You are on page 1of 180

VISIT DEPED TAMBAYAN

http://richardrrr.blogspot.com/

10
1. Center of top breaking headlines and current events related to Department of Education.
2. Offers free K-12 Materials you can use and share

PY
Mathematics
O
C
Teacher’s Guide
ED

Unit 2
EP

This book was collaboratively developed and reviewed by


educators from public and private schools, colleges, and/or universities.
We encourage teachers and other education stakeholders to email their
feedback, comments, and recommendations to the Department of
Education at action@deped.gov.ph.
D

We value your feedback and recommendations.

Department of Education
Republic of the Philippines

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Mathematics – Grade 10
Teacher’s Guide
First Edition 2015
Republic Act 8293, section 176 states that: No copyright shall subsist in any work
of the Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or
office wherein the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit.
Such agency or office may, among other things, impose as a condition the payment of
royalties.
Borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand names,
trademarks, etc.) included in this book are owned by their respective copyright holders.
DepEd is represented by the Filipinas Copyright Licensing Society (FILCOLS), Inc. in seeking
permission to use these materials from their respective copyright owners. . All means have
been exhausted in seeking permission to use these materials. The publisher and authors do
not represent nor claim ownership over them.

PY
Only institutions and companies which have entered an agreement with FILCOLS
and only within the agreed framework may copy this Teacher’s Guide. Those who have not
entered in an agreement with FILCOLS must, if they wish to copy, contact the publishers and
authors directly.
Authors and publishers may email or contact FILCOLS at filcols@gmail.com or
(02) 439-2204, respectively.

O
Published by the Department of Education
Secretary: Br. Armin A. Luistro FSC
Undersecretary: Dina S. Ocampo, PhD
C
Development Team of the Teacher’s Guide
Consultants: Soledad A. Ulep, PhD, Debbie Marie B. Verzosa, PhD, and
D
Rosemarievic Villena-Diaz, PhD
Authors: Melvin M. Callanta, Allan M. Canonigo, Arnaldo I. Chua, Jerry D.
Cruz, Mirla S. Esparrago, Elino S. Garcia, Aries N. Magnaye, Fernando B.
E

Orines, Rowena S. Perez, and Concepcion S. Ternida


Editor: Maxima J. Acelajado, PhD
EP

Reviewers: Carlene P. Arceo, PhD, Rene R. Belecina, PhD, Dolores P.


Borja, Maylani L. Galicia, Ma. Corazon P. Loja, Jones A. Tudlong, PhD, and
Reymond Anthony M. Quan
Illustrator: Cyrell T. Navarro
Layout Artists: Aro R. Rara, Jose Quirovin Mabuti, and Ronwaldo Victor Ma.
D

A. Pagulayan
Management and Specialists: Jocelyn DR Andaya, Jose D. Tuguinayo Jr.,
Elizabeth G. Catao, Maribel S. Perez, and Nicanor M. San Gabriel Jr.

Printed in the Philippines by REX Book Store


Department of Education-Instructional Materials Council Secretariat (DepEd-IMCS)
Office Address: 5th Floor Mabini Building, DepEd Complex
Meralco Avenue, Pasig City
Philippines 1600
Telefax: (02) 634-1054, 634-1072
E-mail Address: imcsetd@yahoo.com

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Introduction

This Teacher’s Guide has been prepared to provide teachers of Grade


10 Mathematics with guidelines on how to effectively use the Learner’s
Material to ensure that learners will attain the expected content and
performance standards.
This book consists of four units subdivided into modules which are
further subdivided into lessons. Each module contains the content and
performance standards and the learning competencies that must be attained
and developed by the learners which they could manifest through their
products and performances.
The special features of this Teacher’s Guide are:
A. Learning Outcomes. Each module contains the content and

PY
performance standards and the products and/ or performances
expected from the learners as a manifestation of their
understanding.
B. Planning for Assessment. The assessment map indicates the

O
type of assessment and categorized the objectives to be assessed
into knowledge, process/skills, understanding, and performance
C
C. Planning for Teaching-Learning. Each lesson has Learning
Goals and Targets, a Pre-Assessment, Activities with answers,
What to Know, What to Reflect on and Understand, What to
Transfer, and Summary / Synthesis / Generalization.
D
D. Summative Test. After each module, answers to the summative
test are provided to help the teachers evaluate how much the
E

learners have learned.


E. Glossary of Terms. Important terms in the module are defined or
EP

clearly described.
F. References and Other Materials. This provides the teachers with
the list of reference materials used, both print and digital.

We hope that this Teacher’s Guide will provide the teachers with the
D

necessary guide and information to be able to teach the lessons in a more


creative, engaging, interactive, and effective manner.

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Table of Contents
Curriculum Guide: Mathematics Grade 10

Unit 2
Module 3: Polynomial Functions................................................................ 82
Learning Outcomes ..............................................................................................82
Planning for Assessment ......................................................................................83
Planning for Teaching-Learning ...........................................................................86
Pre-Assessment ...................................................................................................87
Learning Goals and Targets .................................................................................87

Activity 1 ....................................................................................................88
Activity 2 ....................................................................................................89
Activity 3 ....................................................................................................90

PY
Activity 4 ....................................................................................................90
Activity 5 ....................................................................................................91
Activity 6 ....................................................................................................91
Activity 7 ....................................................................................................92
Activity 8 ....................................................................................................94
Activity 9 ....................................................................................................99

O
Activity 10 ................................................................................................100
Activity 11 ................................................................................................101
Activity 12 ................................................................................................102
C
Activity 13 ................................................................................................106
Activity 14 ................................................................................................107
Summary/Synthesis/Generalization ...................................................................108
Summative Test .......................................................................................................109
D
Glossary of Terms ...................................................................................................114
References Used in This Module ........................................................................115
E

Module 4: Circles ........................................................................................... 116


Learning Outcomes ............................................................................................116
Planning for Assessment ....................................................................................117
EP

Planning for Teaching-Learning .........................................................................123


Pre-Assessment .................................................................................................125
Learning Goals and Targets ...............................................................................126
Lesson 1A: Chords, Arcs, and Central Angles................................................126
Activity 1 ..................................................................................................127
D

Activity 2 ..................................................................................................128
Activity 3 ..................................................................................................129
Activity 4 ..................................................................................................130
Activity 5 ..................................................................................................131
Activity 6 ..................................................................................................132
Activity 7 ..................................................................................................132
Activity 8 ..................................................................................................132
Activity 9 ..................................................................................................133
Activity 10 ................................................................................................136
Activity 11 ................................................................................................136
Activity 12 ................................................................................................137
Activity 13 ................................................................................................138
Summary/Synthesis/Generalization ...................................................................139
Lesson 1B: Arcs and Inscribed Angles .............................................................139
Activity 1 ..................................................................................................140

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 2 ..................................................................................................141
Activity 3 ..................................................................................................142
Activity 4 ..................................................................................................143
Activity 5 ..................................................................................................144
Activity 6 ..................................................................................................145
Activity 7 ..................................................................................................145
Activity 8 ..................................................................................................146
Activity 9 ..................................................................................................148
Activity 10 ................................................................................................151
Activity 11 ................................................................................................153
Activity 12 ................................................................................................154
Summary/Synthesis/Generalization ...................................................................154
Lesson 2A: Tangents and Secants of a Circle ................................................155
Activity 1 ..................................................................................................155

PY
Activity 2 ..................................................................................................159
Activity 3 ..................................................................................................160
Activity 4 ..................................................................................................161
Activity 5 ..................................................................................................162
Activity 6 ..................................................................................................163
Activity 7 ..................................................................................................164

O
Activity 8 ..................................................................................................172
Summary/Synthesis/Generalization ...................................................................172
Lesson 2B: Tangent and Secant Segments .....................................................173
C
Activity 1 ..................................................................................................173
Activity 2 ..................................................................................................174
Activity 3 ..................................................................................................174
Activity 4 ..................................................................................................175
D
Activity 5 ..................................................................................................175
Activity 6 ..................................................................................................176
Activity 7 ..................................................................................................176
Activity 8 ..................................................................................................177
E

Activity 9 ..................................................................................................179
Activity 10 ................................................................................................180
EP

Summary/Synthesis/Generalization ...................................................................180
Summative Test .......................................................................................................181
Glossary of Terms...................................................................................................189
List of Theorems and Postulates on Circles....................................................191
References and Website Links Used in This Module ....................................193
D

Module 5: Plane Coordinate Geometry .................................................. 198


Learning Outcomes ............................................................................................198
Planning for Assessment ....................................................................................199
Planning for Teaching-Learning .........................................................................205
Pre-Assessment .................................................................................................207
Learning Goals and Targets ...............................................................................207
Lesson 1: The Distance Formula, the Midpoint Formula,
and the Coordinate Proof ....................................................................207
Activity 1 ..................................................................................................208
Activity 2 ..................................................................................................208
Activity 3 ..................................................................................................209
Activity 4 ..................................................................................................210

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 5 ..................................................................................................212
Activity 6 ..................................................................................................212
Activity 7 ..................................................................................................213
Activity 8 ..................................................................................................215
Activity 9 ..................................................................................................216
Activity 10 ................................................................................................217
Activity 11 ................................................................................................220
Summary/Synthesis/Generalization ...................................................................221
Lesson 2: The Equation of a Circle ....................................................................221
Activity 1 ..................................................................................................221
Activity 2 ..................................................................................................222
Activity 3 ..................................................................................................223
Activity 4 ..................................................................................................225
Activity 5 ..................................................................................................226

PY
Activity 6 ..................................................................................................227
Activity 7 ..................................................................................................227
Activity 8 ..................................................................................................228
Activity 9 ..................................................................................................228
Activity 10 ................................................................................................229
Summary/Synthesis/Generalization ...................................................................230

O
Summative Test .......................................................................................................231
Glossary of Terms ...................................................................................................237
References and Website Links Used in This Module ....................................238
C
E D
EP
D

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PY
O
C
E D
EP
D

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PY
O
C
E D
EP
D

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PY
O
C
E D
EP
D

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PY
O
C
E D
EP
D

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PY
O
C
E D
EP
D

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PY
O
C
E D
EP
D

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PY
O
C
E D
EP
D

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PY
O
C
E D
EP
D

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PY
O
C
E D
EP
D

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PY
O
C
E D
EP
D

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PY
O
C
E D
EP
D

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PY
O
C
E D
EP
D

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PY
O
C
E D
EP
D

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PY
O
C
E D
EP
D

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Module 3: Polynomial Functions

A. Learning Outcomes

Content Standard:

The learner demonstrates understanding of key concepts of


polynomial functions.

Performance Standard:

The learner is able to conduct systematically in different fields

PY
a mathematical investigation involving polynomial functions.

Unpacking the Standards for Understanding

Subject: Mathematics 10 Learning Competencies

O
Quarter: Second Quarter
1. Illustrate polynomial functions
TOPIC: Polynomial
Functions
C2. Graph polynomial functions
Lesson:
3. Solve problems involving
Illustrating Polynomial
D
polynomial functions
Functions, Graphs of
Polynomial Functions and
Solutions of Problems
E

Involving Polynomial
Functions
EP

Essential Essential
Writer: Understanding: Question:

Elino Sangalang Garcia Students will How do the


understand that mathematical
D

polynomial concepts help


functions are solve real-life
useful tools in problems that can
solving real-life be represented
problems and in as polynomial
making decisions functions?
given certain
constraints.

82
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Transfer Goal:

Students will be able to apply the key


concepts of polynomial functions in
finding solutions and making decisions
for certain life problems.

B. Planning for Assessment

Product/Performance
The following are products and performances that students are
expected to come up with in this module.

PY
1. Write polynomial functions in standard form
2. List all intercepts of polynomial functions written in both standard and
factored forms
3. Make a list of ordered pairs of points that satisfy a polynomial function
4. Make a table of signs for polynomial functions

O
5. Make a summary table of properties of the graph of polynomial functions
(behavior, number of turning points, location relative to the x-axis)
C
6. Formulate and solve real-life problems applying polynomial functions
7. Sketch plans or designs of objects that illustrate polynomial functions
g. Create concrete objects as products of applying solutions to problems
involving polynomial functions (e.g. rectangular open box, candle mold)
D
Assessment Map
E

PROCESS/
TYPE KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE
SKILLS
Pre- Part I Part I Part I Part II
EP

Assessment/
Diagnostic Illustrating Illustrating Graphing Products and
polynomial polynomial polynomial performances
functions functions functions related to or
(Recalling the (Recalling (Describing the involving
definition of the definition properties of quadratic
D

polynomial of polynomial graphs of functions


functions and functions and polynomial (Solving area
the terms the terms functions) problems)
associated associated
with it) with it) Solving problems
involving
Graphing polynomial
polynomial functions
functions
(Describing
the
properties of
graphs of
polynomial
functions)

83
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PROCESS/
TYPE KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE
SKILLS
Formative Quiz 1: Quiz 2: Quiz 3:

Illustrating Graphing Graphing


polynomial polynomial polynomial
functions functions functions
(Writing (Finding the (Preparing table
polynomial intercepts of of signs)
functions in polynomial
standard form functions) (Describing the
and in (Finding behavior of the
factored form) additional graph using the
points on the Leading
graph of a Coefficient Test)

PY
polynomial
function)
Quiz 4: Quiz 5: Quiz 6:

Graphing Graphing Solving problems


polynomial polynomial involving

O
functions functions polynomial
functions
(Identifying (Sketching
the number of
turning points
C
the graph of
polynomial
(Solving real-life
problems that
and the functions apply polynomial
behavior of using all functions)
the graph properties)
D
based on
multiplicity of Solving
zeros) problems
E

involving
(Sketching the polynomial
graph of functions
EP

polynomial
functions
using all
properties)
Summative Part I Part I Part I Part II
Assessment
D

Illustrating Illustrating Graphing Products and


polynomial polynomial polynomial performances
functions functions functions related to or
(Recalling the (Recalling (Describing the involving
definition of the definition properties of the polynomial
polynomial of polynomial graph of functions
functions and functions and polynomial (Solving
the terms the terms functions) problems
associated associated related to
with it) with it) Solving problems volume of an
involving open
Graphing polynomial rectangular box)
polynomial functions
functions

84
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PROCESS/
TYPE KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE
SKILLS
(Describing
the
properties of
the graphs of
polynomial
functions)
Self- Journal Writing:
Assessment Expressing understanding of polynomial functions, graphing
(optional) polynomial functions, and solving problems involving polynomial
functions

Assessment Matrix (Summative Test)

PY
Levels of How will I
What will I assess? How Will I Score?
Assessment assess?

The learner Paper and


demonstrates Pencil Test

O
Knowledge 15% understanding of key 1 point for every
concepts of Part I items 1, 2, correct response
polynomial functions. and 3
C
Illustrate polynomial
Process/Skills functions. Part I items 4, 5, 1 point for every
25% 6, 7, and 8 correct response
Graph polynomial
D
functions
Part I items 9, 1 point for every
Understanding 10, 11, 12, 13, correct response
Solve problems
E

30% and 14
involving polynomial
functions
EP

The learner is able to Part II Rubric for the Solution


conduct systematically (6 points) to the Problem
a mathematical Criteria:
investigation involving  Use of polynomial
polynomial functions function as model
 Use of appropriate
D

in different fields.
mathematical
Solve problems concept
Product/
involving polynomial  Correctness of the
Performance
functions. final answer
30%
Rubric for the
Output (Open Box)
Criteria:
 Accuracy of
measurement
(Dimensions)
 Durability and
Attributes

85
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
C. Planning for Teaching-Learning

Introduction

This module is a one-lesson module. It covers key concepts of


polynomial functions. It is composed of fourteen (14) activities, three
(3) of which are for illustration of polynomial functions, nine (9) are
for graphing polynomial functions, and two (2) are for solving real-life
problems involving polynomial functions.

The lesson as incorporated in the activities is designed for the


students to:
1. define polynomial functions and the terms associated with it;

PY
2. write polynomial functions in standard and factored form;
3. write polynomial functions in standard form given real numbers as
coefficients and exponents;
4. recall and apply the different theorems in factoring polynomials to

O
determine the x-intercepts;
5. determine more ordered pairs that satisfy a polynomial function;
C
6. investigate and analyze the properties of the graphs of polynomial
functions (like end behaviors, behaviors relative to the x-axis,
number of turning points, etc.); and
7. solve real-life problems (like area and volume, deforestation,
D
revenue-advertising expense situations, etc.) that apply
polynomial functions.
E

One of the essential targets of this module is for the students


to manually sketch the graph of polynomial functions which later on
EP

can be verified and validated with some graphing utilities like Grapes,
GeoGebra, or even Geometer’s Sketchpad.

In dealing with each activity of this lesson, the students are


given the opportunity to use their prior knowledge and required skills
D

in previous tasks. They are also given varied activities to process the
knowledge and skills learned and further deepen and transfer their
understanding of the different lessons.

Lastly, you may prepare your own related activities if you feel
that the activities suggested here are not appropriate to the level and
contexts of students (for examples, slow/fast learners, and localized
situations/examples).

86
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
As an introduction to the main lesson, show the students the
picture mosaic below, then ask them the question that follows:

PY
In this mosaic picture, can you see some mathematical
representations? Give some.

O
Motivate the students to find out the answers and to determine
the essential applications of polynomial functions through this
module.
C
Objectives:
D
After the learners have gone through this module, they are expected
to:
E

1. illustrate polynomial functions;


2. graph polynomial functions; and
EP

3. solve problems involving polynomial functions.

PRE-ASSESSMENT:

Check students’ prior knowledge, skills, and understanding of


D

mathematics concepts related to polynomial functions. Assessing


these will facilitate your teaching and the students’ understanding of
the lessons in this module.

LEARNING GOALS AND TARGETS:


Students are expected to demonstrate understanding of key
concepts of polynomial functions, formulate real-life problems involving
these concepts, and solve these using a variety of strategies. They are
also expected to investigate mathematical relationships in various
situations involving polynomial functions.

87
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Answer Key
Part I: Part II.
1. B 8. B (Use the rubric to rate students’ work/output)
2. C 9. A Solution to the problem
3. A 10. A Since P  2l  2w , then 36  2l  2w or 18  l  w , and
4. D 11. D w  18  l .
5. A 12. D The lot area can be expressed as A(l )  l (18  l ) or
6. D 13. A A(l )  18l  l 2 .
7. C 14. A
A(l )  (l 2  18l )
A(l )  (l 2  18l  81)  81

PY
A(l )  (l  9) 2  81, in vertex form.
Therefore, l  9 meters and w  18  l  18  9  9
meters, yielding the maximum area of 81 square
meters.

What to KNOW

O
C
The students need first to recall the concept of polynomial
expressions. These will lead them to define and illustrate mathematically
the polynomial functions.
D
Activity 1: Which is which?
E

Answer Key
EP

1. polynomial
2. not polynomial because the variable of one term is inside the radical
sign
3. polynomial
4. not polynomial because the exponents of the variable are not whole
D

numbers
5. not polynomial because the variables are in the denominator
6. polynomial
7. not polynomial because the exponent of one variable is not a whole
number
8. polynomial
9. not polynomial because the exponent of one variable is negative
10. polynomial

88
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Let this activity be the starting point of defining a polynomial
function as follows:

A polynomial function is a function of the form

P( x )  an x n  an 1x n 1  an 2 x n 2  ...  a1x  a0 , an  0,

where n is a nonnegative integer, a0 , a1, ..., an are real numbers called


coefficients, an x n is the leading term, an is the leading coefficient,
and a0 is the constant term.

PY
Other notations:

f ( x )  an x n  an1x n1  an2 x n2  ...  a1x  a0

O
or
y  an x n  an1x n1  an2 x n2  ...  a1x  a0 ,
C
Activity 2: Fix and Move Them, Then Fill Me Up
D
Answer Key
E

Polynomial Function in Leading Constant


Polynomial Function Degree
Standard Form Coefficient Term
EP

1. f ( x )  2  11x  2x 2 f ( x )  2x 2  11x  2 2 2 2
3
2x 3 2 5
2. f ( x )  2x  5  15x f (x)   15x 
5
3
3 3 3 3 3 3
3. y  x( x  5)
2
y  x 3  5x 3 1 0
D

4. y  x( x  3)( x  3) y  x 3  9x 3 -1 0
5. y  ( x  4)( x  1)( x  1)2 y  x 4  3x 3  5x 2  3x  4 4 1 4

89
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 3: Be a Polynomial Function Architect

Answer Key
7 2 1 7 3 1 2
1. f ( x )  2x 3  x  x 4. f ( x )  x  x  2x
4 6 4 6
1 7 1 7 2
2. f ( x )  2x 3  x 2  x 5. f ( x )   x 3  x  2x
6 4 6 4
7 3 1 1 7
3. f ( x )  x  2x 2  x 6. f ( x )   x 3  2x 2  x
4 6 6 4

PY
The answers above are expected to be given by the students. In
addition, instruct them to classify each polynomial according to the
degree. Also, let them identify the leading coefficient and the constant
term.

What to PROCESS

O
C
In this section, the students need to revisit the lessons and their
knowledge on evaluating polynomials, factoring polynomials, solving
polynomial equations, and graphing by point-plotting.
D

Activity 4: Do you miss me? Here I Am Again


E

Answer Key
EP

1. ( x  1)x  3( x  2) 6. y  x( x  3)( x  4)


2. x  3x  2( x  3)( x  3) 7. y  ( x  2)( x  2)( x 2  4)
3. (2x - 3)  x -1 (x - 3) 8. y  2( x  1)( x  1)( x  1)( x  3)
D

4. ( x  2)( x  2)( x  3) 9. y   x( x  1)( x  1)( x  3)( x  3)


5. (2x  3)( x  1)( x  2)( x  3) 10. y  (2x  3)( x  1)( x  2)( x  3)

The preceding task is very important for the students because it


has something to do with the x-intercepts of a graph. These are the x-
values when y = 0, and, thus the point(s) where the graph intersects the
x-axis can be determined.

