ation.
selecti ng a VI great er t han th at required WIll dIstance (li mb

'required. WhICh problem will ,exceed the stop Irequ,red may .performance

'occur whe n t he engine fail. at a
'~,s ta nce ,
e xc\'ed t he take· decreases.

f P"ed immediat ely abo ve the available. off dista nce 1

f orred value of VI?

428iWhat ts t he eaect of a head
I ,available ,
Maximum range 'lMaXimUm range
-;:" "':;;;;:;;;C;:;:;;;*;;C;:;::;;::::::::::=, --'
Maximum range Maximum range speed (
Iwind component. compared to ~ed de creases speed increases Ispeed increases !dee rea, es and maxomum
Istill air. on the maximum range rnd
maximum 'and maximum 'and maxomum Icl,mb angle speed
Fpeed (lAS) and the speed for f limb angle '(l imb angle 'climb angle 'increases.
Imaximum climb angle ,speed .speed increases. ~ pe ed stays I
{e~pect ,ve ly? ,decreases. Iconsta nt";:;:;-~b.;::::;;;;",=;;;;:;:c:,-..j,
430 jThe optim um cruise altitude
!if the ""ropla ne ,if t he 'if the t ailWi nd if t he ae roplane mass is

' i ncrea ~e. maS$ is t emperature 'compo""nt is increased.
I{OAT) i.
.increa, ed. I
~e creased. I
' will be the in ll Ul"~
,= will'inaease 'It w,lI d::,','=.:=--l;
,,=~ :I== ' w=,,"=o, =,,=.=
=,=~= -',,=,=="=o=,
w" ,=, ~ea se th e=--~l--
,t he aero pla"" performa",e if .tbe ta ke-off
laerodrome peesscre altit ude is Idistance
th e ta ke-off
1 ista nce.
.t he take-off
:di s l an~
accelerate stop diUa nce
433 ,Movingt he cent re of g,aMty Ijncr!~ ~e ~ the 'a ffects neithe r :irocreases t h~.e creases the induced 1
Q uesti o n,

Questio n

f.rom the forwa rd to t he a ft lim,t 'powe r required . dr ag ,>or power ind uced dras· drag a nd reduces tl\e
(gross mass. a ltit udl' and
!a i" pee d re ma," unc:h..m ged
I ,require d.
pow e r required .
" ' IRed uced tal<e-oH thr ust should )t Is d arl< .
___""""",'." m~ly_
C'l ~ be u~d whe n:
436 Wh'ch sta teme nt re ga rd ing VI
It he runway is
the runway is
,windshca r is re porte d on
t he la ke-off pat,h,.
VI,s not a Ho wed to be
;s. co"eet? ,c o rre<:Ho n for gre ate r t han VR.
:up-slope ;s.
'lM'gabve .

e ngilM's, ,
437 'ln re lat ion 10 th e IM'I take·o ff o
iflight P<l th. t ile required 3S It

~~:~t':~~i~:a oce to d ea r a ll

41f1 he sto pway is an a'ea which
,,,lI ows an tee-ease onl y in:
439 ;The drift do w n requireme nts

la r" b<ised on '

~ u e s t i o n_ N o Questi on Answ e' _A Answ e'_B Ans we<_C An swer_I) "­ '

ca lculat ion of
the net flight

442 iWhich o l lh e lollow ing Risl~weed

VR i, the speed .vR sho uld not ;VR sho uld rIOt be higher ,
tatements is correct? 'at which, during \" wh ich t he be higher Iha n t ha n 1.05 VMCG.
'rot atio n, the ipi lot shou ld IVI .
;no•., wheel ~ t 'lfl I0 rotate
f a mes off the t he aeroplane.

443 :The Densitv Al tit ude
,is u~ to is ""'d to is eq ual to t he ,is used 10 establish
;__- ,
blt"lat" t he H 'determine the pressure minimum clearance of
ia bo ve th e
,aeroplane :a l\ il ude . !2.000 feet OVer mountains.
ITransit io n pcrfonn;>nce _
Alt it ude. I
444 'The se co nd ",gme n! begins when naps are

----,"; 'i~e
'selected up_
"",'.. ".."d" "" ,VMC.
,minimum steady !light s peed at
~hjch Ihe aerop lane Is

'Cont rollable in l ~ n d "l£

_ __ ~gU rat io n is ~bb< ~"'t ed a ~

'" lin c~ se of an engin.e fail ure

= =:C:-!'B
which is reco gnized at or above


----;.O"~,I he appro ach cl'mb

requ irement has eeen

lesta b l i ~hed 50 tha t t he

r""" ~ "' ,~,,

448 'Density altit ude is the 'altit ude refe rence 10 the
'standard dat um plane

449 An Increase in atmospheric

pressure h.<I~ . among other

Quest ions

.,. ,
4SS ~ m..omum m~ fo( ~ 1~climb
t~ climb r~u ir~ents ,

I ould be lomited by . equorements r~uir~U WIth ' II tf\ii1W'S in tho:'

WIth II encones with _ ~N! .pproKh con"curniorL
In the lIod1ne io'loper.tNe in
conf.... 1IQfl the laondinc
'bul willt 1"" conf'CU'.toon.