90
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 5: Seize Me and Intercept Me

Answer Key
1. x-intercepts: 0, -4, 3
2. x-intercepts: 2, 1, -3
3. x-intercepts: 1, -1, -3
4. x-intercepts: 2, -2
5. x-intercepts: 0, 1, -1, -3, 3

Activity 6: Give Me More Companions

PY
Answer Key
1. x-intercepts: -4, -2, 1, 3
y-intercept: 24

O
x -5 -3 0 2 4
y C144 -24 24 -24 144

ordered pairs: (-5,144), (-4,0), (-3, -24), (-2,0), (0,24), (1,0),


(2-24), (3,0), (4,144)
D
3
2. x-intercepts: -5,  , 2, 4
2
E

y-intercept: -90

x -6 -4 -0.5 3 5
EP

y -720 240 -101.2 72 -390

3
ordered pairs: (-6, -720), (-5, 0), (-4, 240), (  , 0), (-0.5, 101.2),
2
D

(2, 0), (3, 72), (4, 0), (5, -390)

4
3. x-intercepts: -6, 0,
3
y-intercept: 0

x -7 -3 1 2
y 175 -117 7 -32

4
ordered pairs: (-7,175), (-6,0), (-3,-117), (0,0), (1,7), ( ,0),
3

91
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
(2,-32)

4. x-intercepts: -3, -1, 0, 1, 3


y-intercept: 0

x -4 -2 -0.5 0.5 2 4
y 1680 -60 1.64 1.64 -60 1680

ordered pairs: (-4,1680), (-3, 0), (-2, -60), (-1, 0), (-0.5, 1.64),
(0, 0), (0.5, 1.64), (1, 0), (2, -60), (3, 0), (4, 1680)

PY
Activity 7: What is the destiny of my behavior?

Answer Key

O
Relation of y-value to Location of the Point
Value Value 0: (x,y): above the x-
of x of y axis, on the x-axis, or
y  0, y  0, or y  0 ?
C below the x-axis?
-5 144 y 0 above the x-axis
-4 0 y=0 on the x - axis
D
-3 -24 y 0 below the x-axis
-2 0 y=0 on the x - axis
0 24 y 0 above the x-axis
E

1 0 y=0 on the x - axis


2 -24 y 0 below the x-axis
EP

3 0 y=0 on the x - axis


4 144 y 0 above the x-axis

Answers to the Questions:


D

1. (-4,0), (-2,0), (1,0), and (3,0)


2. The graph is above the x-axis.
3. The graph is below the x-axis.
4. The graph is above the x-axis.
5. The graph is below the x-axis.
6. The graph is above the x-axis.

Show the students how to prepare a simpler but similar table, the
table of signs.

92
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Example:

The roots of the polynomial function y  ( x  4)( x  2)( x  1)( x  3)


are x = -4, - 2, 1, and 3 . These are the only values of x where the graph
will cross the x-axis. These roots partition the number line into intervals.
Test values are then chosen from within each interval.

Intervals
x  4  4  x  2  2  x  1 1  x  3 x 3
Test Value -5 -3 0 2 4

PY
x4 – + + + +
x2 – – + + +
x 1 – – – + +
x 3 – – – – +
+ – + – +

O
y  ( x  4)( x  2)( x  1)( x  3)
position of the curve
above below above below above
relative to the x-axis
C
Give emphasis that at this level, though, we cannot yet determine
the turning points of the graph. We can only be certain that the graph is
correct with respect to intervals where the graph is above, below, or on
D
the x-axis as shown on the next page.
E
EP
D

93
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 8: Sign on and Sketch Me

Answer Key

1. y  (2x  3)( x  1)( x  4)


3
(a)  , 1, 4
2
3 3
(b) x ,   x  1, 1  x  4 , x4
2 2

PY
(c)
Intervals
3 3
x   x 1 1 x  4 x4
2 2

O
Test Value -2 0 2 5
2x  3 - + + +
x 1 -
C - + +
x4 - - - +
y  (2x  3)( x  1)( x  4) – + – +
D
position of the curve
below above below above
relative to the x-axis
E

(d)
EP
D

2. y   x 3  2x 2  11x  12 or y  ( x  3)( x  1)( x  4)


(a) -3, 1, 4
(b) x  3 ,  3  x  1, 1  x  4 , x4

94
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
(c)
Intervals
x  3 3  x 1 1 x  4 x4
Test Value -4 0 2 5
x 3 - + + +
x 1 - - + +
x4 - - - +
y  ( x  3)( x  1)( x  4) + - + -
position of the curve
above below above below
relative to the x-axis

PY
Note: Observe that there is one more factor, -1, that
affects the final sign of y. For example, under
x  3 , the sign of y is positive because
-(-)(-)(-) = + .
(d)

O
C
D

3. y  x 4  26x 2  25 or y  ( x  5)( x  1)( x  1)( x  5)


E

(a) -5, -1, 1, 5


(b) x  5 ,  5  x  1,  1  x  1, 1 x  5 ,
EP

x 5
(c)
Intervals
x  5  5  x  1  1  x  1 1  x  5 x 5
D

Test Value -6 -2 0 2 6
x 5 - + + + +
x 1 - - + + +
x 1 - - - + +
x 5 - - - - +
y  x  26x 2  25
4
+ – + – +
position of the
curve relative to above below above below above
the x-axis

95
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
(d)

PY
4. y   x 4  5x 3  3x 2  13x  10 or

y  ( x  5)( x  2)( x  1)2


(a) -5, -2, 1

O
(b) x  5 ,  5  x  2 ,  2  x  1, x 1
(c)
C Intervals
x  5  5  x  2 2  x 1 x 1
Test Value -6 -3 0 2
D
x 5 - + + +
x2 - - + +
E

( x  1)2 + + + +
y  ( x  5)( x  2)( x  1) 2
- + - -
EP

position of the curve


below above below below
relative to the x-axis
Note: Observe that there is one more factor, -1, that affects
the final sign of y. For example, under x  5 , the
sign of y is negative because -(-)(-)(+) = - . .
D

(d)

96
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
5. y  x 2 ( x  3)( x  1) 4 ( x  1)3
(a) -3, -1, 0, 1
(b) x  3 ,  3  x  1, 1 x  0 , 0  x  1, x 1
(c)
Intervals
x  3  3  x  1 1 x  0 0  x 1 x 1
Test Value -4 -2 -0.5 0.5 2
x2 + + + + +
x 3 - + + + +

PY
( x  1) 4 + + + + +
( x  1)3 - - - - +
y  x 2 ( x  3)( x  1)4 ( x  1)3 + – – – +
position of the curve
above below below below above
relative to the x-axis

(d)

O
C
E D

Broken parts of the graph indicate that somewhere below,


EP

they are connected. The graph goes downward from (-1,0)


and at a certain point, it turns upward to (-3,0).
Answers to the Questions:
1. For y  (2x  3)( x  1)( x  4)
D

3
a. Since there is no other x-intercept to the left of  , then the
2
graph falls to the left continuously without end.
3 3
b. (i)   x  1 and x  4 (ii) x   and 1  x  4
2 2
c. Since there is no other x-intercept to the right of 4, then the
graph rises to the right continuously without end.
d. leading term: 2x 3
e. leading coefficient: 2, degree: 3

97
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
2. For y   x 3  2x 2  11x  12 or y  ( x  3)( x  1)( x  4)
a. Since there is no other x-intercept to the left of -3, then the
graph rises to the left continuously without end.
b. (i) x  3 and 1  x  4 (ii)  3  x  1 and x  4
c. Since there is no other x-intercept to the right of 4, then the
graph falls to the right continuously without end.
d. leading term:  x 3
e. leading coefficient: -1, degree: 3

3. For y  x 4  26x 2  25 or y  ( x  5)( x  1)( x  1)( x  5)


a. Since there is no other x-intercept to the left of -5, then the
graph rises to the left continuously without end.

PY
b. (i) x  5 and  1  x  1 (ii)  5  x  1 and 1  x  5
c. Since there is no other x-intercept to the right of 5, then the
graph rises to the right continuously without end.
d. leading term: x 4

O
e. leading coefficient: 1, degree: 4

4. For y   x 4  5x 3  3x 2  13x  10 or y  ( x  5)( x  2)( x  1)2


C
a. Since there is no other x-intercept to the left of -5, then the
graph falls to the left continuously without end.
b. (i)  5  x  2 (ii) x  5 ,  2  x  1 and x  1
c. Since there is no other x-intercept to the right of 1, then the
D
graph falls to the right continuously without end.
d. leading term:  x 4
E

e. leading coefficient: -1, degree: 4

5. For y  x 2 ( x  3)( x  1)4 ( x  1)3


EP

a. Since there is no other x-intercept to the left of -3, then the


graph rises to the left continuously without end.
b. (i) x  3 and x  1 (ii)  3  x  1, 1  x  0, and 0  x  1
c. Since there is no other x-intercept to the right of 1, then the
D

graph rises to the right continuously without end.


d. leading term: x 10
e. leading coefficient: 1, degree: 10

Let the students reflect on these questions: Do the leading


coefficient and degree of the polynomial affect the behavior of its
graph? Encourage them to do an investigation as they perform the next
activity.

98
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 9: Follow My Path!

Answer Key

Case 1:
a. positive b. odd degree c. falling to the left
rising to the right
Case 2:
a. negative b. odd degree c. rising to the left
falling to the right
Case 3:
a. positive b. even degree c. rising to the left
rising to the right

PY
Case 4:
a. negative b. even degree c. falling to the left
falling to the right

Summary table:

O
Leading Behavior of
Coefficient: the Graph:
Degree:
Rising or Possible
Sample Polynomial Function
C n0
or
Even
or Odd
Falling
Left- Right-
Sketch
n0 hand hand
D
3 2
1. y  2x  7x  7x  12 n0 odd falling rising
E

5 4 3 2
2. y   x  3x  x  7x  4
EP

n0 odd rising falling


D

4 2
3. y  x  7 x  6x n0 even rising rising

4 3 2
4. y   x  2x  13x  14x  24 n0 even falling falling

99
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Synthesis: (The Leading Coefficient Test)

1. If the degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is


positive, then the graph falls to the left and rises to the right.
2. If the degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is
negative, then the graph rises to the left and falls to the right.
3. If the degree of the polynomial is even and the leading coefficient is
positive, then the graph rises to the right and also rises to the left.
4. If the degree of the polynomial is even and the leading coefficient is
negative, then the graph falls to the left and also falls to the right.

You should also consider another helpful strategy to determine

PY
whether the graph crosses or is tangent to the x-axis at each x-intercept.
This strategy involves the concept of multiplicity of a root of a
polynomial function, the one generalized in the next activity.

O
Activity 10: How should I pass through? C
Answer Key

Characteristic
Behavior of Graph Relative
Root or of
Multiplicity to x-axis at this Root:
D
Zero Multiplicity:
Crosses or is Tangent to
Odd or even
-2 2 even tangent to x-axis
E

-1 3 odd crosses the x-axis


1 4 even tangent to x-axis
EP

2 1 odd crosses the x-axis

Answer to the Questions:


a. The graph is tangent to the x-axis.
b. The graph crosses the x-axis.
D

The next activity considers the number of turning points of the


graph of a polynomial function. The turning points of a graph occur
when the function changes from decreasing to increasing or from
increasing to decreasing values.

100
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 11: Count Me In

Answer Key

Number
Polynomial of
Sketch Degree
Function Turning
Points

PY
1. y  x 4 4 1

x
y

O
x

2. y  x 4  2x 2  15
C 4 3
D
y
E

x
3. y  x 5
5 0
EP
D

4. y  x 5  x 3  2x  1 5 2
x

101
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
y

5. y  x 5  5 x 3  4x x
5 4

Answers to the Questions:

PY
a. Quartic functions: have an odd number of turning points; at most 3
turning points
Quintic functions: have an even number of turning points; at most
4 turning points
b. No. It is not possible.

O
c. The number of turning points is at most (n – 1).

Important: The graph of a polynomial function is continuous, smooth, and


has rounded turns.
C
D
What to REFLECT on and UNDERSTAND

Activity 12: It’s Your Turn, Show Me


E

Answer Key
1. y  ( x  3)( x  1)2 (2x  5)
EP

a. leading term:  2x 4
b. end behaviors: rises to the left, falls to the right
5
c. x-intercepts: -3, -1,
D

2
5
points on x-axis: (-3,0), (-1,0), ( ,0)
2
d. multiplicity of roots: -3 has multiplicity 1, -1 has multiplicity 2,
5
has multiplicity 1
2
e. y-intercept: 15
point on y-axis: (0,15)
f. no. of turning points: 1 or 3

102
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
g. expected graph:

PY
Note: At this stage, we cannot determine the exact values of all
the turning points of the graph. We need calculus for this.
For now, we just need to ensure that the graph's end
behaviors and intercepts are correctly graphed.

O
2. y  ( x 2  5)( x  1)2 ( x  2)3
a. leading term: x7
b. end behaviors: falls to the left, rises to the right
c. x-intercepts:
C  5 , 1, 5 , 2
points on the x-axis: (  5 ,0), (1,0), ( 5 ,0), (2,0)
d. multiplicity of roots:  5 has multiplicity 1, 1 has
D
multiplicity 2, 5 has multiplicity 1, 2
has multiplicity 3
E

e. y-intercept: 40
point on y-axis: (0, 40)
EP

f. no. of turning points: 2 or 4 or 6


g. expected graph:
D

Note: Broken parts of the graph indicate that somewhere above,


they are connected. The graph goes upward from (1, 0) and
at a certain point, it turns downward to (  5 , 0).

103
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
3. y   x 3  2x 2  2x  4 or in factored form y  ( x 2  2)( x  2)
a. leading term:  x3
b. end behaviors: rises to the left, falls to the right
c. x-intercept: 2
point on x-axis: (2, 0)
d. multiplicity of root: -2 has multiplicity 1
e. y-intercept: 4
point on y-axis: (0, 4)
f. no. of turning points: 0 or 2
g. expected graph:

PY
O
C
Note: The graph seems to be flat near x = 1. However, at this stage,
D
we cannot determine whether there are any “flat” parts in the
graph. We need calculus for this. For now, we just need to
ensure that the graph's end behaviors and intercepts are
E

correctly graphed.
EP

4. y  x 2 ( x 2  7)(2x  3)
a. leading term: 2x 5
b. end behaviors: falls to the left, rises to the right
3
c. x-intercepts:  7,  , 0, 7
2
D

3
points on the x-axis: (  7 , 0), (  , 0), (0, 0), ( 7 , 0)
2
3
d. multiplicity of roots:  7 has multiplicity 1,  has
2
multiplicity 1, 0 has multiplicity 2, 7
has multiplicity 1
e. y-intercept: 0
point on the y-axis: (0, 0)
f. no. of turning points: 2 or 4

104
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
g. expected graph:

PY
5. y  2x 4  3x 3  18x 2  6x  28 or in factored form
y  ( x 2  2)(2x  7)( x  2)
a. leading term: 2x 4
b. end behaviors: rises to the left, rises to the right

O
7
c. x-intercepts: -2,  2 , 2,
2
points on x-axis:
C (-2, 0), (  2 , 0), ( 2 , 0), (
7
, 0)
2
d. multiplicity of roots: -2 has multiplicity 1,  2 has
D
multiplicity 1,
7
2 has multiplicity 1, has multiplicity
E

2
1
EP

e. y-intercept: 28
point on y-axis: (0, 28)
f. no. of turning points: 1 or 3
g. expected graph:
D

105
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 13: Investigate Deeper and Decide Wisely

Answers to the Questions

1. a. 50%
b. The value given by the table is 23.7%. The polynomial gives a
value of 26.3%. The given polynomial is the cubic polynomial
that best fits the data. We expect it to give a good
approximation of the forest cover but it may not necessarily
produce the exact values.
c. The domain of the function is [0,98]. Since year 2100

PY
corresponds to x = 200, we cannot use the function to predict
forest cover during this year. Moreover, if x = 200, the
polynomial predicts a forest cover of 59.46%. This is very
unrealistic unless major actions are done to reverse the trend.

O
You can find other data that can be modelled by a
polynomial. Use the regression tool in MS Excel or GeoGebra
to determine the best fit polynomial for the data.
C
2. The figure below can help solve the problem.
D
24

x x
E

x x
EP

18 18 - 2x
D

x x
x x
24 - 2x

106
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Solution:
Let x be the height of the box
18 – 2x be the width of the box
24 – 2x be the length of the box

Working Equation: lwh  V


(24  2x )(18  2x )x  V ( x )
(24  2x )(18  2x )x  560
4x 3  84x 2  432x  560
4x 3  84x 2  432x  560  0

PY
x 3  21x 2  108x  140  0
( x  2)( x  5)( x  14)  0
To meet the requirements, the height of the box is either
2 inches or 5 inches. Both will result in the volume of 560 cubic
inches. In this problem, it is impossible to produce a box if the

O
height is 14 inches, so x = 14 is not a solution.
C
Encourage the students to write their insights. Let them show their
appreciation of polynomial functions. The following questions might be
helpful for them: Were you surprised that polynomial functions have
D
real and practical uses? What mathematical concepts do you need to
solve these kinds of problems?
E

What to TRANSFER
EP

The goal of this section is to check if the students can appl y polynomial
functions to real-life problems and produce a concrete object that
satisfies the conditions given in the problem.
D

Activity 14: Make Me Useful, Then Produce Something

Answers to the Questions

Solution:

Let x be the side of the square base of the pyramid. So,


area of the base (B): B  x2
height of the pyramid (h): h  x 2

1
Working Equation: V  Bh
3
107
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
1 2
V (x)  x ( x  2)
3
1 2
25  x ( x  2)
3
75  x 3  2x 2  x 3  2x 2  75  0
( x  5)( x 2  3x  15)  0

The only real solution to the equation is 5. So, the side of


the square base is 5 inches long and the height of the pyramid is
3 inches.

Students’ outputs may vary depending on the materials used and in the

PY
way they consider the criteria.

Summary/Synthesis/Generalization:

O
This lesson was about polynomial functions. You learned how to :


C
illustrate and describe polynomial functions;

 show the graph of polynomial functions using the following


D
properties:
- the intercepts (x-intercept and y-intercept);
- the behavior of the graph using the Leading Coefficient Test,
E

table of signs, turning points, and multiplicity of zeros; and

 solve real-life problems that can be modelled with polynomial


EP

functions.
D

108
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
SUMMATIVE TEST

Part I

Choose the letter that best answers each question.

1. Which of the following could be the value of n in the equation


f(x) = x n if f is a polynomial function?
1
A. –2 C.
4
B. 0 D. 3

PY
2. Which of the following is NOT a polynomial function?
A. f (x )   C. f ( x )   x  5 x 3
2 3 1

O
B. f ( x )   x  1 D. f ( x )  x  2x 2
5
3

3.
C
What is the leading coefficient of the polynomial function f ( x )  x  2x 3  4 ?
A. – 4 C. 1
B. – 2 D. 3
D
1
4. How should the polynomial function f ( x )  x  x 2  11x 4  2x 3 be
2
E

written in standard form?


1
A. f ( x )  11x 4  2x 3  x  x 2
2
EP

1
B. f ( x )   x 2  x  2x 3  11x 4
2
1
C. f ( x )  11x 4  2x 3  x 2  x
2
D

1
D. f ( x )  x  x 2  2x 3  11x 4
2
5. Which polynomial function in factored form represents the given
graph?
y
A. y  (2x  3)( x  1)2
B. y  (2x  3)( x  1)2
C. y  (2x  3)2 ( x  1)
D. y  (2x  3)2 ( x  1)

109
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
6. Which of the following could be the graph of y  x 4  5 x 2  4 ?
y
y

x
x

A. C.
y y

PY
x
x

B.

O
D.
C
7. If you will draw the graph of y  x 2 ( x  1) , how will the graph behave
at the x-axis?
A. The graph crosses both (0, 0) and (1, 0).
D
B. The graph crosses (0, 0) and is tangent to the x-axis at (1, 0).
C. The graph crosses (1, 0) and is tangent to the x-axis at (0, 0).
E

D. The graph is tangent to the x-axis at both (0, 0) and (1, 0).

8. You are asked to graph f ( x )   x 6  x 5  5x 4  x 3  3x 2  x using its


EP

properties. Which of these will be your graph?


y y
y
2 y 1
1

2
D

1 -6 -5 -4 -3 -6 -2 -5 -1 -4 O -3 1 x -2 -1 O 1 x

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 O 1 x -1 -1

-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 O 1 x

A. B. C. D.
-2 -2
-1

-1
-3 -3
3 n 2
9. Given that f ( x )  7 x  x , what value should be assigned to n to
-2

make f a function of degree 7?


-2
-4 -4

7 3-3 3 7
-3

A.  B.  C. D.-5
3 7 7 3
-5
-4

-4 -6 -6
-5

-5

110
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
10. If you were to choose from 2, 3, and 4, which pair of values for a
and n would you consider so that y = ax n could define the graph
below?
y

A. a = 2 , n = 3
2 B. a = 3 , n = 2
C. a = 2 , n = 4
1
D. a = 3 , n = 3
-8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 O x

-1
11. A car manufacturer determines that its profit, P, in thousands of
pesos, can be modeled by the function P(x) = 0.001 25x 4 + x – 3,

PY
-2
where x represents the number of cars sold. What is the profit at
x =150? -3

A. Php 75.28 C. Php 3,000,000.00


B. Php 632,959.50
-4
D. Php 10,125,297.00

O
12. Your friend Aaron
-5 Marielle asks your help in drawing a rough sketch
of the graph of y  ( x 2  1)(2x 4  3) by means of the Leading
-6
Coefficient Test. How will you explain the behavior of the graph?
C
A. The graph is falling to the left and rising to the right.
B. The graph is rising to both left and right.
C. The graph is rising to the left and falling to the right.
D
D. The graph is falling to both left and right.

13. Lein Andrei is tasked to choose from the numbers –2, –1, 3, and 6 to
E

form a polynomial function in the form y = ax n. What values should


he assign to a and n so that the function could define the graph
EP

below?
y

x
A. a = 3 , n = -2
B. a = 3 , n=6
D

C. a = 6 , n=3
D. a = -1 , n=6

14. Consider this Revenue-Advertising Expense situation.


A drugstore that sells a certain brand of vitamin capsule estimates
that the profit P (in pesos) is given by
P  50x 3  2400x 2  2000 , 0  x  32

111
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
where x is the amount spent on advertising (in thousands of pesos).
An advertising agency provides four (4) different advertising
packages with costs listed below. Which of these packages will
yield the highest revenue for the company?
A. Package A: Php 8,000.00
B. Package B: Php 16,000.00
C. Package C: Php 32,000.00
D. Package D: Php 48,000.00

Part 2

Read and analyze the situation below. Then, answer the questions or
perform the required task.