"S6'The spH'd r. nee belwee1> low "" . t ..

~ buff~ .nd high spepd incrtilSl nc 1niIU. fniIU Ind lnONS'ng

K i t ".

4S7:r 1lfo l.nd if\8 foeld ~

~ ~u ; r ed for jet aerop!ilrotS ill

the ..Iter n;ll e (wet wndition) is
Que stio ns
Questi o n "-'
"'~ ,
,t he demo nst rate d lan ding
:d isum ce plul
458 iA jet aNopl ane descend' wit h Maximum
Ico nstant Mach num be r: Which !opera tion Al
~I the follow,ng spee d I,mill is Mach Number
,Ma Xi mum

Ne ve r Exce ed
Op<;" a ling Speed Speed I

'High 5peed Buffe llimit

,most hkely to be e",e e d ed~ _ .

459 Due to sta nding wa le r on the lo nly higher fO"--'~_.

"'='-- highe r. ""'.'","":,, ,:.- - - - - - ,,
:ru nway t he field "'''Sth limite d
't hre e and four L
t a ke · off rna,s will be
'e ng,ne
~_ _ .
' a e ro ~ lane s . 0-=="', ,= 0­
460 Which is t~ co rrect seq u" nee
vi. VR, V2, VMCG, VI, VR, 'oil , VMCG, VR, V I, VR, VMCG, V2,
:o f speeds du ring la ke-off? ,VMCA V2,. ::::;;_ _ , ", :::==:;;:'0::
- - - -4'61 ,W hich of th e fo llOWing will I, no pe ra tive IncreAsed Inoperat;""" anti- ,tncrea sed take -<lff rna" . c
de.::re ase Vl ? flight ectuee air 'skid
:ma nage me nt temperature . I .
___ , ,syst em . , I ,

462JRed uce d take -off tbrust ~an

, be uS@d,f ,hast he be nefit 'ca n be use d if ,'is not re.:om rnen de d at
t he he Adwi nd of improving It he actu a l t ake · 'v e ry low temperat ure s
'c om po ne nt e ngine life, ,off ma ss is ~OA T).
~dUr i ng take-off higher th a n the
is at le ast 10 kt. 'perfo rm,mce
limited Ia ke -<lff
463 'Be low theopt; mu m cruise ,t he Mach ,~he lAS for long the lAS for long ~he M"'h number for lo ng A
1l,lude number fo. r long ," an ge ((uise :range cru ise ,ra nge au ..e mcre ases
,range Cruise i,ncreases , increases. ,c o nt Inuo us ly wll h
de creases contin uo u, ly ',c o nt inuo usly d ecre a sing a ltitude .
!co nt inuo usly 'wit h dec rea sing w ith decreasing
,w ith decrea sing ia ltiWde . r lt itud e .
all 'tude .
464 Wh,ch of the fo llowmg " tru e IThe ae ro pla ne IS,The aeropl.1ne VMCAon ly ,st ra,ght fhght ca n not be c
:wit h regard to VMCA (air unco nt rolla ble w ol l not gat he r :a pplie s lo four­ mainta ine d below VMeA,
.minimum co ntr ol speed!? below VMCA ,t he minimum ,e ngine ,w he n t he critical e neine

1 J equired climb 'ae ro plane s ha s fa iled ,

'grad ie nt I
- - -" "65 Minimum control speed o n I""sewhee l prima ry 'pr ,ma ry ,primary aer odyna mic e
g roun d, VMeG, is based on 'St.,..,-ing onl y. ae rodyna mic ,ae rodynam iC fonlrol, """,whe el
~ireet ion.a l co ntr ol being I o nlrolonly. icontra l an d 'SteerIng and d ifferent ial
,ma int a lned_b_""==_==_=\c-=== _ _-l====_=","''''=='---:-i"bee' '' ~i ng ====_==~
no S('whet>1.
466 :Which sta tem e nt about re du ced lIn Cale of Re duce d th rust Re<ll>Ced le' :" ,Re duce
: :' ',-,:::: : d thrust is used in B