PY
An open box with dimensions 2 inches by 3 inches by 4 inches
needs to be increased in size to hold five times as much material as the
current box. (Assume each dimension is increased by the same

O
amount.)

Task:
C
(a) Write a function that represents the volume V of the new box.
(b) Find the dimensions of the new box.
(c) Using hard paperboard, make the two boxes - one with the
original dimensions and another with the new dimensions.
D
(d) On one face of the bigger box, write your mathematical
solution in getting the new dimensions.
E

Additional guidelines:
1. The boxes should look presentable and are durable enough to
EP

hold any dry material such as sand, rice grains, etc.


2. Consider the rubric below.

Rubric for Rating the Output:


D

Point Descriptor
Polynomial function is correctly presented as model,
3 appropriate mathematical concepts are used in the solution,
and the correct final answer is obtained.
Polynomial function is correctly presented as model,
2 appropriate mathematical concepts are partially used in the
solution, and the correct final answer is obtained.
Polynomial function is not correctly presented as model,
1 other alternative mathematical concepts are used in the
solution, and the final answer is incorrect.

112
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Criteria for Rating the Output (Box):
 Each box has the needed dimensions.
 The boxes are durable and presentable.

Point/s to be Given:
3 points if the boxes have met the two criteria
2 points if the boxes have met only one criterion
1 point if the boxes have not met any of the criteria

Answer Key for Summative Test

PY
Part I: Part II.
1. B (Use the rubric to rate students’ work/output)
2. D
Solution for finding the dimensions of the desired box:

O
3. B
4. C Let x be the number to be added to each of length, width
5. B and height to increase the size of the box. Then the
6. A
C
dimensions of the new box are x+2 by x+3 by x+4.
7. C
8. C Since the volume of the original box is (2 inches)
9. A (3 inches) (4 inches) = 24 cubic inches, then the volume
D
10. B of the new box is 120 cubic inches.
11. B
E

12. D Writing these in an equation, we have


13. D ( x  2)( x  3)( x  4)  V ( x )
14. C x 3  9x 2  26x  24  120
EP

x 3  9x 2  26x  96  0 ,
( x  2)( x 2  11x  48)  0

Therefore, from the last equation, the only real solution


D

is x = 2. Thus, the dimensions of the new box are 4


inches by 5 inches by 6 inches.

Note to the Teacher:


To validate that the volume of the bigger box is five
times the volume of the other box, guide the students to
compare the content of both boxes using sand, rice
grains, or mongo seeds.

113
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Glossary of Terms

Constant Function – a polynomial function whose degree is 0

Cubic Function – a polynomial function whose degree is 3

Evaluating a Polynomial – the process of finding the value of the


polynomial at a given value in its domain

Intercepts of a Graph – the points on the graph that have zero as


either the x-coordinate or the y-coordinate

PY
Irreducible Factor - a factor that can no longer be factored using
coefficients that are real numbers

Leading Coefficient Test - a test that uses the leading term of the

O
polynomial function to determine the right-hand and the left-hand
behaviors of the graph
C
Linear Function - a polynomial function whose degree is 1

Multiplicity of a Root - tells how many times a particular number is a


D
root for a given polynomial

Nonnegative Integer - zero or any positive integer


E

Polynomial Function - a function denoted by


EP

P( x )  an x n  an1x n1  an2 x n2  ...  a1x  a0 , where n is a nonnegative


integer, a0 , a1, ..., an are real numbers called coefficients, but an  0, ,
an x n is the leading term, an is the leading coefficient, and a0 is the
constant term
D

Polynomial in Standard Form - any polynomial whose terms are


arranged in decreasing powers of x

Quadratic Function - a polynomial function whose degree is 2

Quartic Function - a polynomial function whose degree is 4

Quintic Function - a polynomial function whose degree is 5

Turning Point - point where the function changes from decreasing to


increasing or from increasing to decreasing values

114
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
References

Alferez, M. S., Duro, MC.A., & Tupaz, KK. L. (2008). MSA Advanced
Algebra. Quezon City, Philippines: MSA Publishing House

Berry, J., Graham, T., Sharp, J., & Berry, E. (2003). Schaum’s A-Z
Mathematics. London, United Kingdom: Hodder &Stoughton
Educational.

Cabral, E. A., De Lara-Tuprio, E. P., De Las Penas, ML. N., Francisco,


F. F., Garces, IJ. L., Marcelo, R. M., & Sarmiento, J. F. (2010).
Precalculus. Quezon City, Philippines: Ateneo de Manila University

PY
Press

Jose-Dilao, S., Orines, F. B., & Bernabe, J. G. (2003). Advanced


Algebra, Trigonometry and Statistics. Quezon City, Philippines: JTW
Corporation

O
Lamayo, F. C., & Deauna, M. C. (1990). Fourth Year Integrated
C
Mathematics. Quezon City, Philippines: Phoenix Publishing House, Inc.

Larson, R., & Hostetler, R. P. (2012). Algebra and Trigonometry. Pasig


City, Philippines: Cengage Learning Asia Pte Ltd
D
Marasigan, J. A., Coronel, A. C., & Coronel, I. C. (2004). Advanced
Algebra with Trigonometry and Statistics. Makati City, Philippines: The
E

Bookmark, Inc.
EP

Quimpo, N. F. (2005). A Course in Freshman Algebra. Quezon City,


Philippines

Uy, F. B., & Ocampo, J. L. (2000). Board Primer in Mathematics.


Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Capitol Publishing House.
D

Villaluna, T. T., & Van Zandt, GE. L. (2009). Hands-on, Minds-on


Activities in Mathematics IV. Quezon City, Philippines: St. Jude
Thaddeus Publications.

115
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Module 4: Circles

A. Learning Outcomes

Content Standard:

The learner demonstrates understanding of key concepts of circles.

Performance Standard:

The learner is able to formulate and find solutions to challenging


situations involving circles and other related terms in different disciplines

PY
through appropriate and accurate representations.

Unpacking the Standards for Understanding

Subject: Mathematics 10 Learning Competencies

O
1. Derive inductively the relations among
Quarter: Second Quarter chords, arcs, central angles, and inscribed
angles
TOPIC: Circles 2.
C
Illustrate segments and sectors of circles
3. Prove theorems related to chords, arcs,
LESSONS: central angles, and inscribed angles
1. A. Chords, Arcs, and
D
4. Solve problems involving chords, arcs,
Central Angles central angles, and inscribed angles of
B. Arcs and Inscribed circles
E

Angles 5. Illustrate tangents and secants of circles


2. A. Tangents and 6. Prove theorems on tangents and secants
Secants 7. Solve problems involving tangents and
EP

of a Circle secants of circles


B. Tangent and Secant
Segments
Essential Essential
Writer: Understanding: Question:
D

Concepcion S. Ternida Students will How do geometric


understand that the relationships
concept of circles has involving circles
wide applications in real help solve real-life
life and is a useful tool problems that are
in problem-solving and circular in nature?
in decision making.

116
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Transfer Goal:

Students will be able to apply the key


concepts of circles in finding solutions and
in making decisions for certain real-life
problems.

B. Planning for Assessment

Product/Performance

The following are products and performances that students are expected
to come up with in this module.

PY
1. Objects or situations in real life where chords, arcs, and central angles of
circles are illustrated
2. A circle graph applying the knowledge of central angles, arcs, and sectors
of a circle

O
3. Sketch plans or designs of a stage with circular objects that illustrate the
use of inscribed angles and arcs of a circle
4. Sketch plans or designs of an arch bridge that illustrate the applications of
secants and tangents
C
5. Deriving geometric relationships involving circles
6. Proof of theorems and other geometric relationships involving circles
7. Formulated and solved real-life problems
D
Assessment Map
E

PROCESS/
TYPE KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE
SKILLS
EP

Pre- Pre-Test: Pre-Test: Pre-Test:


Assessment/ Part I Part I Part I
Diagnostic Part II
Identifying Finding the
inscribed angle length of an arc Solving problems
of a circle given involving the key
D

Identifying the its radius concepts of


external secant circles
segment Finding the
measure of a
Describing the central angle
opposite angles given its
of a quadrilateral intercepted arc
inscribed in a
circle Finding the
lengths of
Identifying the segments
sum of the formed by
measures of the intersecting
central angles of chords
a circle

117
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PROCESS/
TYPE KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE
SKILLS

Describing the Finding the


inscribed angle measure of the
intercepting a angle formed by
semicircle two secants

Determining the Finding the


number of line length of a chord
that can be that is
drawn tangent to perpendicular to
the circle a radius

Finding the

PY
length of a
secant segment

Finding the area


of a sector of a

O
circle

Finding the
measure of a
C
central angle
given its
supplement
D
Finding the
measure of an
angle of a
quadrilateral
E

inscribed in a
circle
EP

Finding the
measure of an
inscribed angle
given the
measure of a
D

central angle
intercepting the
same arc

Pre-Test: Pre-Test: Pre-Test: Pre-Test:


Part III Part III Part III Part III
Situational Situational Situational Situational
Analysis Analysis Analysis Analysis

Planning the Illustrating every Explaining how to Making designs


design of a part or portion of prepare the of gardens
garden the garden designs of the
including their garden
measurements
and accessories

118
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PROCESS/
TYPE KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE
SKILLS
Determining the
mathematics Formulating
concepts or problems that
principles describe the
involved in the situations
design of the
garden Solving the
problems
formulated
Formative Quiz: Quiz: Quiz:
Lesson 1A Lesson 1A Lesson 1A

Identifying and Solving the Justifying why

PY
describing terms degree measure angles or arcs are
related to circles of the central congruent
angles and arcs
Explaining why
Finding the an arc is a

O
length of the semicircle
unknown
segments in a Explaining how to
circle find the degree
C measure of an
Determining the arc
reasons to
support the Explaining how to
D
given find the center of
statements in a a circular garden
two-column
E

proof of a
theorem Solving real-life
problems
EP

involving the
Solving the chords, arcs, and
length of an arc central angles of
of a circle given circles
its degree
measure
D

Finding the area


of the shaded
region of circles

Quiz: Quiz: Quiz:


Lesson 1B Lesson 1B Lesson 1B

Identifying the Finding the Explaining why


inscribed angles measure of an the inscribed
and their inscribed angle angles are
intercepted arcs and its congruent
intercepted arc
Proving theorems
on inscribed

119
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PROCESS/
TYPE KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE
SKILLS
Determining the angles and
measure of an intercepted arcs
inscribed angle using two-column
that intercepts a proofs
semicircle
Proving
Determining the congruence of
reasons to triangles using
support the the theorems on
given inscribed angles
statements in a
two-column Solving real-life
proof of a problems

PY
theorem involving arcs and
inscribed angles

Explaining the
kind of

O
parallelogram that
can be inscribed
in a circle
Quiz: Quiz: Quiz:
Lesson 2A
C
Lesson 2A Lesson 2A

Identifying Determining the Proving theorems


tangents and measures of the on tangents and
D
secants different angles, secants using
including the arcs, and two-column
angles they form segments proofs
E

Explaining how to
find the measure
EP

of an angle given
a circle with
tangents

Solving real-life
problems
D

involving tangents
and secants of a
circle
Quiz: Quiz: Quiz:
Lesson 2B Lesson 2B Lesson 2B

Identifying the Finding the Proving theorems


external secant length of the on intersecting
segment in a unknown chords, secant
circle segment in a segments, and
circle tangent segments

Explaining why
the solution for
finding the length

120
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PROCESS/
TYPE KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE
SKILLS
Drawing a circle of a segment is
with appropriate correct or
labels and incorrect
description
Solving real-life
problems
involving tangent
and secant
segments

Summative Pre-Test: Pre-Test: Pre-Test: Post-Test:


Part I Part I Part I Part III A and B
Part II

PY
Identifying an Finding the Preparing
inscribed angle measure of an Solving problems sketches of the
arc intercepted involving the key different
Identifying a by a central concepts of formations to be
tangent angle circles followed in the

O
field
Describing the Finding the demonstrations
angles of a length of an arc including their
quadrilateral sequencing and
inscribed in a
C Finding the presentation on
circle lengths of how each will be
segments performed
Identifying the formed by
D
sum of the intersecting Formulating and
measures of the chords solving problems
central angles of involving the key
E

a circle Finding the concepts of


measure of the circles
Describing the angle formed by
EP

inscribed angle a tangent and a


intercepting a secant
semicircle
Finding the
Determining the measure of an
number of lines inscribed angle
D

that can be given the


drawn tangent to measure of a
the circle central angle
intercepting the
same arc

Finding the
length of a
secant segment

Finding the area


of a sector of a
circle

121
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PROCESS/
TYPE KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE
SKILLS
Finding the
measure of a
central angle
given its
supplement

Finding the
measure of an
angle of a
quadrilateral
inscribed in a
circle

PY
Finding the
length of a chord
that is
perpendicular to
a radius

O
Self- Journal Writing:
Assessment Expressing understanding of the key concepts of circles

Expressing understanding of the different geometric relationships involving


circles
C
Assessment Matrix (Summative Test)
D
Levels of How will I How Will I
What will I assess?
Assessment assess? Score?
E

The learner demonstrates Paper and Pencil


understanding of key Test
EP

concepts of circles.
Part I items 1, 3, 4, 1 point for
Knowledge
1. Derive inductively the 6, 7, and 10 every correct
15%
relations among response
chords, arcs, central
angles, and inscribed
D

angles.
2. Illustrate segments Part I items 2, 5, 8, 1 point for
and sectors of circles. 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, every correct
Process/Skills
3. Prove theorems 15, and 16 response
25%
related to chords, arcs,
central angles and
inscribed angles Part I items 17, 18, 1 point for
4. Solve problems 19, and 20 every correct
involving chords, arcs, response
Understanding central angles, and
30% inscribed angles of
circles

122
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
5. Illustrate tangents and Part II items 1 and Rubric on
secants of circles 2 Problem
6. Prove theorems on Solving
tangents and secants (maximum of
7. Solve problems 4 points for
involving tangents and each
secants of circles problem)

The learner is able to Part III A Rubric for


formulate and find Sketches of
solutions to challenging the Different
situations involving Formations
circles and other related
terms in different (Total Score:

PY
disciplines through maximum of
Product/
appropriate and accurate 6 points )
Performance
representations. Part III B
30%
Rubric on
Problems

O
Formulated
and Solved
(Total Score:
C maximum of
6 points )
D
C. Planning for Teaching-Learning

This module covers key concepts of circles. It is divided into four


E

lessons namely: Chords, Arcs, and Central Angles, Arcs and Inscribed
Angles, Tangents and Secants of a Circle, and Tangent and Secant
Segments.
EP

Lesson 1A is about the relations among chords, arcs and central


angles of a circle, area of a segment and a sector, and arc length of a
circle. In this lesson, the students will determine the relationship between
the measures of the central angle and its intercepted arc, apply the
D

different geometric relationships among chords, arcs, and central angles


in solving problems, complete the proof of a theorem related to these
concepts, find the area of a segment and the sector of a circle, and
determine the length of an arc. (Note that all measures of angles and arcs
are in degrees.)

Moreover, the students will be given the opportunity to demonstrate


their understanding of the lesson by naming objects and citing real-life
situations where chords, arcs, and central angles of a circle are illustrated
and applied.

123
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
The concepts about arcs and inscribed angles of a circle are
contained in Lesson 1B. In this lesson, the students will determine the
geometric relationships that exist among arcs and inscribed angles of a
circle, apply these in solving problems, and prove related theorems.
Moreover, they will formulate and solve real-life problems involving these
geometric concepts.

The geometric relationships involving tangents and secants and


their applications in real life will be taken up in Lesson 2A. In this lesson,
the students will find the measures of angles formed by secants and
tangents and the arcs that these angles intercept. They will apply the
relationships involving tangents and secants in finding the lengths of
segments of some geometric figures. Moreover, the students will be given

PY
opportunities to formulate and solve real-life problems involving tangents
and secants of a circle.

Lesson 2B of this module is about the different geometric


relationships involving tangent and secant segments. The students will

O
apply these geometric relationships in finding the lengths of segments
formed by tangents and secants. To demonstrate their understanding of the
lesson, the students will make a design of a real-life object where tangent
C
and secant segments are illustrated or applied, then formulate and solve
problems out of this design.
D
In all the lessons, the students are given the opportunity to use their
prior knowledge and skills in learning circles. They are also given varied
activities to process the knowledge and skills learned and further deepen
E

and transfer their understanding of the different lessons.

As an introduction to the main lesson, show the students the


EP

pictures below, then ask them the questions that follow:


D

124
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Have you imagined yourself pushing a cart or riding a bus having
wheels that are not round? Do you think you can move heavy objects
from one place to another easily or travel distant places as fast as you
can? What difficulty do you think would you experience without circles?
Have you ever thought of the importance of circles in the field of
transportation, industries, sports, navigation, carpentry, and in your daily
life?

Entice the students to find out the answers to these questions and
to determine the vast applications of circles through this module.

Objectives:

PY
After the learners have gone through the lessons contained in this
module, they are expected to:
1. identify and describe terms related to circles;

O
2. use the relationship among chords, arcs, central angles, and
inscribed angles of circles; C
3. find the area of segments and sectors of circles;

4. find the lengths of arcs of circles;


D
5. use two-column proofs in proving theorems related to chords, arcs,
central angles, and inscribed angles of circles;
E

6. identify the tangents and secants of circles;


EP

7. formulate and solve problems involving chords, arcs, central angles,


and inscribed angles of circles;

8. use two-column proofs in proving theorems related to tangents and


D

secants of circles; and

9. formulate and solve problems involving tangents and secants of


circles.

PRE-ASSESSMENT:

Check students’ prior knowledge, skills, and understanding of


mathematics concepts related to circles. Assessing these will facilitate
teaching and students’ understanding of the lessons in this module.

125
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Answer Key

Part I Part II (Use the rubric to rate students’


1. B 11. A works/outputs)
2. A 12. A 1. 24.67 m
3. D 13. B 2. 27.38 km
4. D 14. A
5. C 15. A Part III (Use the rubric to rate students’
6. C 16. A works/outputs)
7. C 17. A
8. B 18. C
9. A 19. B

PY
10. D 20. C

LEARNING GOALS AND TARGETS:

O
Students are expected to demonstrate understanding of key concepts
of circles, formulate real-life problems involving these concepts, and solve
C
these using a variety of strategies. They are also expected to investigate
mathematical relationships in various situations involving circles.
D
Lesson 1A: Chords, arcs, and Central angles
E

What to Know

Assess students’ knowledge of the different mathematics concepts


EP

previously studied and their skills in performing mathematical operations.


Assessing these will facilitate teaching and students’ understanding of chords,
arcs, and central angles. Tell them that as they go through this lesson, they
have to think of this important question: “How do the relationships among
D

chords, arcs, and central angles of a circle facilitate finding solutions to real-
life problems and making decisions?”

Ask the students to identify, name, and describe the terms related to circles
by doing Activity 1. Let them explain how they arrived at their answers. Also,
ask them to describe and differentiate these terms.

126
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 1: Know My Terms and Conditions…

Answer Key

1. AN , AJ , AE 5. JL , JN , EN , EL
2. EJ 6. LEN , LJE , ENL , JLN , LNJ
3. EL , EJ 7. JAN , NAE
4. JNE , JLE 8. LEJ , JEN

Questions:
a. Recall the definition of the terms related to circles.

PY
Terms related to circle Description
1. radius It is a segment drawn from the center of
the circle to any point on the circle.
2. diameter It is a segment whose endpoints are on the

O
circle and it passes through the center of
the circle. It is the longest chord.
3. chord It is a segment joining any two points on
the circle.
C
4. semicircle It is an arc measuring one-half of the
circumference of a circle.
5. minor arc It is an arc of a circle that measures less
D
than a semicircle.
6. major arc It is an arc of a circle that measures
E

greater than a semicircle.


7. central angle It is an angle whose vertex is at the center
of the circle and with two radii as its sides.
EP

8. inscribed angle It is an angle whose vertex is on a circle


and whose sides contain chords of the
circle.
D

127
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Answer Key

b. 1. A radius is half the measure of the diameter.


2. A diameter is twice the measure of the radius and it is the longest
chord.
3. A chord is a segment joining any two points on the circle.
4. A semicircle is an arc measuring one-half the circumference of a
circle.
5. A minor arc is an arc of a circle that measures less than the
semicircle.
6. A major arc is an arc of a circle that measures greater than the
semicircle.

PY
7. A central angle is an angle whose vertex is the center of the circle
and with two radii as its sides.
8. An inscribed angle is an angle whose vertex is on a circle and
whose sides contain chords of the circle.

O
Show the students the right triangles with different measures of sides
and let them find the missing side. Give focus on the mathematics concepts
C
or principles applied to find the unknown side particularly the Pythagorean
theorem.
D
Activity 2: What is my missing side?
E

Answer Key

1. c  10 units
EP

2. c  17.49 units
3. c  12.73 units
4. a  12 units
5. b  4 units
D

6. b  12.12 units

Questions:
a. Using the equation a2  b2  c 2 .
b. Pythagorean theorem

128
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Provide the students with an opportunity to derive the relationship
between the measures of the central angle and the measure of its intercepted
arc. Ask them to perform Activity 3. In this activity, students will measure the
angles of the given figures using a protractor. Ask them to get the sum of the
angles in the first figure as well as the sum of the central angles in the second
figure. Ask them also to identify the intercepted arc of each central angle.
Emphasize that the sum of the angles formed by the coplanar rays with
common vertex but with no common interior points is equal to the sum of the
central angles formed by the radii of a circle with no common interior points.

Activity 3: Measure Me and You Will See…

PY
Answer Key

1. a. 105 d. 90
b. 75 e. 30

O
c. 60

2. a. 105 d. 90
b. 75
C e. 30
c. 60

3. In each figure, the angles have a common vertex.


D
4. 360 ; 360
5. 360
E

6. 360
7.
EP

Central Angle Measure Intercepted Arc

1. FAB 105 FB
2. BAC 75 BC
D

3. CAD 60 CD
4. EAD 90 ED
5. EAF 30 EF

8. 360 because the measure of the central angle is equal to the


measure of its intercepted arc.
9. Equal

129
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Present a real-life situation to the students to develop their
understanding of arcs and central angles of circles. In this activity, ask them
to find the degree measure of each arc of the wheel and also the angle
formed at the hub. Ask them further the importance of the spokes of the
wheel.