Q ues• Ion s

:ue ' t io " _ No Q UI!!>tion Answer_A A,..we'_8 Answe'_C Answ..'_D

~ ..
thru st is oorre.:t? 'reduced thrust ,can be used ,is p rimar ily a ,o r der 10 s.a~ fuel.
I IV1 should be '
w he n t he actua l :noise abatement '
decreased. t a ~ e--off mass is procedure .
Ie.. th an t he
field lengt h
,lim iw d take-off
mas s.
461 Before take-off Ihe temperature :To e nsure th ai 0 enSu'e th at o ensure th at the brake c
f the whoeel bra kes shoul d be ;t he whee ls have ilhe thermal """ "~
ow>rheated w ear is no t I!l« e " ive .
ee eee. Forwh.11 '''3\.O ''? "" a rmed up blow-out plugs b rakes w ill not
!evenly. 'a le I'lOt melted. 'perfo rm
ade quately in
t he event of a
jrejeeted ta ke­
468 ,Whid , of the following set o f ,High ta ke'Off
facto rs cou ld lead to .. VI value milSS, low flap
l ow lake -off
mass, high fla p
rl ow tak.. -off High ta ke-off ma~ ~ , high
mass, low flap ,flap sett ing and low field

'Which is limited byVMCA~ :, etting a nd high ~~eU ing a nd low 'ettlng and low 'elevat io n.

- - --.' 7' .C\The ta ke-o ff di" a",e req uired
,field ele~a tlon .

t he runway
f,(lld elevation.

,t ~ ~maller
field eleva tio n.

,d ue to slush on (jue to dOWllhil1 due to head

,t he drag
~ ue
to lower gran man a t ·A

;~ Iope because of 'wind because of 'ta ke-off. l
-----l .-:<;c;:cwC:;:C;;C::;;:=-+",;;:;",==:-;",~g le of attack. ,a ugme nta tion", -i:c;;;:;",::::=;;;:;-==~
4 72 ,W hiCh of t he following will give 'A OME ~tati o n !An AOF sit ed ;;;;-'"A VOR;uilOn ' 'A OMf station sited aUOI. A
r he most accurate UI lcula tlon o f sited o n the
alrcraft ground spe ed ? ,fhght route I t he fhght ro ute 'sited on the
;fllght ro ute
't ile flight ro ute
!. _
l 473 C
,;;ihe n Mode is se lected o n t he :aitit ude based
aircraft SSR tran spon de r t he
;a dd lllOnal info nnallo n
v ansmltted is:
on regio nal
laircraft height
based o n sub- QFf
I:sc:ale sell ing 1
height based on i hght level
'10 13 .25 hPa
,:,',.','0='- - --'0.-­

475 ' ~ ATC Ira n ~ po nd er syste m, ,two modes.

xc1uding Mode S, contains '

4 76 Give n. Course Oevlat .on

Indicato r (COl) fo r a VOIl is
:eacn or~.....
,c adi i"' '
sele cted to 090·. Fro m/To

:~ed~~;~ : ~":~::~ ~~~~~~o

~I\er;ght_On what radial rs the
"" -'­ L __
Q uest Ions

~u e s l io n_N o Questio n Answe r_A Answer_8 Answer_' Ans....er_ D
4 77 ,The he ad"'l1 rose o f an HS I ,s cent...... left o f cenl re ngh t of centre ,ce nt red wIt h the fall. fi ~ g A
Ifro le n o n 200", line d up on lh e I '. .
:s" ow,"&
lLS of rUllWay 25, me localin."r
~eedl e WIll be :

478 What a ppro., male rate o f 950 FT/MIN 600 FT/MIN SSD FT/MI N 800 FT/MIN B
eSCe n, is required in order to
E alnta in a 3" gllde path a t a
, roundspced o f 120 kH
479 What is the minimum number 3 5
:Of sat elilles req uired by a GPS in
o rdo'r to obta'n a t hree
.dime nsio",,1I ,~?
4SO Eve ry 10 kt d c ~~ e a>e In