Activity 4: Travel Safely

Answer Key

a. 60 ; 60

PY
b. Evaluate students’ responses

Before proceeding to the next activities, let the students give a brief
summary of what they have learned so far. Provide them with an opportunity
to relate or connect their responses in the activities given to this lesson. Let

O
the students read and understand some important notes on chords, arcs, and
central angles. Tell them to study carefully the examples given.
C
What to PROCESS
D
In this section, let the students apply the key concepts of chords, arcs,
and central angles. Tell them to use the mathematical ideas and the
examples presented in the preceding section to answer the activities
E

provided.
EP

Ask the students to perform Activity 5. In this activity, the students will
identify and name arcs and central angles in the given circle and explain how
they identified them.
D

130
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 5: Identify and Name Me

Answer Key

1. LMH (or LGH ) and LKH (or LJH ); JKM (or JLM ) and
JGM (or JHM )
2.
Minor Arcs Major Arcs
JK KMJ

PY
KL KGL
LM LJM
MG MKG
HG HKG

O
JH C JMH

Note: There are many ways of naming the major arcs. The given
answers are just some of those ways.

3. Some Possible Answers: LAM ; MAG ; GAH ; JAH ; JAK ;


D
LAK
E

Questions:
a. A semicircle is an arc with measure equal to one-half of the
circumference of a circle and is named by using the two endpoints
EP

and another point on the arc.


A minor arc is an arc of a circle that measures less than the
semicircle. It is named by using the two endpoints on the circle.
A major arc is an arc of a circle that measures greater than the
semicircle. It is named by using the two endpoints and another point
D

on the arc.
A central angle is an angle whose vertex is the center of the circle
and with two radii as its sides.
b. Yes. A circle has an infinite set of points. Therefore, a circle has
many semicircles, arcs, and central angles.

In activities 6, 7, and 8, ask the students to apply the different


geometric relationships in finding the degree measure of the central angles,
the arcs that the angles intercept, and the lengths of chords. Then, let them
explain how they arrived at their answers.

131
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 6: Find My Degree Measure

Answer Key

1. 90 6. 90
2. 48 7. 48
3. 138 8. 150
4. 42 9. 42
5. 132 10. 132

Activity 7: Find Me!

PY
Answer Key

1. JSO and NSI ; JSN and OSI . They are vertical angles.
2. a. 113

O
b. 67
c. 67
3. Yes. Yes. Opposite sides of rectangles are congruent.
C
4. JO and NI ; JN and OI . The central angles that intercept the arcs
are congruent.
5. a. 67 d. 113
b. 113 e. 180
D
c. 67 f. 180
6. NJO ; NIO ; JOI ; JNI . The arcs measure 180°. Each arc or
E

semicircle contains the endpoints of the diameter.


EP

Activity 8: Get My Length

Answer Key
D

1. 8 units 5. 39  6.24 units


2. 2 units 6. 8 units
3. 5 units 7. 2 7  5.29 units
4. 39  6.24 units 8. 4 7  10.58 units
Note: Evaluate students’ explanations.

Provide the students opportunity to develop their skills in writing proofs.


Ask them to complete the proof of a theorem involving the diameter, chord,
and arc of a circle by doing Activity 9. If needed, guide the students as they
complete the proof of the theorem.

132
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 9: Make Me Complete!

Problem: To prove that in a circle, a diameter bisects a chord and an arc


with the same endpoints if and only if it is perpendicular to the
chord. The proof has two parts.
E

Given: ES is a diameter of U and N


perpendicular to chord GN at I. I G

Prove: 1. NI  GI U

2. EN  EG

PY
3. NS  GS S

Answer Key

O
Proof of Part 1: We will show that ES bisects GN and the minor arc GN.
C
Statements Reasons
1. U with diameter ES and chord Given
D
GN ; ES  GN
2. GIU and NIU are right angles. Definition of perpendicular lines
3. GIU  NIU Right angles are congruent.
E

4. UG  UN Radii of the same circle are


congruent.
EP
D

133
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Answer Key

Proof:
Statements Reasons
5. UI  UI Reflexive/Identity Property
6. GIU  NIU HyL Theorem
7. GI  NI Corresponding parts of congruent
triangles are congruent (CPCTC).
8. ES bisects GN . Definition of segment bisector
9. GUI  NUI From 6, CPCTC

PY
10. GUI and GUE are the E, I, U are collinear.
same angles.
NUI and NUE are the same
angles.
11. mGUE  mNUE From 9, 10, definition of congruent

O
angles
Degree measure of an arc
12. mEG  mGUE
mEN  mNUE
C
From 11, 12, substitution
13. mEN  mEG
D
14. mGUS  mNUS From 11, definition of
supplementary angles, angles that
are supplementary to congruent
E

angles are congruent.


Degree measure of an arc
EP

15. mGS  mGUS


mNS  mNUS
From 14, 15, substitution
16. mNS  mGS
D

Definition of arc bisector


17. ES bisects GN .

134
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
E
Given: ES is a diameter of U; ES bisects GN
N
at I and the minor arc GN. I G

PY
Answer Key

Proof of Part 2: We will show that ES  GN .


Statements Reasons

O
1. U with diameter ES , ES Given
bisects GN at I and the minor
arc
C
GN.
2. GI  NI Definition of bisector
D
GE  NE
3. UI  UI Reflexive/Identity Property
E

4. UG  UN Radii of the same circle are


congruent.
EP

5. GIU  NIU SSS Postulate


6. UIG  UIN CPCTC
7. UIG and UIN are right Angles which form a linear pair and
angles. are congruent are right angles.
8. IU  GN Definition of perpendicular lines
D

9. ES  GN IU is on ES

Combining Parts 1 and 2, the theorem is proven.

Have the students apply the knowledge and skills they have learned
about arc length, segment, and sector of a circle. Ask the students to perform
Activity 10 and Activity 11.

135
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 10: Find My Arc Length

Answer Key

1. 3.925 units
2. 5.23 units or 5.23 units
3. 7.85 units
4. 10.46 units or 10.47 units
5. 8.29 units

Questions:
a. The area of each shaded region was determined by using the

PY
A l
proportion  where A = degree measure of the arc,
360 2r
l = length of the arc, r = radius of the circle. Use the formula for
finding the area of a segment and the area of a triangle.

O
A l
b. The proportion  , area of a segment and the area of a
360 2r
triangle were used and so with substitution and the division
property.
C
D
Activity 11: Find This Part!

Answer Key
E

1. 9  cm2 or 28.26 cm2


EP

2. 18  cm2 or 56.52 cm2


3. 52.77 cm2
4. 9.31 cm2
5. 59.04 cm2
6. 40 cm2
D

Questions:
a. The area of the sector is equal to the product of the ratio
measure of the arc
and the area of the circle.
360
Subtract the area of the triangle from the area of the sector.
b. Area of a circle, area of a triangle, ratio, equilateral triangle, and
regular pentagon

136
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
What to REFLECT on and UNDERSTAND

Ask the students to take a closer look at some aspects of the


geometric concepts contained in this lesson. Provide them opportunities to
think deeply and test further their understanding of the lesson by doing
Activity 12. In this activity, the students will solve problems involving chords,
arcs, central angles, area of a segment and a sector, and arc length of a
circle.

Activity 12: More Circles Please …

PY
Answer Key
1. a. 72
b. 3.768 cm
c. regular pentagon
2. Yes. There are two pairs of congruent central angles/vertical angles

O
formed and they intercept congruent arcs.
3. a. Yes. because the arcs are intercepted by the same central angle.
b. No. Even if the two circles have the same central angles, the
C
lengths of their intercepted arcs are not equal because the 2
circles have different radii.
4. 60. (Evaluate students’ explanations. They are expected to use the
A l
D
proportion  to support their explanations.)
360 2r
5. Draw two chords on the garden and a perpendicular bisector to
E

each of the chords. The intersection of the perpendicular bisectors


to the chord is the center of the circular garden.
6. a. Education, because it has the highest budget which is
EP

Php12,000.00
Savings & Utilities, because they have the lowest budget which
is Php4,500.00
b. Education. It should be given the greater allocation because it is
a very good investment.
D

c. Education – 120
Food – 90
Utilities – 45
Savings – 45
Other expenses – 60
d. Get the percentage for each item by dividing the allotted budget
by the monthly income, then multiply it by 360.

137
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
e.
Item Sector Arc Length
Education 654.16 cm2 52.3 cm
Food 490.625 cm2 39.25 cm
Utilities 245.3125 cm2 19.625 cm
Savings 245.3125 cm2 19.625 cm
Other expenses 327.083 cm2 26.16 cm

Before the students move to the next section of this lesson, give a
short test (formative test) to find out how well they understood the lesson. Ask

PY
them also to write a journal about their understanding of chords, arcs, and
central angles. Refer to the Assessment Map.

What to TRANSFER

O
Give the students opportunities to demonstrate their understanding of
circles by doing a practical task. Let them perform Activity 13. You can ask
the students to work individually or in group. In this activity, the students will
C
name 5 objects or cite 5 situations in real life where chords, arcs, and central
angles of a circle are illustrated. Then, instruct them to formulate and solve
problems out of these objects or situations. Also, ask them to make a circle
graph showing the different school fees that students like them have to pay
D
voluntarily like Parents-Teachers Association fee, miscellaneous fee, school
paper fee, Supreme Student Government fee, and other fees. Ask them to
explain how they applied their knowledge of central angles and arcs of circle
E

in preparing the graph. Then, using the circle graph that they made, ask them
to formulate and solve at least two problems involving arcs, central angles,
EP

and sectors of a circle.

Activity 13: My Real World


D

Answer Key

Evaluate students’ product. You may use the rubric provided.

138
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Summary/Synthesis/Generalization:

This lesson was about chords, arcs and central angles of a circle, area
of a segment and a sector, and arc length of a circle. In this lesson, the
students determined the relationship between the measures of the central
angle and its intercepted arc.

They were also given the opportunity to apply the different geometric
relationships among chords, arcs, and central angles in solving problems,
complete the proof of a theorem related to these concepts, find the area of a
segment and the sector of a circle, and determine the length of an arc.

PY
Moreover, the students were asked to name objects and cite real-life
situations where chords, arcs, and central angles of a circle are illustrated and
the relationships among these concepts are applied.

O
Lesson 1B: Arcs and Inscribed Angles
C
What to KNOW
D
Let the students relate and connect previously learned mathematics
concepts to the new lesson, arcs and inscribed angles. As they go through
this lesson, tell them to think of this important question: “How do geometric
E

relationships involving arcs and inscribed angles facilitate solving real-life


problems and making decisions?”
EP

Start the lesson by asking the students to perform Activity 1. In this


activity, the students will identify in a given figure the angles and their
intercepted arcs. The students should be able to explain how they identified
and named these angles and intercepted arcs.
D

139
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 1: My Angles and Intercepted Arcs

Answer Key

Angles Arc That the Angle Intercepts


MSC MC
CSD CD
MSD MD

PY
MGC MC
DGC CD
MGD MD

O
1. Determine the chords having a common endpoint on the circle. The
chords are the sides of the angle and the common endpoint on the
circle is the vertex.
C
Determine two radii of the circle. The two radii are the sides of the angle
and the center of the circle is the vertex.
D
Determine the arc that lies in the interior of the angle with endpoints on
the same angle.
E

2. There are 6 angles and there are also 6 arcs that these angles
intercept.
EP

3. An angle intercepts an arc if a point on one side of the angle is an


endpoint of the arc.
D

Give the students opportunity to determine the relationship between


the measure of an inscribed angle and the measure of its intercepted arc by
performing Activity 2. The students should be able to realize in this activity
that the measure of an angle inscribed in a circle is one-half the measure of
its intercepted arc (or the measure of the intercepted arc is twice the measure
of the inscribed angle).

140
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 2: Inscribe Me!

Answer Key

Possible Responses

1. 2.

PY
O
3. C mWEL  60 ;

mLW  60

The measure of the central angle is


equal to the measure of its intercepted
D
arc.
E
EP

4. mLDW  30
D

5. An inscribed angle is an angle whose vertex is on a circle and whose


sides contain chords of the circle.

6. The measure of LDW is one-half the measure of LW .

141
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Answer Key

7. Draw other inscribed angles of the circle. Determine the measures of


these angles and the degree measures of their respective intercepted
arcs. (Check students’ drawings.)

The measure of an inscribed angle is one-half the degree measure


of its intercepted arc.

If an angle is inscribed in a circle, then the measure of the angle

PY
equals one-half the measure of its intercepted arc (or the measure of
the intercepted arc is twice the measure of the inscribed angle).

Activity 3 is related to Activity 2. In this activity, the students will


determine the relationship that exists when an inscribed angle intercepts a

O
semicircle. They should be able to find out that the measure of an inscribed
angle that intercepts a semicircle is 90°.
C
Activity 3: Intercept Me so I Won’t Fall!
D
Answer Key
E

1. 2.
EP
D

3. 4.

5. a. mMOT  90 b. mMUT  90 c. mMNT  90


The measures of the three angles are equal. Each angle measures 90°.
The measure of an inscribed angle intercepting a semicircle is 90°.
The measures of inscribed angles intercepting the same arc are equal.

142
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Develop students’ understanding of the lesson by relating it to a real-
life situation. Ask them to determine the mathematics concepts that they can
apply to solve the problem presented in Activity 4.

Activity 4: One, Two,…, Say Cheese!

Answer Key

1.

PY
O
C
D

80°
E
EP

40°
D

New location where Janel


could photograph the entire
house with the telephoto lens

2. Relationship between the central angle or inscribed angle and the arc
that the angle intercepts.

3. Go farther from the house until the entire house is seen on the eye
piece or on the LCD screen viewer of the camera.

143
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Before proceeding to the next section of this lesson, let the students
give a brief summary of the activities done. Provide them with an opportunity
to relate or connect their responses in the activities given to their new lesson,
Arcs and Inscribed Angles. Let the students read and understand some
important notes on the different geometric relationships involving arcs and
inscribed angles and let them study carefully the examples given.

What to PROCESS

Give the students opportunities to use the different geometric


relationships involving arcs and inscribed angles, and the examples
presented in the preceding section to perform the succeeding activities.

PY
Ask the students to perform Activities 5, 6, and 7. In these activities,
they will identify the inscribed angles and their intercepted arcs, and apply the
theorems pertaining to these geometric concepts and other mathematics
concepts in finding their degree measures. Provide the students opportunities
to explain their answers.

O
Activity 5: Inscribe, Intercept, then Measure
C
Answer Key
D
1. LCA , LCE , ACE , ALC , CAE , CAL , LAE , and AEC
2.
E

a. CAL
b. ACE
c. LCE and LAE
EP

d. ALC and AEC


3.
a. m1  28 d. m4  56 g. m7  28
b. m2  62 e. m5  124 h. m8  62
c. m3  62 f. m6  56 i. m9  62
D

4.
a. mCL  52 c. mAE  52

b. mAC  128 d. mLE  128

144
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 6: Half, Equal or Twice As?

Answer Key

1. BAC  BDC and ACD  ABD . If inscribed angles intercept the


same arc, then the angles are congruent.
2. mCD  108
3. mACB  48
4.
a. x  7 c. mDCA  38
b. mABD  38 d. mAD  76

PY
5.
a. x  5 c. mBC  52
b. mBDC  26 d. mBAC  26

Activity 7: Encircle Me!

O
C
Answer Key

1. 4.
D
a. mOA  150 a. mTIA  105
b. mOG  50 b. mFAI  82
E

c. mGOA  80
d. mGAO  25
EP

2. 5.
a. mCAR  65 a. mTM  116
b. mACR  57.5 b. mMA  64
c. mARC  57.5 c. mAE  116
D

d. mAC  115 d. mMEA  32


e. mAR  115 e. mTAM  58

3.
a. mRDM  35
b. mDRM  55
c. mDMR  90
d. mDM  110
e. mRD  180

145
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
In Activity 8, ask the students to complete the proof of the theorem on
inscribed angle and its intercepted arc. This activity would further develop
their skills in writing proofs which they need in proving other geometric
relationships.

Activity 8: Complete to Prove!

Problem: To prove that if an angle is inscribed in a circle, then the


measure of the angle equals one-half the measure of its
intercepted arc (or the measure of the intercepted arc is twice

PY
the measure of the inscribed angle).

Case 1:
Q

O
Given: PQR inscribed in S and x
PQ is a diameter.
S
C
1
Prove: mPQR  mPR
2
R
P
D
Draw RS and let mPQR  x .
E
EP
D

146
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Answer Key

Statements Reasons
1. PQR inscribed in S
and PQ is a diameter. Given

2. QS  RS Radii of a circle are congruent.


3. QRS is an isosceles  . Definition of isosceles triangle
4. PQR  QRS The base angles of an isosceles
triangle are congruent.
5. mPQR  mQRS The measures of congruent angles

PY
are equal.
6. mQRS  x Transitive Property

The measure of an exterior angle of a

O
7. mPSR  2x triangle is equal to the sum of the
measures of its remote interior
angles.
C The measure of a central angle is
8. mPSR  mPR equal to the measure of its
intercepted arc.
D
9. mPR  2x Transitive Property
E

10. mPR  2mPQR  Substitution


EP

1
11. mQRS  mPR Multiplication Property of Equality
2
D

What to REFLECT on and UNDERSTAND

Provide the students with opportunities to think deeply and test further
their understanding of the lesson. Let them prove the different theorems on
arcs and inscribed angles of a circle and other geometric relationships by
performing Activity 9 and Activity 10. Moreover, ask the students to solve the
problems in Activity 11 for them to realize the wide applications of the lesson
in real life.

147
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 9: Prove It or Else …!

Answer Key

1. Case 2
Given: KLM inscribed in O.

1
Prove: mKLM  mKM
2

To prove: Draw diameter LN.

PY
Proof:
Statements Reasons
1 1 The measure of an
mKLN  mKN and mMLN  mMN inscribed angle is one-half

O
2 2
the measure of its
intercepted arc (Case 1).
Addition Property
mKLN  mMLN 
1 1
mKN  mMN or
C
2 2
1
mKLN  mMLN  mKN  mMN 
2
D
mKLN  mMLN  mKLM Angle Addition Postulate
Arc Addition Postulate
mKN  mMN  mKM
E

1 Substitution
mKLM  mKM
2
EP

Answer Key
D

1. Case 3
Given: SMC inscribed in A.

1
Prove: mSMC  mSC
2

To prove: Draw diameter MP.

148
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Proof:
Statements Reasons
1 1 The measure of an
mPMS  mPS and mPMC  mPC inscribed angle is one-half
2 2
the measure of its
intercepted arc (Case 1).
mPMS  mSMC  mPMC or
Angle Addition Postulate
mSMC  mPMC  mPMS

mPS  mSC  mPC or Arc Addition Postulate


mSC  mPC  mPS

PY
1 1
mPMC  mPMS  mPC  mPS or
2 2
1 By Subtraction
mPMC  mPMS  mPC  mPS 
2

O
1
mSMC  mSC Substitution
2 C
2. Given: In T, PR and AC are the
intercepted arcs of PQR
and ABC , respectively.
D
PR  AC
Prove: PQR  ABC
E

Proof:
EP

Statements Reasons
Given
PR  AC
Congruent arcs have equal
mPR  mAC measures.
D

1
mPQR  mPR and The measure of an inscribed
2
1 angle is one-half the measure
mABC  mAC of its intercepted arc.
2
1 Substitution
mPQR  mAC
2
mPQR  mABC Transitive Property
Angles with equal measures
PQR  ABC
are congruent.

149
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
3. Given: In C, GML intercepts
semicircle GEL.

Prove: GML is a right angle.

Proof:
Statements Reasons
GML intercepts semicircle GEL. Given
The degree measure of a

PY
mGEL  180 semicircle is 180.
The measure of an inscribed
1 angle is one-half the measure
mGML  mGEL
2 of its intercepted arc.
Substitution

O
1
mGML  180 or mGML  90
2
GML is a right angle. Definition of right angle
C
4. Given: Quadrilateral WIND is inscribed
in Y .
D
Prove: 1. W and N are supplementary.
E

2. I and D are supplementary.


EP

To prove: Draw WY , IY , NY , and DY .

Proof:
Statements Reasons
The sum of the measures
D

mWYI  mIYN  mNYD  mDYW  360 of the central angles of a


circle is 360.
The measure of a central
mWYI  mWI , mIYN  mIN , angle is equal to the
measure of its intercepted
mNYD  mND , and mDYW  mDW arc.

mWI  mIN  mND  mDW  360 Substitution

Arc Addition Postulate


mDNI  mDWI  360

150
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Answer Key

Statements Reasons
1 1 The measure of an inscribed
mDWI  mDNI and mDNI  mDWI angle is one-half the
2 2
measure of its intercepted
arc.
1 1
mDWI  mDNI  mDNI  mDWI or By Addition
2 2
1
mDWI  mDNI  mDNI  mDWI 
2

PY
1
mDWI  mDNI  360 or
2 Substitution
mDWI  mDNI  180
Definition of supplementary
W and N are supplementary.

O
angles
The sum of the measures of
mW  mI  mN  mD  360 the angles of a quadrilateral
C is 360.
mI  mD  180  360 Substitution
mI  mD  180 Addition Property
Definition of supplementary
D
I and D are supplementary.
angles
E

Activity 10: Prove to Me if You Can!


EP

Answer Key C

1. Given: MT and AC are chords of D.


and MC  AT , D
M T
D

H
Prove: CHM  THA .

Proof A
Statements Reasons
1. MT and AC are chords of
Given
D and MC  AT .
2. MCA , ATM , CMT , and
Definition of inscribed angle
CAT are inscribed angles.
3. MCA  ATM and Inscribed angles intercepting the
CMT  CAT same arc are congruent.
4. CHM  THA ASA Congruence Postulate

151
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Answer Key

2. Given: Quadrilateral DRIV is inscribed in E. R


RV is a diagonal that passes through
the center of the circle.
DV  IV E I

Prove: RVD  RVI


D V
Proof:
Statements Reasons

PY
1. RV is a diagonal that
passes through the center of Given
the circle
2. RV  RV Reflexive Property
3. DRV  VRI Inscribed angles intercepting the

O
same arc are congruent.
4. RIV and RDV are
Definition of semicircle
semicircles.
5. RDV and RIV are right
C Inscribed angle intercepting a
angles. semicircle measures 90°
6. RVD and RVI are right
Definition of right triangle
D
triangles.
Hypotenuse-Angle Congruence
7. RVD  RVI
Theorem
E

C
3. Given: In A, SE  NE and SC  NT .
EP

Prove: CSE  TNE S T


A

E
D

Proof: N
Statements Reasons
1. SE  NE and SC  NT Given
If two arcs are congruent, then
2. SE  NE and SC  NT the chords joined by their
respective endpoints are also
congruent.
3. mSE  mNE and Congruent arcs have equal
mSC  mNT measures.
4. mSE  mSC  mEC and Arc Addition Postulate
mEN  mNT  mET

152
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Answer Key

Statements Reasons
Substitution
1. mEC  mET
Definition of Congruence
2. EC  ET
3. Draw chord CT . Definition of chord of a circle
4. ECT  ETC Inscribed angles intercepting
congruent arcs are congruent.
5. CET is an isosceles triangle. Definition of isosceles triangle.
The legs of an isosceles triangle are

PY
6. CE  TE
congruent.
7. CSE  TNE SSS Congruence Postulate

Activity 11: Take Me to Your Real-World!

Answer Key

O
C
1. a. 72°
b. 36°. The measure of an inscribed angle is one-half the measure of
its intercepted arc.
D

2. Rectangle. In a circle, there is only one chord that can be drawn


E

parallel and congruent to another chord in the same circle. Moreover,


the diagonals of the parallelogram are also the diameters of the circle.
Hence, each inscribed angle formed by the adjacent sides of the
EP

parallelogram intercepts a semicircle and measures 90°.

3. 38°. If EG is drawn, the viewing angles of Joanna, Clarissa, and


Juliana intercept the same arc. Hence, the viewing angles of Joanna
and Juliana measure the same as the viewing angle of Clarissa.
D

4. Mang Ador has to draw two inscribed angles on the circle such that
each measures 90°. Then, connect the other endpoints of the sides of
each angle to form the diameter. The point of intersection of the two
diameters is the center of the circle.

5. a. PQR is a right triangle.


b. The length of RS is the geometric mean of the lengths of PS and
QS .
c. PS = 6 in.; QS = 2 in.; RS = 2 3 in.
d. RT  4 3 in. and MN  4 3 in.

153
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Before the students move to the next section of this lesson, give a
short test (formative test) to find out how well they understood the lesson. Ask
them also to write a journal about their understanding of arcs and inscribed
angles. Refer to the Assessment Map.

What to TRANSFER

Give the students opportunities to demonstrate their understanding of


the geometric relationships involving arcs and inscribed angles. In Activity 12,
ask the students to make a design of a stage where a special event will be
held. Tell them to include in the design some circular objects that illustrate the
use of inscribed angles and arcs of a circle, and explain how they applied

PY
these concepts in preparing the design. Then, ask them to formulate and
solve problems out of the design they made. You can ask the students to
work individually or in groups.

O
Activity 12: How special is the event?

Answer Key
C
Evaluate students’ product. You may use the given rubric.
E D

Summary/Synthesis/Generalization:

This lesson was about arcs and inscribed angles of a circle. In this
EP

lesson, the students were given the opportunity to determine the geometric
relationships that exist among arcs and inscribed angles of a circle, apply
these in solving problems, and prove related theorems. Moreover, they were
given the chance to formulate and solve real-life problems involving these
geometric concepts out of the product they were asked to come up with as a
D

demonstration of their understanding of the lesson.

154
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Lesson 2A: Tangents and Secants of a Circle
What to KNOW
Assess students’ prior mathematical knowledge and skills that are
related to tangents and secants of a circle. This would facilitate teaching and
guide the students in understanding the different geometric relationships
involving tangents and secants of a circle.

Start the lesson by asking the students to perform Activity 1. This


activity would lead them to some geometric relationships involving tangents
and segments drawn from the center of the circle to the point of tangency.
That is, the radius of a circle that is drawn to the point of tangency is

PY
perpendicular to the tangent line and is also the shortest segment.

Activity 1: Measure then Compare!

O
Answer Key

1. Use a compass to draw


C S.
E D

2. Draw line m such that it intersects S at exactly one point. Label the
EP

point of intersection as T.
D

3. Connect S and T by a line segment. What is TS in the figure drawn?


TS is a radius of S.

155
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
4. Mark four other points on line m such that two of these points are on
the left side of T and the other two points are on the right side. Label
these points as M, N, P, and Q, respectively.

PY
5. Using a protractor, find the measures of MTS , NTS , PTS, and

O
QTS . How do the measures of the four angles compare?
The four angles have equal measures. Each angle measures 90°.
C
6. Repeat step 2 to 5. This time, draw line n such that it intersects the
circle at another point. Name this point V.
E D
EP
D

The four angles, AVS , BVS , DVS , and EVS have equal
measures. Each angle measures 90°.

156
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
7. Draw MS , NS , PS , and QS .

PY
O
C
8. Using a ruler, find the lengths of TS , MS , NS , PS , and QS .
D
How do the lengths of the five segments compare?
The lengths of the five segments, TS , MS , NS , PS , and QS are
E

not equal.

What do you think is the shortest segment from the center of a circle
EP

to the line that intersects it at exactly one point? Explain your


answer.

The shortest segment from the center of a circle to the line that
intersects the circle at exactly one point is the segment
D

perpendicular to the line. Whereas, the other segments become the


hypotenuses of the right triangles formed. Recall that the
hypotenuse is the longest side of a right triangle.

157
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Provide the students with opportunities to investigate relationships
among arcs and angles formed by secants and tangents. Ask them to perform
Activity 2 and Activity 3. Let the students realize the following geometric
relationships:

1. If two secants intersect on a circle, then the measure of the angle formed
is one-half the measure of the intercepted arc. (Note: Relate this to the
relationship between the measure of the inscribed angle and the measure
of its intercepted arc.)

2. If a secant and a tangent intersect in the exterior of a circle, then the


measure of the angle formed is one-half the positive difference of the
measures of the intercepted arcs.

PY
3. If a secant and a tangent intersect at the point of tangency, then the
measure of each angle formed is one-half the measure of its intercepted
arc.

O
4. If two secants intersect in the exterior of a circle, then the measure of the
angle formed is one-half the positive difference of the measures of the
intercepted arcs.
C
5. If two tangents intersect in the exterior of a circle, then the measure of the
angle formed is one-half the positive difference of the measures of the
D
intercepted arcs.

6. If two secants intersect in the interior of a circle, then the measure of an


E

angle formed is one-half the sum of the measures of the arcs intercepted
by the angle and its vertical angle.
EP
D

158
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 2: Investigate Me!

Answer Key

1. Which lines intersect circle C at two points? AD, AE, DG,

PY
How about the lines that intersect the circle at exactly one point? BG

2. What are the angles having A as the vertex?

O
DAE, EAG, DAB, DAG . There are still other angles with A as
the vertex, but for the purpose of our new lesson, we consider these
angles.
C
C as the vertex? ACD, ACG, ECF, DCE
D as the vertex? ADG. There are still other angles with D as the
vertex but for the meantime, we only consider this.
G as the vertex? AGD. There are still other angles with G as the
D
vertex but for the meantime, we only consider this.
E

3. DAB AD DCE DE


DAE DE ACD AD
EP

DAG DEA ACF AF


EAG EFA ECF EF
ADF AF AGD AF and AD

4. DAE and DCE DE


D

DAB , DCA , and AGD AD


ACF , ADF , and AGD AF

5. mDAE  34.43 mACG  68.87


mEAG  90 mECF  111.14
mDAB  55.57 mDCE  68.87
mDAG  124.43 mADG  34.43
mACD  111.14 mAGD  21.13

159
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Answer Key

6. Determine the measure of the central angle that intercepts the same
arc. The measure of the central angle is equal to the measure of its
intercepted arc.
mAD= 111.14 mEFA= 180

mDE= 68.86 mEF= 111.14


mDEA= 248.86 mAF= 68.86
7. mDCE  2mDAE
mDE  2mDAE . Since mDCE  mDE ,

PY
then mDE  2mDAE  .

8. mAD  2mDAB
mEFA  2mEAG

O
1
9. mBGD  mAD  mAF
2
C
Activity 3: Find Out by Yourself!
D

Answer Key
E

2. RST is a central angle of S.


EP

4. mRST 
1
mST 
2

1
D

6. Yes. mRST  mRVT  mRT


2

1
8. Yes. mRST  mRT  mNT
2

1
10. Yes. mRST  mRT  mMN
2

1
12. Yes. mRST  mRT  mMN 
2

160
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Let the students give their realizations of the activities done before
proceeding to the next activities. Provide them with an opportunity to relate or
connect their responses to the activities given in their lesson, tangents and
secants of a circle. Let the students read and understand some important
notes on tangents and secants of a circle and study carefully the examples
given.

What to PROCESS

In this section, let the students use the geometric concepts and
relationships they have studied and the examples presented in the preceding
section to answer the succeeding activities.

PY
Present to the students the figure given in Activity 4. In this activity, the
students should be able to identify the tangents and secants in the figure
including the angles that they form and the arcs that these angles intercept.
They should be able to determine also the unknown measure of the angle
formed by secants intersecting in the exterior of the circle. Give emphasis to

O
the geometric relationship the students applied in finding the measure of the
angle. Provide them opportunities to compare their answers and correct their
errors, if there are any.
C
Activity 4: Tangents or Secants?
D

Answer Key
E

1. KL and LM. Each line intersects the circle at exactly one point.
EP

2. KN and MP. Each line intersects the circle at two points.

3. KNK and N; MPM and P; KLK; LMM


D

4. There are other angles formed but only these are considered.
KOM is formed by two secant lines.
KLM is formed by two tangent lines.
LMP, LKN, PMR, and NKS. Each is formed by a secant and a
tangent.

5. MP  PMR , NP  KOM , KN  NKS , KM  KLM ,


KPM  KLM

6. mKLM  50 ; mNP = 30

161
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
In Activity 5, provide the students with opportunities to apply the
different geometric relationships in finding the measures of the angles formed
by tangents and secants and the arcs that these angles intercept. Let them
also determine the lengths of segments tangent to circle/s and other
segments drawn on a circle. Ask them to support their answers by stating the
geometric relationships applied.

Activity 5: From One Place to Another

Answer Key

PY
1. mABC  40 7. mPQO  61
2. mMQL  40 mPQR  119
3. mPTR  47 8. a. mPW  125
mRTS  133 b. mRPW  27.5
4. a. x  10 c. mPRW  62.5

O
b. mCG  65 d. mWRE  27.5
c. mAR  55 e. mWER  62.5
5. mMC  71 f. mWER  62.5
C
6. OR  4 85 9. PQ  6  4 5
RS  24 10. a. x  6
KS  4 85  24 b. ST  19
D
c. RT  19
d. AT  19
E
EP

What to REFLECT on and UNDERSTAND

Let the students think deeply and test further their understanding of the
different geometric relationships involving tangents and secants of circles by
doing Activity 6. In this activity, they will apply these geometric relationships in
D

solving problems.

162
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 6: Think of These Relationships Deeply!

Answer Key

1.
a. mRON  90 ; mRON  90 . The radius of a circle is
perpendicular to a tangent line at the point of tangency.
b. NRO  NUD
c. mNRO  59
d. mNDU  41; mDUO  131
e. RO  5 ; DN  12 ; DU  6 3
NRO is not congruent to DUN . The lengths of their sides are

PY
not equal.

2. LU is tangent to I. SC is also tangent to I.

3.

O
a. RL  LI . If two segments from the same exterior point are tangent
to a circle, then the two segments are congruent.
b. LTR  LTI by HyL Theorem.
C
c. mILT  38 ; mITL  52 ; mRTL  52
d. TL  26 ; LI  24 ; AL  16
4.
D
a. SZ  6
b. DZ  3
c. CX  7.5
E

d. CY  7.5
If two segments from the same exterior point are tangent to a circle,
EP

then the two segments are congruent.

5. 5 55 m
6.
a. mP  55
D

mR  55
mS  55
b. The angle that I will make with the lighthouse must be less than
55°.

Provide the students with opportunities to prove theorems involving


tangents and secants of circles. Let them perform Activity 7. Guide the
students in writing the proof. If needed, provide hints.

163
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 7: Is this true?

Answer Key

1. Given: AB is tangent to C at D.

Prove: AB  CD

To prove: a. Draw AC
b. Assume AB is not perpendicular
to CD and AB  AC

PY
Proof:
Statement Reason
AB is not perpendicular Assumption
to CD and AB  AC .

O
E is a point on AD such that Ruler Postulate
DE  2DA
DA  AE
C Betweenness and Congruence
of Segments
CAE  CAD Right angles are congruent.
Reflexive Property
D
AC  AC
CDA  CEA SAS Congruence Postulate
CD  CE CPCTC
E

The lengths of congruent


CD  CE
segments are equal.
EP

D and E are on C. Definition of circle


D and E are the points of intersection
A tangent intersects the circle at
of tangent line AB and
exactly one point.
C is not true.
Only one line can be drawn on a
D

AB  CD circle that is tangent to it at the


point of tangency.

2. Given: RS is a radius of S.
PQ  RS

Prove: PQ is tangent to S at R.

To prove: Draw QS .

164
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Answer Key

Proof:
Statement Reason
RS is a radius of S and PQ  RS . Given
The shortest segment from the
QS >RS center of a circle to a line tangent
to it is the perpendicular
segment.
No other point of a tangent line
Q is not on S. other than the point of tangency
lies on a circle.

PY
PQ is tangent to S at R. A tangent intersects the circle at
exactly one point.

3. Given: EM and EL are tangent to

O
S at M and L, respectively.

Prove: EM  EL
C
To prove: Draw MS , LS , and ES .
E D

Proof:
EP

Statement Reason
MS  LS Radii of the same circle are
congruent.
EL  LS and EM  MS . A line tangent to a circle is
perpendicular to the radius.
D

ES  ES Reflexive Property
ESM  ESL Hypotenuse-Leg Congruence
Theorem
EM  EL CPCTC

165
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
4.
a. Given: RS and TS are tangent to V at R and T, respectively,
and intersect at the exterior S.

PY
1
Prove: mRST  mTQR  mTR
2

O
To prove: Draw RV , TV , and SV .

Proof:
C
Statement Reason
SVR  SVT (Proven)
mRVS  mRSV  90 and Acute angles of a right
D
mTVS  mTSV  90 triangle are complementary.
mRVS  mTVS  mRVT Angle Addition Postulate
E

mRVT   90  x    90  x 
Substitution
 180  2x
EP

The measure of a central


mTR  180  2x angle is equal to the
measure of its intercepted
arc.
The degree measure of a
D

mTQR  mTR  360 circle is 360.


Substitution and Addition
mTQR  180  2x
Property of Equality
mRSV  mTSV  mRST Angle Addition Postulate
mRSV  mTSV  x  x By Substitution and Addition
 2x
mRST  2x Transitive Property

mTQR  mTR  180  2x   180  2x  By Substitution and


 22x  Subtraction

166
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Answer Key

By Substitution
mTQR  mTR  2mRST 
1 Multiplication Property
mRST  mTQR  mTR
2

b. Given:KL is tangent to O at K.

NL is a secant that passes through O at M and N.

KL and NL intersect at the

PY
exterior point L.

O
C
1
D
Prove: mKLN  mNPK  mMK
2
E

To prove: Draw KM , MO , and KO .

Let mMKL  x so that mMKO  90  x and mKMO  90  x .


EP

Proof:
Statement Reason
The measure of an
D

1 inscribed angle is one-half


mNMK  mNPK  the measure of its
2
intercepted arc.
The measure of the
exterior angle of a triangle
mNMK  mMKL  mNLK is equal to the sum of the
measures of its remote
interior angles.
The measure of a central
mKOM  mKM angle is equal to the
measure of its intercepted
arc.

167
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
The sum of the
mMKL  mMKO  90 measures of
complementary angles is
90.
The sum of the
mKMO  mMKO  mKOM  180 measures of the interior
angle of a triangle is 180
mKOM  2x Addition Property
mKM  2x Transitive Property
1
2mMKL   mKM or mMKL  mKM  Multiplication Property

PY
2
1
mNPK   1 mKM   mNMK  mMKL
2 2
 mMKL  mNLK  mMKL By Subtraction
 mNLK

mNLK 
1
mNPK  mKM
O By Substitution
2
C
c. Given: AC is a secant that passes
through T at A and B.
D

EC is a secant that passes


E

through T at E and D.

AC and EC intersect at the


EP

exterior point C.
D

1
Prove: mACE  mAE  mBD
2

To prove: Draw AD and BE .

168
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Answer Key

Proof:
Statement Reason
The measure of the
exterior angle of a
mADE  mDAC  mACE triangle is equal to the
sum of the measures of
its remote interior
angles.
1 The measure of an
mADE  mAE  and inscribed angle is one-
2

PY
1 half the measure of its
mDAB  mBD  intercepted arc.
2
1
mAE   1 mBD   mADE  mDAB By Subtraction
2 2

O
mADE  mDAC  mACE Addition Property
1 1
mACE  mAE   mBD  or
2 2
C Transitive Property
1
mACE  mAE  mBD
2
D

5. Given: PR and QS are secants


E

intersecting in the interior


of V at T.
EP

PS and QR are the intercepted


arcs of PTS and QTR .
D

1
Prove: mPTS  mPS  mQR 
2
To prove: Draw RS .

169
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Proof:
Statement Reason
1 The measure of an
mPRS  mPS  and inscribed angle is one-half
2
1 the measure of its
mQSR  mQR  intercepted arc.
2
mQTR  mPRS  mQSR The measure of the
exterior angle of a triangle
is equal to the sum of the
measures of its remote
interior angles.

PY
1
mQTR  mPS   1 mQR  or
2 2
1 Substitution
mQTR  mPS  mQR
2

O
mQTR  mPTS The measures of vertical
angles are equal.
1 Transitive Property
mPTS 
2
mPS  mQR
C
D
6. Given: MP and LN are secant and
tangent, respectively, and
intersect at C at the point
E

of tangency, M.
EP

1
Prove: mNMP  mMP  and
2
1
mLMP  mMKP 
2
D

To prove: Draw OP and OM .


Let mNMP  x so that mOMP  90  x and
mOPM  90  x .

170
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Answer Key

Proof:
Statement Reason
The measure of a central
mMOP  mMP angle is equal to the
measure of its intercepted
arc.
The sum of the measures
mNMP  mOMP  90 of complementary angles
is 90.
The sum of the measures
mOMP  mOPM  mMOP  180

PY
of a triangle is 180.
Addition Property
mMOP  2x
mMP  2x Transitive Property

mMP  2mNMP  Substitution

O
1 Multiplication Property
mNMP  mMP 
2
mMP  mMKP  360
C The degree measure of a
circle is 360.
mMKP  360  2x By Substitution and
Subtraction
D
mMKP  2180  x  By Factoring
mLMP  90  90  x or Angle Addition Postulate
E

mLMP  180  x
mMKP  2mLMP  Substitution
EP

1 Multiplication Property
mLMP  mMKP 
2
D

Before the students move to the next section of this lesson, give a
short test (formative test) to find out how well they understood the lesson. Ask
them also to write a journal about their understanding of tangents and secants
of a circle. Refer to the Assessment Map.

171
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
What to TRANSFER

Give the students opportunities to demonstrate their understanding of


the different geometric relationships involving tangents and secants of circles
by doing a practical task. Let them perform Activity 8. You can ask the
students to work individually or in a group. In this activity, the students will
formulate and solve problems involving tangents and secants of circles as
illustrated in some real-life objects.

Activity 8: My Real World

PY
Answer Key

Evaluate students’ product. You may use the rubric provided.

Summary/Synthesis/Generalization:

O
C
This lesson was about the geometric relationships involving tangents
and secants of a circle, the angles they form and the arcs that these angles
intercept. The lesson provided the students with opportunities to derive
D
geometric relationships involving radius of a circle drawn to the point of
tangency, investigate relationships among arcs and angles formed by secants
and tangents, and apply these in solving problems. Moreover, they were given
E

the chance to prove the different theorems on tangents and secants and
demonstrate their understanding of these concepts by doing a practical task.
EP

Their understanding of this lesson and other previously learned mathematics


concepts and principles will facilitate their learning of the wide applications of
circles in real life.
D

172
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Lesson 2B: Tangent and Secant Segments
What to KNOW

Find out how much students have learned about the different
mathematics concepts previously studied and their skills in performing
mathematical operations. Checking these will facilitate teaching and students’
understanding of the geometric relationships involving tangent and secant
segments. Tell them that as they go through this lesson, they have to think of
this important question: How do geometric relationships involving tangent and
secant segments facilitate solving real-life problems and making decisions?

PY
Provide the students with opportunities to enhance further their skills in
finding solutions to mathematical sentences previously studied. Let them
perform Activity1. In this activity, the students will solve linear and quadratic
equations in one variable. These mathematical skills are prerequisites to
learning the geometric relationships involving tangent and secant segments.

O
Ask the students to explain how they arrived at the solutions and how
they applied the mathematics concepts or principles in solving each
mathematical sentence.
C
Activity 1: What is my value?
D
Answer Key
E

1. x  9 6. x  5
2. x  5 7. x  8
EP

3. x  6 8. x  2 3
4. x  9 9. x  3 5
5. x  12 10. x  4 5
D

Questions:
a. Applying the Division Property of Equality and Extracting Square
Roots
b. Division Property of Equality and Extracting Square Roots

Present to the students the figure in Activity 2. Then, let them identify
the tangent and secant lines and the chords, name all the segments they can
see, and describe a point in relation to the circle. This activity has something
to do with the lesson. Let the students relate this to the succeeding activities.

173
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 2: My Segments

Answer Key

1. JL - tangent; JS - secant; AS ; AT ; LN - chords


2. NE ; ET ; AE ; EL
3. AS ; AJ ; JL
4. A point outside the circle

Ask the students to perform Activity 3 to determine the relationship that

PY
exists among segments formed by intersecting chords of a circle. In this
activity, the students might not be able to arrive at the accurate
measurements of the chords due to the limitations of the measuring
instrument to be used. If possible, use math freeware like GeoGebra in
performing the activity.