increase in the 'decrea se in the

, . . . I r
gl,de pa th, w,11 require a n 'desce nt of 50 descent o f 100 descent o f 100 FT/ MIN
: a pp ro~ ima te : ,FT/ MIN :FT/ MIN ,FT/ MIN I
4S2 The two main design funn!;;;;; lai,-lo ground
, . ,'collision
'c on l inuou s--1!t"h:':" " 'm='~
::;:bo n 01 gro und ft­
of secondary Surve il la nce Radar and r,round t o a vo'daroce using ,a uloma tic to air rommunicat ion. and
{SSR) Mode S a re : air data li nk leAS It a nd po,ition ,t he introduction 01
com munkal ion. improved long
~~~::"~ing usIng 'a uto mat ic , epa ratio n
'and impro ved :range (HF) 'be tw"" n a;ruaft using
,ATC aircraft commun icatio n Positionine CAS II
I, urveilla roce :ca p:a bility. Sy.tem (GPS)
'ca p:ability 'satellit es and
'avo ida nce u,i ne
[Te AS Ii
433 jTh" selectio n of cod e 2QOO o n le ntry into
a n e me rge ncy t rans po nde r maifunction ,
a n aircraft SSR transponder amcace from
.oecetes. 'a n area where
has not be<on
~ eq u i re d
'It ca n prov,de "



~ue stion_No Que,tion Answ e ' _A Answe r_B AAswe,_C An sw er_O
,w ill o bta in a OMf range of
lappro ximate ly,
486A VOR and DM [ ii'"
co locat ed . VOR and DMf
lOME <3 11",gn ,~
,DM E calls lgn I
p ME uUSlgn 's Ihe One
IYOU wanl to identify t he DM Eby call,illns were
Ilisle ning to the (a ll, ign. Having t he "" me a nd
jl ne o ne WIth It.e .was not '",,! lI the lowe r p itch Ihat
,higl>efp;tch that tra n, mitt e d, the was broadc..s' sew ' al I
heard the sa me ca llsign 4 lim e s bro adca st w ith was bro adcast distance ti m ~
'in 30 sec ond' the: '
t he same pitch only once 'informatIo n is
wff,ci"nt proof
of cl)fre<:t


~ y pes is mos t read ily det ecll"d

cirroc umulus striltus
Ibv .. " bo rne we ath er radar when
USing the 'weMiler beam'?
_ --c=",
490 1"''' 'sem icircular canals fo rm
,-+.==,-_ 1===_ C
linne. ear middle ear If!ar d rum ;exl ernal ear A
__ = ,0;'"'''''' b -f = =--+,1 I == ,1

" 'In.e rate a nd dept h 01 brea th ing : ater vapour ,n :oxygen In t he

is primary regulated by t he
:oorw:enlra tion of :
I~ he alveo li cel ls
'u rborl dio xide 'nitrogen in the air
,in the blood I

----.',' ,O'whichcomponent(ij is/arc :Hae moglobin in 'White blood p',',,'m',"-.- - --C",ood

:tr.lnsport ing th e a " ygen in t he
bloo d ?
~h e red blood
jce lh ,
I I ·
ccoo"c,c-- - - - - - 1 'A

Q ues f Io ns
~uesti on_N o Question Answet_A Answer_B Answer_C Answer_D "-'
comm unical ipn ,sa le ty. ,me mbe rs hard ly communltation process.
'a nd incidents or ha mper t heir
laccide nts. !communkalio n
491;Svmptoms ca uS"d by gas reel's leans :c ho kC'S be nds 0
bubbles in In., lungs. following a
~c o m P.r e S S i o n ~'.!..C.alled.:
, cabin press ure In a"line
Iinormallv not
J inormally not l always equ,valent to sea
'o pe rat io n is
exceeding 6 000 ",.ret"ding 2 000 ,e.ceed ,ng 4 000 .le'Rl
't o 8 000 feet 'to 3 000 feet ;to 5 000 fee t
499 After SCUBA diving (more tC",C"-i2 ! 4;;;; ~ ;:;- 6 hou rs '--!c,"'''-''''-~,",,",=------*
'18 hours '12 ho"rs
:30 feel of de pth) you have
'wait a period 01 t ime belore

:fly,ng again . This pe riod IS at

,least : "

~ ~ ' O"
' ",w--,"'.
, C7' '''''.-O'"·· f i nd
lsome wm ptom s for hypo>ia and land bendS.
carbon mono>i~ poisoning.
Please ma rk those indicat ing
= ,,,, ,­
IDui,, ,,,, .
, , ., ,,",,--,t Uiuiness.
'hypothe rmia,
,d isturbanoces.
.lack of
f once ntTil!io n•
e uphor ia.
Na usea a nd b-a rotit is. C

;;C,~Fn.e time betw een inadeq uate 'va ries -r,sthe s,,,ne is not ,varies IndivK!uallv a nd A

:o >yge n su pp ly and :indiVidually a nd 'a mount o f time dependent on 'doe s not depend on
ilnca pacitat lO n is called rue 'de pends on
:lTime of U>eh.1 Consciousne ss). ka b,n pre«" re
!' !alt,t ude
for every person Iplwsical o r
'psycho logical
Ipressure ~

ialtit ude