Activity 3: What is true about my chords?

O
C
Answer Key
E D
EP

1-2.
3. a. BA = 2.8 units c. MA = 1.95 units
b. TA = 2.8 units d. NA = 4.02 units
D

4. The product of BA and TA is equal to the product of MA and NA .


5. If two chords of a circle intersect, then the product of the measures
of the segments of one chord is equal to the product of the measures
of the segments of the other chord. (Emphasize this idea.)

Present to the students a situation that would capture their interest and
develop their understanding of the lesson. Let them perform Activity 4. In this
activity, the students will determine the mathematics concepts or principles to
solve the given problem.

174
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 4: Fly Me to Your World

Answer Key

1. d = 27.67 km
2. External secant segment, tangent, Pythagorean theorem

Ask the students to summarize the activities done before proceeding to


the next activities. Provide them with an opportunity to relate or connect their
responses in the activities given to their new lesson, Tangent and Secant
Segments. Let the students read and understand some important notes on
tangent and secant segments and study carefully the examples given.

PY
What to PROCESS

Let the students use the different geometric relationships involving

O
tangent and secant segments and the examples presented in the preceding
section to answer the succeeding activities.C
In Activity 5, the students will name the external secant segments in
the given figures. This activity would familiarize them with the geometric
concept and facilitate problem solving.
D

Activity 5: Am I away from you?


E

Answer Key
EP

1. IM and IL
2. TS and DS
3. OS
4. IR
D

5. LF and WE
6. IH , FG , IJ , EF , AK , DC

175
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Have the students apply the different theorems involving chords and
tangent and secant segments to find the unknown lengths of segments on a
circle and solve related problems. Ask the students to perform Activity 6 and
Activity 7.

Activity 6: Find My Length!

Answer Key

1. x  8 units 6. x  10.5 units


2. x  8 units 7. x  4.8 units

PY
3. x  9 units 8. x  15 units
4. x  5 units 9. x  2 10  6.32 units
5. x  6.64 units 10. x  4 units

Questions:

O
a. The theorems on two intersecting chords, secant segments, tangent
segments, and external secant segments were applied.
b. Evaluate students’ responses.
C
D

Activity 7: Try to Fit!


E

Answer Key
EP

1. Possible answer:

2. a. VU = 4.57 units
b. XU = 8 units
D

176
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
What to REFLECT on and UNDERSTAND

Test further students’ understanding of the different geometric


relationships involving tangent and secant segments including chords by
doing Activity 8 and Activity 9. Let the students prove the different theorems
on intersecting chords, secant segments, tangent segments, and external
secant segments and solve problems involving these concepts.

Activity 8: Prove Me Right!

Answer Key

PY
1. Given: AB and DE are chords of C
intersecting at M.

O
Prove: AM  BM  DM  EM

To prove: Draw AE and BD .


C
D
Proof:
Statement Reason
1
E

mBAE  mBE and The measure of an inscribed


2 angle is one-half the
1 measure of its intercepted
mBDE  mBE
EP

2 arc.
Inscribed angles intercepting
BAE  BDE
the same arc are congruent.
AME ~ DMB AA Similarity Theorem
D

EM BM Lengths of sides of similar


 triangles are proportional.
AM DM
AM  BM  DM  EM Multiplication Property

177
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Answer Key

2. Given: DP and DS are secant


segments of T drawn
from exterior point D.

Prove: DP  DQ  DS  DR

To prove: Draw PR and QS .

Proof:

PY
Statement Reason
Inscribed angles
QPR  RSQ and PQS  SRP intercepting the same arc
are congruent.
Supplements of congruent
DQS  DRP

O
angles are congruent
DQS ~ DRP AA Similarity Theorem
DP DS Lengths of sides of similar

DR DQ
C triangles are proportional.
DP  DQ  DS  DR Multiplication Property
D
3. Given: KL and KM are tangent
and secant segments,
E

respectively of O drawn
from exterior point K.
EP

KM intersects O at N.

2
Prove: KM  KN  KL
D

To prove: Draw LM and LN .

178
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Answer Key

Proof:
Statement Reason
1 The measure of an inscribed
mNLK  mLN and angle is one-half the measure
2
1 of its intercepted arc.
mLMN  mLN
2
mNLK  mLMN Transitive Property
Angles with equal measures
NLK  LMN
are congruent.

PY
The measure of the exterior
angle of a triangle is equal to
mLNK  mNLM  mLMN
the sum of the measures of its
remote interior angles.
mLNK  mNLM  mNLK Substitution

O
mKLM  mNLM  mNLK Angle Addition Postulate
mLNK  mKLM Transitive Property
Angles with equal measures
LNK  KLM
C are congruent.
MKL ~ LNM AA Similarity Theorem
KM KL Lengths of sides of similar
 triangles are proportional.
D
KL KN
2
KM  KN  KL Multiplication Property
E
EP

Activity 9: Understand Me More …

Answer Key
D

1. Janel. She used the theorem “If two secant segments are drawn to a
circle from an exterior point, then the product of the lengths of one
secant segment and its external secant segment is equal to the product
of the lengths of the other secant segment and its external secant
segment.”
2. Gate 1 is 91.65 m from the main road.
3. a. The point of tangency of the two light balls from the ceiling is about
44.72 cm.
b. Anton needs about 1967.53 cm of string.

179
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Find out how well the students understood the lesson by giving a short
test (formative test) before proceeding to the next section. Ask them also to
write a journal about their understanding of tangent and secant segments.
Refer to the Assessment Map.

What to TRANSFER

Give the students opportunities to demonstrate their understanding of


tangent and secant segments including chords of a circle by doing a practical
task. Let them perform Activity 10. You can ask the students to work
individually or in a group.

PY
In Activity 10, the students will make a design of an arch bridge that
would connect two places which are separated by a river, 20 m wide. Tell
them to indicate on the design the different measurements of the parts of the
bridge. The students are expected to formulate and solve problems involving
tangent and secant segments out of the design and the measurements of its

O
parts. C
Activity 10: My True World!

Answer Key
D

Evaluate students’ product. You may use the rubric provided.


E
EP

Summary/Synthesis/Generalization:

This lesson was about the different geometric relationships involving


tangents, secants, and chords of a circle. The lesson provided the students
with opportunities to derive geometric relationship involving intersecting
D

chords, identify tangent and secant segments, and prove and apply different
theorems on chords, tangent, and secant segments. These theorems were
used to solve various geometric problems. Understanding the ideas
presented in this lesson will facilitate their learning of the succeeding lessons.

180
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
SUMMATIVE TEST
Part I

Choose the letter that you think best answers each of the following questions.

1. In the figure on the right, which is an inscribed angle?


A. RST
B. PQR
C. QVT
D. QST

PY
O
2. In F below, AG is a diameter. What is mAD if mDFG  65 ?
A. 65°
B. 115°
C
C. 130°
D. 230°
E D
EP

3. Which of the following lines is tangent to F as shown in the figure


below?

A. DE
D

B. AG

C. BD

D. AE

181
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
4. Quadrilateral ABCD is inscribed in a circle. Which of the following is true
about the angle measures of the quadrilateral?

I. mA  mC  180


II. mB  mD  180
III. mA  mC  90

A. I and II B. I and III C. II and III D. I, II, and III

5. An arc of a circle measures 72°. If the radius of the circle is 6 cm, about
how long is the arc?
A. 1.884 cm B. 2.4 cm C. 3.768 cm D. 7.54 cm

PY
6. What is the total measure of the central angles of a circle with no common
interior points?
A. 480 B. 360 C. 180 D. 120

O
7. What kind of angle is the inscribed angle that intercepts a semicircle?
A. straight B. obtuse C. right C D. acute

8. What is the length of AS in the figure on the right?


A. 6.92 units C. 14.4 units
117 130
D
B. units D. units
10 9
E
EP

9. Line AB is tangent to C at D. If mDF = 166 and mDE = 78, what is


mABF ?
D

A. 44
B. 61
C. 88
D. 122

182
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
10. How many line/s can be drawn through a given point on a circle that is
tangent to the circle?
A. four B. three C. two D. one

11. In U on the right, what is mPRE if mPUE  56 ? E P


A. 28 C. 56
B. 34 D. 124
U

PY
R

12. In the figure below, TA and HA are secants. If TA = 18 cm, LA = 8 cm,


and AE = 10 cm,

O
L T
A C E
H
D
what is the length of AH in the given figure?
A. 18 cm C. 22.5 cm
E

B. 20 cm D. 24.5 cm
EP

13. In O on the right, mHT = 45 and the length of the


radius is 8 cm. What is the area of the shaded region T
D

in terms of  ?
45°
A. 6  cm 2 C. 10  cm 2
B. 8  cm 2 D. 12  cm 2 H
8 cm
O

183
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
14. In the circle on the right, what is the measure of SRT if AST is a
semicircle and mSRA  74 ?
A. 16 S
B. 74
C. 106
D. 154
A T
R

PY
15. Quadrilateral LUCK is inscribed in S. If mLUC  96 and
mUCK  77, find mULK .
U C
A. 77 77°
96°
B. 84

O
C. 96
D. 103 L S
C
K
D

16. In S on the right, what is RT if QS = 18 units


E

and VW = 4 units?
A. 4 2 units
EP

B. 8 2 units
C. 14 units
D. 16 2 units
D

17. A circular garden has a radius of 2 m. Find the area of the smaller
segment of the garden determined by a 90 arc.
A.   2 m2 B. 2 m2 C.  m2 D. 4  2 m2

184
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
18. Karen has a necklace with a circular pendant hanging
from a chain around her neck. The chain is tangent to
the pendant. If the chain is extended as shown in the
diagram on the right, it forms an angle of 30° below
the pendant. What is the measure of the arc at the
bottom of the pendant?
A. 60°
B. 75°
30°
C. 120°
D. 150°

19. Mang Jose cut a circular board with a diameter 80 cm. Then, he divided

PY
the board into 20 congruent sectors. What is the area of each sector?
A. 80 cm2 B. 320 cm2 C. 800 cm2 D. 1 600 cm2

20. Mary designed a pendant. It is a regular octagon set in a circle. Suppose

O
the opposite vertices are connected by line segments and meet at the
center of the circle. What is the measure of each angle formed at the
center?
A. 22.5 B. 45
C
C. 67.5 D. 135

Part II
D

Solve each of the following problems. Show your complete solutions.


E

1. Mr. Jaena designed an arch for the top part of a subdivision’s main gate.
The arch will be made out of bent iron. In the design, the 16 segments
EP

between the two concentric semicircles are each 0.7 meter long. Suppose
the diameter of the outer semicircle is 8 meters. What is the length, in
whole meters, of the shortest iron needed to make the arch?

2. A rope fits tightly around two pulleys. What is the distance between the
D

centers of the pulleys if the radii of the bigger and smaller pulleys are
10 cm and 6 cm, respectively, and the portion of the rope tangent to the
two pulleys is 50 cm long?

185
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Rubric for Problem Solving

4 3 2 1
Used an Used an Used an Attempted to
appropriate appropriate appropriate solve the problem
strategy to come strategy to come strategy but but used an
up with a correct up with a came up with an inappropriate
solution and solution, but a entirely wrong strategy that led
arrived at a part of the solution that led to a wrong
correct answer solution led to an to an incorrect solution
incorrect answer answer

PY
Part III A: GRASPS Assessment

Perform the following.

O
Goal: To prepare the different student formations to be done during a
field demonstration
C
Role: Student assigned to prepare the different formations to be
followed in the field demonstration
D
Audience: The school principal, your teacher, and your fellow students

Situation: Your school has been selected by the municipal/city


E

government to perform a field demonstration as part of a big


local event where many visitors and spectators are expected to
EP

arrive and witness the said occasion. The principal of your


school designated one of your teachers to organize and lead the
group of students who will perform the field demonstration.

Being one of the students selected to perform during the


D

activity, your teacher asked you to plan the different student


formations for the field demonstration. In particular, your teacher
instructed you to include arrangements that show geometric
figures such as circles, arcs, tangents, and secants. Your
teacher also asked you to make a sketch of the various
formations and include the order in which these will be
performed by the group.

186
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Products: Sketches of the different formations to be followed in the field
demonstrations including the order and manner on how each
will be performed

Standards: The sketches of the different formations must be accurate and


presentable, and the sequencing must also be systematic.

Rubric for Sketches of the Different Formations

4 3 2 1
The sketches of The sketches of The sketches of The sketches of
the different the different the different the different

PY
formations are formations are formations are not formations are
accurately made, accurately made accurately made made but not
presentable, and and the but the accurate and the
the sequencing is sequencing is sequencing is sequencing is not
systematic. systematic but not systematic. systematic.

O
presentable.

Part III B
C
Use the prepared sketches of the different formations in Part III A in
D
formulating problems involving circles, then solve.
E
EP
D

187
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Rubric on Problems Formulated and Solved

Score Descriptors
Poses a more complex problem with 2 or more correct possible
solutions and communicates ideas unmistakably, shows in-
6 depth comprehension of the pertinent concepts and/or
processes, and provides explanations wherever appropriate.
Poses a more complex problem and finishes all significant
parts of the solution and communicates ideas unmistakably,
5 shows in-depth comprehension of the pertinent concepts
and/or processes.
Poses a complex problem and finishes all significant parts of

PY
the solution and communicates ideas unmistakably, shows in-
4 depth comprehension of the pertinent concepts and/or
processes.
Poses a complex problem and finishes most significant parts of

O
the solution and communicates ideas unmistakably, shows
3 comprehension of major concepts although neglects or
misinterprets less significant ideas or details.
C
Poses a problem and finishes some significant parts of the
2 solution and communicates ideas unmistakably but shows
gaps on theoretical comprehension.
D
Poses a problem but demonstrates minor comprehension, not
1 being able to develop an approach.
E

Source: D.O. #73 s. 2012


EP

Answer Key

Part I Part II (Use the rubric to rate students’ works/outputs)


1. B 11. A 1. 35 m
D

2. B 12. C 2. 50.16 cm
3. D 13. B
4. A 14. C
5. D 15. D Part III A (Use the rubric to rate students’ works/outputs)
6. B 16. D Part III B (Use the rubric to rate students’ works/outputs)
7. C 17. A
8. D 18. D
9. A 19. A
10. D 20. B

188
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Arc – a part of a circle

Arc Length – the length of an arc which can be determined by using the
A l
proportion = , where A is the degree measure of an arc, r is the
360 2 r
radius of the circle, and l is the arc length

Central Angle – an angle formed by two rays whose vertex is the center of
the circle

PY
Common External Tangents – tangents which do not intersect the segment
joining the centers of the two circles

O
Common Internal Tangents – tangents that intersect the segment joining
the centers of the two circles C
Common Tangent – a line that is tangent to two circles on the same plane

Congruent Arcs – arcs of the same circle or of congruent circles with equal
D
measures
E

Congruent Circles – circles with congruent radii


EP

Degree Measure of a Major Arc – the measure of a major arc that is equal
to 360 minus the measure of the minor arc with the same endpoints.

Degree Measure of a Minor Arc – the measure of the central angle which
intercepts the arc
D

External Secant Segment – the part of a secant segment that is outside a


circle

Inscribed Angle – an angle whose vertex is on a circle and whose sides


contain chords of the circle

Intercepted Arc – an arc that lies in the interior of an inscribed angle and has
endpoints on the angle

189
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Major Arc – an arc of a circle whose measure is greater than that of a
semicircle

Minor Arc – an arc of a circle whose measure is less than that of a semicircle

Point of Tangency – the point of intersection of the tangent line and the
circle

Secant – a line that intersects a circle at exactly two points. A secant contains
a chord of a circle

PY
Sector of a Circle – the region bounded by an arc of the circle and the two
radii to the endpoints of the arc

Segment of a Circle – the region bounded by an arc and a segment joining

O
its endpoints

Semicircle – an arc measuring one-half the circumference of a circle


C
Tangent to a Circle – a line coplanar with the circle and intersects it at one
and only one point
E D
EP
D

190
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
List of Theorems And Postulates On Circles

Postulates:

1. Arc Addition Postulate. The measure of an arc formed by two adjacent


arcs is the sum of the measures of the two arcs.

2. At a given point on a circle, one and only one line can be drawn that is
tangent to the circle.

Theorems:

PY
1. In a circle or in congruent circles, two minor arcs are congruent if and only
if their corresponding central angles are congruent.

O
2. In a circle or in congruent circles, two minor arcs are congruent if and only
if their corresponding chords are congruent.
C
3. In a circle, a diameter bisects a chord and an arc with the same endpoints
if and only if it is perpendicular to the chord.
D
4. If an angle is inscribed in a circle, then the measure of the angle equals
one-half the measure of its intercepted arc (or the measure of the
E

intercepted arc is twice the measure of the inscribed angle).


EP

5. If two inscribed angles of a circle (or congruent circles) intercept congruent


arcs or the same arc, then the angles are congruent.

6. If an inscribed angle of a circle intercepts a semicircle, then the angle is a


right angle.
D

7. If a quadrilateral is inscribed in a circle, then its opposite angles are


supplementary.

8. If a line is tangent to a circle, then it is perpendicular to the radius drawn to


the point of tangency.

9. If a line is perpendicular to a radius of a circle at its endpoint that is on the


circle, then the line is tangent to the circle.

191
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
10. If two segments from the same exterior point are tangent to a circle, then
the two segments are congruent.

11. If two secants intersect in the exterior of a circle, then the measure of the
angle formed is one-half the positive difference of the measures of the
intercepted arcs.

12. If a secant and a tangent intersect in the exterior of a circle, then the
measure of the angle formed is one-half the positive difference of the
measures of the intercepted arcs.

PY
13. If two tangents intersect in the exterior of a circle, then the measure of
the angle formed is one-half the positive difference of the measures of
the intercepted arcs.

O
14. If two secants intersect in the interior of a circle, then the measure of an
angle formed is one-half the sum of the measures of the arcs intercepted
by the angle and its vertical angle.
C
15. If a secant and a tangent intersect at the point of tangency, then the
measure of each angle formed is one-half the measure of its intercepted
D
arc.
E

16. If two chords of a circle intersect, then the product of the measures of
the segments of one chord is equal to the product of the measures of the
EP

segments of the other chord.

17. If two secant segments are drawn to a circle from an exterior point, then
the product of the lengths of one secant segment and its external secant
segment is equal to the product of the lengths of the other secant
D

segment and its external secant segment.

18. If a tangent segment and a secant segment are drawn to a circle from an
exterior point, then the square of the length of the tangent segment is
equal to the product of the lengths of the secant segment and its
external secant segment.

192
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
DEPED INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS THAT CAN BE USED AS
ADDITIONAL RESOURCES FOR THE LESSON ON CIRCLES:

1. Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao (BEAM) Learning Guide, Third


Year Mathematics. Module 18: Circles and Their Properties.

2. Distance Learning Module (DLM) 3, Module 1 and 2: Circles.

References And Website Links Used in This Module:

References:

PY
Bass, L. E., Charles, R.I., Hall, B., Johnson, A., & Kennedy, D. (2008). Texas
Geometry. Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Bass, L. E., Hall B.R., Johnson A., & Wood, D.F. (1998). Prentice Hall
Geometry Tools for a Changing World. NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

O
Boyd, C., Malloy, C., & Flores. (2008). McGraw-Hill Geometry. USA: The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
C
Callanta, M. M. (2002). Infinity, Worktext in Mathematics III. Makati City:
EUREKA Scholastic Publishing, Inc.
D
Chapin, I., Landau, M. & McCracken. (1997). Prentice Hall Middle Grades
Math, Tools for Success. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-
E

Hall, Inc.
EP

Cifarelli, V. (2009) cK-12 Geometry, Flexbook Next Generation Textbooks.


USA: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike.

Clemens, S. R., O’Daffer, P. G., Cooney, T.J., & Dossey, J. A. (1990).


Geometry. USA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.
D

Clements, D. H., Jones, K.W., Moseley, L. G., & Schulman, L. (1999). Math in
My World. Farmington, New York: McGraw-Hill Division.

Department of Education. (2012) K to 12 Curriculum Guide Mathematics.


Department of Education, Philippines.

Gantert, A. X. (2008) AMSCO’s Geometry. NY, USA: AMSCO School


Publications, Inc.

Renfro, F. L. (1992) Addison-Wesley Geometry Teacher’s Edition. USA:


Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.

193
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Rich, B. and Thomas, C. (2009). Schaum’s Outlines Geometry (4th ed.) USA:
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Smith, S. A., Nelson, C.W., Koss, R. K., Keedy, M. L., & Bittinger, M. L.
(1992) Addison-Wesley Informal Geometry. USA: Addison-Wesley
Publishing Company, Inc.

Wilson, P. S. (1993) Mathematics, Applications and Connections, Course I.,


Westerville, Ohio: Glencoe Division of Macmillan/McGraw-Hill
Publishing Company.

PY
Website Links as References and Source of for Learning Activities:

CK-12 Foundation. cK-12 Inscribed Angles. (2014). Retrieved from


http://www.ck12.org/book/CK-12-Geometry-Honors-Concepts/ section/8.7/

O
CK-12 Foundation. cK-12 Secant Lines to Circles. (2014). Retrieved from
http://www.ck12.org/book/CK-12-Geometry-Honors-Concepts/ section/8.8/
C
CK-12 Foundation. cK-12 Tangent Lines to Circles. (2014). Retrieved from
http://www.ck12.org/book/CK-12-Geometry-Honors-Concepts/ section/8.4/
D
Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Cliffs Notes. Arcs and Inscribed Angles. (2013).
Retrieved from http://www.cliffsnotes.com/math/geometry/circles/arcs-and-
inscribed-angles
E

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Cliffs Notes. Segments of Chords, Secants, and


EP

Tangents. (2013). Retrieved from


http://www.cliffsnotes.com/math/geometry/circles/segments-of-chords-
secants-tangents

Math Open Reference. Arc. (2009). Retrieved from


D

http://www.mathopenref.com/arc.html

Math Open Reference. Arc Length. (2009). Retrieved from


http://www.mathopenref.com/arclength.html

Math Open Reference. Central Angle. (2009). Retrieved from


http://www.mathopenref.com/circlecentral.html

Math Open Reference. Central Angle Theorem. (2009). Retrieved from


http://www.mathopenref.com/arccentralangletheorem.html

194
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Math Open Reference. Chord. (2009). Retrieved from
http://www.mathopenref.com/chord.html

Math Open Reference. Inscribed Angle. (2009). Retrieved from


http://www.mathopenref.com/circleinscribed.html

Math Open Reference. Intersecting Secants Theorem. (2009). Retrieved from


http://www.mathopenref.com/secantsintersecting.html

Math Open Reference. Sector. (2009). Retrieved from


http://www.mathopenref.com/arcsector.html

Math Open Reference. Segment. (2009). Retrieved from

PY
http://www.mathopenref.com/segment.html

math-worksheet.org. Free Math Worksheets. Arc Length and Sector Area.


(2014). Retrieved from http://www.math-worksheet.org/arc-length-and-sector-
area

O
math-worksheet.org. Free Math Worksheets. Inscribed Angles. (2014).
C
Retrieved from http://www.math-worksheet.org/inscribed-angles

math-worksheet.org. Free Math Worksheets. Secant-Tangent Angles. (2014).


Retrieved from http://www.math-worksheet.org/secant-tangent-angles
D
math-worksheet.org. Free Math Worksheets. Tangents. (2014). Retrieved
from tangents
E

OnlineMathLearning.com. Circle Theorems. (2013). Retrieved from


EP

http://www.onlinemathlearning.com/circle-theorems.html

Roberts, Donna. Oswego City School District Regents exam Prep Center.
Geometry Lesson Page. Formulas for Angles in Circles Formed by Radii,
Chords, Tangents, Secants. (2012). Retrieved from
D

http://www.regentsprep.org/Regents/math/geometry/ GP15/CircleAngles.htm

195
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Website Links for Videos:

Coach, Learn. NCEA Maths Level 1 Geometric reasoning: Angles Within


Circles. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jUAHw-
JIobc

Khan Academy. Equation for a circle using the Pythagorean Theorem.


Retrieved from https://www.khanacademy.org/math/geometry/cc-geometry-
circles

Schmidt, Larry. Angles and Arcs Formed by Tangents, Secants, and Chords.
(2013). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I-RyXI7h1bM

PY
Sophia.org. Geometry. Circles. (2014). Retrieved from
http://www.sophia.org/topics/circles

Website Links for Images:

O
Cherry Valley Nursery and Landscape Supply. Seasonal Colors Flowers and
C
Plants. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.cherryvalleynursery.com/

eBay Inc. Commodore Holden CSA Mullins pursuit mag wheel 17 inch
genuine - 4blok #34. (2014). Retrieved from
D
http://www.ebay.com.au/itm/Commodore-Holden-CSA-Mullins-pursuit-mag-
wheel-17-inch-genuine-4blok-34-/221275049465
E

Fort Worth Weekly. Facebook Fact: Cowboys Are World’s Team. (2012) .
Retrieved from http://www.fwweekly.com/2012/08/21/facebook-fact-cowboys-
EP

now-worlds-team/

GlobalMotion Media Inc. Circular Quay, Sydney Harbour to Historic Hunter's


Hill Photos. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.everytrail.com/ guide/circular-
quay-sydney-harbour-to-historic-hunters-hill/photos
D

HiSupplier.com Online Inc. Shandong Sun Paper Industry Joint Stock Co.,Ltd.
Retrieved from http://pappapers.en.hisupplier.com/product-66751-Art-
Boards.html

Kable. Slip-Sliding Away. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.offshore-


technology.com/features/feature1674/feature1674-5.html

Materia Geek. Nikon D500 presentada officialmente. (2009). Retrieved from


http://materiageek.com/2009/04/nikon-d5000-presentada-oficialmente/

196
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Piatt, Andy. Dreamstime.com. Rainbow Stripe Hot Air Balloon. Retrieved from
http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/rainbow-stripe-hot-air-balloon-788611.jpg

Regents of the University of Colorado. Nautical Navigation. (2014). Retrieved


from http://www.teachengineering.org/view_activity.php?url=
collection/cub_/activities/cub_navigation/cub_navigation_lesson07_activity1.x
ml

Sambhav Transmission. Industrial Pulleys. Retrieved from


http://www.indiamart.com/sambhav-transmission/industrial-pulleys.html

shadefxcanopies.com. Flower Picture Gallery, Garden Pergola Canopies.


Retrieved from http://www.flowerpicturegallery.com/v/halifax-public-

PY
gardens/Circular+mini+garden+with+white+red+flowers+and+dark+
grass+in+the+middle+at+Halifax+Public+Gardens.jpg.html

Tidwell, Jen. Home Sweet House. (2012). Retrieved from


http://youveneverheardofjentidwell.com/2012/03/02/home-sweet-house/

O
Weston Digital Services. FWR Motorcycles LTD. CHAINS AND
SPROCKETS. (2014). Retrieved from
C
http://fwrm.co.uk/index.php?main_page=index&cPath=585&zenid=10omr4he
hmnbkktbl94th0mlp6
E D
EP
D

197
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Module 5: Plane Coordinate Geometry

A. Learning Outcomes

Content Standard:

The learner demonstrates understanding of key concepts of


coordinate geometry.

Performance Standard:

The learner is able to formulate and solve problems involving


geometric figures on the rectangular coordinate plane with perseverance and

PY
accuracy.

Unpacking the Standards for Understanding

Subject: Learning Competencies

O
Mathematics 10
 Derive the distance formula
Quarter: Second  Apply the distance formula to prove some geometric
Quarter properties
C
Topic: Plane  Illustrate the center-radius form of the equation of a
Coordinate Geometry circle
D
 Determine the center and radius of a circle given its
Lessons: equation and vice versa
1. The Distance
E

 Graph a circle and other geometric figures on the


Formula
coordinate plane
2. The Equation of a
EP

Circle  Solve problems involving geometric figures on the


coordinate plane

Essential Essential
Writer: Understanding: Question:
D

Melvin M. Callanta Students will understand that How do the key


the concepts involving plane concepts of plane
coordinate geometry are coordinate geometry
useful tools in solving real-life facilitate finding
problems like finding solutions to real-life
locations, distances, problems involving
mapping, etc. geometric figures?

198
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Transfer Goal:

Students will be able to apply with perseverance and


accuracy the key concepts of plane coordinate
geometry in formulating and solving problems involving
geometric figures on the rectangular coordinate plane.

B. Planning for Assessment

Product/Performance

The following are products and performances that students are expected to

PY
come up with in this module.
1. Ground Plan drawn on a grid with coordinates
2. Equations and problems involving mathematics concepts already learned
such as coordinate plane, slope and equation of a line, parallel and
perpendicular lines, polygons, distance, angles, etc

O
3. Finding the distance between a pair of points on the coordinate plane
4. Determining the missing coordinates of the endpoints of a segment
5. Finding the coordinates of the midpoint of the segment whose endpoints
are given
C
6. Describing the figure formed by a set of points on a coordinate plane
7. Determining the missing coordinates corresponding to the vertices of
some polygons
D
8. Solutions to problems involving the distance and the midpoint formulas
9. Coordinate Proofs of some geometric properties
10. Sketch of a municipal, city, or provincial map on a coordinate plane with
E

the coordinates of some important landmarks


11. Formulating and solving real-life problems involving the distance and the
EP

midpoint formula
12. Finding the radius of a circle drawn on a coordinate plane
13. Determining the center and the radius of a circle given the equation
14. Graphing a circle given the equation
15. Writing the equation of a circle given the center and the radius
D

16. Writing the equation of a circle from standard form to general form and
vice-versa
17. Determining the equation that describes a circle
18. Solutions to problems involving the equation of a circle
19. Formulating and solving real-life problems involving the equation of a
circle

199
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Assessment Map

PROCESS/
TYPE KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE
SKILLS
Pre- Pre-Test: Pre-Test: Pre-Test:
Assessment/ Part I Part I Part I and Part II
Diagnostic
Identifying the Determining the Solving problems
distance distance involving the
formula between a pair Distance Formula
of points including the
Illustrating the Midpoint Formula,
distance Determining the and the Equation
between two coordinate of a of a Circle

PY
points on the point given its
coordinate distance from
plane another point

Illustrating the Determining the


midpoint coordinates of

O
formula the midpoint
and the
Illustrating the endpoints of a
midpoint of a
segment
segment
C
Describing the
Defining figure formed by
D
coordinate a set of points
proof
Determining the
Identifying an coordinates of
E

equation of a the vertex of a


circle geometric figure
EP

Finding the
length of the
radius of a circle
given the
endpoints of a
D

diameter

Finding the
center of a circle
given the
equation

Finding the
equation of a
circle given the
endpoints of a
radius

200
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PROCESS/
TYPE KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE
SKILLS

Pre-Test: Pre-Test: Pre-Test: Pre-Test:


Part III Part III Part III Part III
Situational Situational Situational Situational
Analysis Analysis Analysis Analysis
Determining Illustrating the Explaining how to Making a
the locations of prepare the ground ground plan for
mathematics objects or plan for the Boy the Boy Scouts
concepts or groups Scouts Jamboree
Jamboree
principles
involved in a Writing the Solving real-life
Formulating
prepared equations that problems
equations,

PY
ground plan describe the
situations or inequalities, and
problems problems

Solving
equations

O
Formative Quiz: Quiz: Quiz: Lesson 1
Lesson 1 Lesson 1
C
Identifying the Finding the Explaining how to
coordinates of distance find the distance
points to be between each between two
substituted in pair of points on points
the distance the coordinate
D
formula and in plane Explaining how to
the midpoint find the midpoint of
formula Finding the a segment
E

coordinates of
Identifying the the midpoint of Describing figures
figures formed a segment given formed by some
EP

by some sets the endpoints sets of points


of points
Plotting some Explaining how to
Identifying sets of points on find the missing
parts of some the coordinate coordinates of
geometric plane some geometric
D

figures and figures


their properties Naming the
missing Solving real-life
coordinates of problems involving
the vertices of the distance
some geometric formula and the
figures midpoint formula

Using coordinate
proof to justify
claims

201
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PROCESS/
TYPE KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE
SKILLS

Writing a
coordinate proof to
prove geometric
properties

Quiz: Quiz: Quiz: Lesson 2


Lesson 2 Lesson 2

Identifying the Determining the Explaining how to


equations of center and the determine the
circles in radius of a circle center of a circle
center-radius

PY
form or Graphing a Explaining how to
standard form circle given the graph circles given
and in general equation written the equations
form in center-radius written in center-
form. radius form and
general form

O
Writing the
equation of a Explaining how to
circle given the write the equation

radius
C
center and the of a circle given
the center and the
radius
Writing the
equation of a Explaining how to
D
circle from write the equation
standard form to of a circle from
general form standard form to
E

and vice-versa general form and


vice-versa
EP

Solving problems
involving the
equation of a circle

Summative Post-Test: Post-Test: Post-Test: Post-Test:


Part I Part I Part I and Part II Part III A and B
D

Identifying the Determining the Solving problems Preparing


distance distance involving the emergency
formula between a pair Distance Formula, measures to be
of points including the undertaken in
Illustrating the Midpoint Formula, times of natural
distance Determining the and the Equation calamities and
between two coordinate of a of a Circle disasters
points on the point given its particularly
coordinate distance from typhoons and
plane another point floods

202
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PROCESS/
TYPE KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE
SKILLS

Illustrating the Determining the Preparing a grid


midpoint coordinates of map of a
formula the midpoint municipality
and the
Illustrating the endpoints of a Formulating and
midpoint of a segment solving problems
segment Describing the involving the key
figure formed by concepts of
a set of points plane coordinate
Defining geometry
coordinate Determining the
proof coordinates of

PY
Identifying an the vertex of a
equation of a geometric figure
circle
Finding the
length of the
radius of a circle

O
given the
endpoints of a
diameter
C
Finding the
center of a circle
given the
equation
D
Finding the
equation of a
E

circle given the


endpoints of a
radius
EP

Self- Journal Writing:


Assessment Expressing understanding of the distance formula, midpoint formula,
coordinate proof, and the equation of a circle.
D

203
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Assessment Matrix (Summative Test))

Levels of How will I


What will I assess? How Will I Score?
Assessment assess?
The learner Paper and
demonstrates Pencil Test
Knowledge understanding of key
15% concepts of plane Part I items 1, 3, 1 point for every
coordinate geometry. 4, 7, 8, and 13 correct response
 Derive the distance
formula. Part I items 5, 6, 1 point for every
Process/Skills  Apply the distance 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, correct response
25%

PY
formula to prove some 16, 18, and 19
geometric properties.
 Illustrate the center- Part I items 2, 1 point for every
radius form of the 15, 17, and 20 correct response
equation of a circle.

O
 Determine the center
and radius of a circle
given its equation and Part II items 1 Rubric on Problem

Understanding
vice versa.
C and 2 Solving (maximum of 4
 Graph a circle and points for each
30%
other geometric problem)
figures on the
D
coordinate plane.
 Solve problems
E

involving geometric
figures on the
coordinate plane.
EP

The learner is able to Part III A Rubric for the


formulate and solve Prepared Emergency
problems involving Measures
geometric figures on the
rectangular coordinate Rubric for Grip Map of
D

plane with perseverance the Municipality


Product/
and accuracy. (Total Score: maximum
Performance
of 6 points )
30%
Part III B Rubric on Problems
Formulated and Solved
(Total Score: maximum
of 6 points )

204
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
C. Planning for Teaching-Learning

This module covers key concepts of plane coordinate geometry. It is


divided into two lessons, namely: The Distance Formula and the Equation of
a Circle.
In Lesson 1 of this module, the students will derive the distance
formula and apply it in proving geometric relationships and in solving
problems, particularly finding the distance between objects or points. They
will also learn about the midpoint formula and its applications. Moreover, the
students will graph and describe geometric figures on the coordinate plane.

PY
The second lesson is about the equation of a circle. In this lesson, the
students will illustrate the center-radius form of the equation of a circle,
determine the center and the radius given its equation and vice-versa, and
show its graph on the coordinate plane (or by using the computer freeware,
GeoGebra). More importantly, the students will solve problems involving the

O
equation of a circle.
In learning the equation of a circle, the students will use their prior
C
knowledge and skills through the different activities provided. This is to
connect and relate those mathematics concepts and skills that students
previously studied to their new lesson. They will also perform varied learning
D
tasks to process the knowledge and skills learned and to further deepen and
transfer their understanding of the different lessons in real-life situations.
E

Introduce the main lesson to the students by showing them the


pictures below, then ask them the questions that follow:
EP
D

205
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Look around! What geometric figures do you see in your classroom,
school buildings, houses, bridges, roads, and other structures? Have you
ever asked yourself how geometric figures helped in planning the
construction of these structures?

In your community or province, was there any instance when a


stranger or a tourist asked you about the location of a place or a
landmark? Were you able to give the right direction and its distance? If
not, could you give the right information the next time somebody asks you
the same question?

PY
Entice the students to find the answers to these questions and to
determine the vast applications of plane coordinate geometry through this
module.

O
Objectives:

After the learners have gone through the lessons contained in this module,
they are expected to:
C
1. derive the distance formula;
D
2. find the distance between points;

3. determine the coordinates of the midpoint of a segment;


E

4. name the missing coordinates of the vertices of some geometric figures;


EP

5. write a coordinate proof to prove some geometric relationships;

6. give/write the center-radius form of the equation of a circle;


D

7. determine the center and radius of a circle given its equation and vice versa;

8. write the equation of a circle from standard form to general form and vice
versa;

9. graph a circle and other geometric figures on the coordinate plane; and

10. solve problems involving geometric figures on the coordinate plane.

206
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
PRE-ASSESSMENT:
Assess students’ prior knowledge, skills, and understanding of mathematics
concepts related to the Distance Formula, the Midpoint Formula, the
Coordinate Proof, and the Equation of a Circle. These will facilitate teaching
and students’ understanding of the lessons in this module.

Answer Key

Part I Part II (Use the rubric to rate students’


works/outputs)

PY
1. C 11. D 1. 100 km
2. C 12. A 2. x  42  y  92  9
3. B 13. A
4. B 14. B
5. B 15. C Part III (Use the rubric to rate students’

O
works/outputs)
6. D 16. C
7. B 17. C
8. D 18. B
C
9. A 19. D
10. C 20. B
D

LEARNING GOALS AND TARGETS:


E

Students are expected to demonstrate understanding of key concepts of


plane coordinate geometry, formulate real-life problems involving these concepts,
EP

and solve these with perseverance and accuracy.

Lesson 1: The Distance Formula, the Midpoint Formula, and the Coordinate
Proof
D

What to KNOW
Check students’ knowledge of the different mathematics concepts
previously studied and their skills in performing mathematical operations. These
will facilitate teaching and students’ understanding of the distance formula and
the midpoint formula and in writing coordinate proofs. Tell them that as they go
through this lesson, they have to think of this important question: How do the
distance formula, the midpoint formula, and the coordinate proof facilitate finding
solutions to real-life problems and making decisions?
Let the students start the lesson by doing Activity 1. Ask them to use the
given number line in determining the lengths of segments. Let them explain how

207
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
they used the coordinates of points in finding each length. Emphasize in this
activity the relationships among the segments based on their lengths, the
distance between the endpoints of segments whose coordinates on the number
line are known, and the significance of these to the lesson.

Activity 1: How long is this part?

Answer Key

1. 4 units
2. 4 units
3. 6 units
4. 2 units

PY
5. 3 units
6. 1 unit
a. Counting the number of units from one point to the other point using
the number line or finding the absolute value of the difference of the
coordinates of the points

O
b. Yes. By counting the number of units from one point to the other
point using the number line or finding the absolute value of the
difference of the coordinates of the points
C
c. AB  BC , AC  CE , CD  DG , AB  EG . The two segments
have the same lengths.
d. d.1) AB + BC = AC; d.2) AC + CE = AE
D
e. Yes. The absolute values of the difference of their coordinates are
equal.
AD =  10  4 = 14
E

DA = 4   10 = 14
EP

BF =  6  9 = 15
FB = 9   6 = 15

Students’ understanding of the relationships among the sides of a right


triangle is a prerequisite to the derivation of the Distance Formula. In Activity 2,
D

provide the students opportunity to recall Pythagorean theorem by asking them


to find the length of the unknown side of a right triangle. Tell them to explain how
they arrived at each length of a side.

Activity 2: Why am I right?

Answer Key
1. 5 units
2. 12 units
3. 12 units
4. 2 13 units  7.21 units

208
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
5. 4 5 units  8.94 units
6. 2 63 units  15.87 units
The length of the unknown side of each right triangle is obtained by
applying the Pythagorean theorem.

Let students relate their understanding of the Pythagorean theorem to


finding the distance between objects or points on the coordinate plane. This
would help them understand the derivation of the distance formula.

Ask the students to perform Activity 3. In this activity, they will be


presented with a situation involving distances of objects or points on a coordinate
plane. If possible, let the students find out how the coordinates of points can be

PY
used in finding distances between objects.

Activity 3: Let’s Exercise!

O
Answer Key
1. 10 km. By applying the Pythagorean theorem. That is, 6 2  8 2  c 2 ; c = 10
km.
C
2. 3 km. distance from City Hall 0,4 to Plaza 3,4 = 0  3 = 3
9 km. distance from City Hall 0,4 to Emilio’s house 9,4 = 0  9 = 9
3. 9 km. distance from Jose’s house 0,0 to Gasoline Station 9,0 = 0  9 = 9
D

4. 0,0 – Jose’s house 3,12 – Diego’s house


9,4 – Emilio’s house 3,4 – Plaza
E

5. 0,4 – City Hall 9,0 – Gasoline Station


EP

6. By finding the absolute value of the difference of the coordinates of the


points corresponding to Emilio’s house and the City Hall and Jose’s house
and the Gasoline Station, respectively

Distance from Emilio’s house 9,4 to City Hall 0,4 = 0  9


D

=9
Answer: 9 km

Distance from Jose’s house 0,0 to Gasoline Station 9,0 = 9  0


= 9 km
Answer: 9 km

The distances of the houses of Jose, Emilio, and Diego from each other
can be determined by applying the Pythagorean Theorem.
Jose’s house 0,0 to Emilio’s house 9,4

209
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
4 2  9 2  c 2 ; c = 97 km  9.85 km
Jose’s house 0,0 to Diego’s house 3,12
3 2  122  c 2 ; c = 153 km  12.37 km
Emilio’s house 9,4 to Diego’s house 3,12
6 2  8 2  c 2 ; c = 10 km

Provide the students opportunity to derive the Distance Formula. Ask


them to perform Activity 4. In this activity, the students should be able to come up
with the Distance Formula starting from two given points on the coordinate plane.

PY
Activity 4: Let Me Formulate!

Answer Key
y y

O
1. 2.
C
E D

x x
EP

y
3. C 8,1 . By determining the coordinates
of the point of intersection of the
two lines
AC = 6 units
D

BC = 8 units

4. Right Triangle. BC  AC . Hence,


the triangle contains a 90-degree
angle. Pythagorean Theorem can
be applied. x
AB = 10 units

210
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
y
5. C x1,y 2 
AC = x1  x 2 or x 2  x1
BC = y1  y 2 or y 2  y1

AB = x 2  x1   y 2  y1 
2 2 2

AB = x2  x12  y 2  y12

PY
Before proceeding to the next activities, let the students give a brief

O
summary of the activities done. Provide them an opportunity to relate or connect
their responses in the activities given to their new lesson. Let the students read
and understand some important notes on the distance formula and the midpoint
C
formula and in writing coordinate proofs. Tell them to study carefully the
examples given.

What to PROCESS
D

In this section, let the students apply the key concepts of the Distance
Formula, Midpoint Formula, and Coordinate Proof. Tell them to use the
E

mathematical ideas and the examples presented in the preceding section to


answer the activities provided.
EP

Ask the students to perform Activity 5. In this activity, the students will
determine the distance between two points on the coordinate plane using the
Distance Formula. They should be able to explain how to find the distance
between points that are aligned horizontally, vertically, or neither.
D

211
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 5: How far are we from each other?

Answer Key

1. 8 units 6. 13 units
2. 15 units 7. 10.3 units
3. 11.4 units 8. 11.66 units
4. 13 units 9. 13.6 units
5. 6.4 units 10. 12.81 units

a. Regardless of whether points are aligned horizontally or vertically,


the distance d between these points can be determined using the

PY
Distance Formula, d  x2  x12  y 2  y12 . Moreover, the
following formulas can also be used.
a.1) d = x 2  x1 , for the distance d between two points that are

O
aligned horizontally

a.2) d = y 2  y1 , for the distance d between two points that are


aligned vertically
C
b. The Distance Formula can be used to find the distance between two
D
points on a coordinate plane.
E

Let the students apply the Midpoint Formula in finding the coordinates of
the midpoint of a segment whose endpoints are given by doing Activity 6. This
activity will enhance their skill in proving geometric relationships using coordinate
EP

proof and in solving real-life problems involving the midpoint formula.

Activity 6: Meet Me Halfway!


D

Answer Key

1. 9,9 6.  8,9
2. 7,8 7.  5,4
 15 15 
3. 4,4 8.  , 
 2 2 
4. 4,1 9.  8,7
3 5
5.  ,  10.  5,4
2 2

212
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Provide the students opportunity to relate the properties of some
geometric figures to the new lesson by performing Activity 7. Ask them to plot
some set of points on the coordinate plane. Then, connect the consecutive points
by a line segment to form a figure. Tell them to identify the figures formed and
use the distance formula to characterize or describe each. Emphasize to the
students the different properties of these geometric figures for they need this in
determining the missing coordinates of each figure’s vertices.

Activity 7: What figure am I?

Answer Key

PY
1. 2.
y
y

O
C
x
x
E D

3. 4.
EP

y y
D

213
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
5. 6.
y y

x
x

PY
7. 8.
y y

O
x
C x
E D

9. 10.
EP

y
y
D

214
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
a. The figures formed in #1, #2, and #3 are triangles. Each figure has three
sides.
The figures formed in #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, and #9 are quadrilaterals. Each
figure has four sides.
The figure formed in #10 is a pentagon. It has five sides.
b. ΔABC and ΔFUN are isosceles triangles. ΔGOT and ΔFUN are right
triangles.
c. ΔABC and ΔFUN are isosceles because each has two sides congruent or
with equal lengths.
ΔGOT and ΔFUN are right triangles because each contains a right angle.
d. Quadrilaterals LIKE and LOVE are squares.
Quadrilaterals LIKE, DATE, LOVE and SONG are rectangles.
Quadrilaterals LIKE, DATE, LOVE, SONG, and BEAT are parallelograms.

PY
Quadrilateral WIND is a trapezoid.
e. Quadrilaterals LIKE and LOVE are squares because each has four sides
congruent and contains four right angles.
Quadrilaterals LIKE, DATE, LOVE, and SONG are rectangles because
each has two pairs of congruent and parallel sides and contains four right

O
angles.
Quadrilaterals LIKE, DATE, LOVE, SONG, and BEAT are parallelograms
because each has two pairs of congruent and parallel sides and has
opposite angles that are congruent.
C
Quadrilateral WIND is a trapezoid because it has a pair of parallel sides.
D
An important skill that students need in writing coordinate proof is to name
the missing coordinates of geometric figures drawn on a coordinate plane.
E

Activity 8 provides the students opportunity to develop such skill. In this activity,
the students will name the missing coordinates of the vertices of geometric
EP

figures in terms of the given variables.

Activity 8: I Missed You But Now I Found You!


D

Answer Key

1. O a  b, c  5. A  a,0
For questions a-d, evaluate
2. V a, b  D a, d  students’ responses.
3. V 3a,0 E b, c 
M 3a, b  6. S 0,0
4. W  b, c  P a, b 

What to REFLECT on and UNDERSTAND

215
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Ask the students to take a closer look at some aspects of the Distance
Formula, the Midpoint Formula, and the Coordinate Proof. Provide them with
opportunities to think deeply and test further their understanding of the lesson by
doing Activity 9. In this activity, the students will solve problems involving these
mathematics concepts and explain or justify their answers.

Activity 9: Think of This Over and Over and Over … Again!

Answer Key
The values of x were obtained
1. y = 15 or y = -9; by using the distance formula

PY
2. a. x = 21 – if N is in the first quadrant and the coordinates of the
midpoint were determined by
x = -3 – if N is in the second quadrant using the midpoint formula.
 5 Students may further give
b.  3,  explanations to their answers
 2 
based on the solutions
3.  7,4

O
presented.
4. 99 km
5. Luisa and Grace are both correct. If the expressions are evaluated,
Luisa and Grace will arrive at the same value.
C
6. a. Possible answer: To become more accessible to students coming
from both buildings.
b. 90,70
D
c. The distance between the two buildings is about 357.8 m.
Since the study shed is midway between the two school buildings,
E

then it is about 178.9 m away from each. This is obtained by dividing


357.8 by 2.
7. a. 100 km b. 5 hours
EP

8. No. The triangle is not an equilateral triangle. It is actually an isosceles


triangle. The distance between A and C is 2a while the distance
between A and B or B and C is a 2 .
9. a. Yes. FS  c  a2  b  d 2 and AT  a  c 2  b  d 2 .
D

Since a  c   c  a , then FS = AT.


2 2

b. Rectangle; The quadrilateral has two pairs of opposite sides that are
parallel and congruent and has four right angles.

Develop further students’ understanding of Coordinate Proof by asking


them to perform Activity 10. Ask the students to write a coordinate proof to prove
the particular geometric relationship. Let them realize the significance of the
Distance Formula, the Midpoint Formula, and the different mathematics concepts
already studied in coming up with the coordinate proof.

216
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 10: Prove that this is True!

Answer Key

1. Show that PR  QS .
If PR  QS , then PR  QS .

PR   b  a2  c  02
 b2  2ab  a2  c 2
PR  a2  2ab  b2  c 2

PY
QS  b   a2  c  02
 b  a2  c  02
 b2  2ab  a2  c 2

O
QS  a2  2ab  b2  c 2 C
Therefore, PR  QS and PR  QS . Hence, the diagonals of an
isosceles trapezoid are congruent.

1
D
2. Show that MC  LG .
2
2 2
E

a  b 
MC    0     0 
2  2 
EP

a2 b2
 
4 4
a2  b 2
MC 
2
D

LG  0  a2  b  02
 a2  b 2
1 a2  b 2
LG 
2 2
1
Therefore, MC  LG . Hence, the median to the hypotenuse of a right
2
triangle is half the hypotenuse.

217
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
3. Show that PQ  QR  RS  PS .

2 2
 b a  c
PQ   0    c  
 2   2
2 2
b a c
     
 2   2
b 2  2ab  a2  c 2
PQ 
2

PY
2 2 2 2
ba  c   b a  c
QR    0    0 RS   0    0  
 2  2   2   2
2 2 2 2

O
b a c b a  c
          
 2   2  2   2
b2  2ab  a2  c 2 b 2  2ab  a2  c 2
QR 
C RS 
2 2

2 2
D
 b a  c
PS   0    c  
 2   2
E

2 2
b a c
     
 2   2
EP

b2  2ab  a2  c 2
PS 
2

Therefore, PQ  QR  RS  PS and PQRS is a rhombus.


D

218
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
4. Show that BT  CS .
If BT  CS , then BT  CS .
2 2
   a   b
BT  a      0  
  2   2
2 2
 a  b
 a    0  
 2  2
2 2
 3a   b
     
 2   2

PY
9a2  b 2
BT 
2

O
2 2 Therefore, BT  CS and BT  CS .
 a  b
CS    a     0   Hence, the medians to the legs of an
 2  2
C isosceles triangle are congruent.
2 2
  3a   b
      
 2   2
D
9a2  b 2
CS 
2
E

5. Equate the lengths AC and BD to


EP

prove that ABCD is a rectangle.

AC  BD
b  a2  c  02  a  b  02  c  02
D

b2  2ab  a2  c 2  a2  2ab  b2  c 2
b2  2ab  a2  c 2  a2  2ab  b2  c 2
 2ab  2ab
4ab  0

Since a > 0, then b = 0. And that A is along the y – axis. Also, B is along the
line parallel to the y-axis. Therefore, ADC is a right angle and ABCD is a
rectangle.

219
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
1
6. Show that CG  LE
2
LE  b  02  c  02
LE  b2  c 2

2 2
ab a c 
CG        0
 2 2 2 
2 2
b c
    
 2  2

PY
b2  c 2
CG 
2
1
Therefore, CG  LE .

O
2

Before the students move to the next section of this lesson, give a short
C
test (formative test) to find out how well they understood the lesson. Ask them
also to write a journal about their understanding of the distance formula, midpoint
formula, and the coordinate proof. Refer to the Assessment Map.
D
What to TRANSFER
E

Give the students opportunities to demonstrate their understanding of the


Distance Formula, the Midpoint Formula, and the use of Coordinate Proofs by
EP

doing a practical task. Let them perform Activity 11. You can ask the students to
work individually or in group. In this activity, the students will make a sketch of
the map of their municipality, city, or province on a coordinate plane. They will
indicate on the map some important landmarks, and then determine the
coordinates of each. Tell them to explain why the landmarks they have indicated
D

are significant in their community and to write a paragraph explaining how they
selected the coordinates of these landmarks. Using the coordinates assigned to
the different landmarks, the students will formulate then solve problems involving
the distance formula and the midpoint formula. They will also formulate problems
which require the use of coordinate proofs.

Activity 11: A Map of My Own

Answer Key
Evaluate students’ answers. You may use the rubric.

220
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Summary/Synthesis/Generalization:

This lesson was about the distance formula, the midpoint formula, the use
of coordinate proofs, and the applications of these mathematical concepts in real
life. The lesson provided the students with opportunities to derive the distance
formula, find the distance between points, determine the coordinates of the
midpoint of a segment, name the missing coordinates of the vertices of some
geometric figures, write a coordinate proof to prove some geometric relationships,
and solve problems involving the different concepts learned in this lesson. Moreover,
the students were given the opportunities to formulate then solve problems
involving the distance formula, the midpoint formula, and the coordinate proof.

PY
Lesson 2: The Equation of a Circle

What to KNOW

Find out how much the students have learned about the different

O
mathematics concepts previously studied and their skills in performing
mathematical operations. Checking these will facilitate teaching and students’
understanding of the equation of a circle. Tell them that as they go through this
C
lesson, they have to think of this important question: “How does the equation of a
circle facilitate finding solutions to real-life problems and making decisions?”

Two of the essential mathematics concepts needed by the students in


D
understanding the equation of a circle are the perfect square trinomial and the
square of a binomial. Activity 1 of this lesson will provide them opportunity to
recall these concepts. In this activity, the students will determine the number that
E

must be added to a given expression to make it a perfect square trinomial and


then express the result as a square of a binomial. They should be able to explain
EP

how they came up with the perfect square trinomial and the square of a binomial.
Emphasize to the students that the process they have done in producing a
perfect square trinomial is also referred to as completing the square.

Activity 1: Make It Perfect!


D

Answer Key
1. 4; x  22 a. Add the square of one-half the
25; t  5
2
2. coefficient of the linear term.
b. Factor the perfect square trinomial.
49; r  7
2
3. c. Use the distributive property of
4. 121; r  112 multiplication or FOIL Method.

324; x  18
2
5.

221
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Answer Key
2 2
81  9 1  1
6. ; w   9. ; s  
4  2 36  6
2 2
121  11 9  3
7. ; x   10. ; t  
4  2 64  8 
2
625  25 
8. ; v  
4  2 

Provide the students opportunity to develop their understanding of the

PY
equation of a circle. Ask them to perform Activity 2. In this activity, the students
will be presented with a situation involving the equation of a circle. Let them find
the distance of the plane from the air traffic controller given the coordinates of the
point where it is located and the y-coordinate of the position of the plane at a
particular instance if its x-coordinate is given. Furthermore, ask them to describe

O
the path of the plane as it goes around the airport. Challenge them to determine
the equation that would define the path of the plane. Let them realize that the
distance formula is related to the equation defining the plane’s path around the
airport.
C
Activity 2: Is there a traffic in the air?
D

Answer Key
E

1. 50 km
2. When x = 5, y = 49.75 or y = -49.75.
EP

When x = 10, y = 48.99 or y = -48.99.


When x = 15, y = 47.7 or y = -47.4
When x = 15, y = 47.7 or y = -47.4
When x = -20, y = 45.83 or y = -45.83.
When x = -30, y = 40 or y = -40.
Answers Key
D

3. No. It is not possible for the plane to be at a point whose x  coordinate


is 60 because its distance from the air traffic controller would be
greater than 50 km.
4. The path is circular. x 2  y 2  2500

Provide the students opportunity to come up with an equation that can be


used in finding the radius of a circle. Ask them to perform Activity 3. In this
activity, the students should be able to realize that the Distance Formula can be
used in finding the radius of a circle. And that the distance of a point from the
center of a circle is also the radius of the circle.

222
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activity 3: How far am I from my point of rotation?

A.

Answer Key
y
1. 8 units
2. Yes, the circle will pass through
0,8 ,  8,0 , and 0,8 because
the distance from these points to
the center of the circle is 8 units.
x
3. No, because the distance from point
M  4,6 to the center of the circle

PY
is less than 8 units.
No, because the distance from point
N 9,2 to the center of the circle is
more than 8 units.

O
4. 8 units; 8  0 = 8
5. If a point is on the circle, its distance from the center is equal to the
radius.
C
6. Since the distance d of a point from the center of the circle is
d  x 2  y 2 and is equal to the radius r, then r  x 2  y 2 or
D
x2  y 2  r 2 .
E
EP
D

223
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
B.

Answer Key
y
1. 61 units or approximately 7.81 units

2. Yes, the circle will pass through


 2,7 , 8,7 , and  3,4 because
the distance from each of these points x
to the center of the circle is 61 units
or approximately 7.81 units.

PY
3. No, because the distance from point
M  7,6 to the center of the circle is
more than 7.81 units.

O
4. 61 units or approximately 7.81 units.
Note: Evaluate students’ explanations.
C
5. If the center of the circle is not at the origin, its radius can be
determined by using the distance formula,
d  x2  x12  y 2  y12 . Since the distance of the point from
D
the center of the circle is equal to the radius r, then
E

r x2  x12  y2  y12 or x2  x12  y2  y12  r 2 . If


P x , y  is a point on the circle and C h ,k  is the center, then
EP

x2  x12  y2  y12  r 2 becomes x  h2  y  k 2  r 2 .

Before proceeding to the next activities, let the students give a brief
summary of the activities they have done. Provide them with an opportunity to
D

relate or connect their responses in the activities given to their new lesson,
equation of a circle. Let the students read and understand some important notes
on equation of a circle. Tell them to study carefully the examples given.

What to PROCESS

Let the students use the mathematical ideas they have learned about the
equation of a circle and the examples presented in the preceding section to
perform the succeeding activities.

224
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
In Activity 4, the students will determine the center and the radius of each
circle, given its equation. Then, the students will be asked to graph the circle. Ask
them to explain how they determined the center and the radius of the circle.
Furthermore, tell them to explain how to graph a circle given its equation in
different forms. Strengthen students’ understanding of the graphs of circles
through the use of available mathematics freeware like Geogebra.

Activity 4: Always Start at This Point!

Answer Key

1. Center: 0,0 3. Center: 0,0

PY
Radius: 7 units Radius: 10 units

y y

O
C x x
E D
EP

2. Center: 5,6 4. Center:  7,1


Radius: 9 units Radius: 7 units

y y
D

225
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Answer Key
5. Center:  4,3 6. Center: 5,8
Radius: 8 units Radius: 11 units
y y

PY
a. Note: Evaluate students’ responses.
b. Determine first the center and the radius of the circle defined by the

O
equation, then graph.
If the given equation is in the form x 2  y 2  r 2 , the center is at the
origin and the radius of the circle is r.
C
If the given equation is in the form x  h  y  k   r 2 , the center is
2 2

at h, k  and the radius of the circle is r.


If the given equation is in the form x 2  y 2  Dx  Ey  F  0 ,
D

form x  h  y  k   r 2 . The center is at


2 2
transform it into the
E

h, k  and the radius of the circle is r.


EP

Ask the students to perform Activity 5. This time, the students will write the
equation of a circle given the center and the radius. Ask them to explain how to
determine the equation of a circle whether or not the center is the origin.

Activity 5: What defines me?


D

Answer Key
a. Write the equation in the
2 2 2 2 2
1. x  y  144 form x  y  r where the origin is the
2. x  22  y  62  81 center and r is the radius of the circle.
Write the equation in the
3. x  72  y  22  225 form x  h   y  k   r where h, k  is
2 2 2

4. x  42  y  52  50 the center and r is the radius of the circle.


b. No, because the two circles have different
5. x  102  y  82  27 radii.

226
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Activities 6 and 7 provide students opportunities to write equations of
circles from center-radius form or standard form to general form and vice-versa.
At this point, ask them to explain how to transform the equation of a circle from
one form to another form and discuss the mathematics concepts or principles
applied. Furthermore, challenge them to find a shorter way of transforming
equation of a circle from general form to standard form and vice-versa.

Activity 6: Turn Me into a General!

Answer Key
1. x 2  y 2  4x  8y  16  0 6. x 2  y 2  14x  15  0

PY
2. x 2  y 2  8 x  18y  47  0 7. x 2  y 2  4y  45  0
3. x 2  y 2  12x  2y  44  0 8. x 2  y 2  4 x  96  0
4. x 2  y 2  16x  14y  112  0 9. x 2  y 2  10x  10y  23  0

O
5. x 2  y 2  10y  11  0 10. x 2  y 2  8 x  8y  0
Note: Evaluate students’ explanations. C
Activity 7: Don’t Treat this as a Demotion!

Answer Key
D
1. x  12  y  42  64 4. x 2  y  4  100
2

Center: 1,4  Center: 0,4


E

Radius: 8 units Radius: 10 units


2 2
EP

 2  1
2. x  22  y  22  36 5.  x    y    4
 3  3
 2 1
Center:  2,2 Center:  , 
3 3
Radius: 6 units Radius: 2 units
D

2 2
 5  3
3. x  5 2
 y  2  32
2
6.  x     y    9
 2  2
5 3
Center:  5,2 Center:  , 
2 2
Radius: 4 2 units Radius: 3 units

a. Grouping the terms, then applying completing the square, addition


property of equality and factoring.

227
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
b. Completing the square, Addition Property of Equality, Square of a
Binomial
c. Using the values of D, E, and F in the general equation of a circle,
x 2  y 2  Dx  Ey  F  0 , to find the center (h,k) and radius r. The
GeoGebra freeware can also be used for verification.

What to REFLECT on and UNDERSTAND:

Ask the students to have a closer look at some aspects of the equation of
a circle. Provide them with opportunities to think deeply and test further their
understanding of the equation of a circle by doing Activities 8 and 9. Give more
focus on the real-life applications of the equation of a circle.

PY
Activity 8: A Circle? Why not?

Answer Key

O
1. No. x 2  y 2  2x  8y  26  0 can be written as x  12  y  42  9 .
Notice that -9 cannot be expressed as a square of another number.
C
2. Yes. x 2  y 2  9  4x  10y can be written as x  22  y  52  20 .
3. No. x 2  y 2  6x  8y  32 is not an equation of a circle. Its graph is not
also a circle.
D
4. No. x 2  y 2  8x  14y  65  0 is merely a point. The radius must be
greater than 0 for a circle to exist.
E
EP

Activity 9: Find Out More!

Answer Key
1. x  32  y  82  81
D

2. x  102  y  72  36 or x  102  y  52  36


3.  3x  5y  7
4. x  52  y  52  13
a. x  3  y  4  100
2 2
5.
b. Yes, because point 11,6 is still within the critical area.
c. Follow the advice of PDRRMC.
d. (Evaluate students’ responses/explanations.)

228
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Answer Key

6. a. Wise Tower - x  5  y  3  81
2 2

Global Tower - x  3  y  6  16
2 2

Star Tower - x  12  y  3  36


2 2

b. 12,2 - Star Tower


 6,7 - Wise Tower
2,8 - Global Tower
1,3 - Wise and Global Tower
c. Many possible answers. Evaluate students’ responses.

PY
Before the students move to the next section of this lesson, give a short
test (formative test) to find out how well they understood the lesson. Ask them
also to write a journal about their understanding of the equation of a circle. Refer

O
to the Assessment Map.

What to TRANSFER
C
Give the students opportunities to demonstrate their understanding of the
equation of a circle by doing a practical task. Let them perform Activity 10. You
D
can ask the students to work individually or in a group.

In Activity 10, the students will paste some small pictures of objects on
E

grid paper and position them at different coordinates. Then, the students will
draw circles that contain these pictures. Using the pictures and the circles drawn
EP

on the grid, they will formulate problems involving the equation of the circle, and
then solve them.

Activity 10: Let This be a Part of My Scrapbook!


D

Answer Key

Evaluate students’ answers. You may use the rubric.

229
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Summary/Synthesis/Generalization:

This lesson was about the equation of circles. The lesson provided the
students with opportunities to illustrate the center-radius form of the equation of a
circle, determine the center and the radius of a circle given its equation and vice
versa, write the equation of a circle from standard form to general form and vice-
versa, graph circles on the coordinate plane, and solve problems involving the
equation of circles. Moreover, they were given the opportunity to formulate and
solve real-life problems involving the equation of a circle through the practical task
performed. Their understanding of this lesson and other previously learned
mathematics concepts and principles will facilitate their learning of other related
mathematics concepts.

PY
O
C
E D
EP
D

230
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
SUMMATIVE TEST

Part I

Choose the letter that you think best answers the question.

1. Which of the following is NOT a formula for finding the distance between two
points on the coordinate plane?
A. d  x2  x1 C. d  x2  x12  y 2  y12
B. d  y 2  y1 D. d  x2  x12  y 2  y12

PY
2. A map is drawn on a grid where 1 unit is equivalent to 2 km. On the same
map, the coordinates of the point corresponding to San Rafael is (1,4).
Suppose San Quintin is 20 km away from San Rafael. Which of the following
could be the coordinates of the point corresponding to San Rafael?

O
A. (17,16) B. (17,10) C. (9,10) D. (-15,16)

3. Let M and N be points on the coordinate plane as shown in the figure below.
C y
E D

x
EP

If the coordinates of M and N are 5,7 and 5,4 , which of the following
would give the distance between the two points?
D

A. 7  4 B. 7  5 C.  4  7 D.  4  5

4. Point Q is the midpoint of ST . Which of the following is true about ST?


A. ST  QS  QT C. ST  2 QS  QT
B. ST  QS  QT D. ST  2 QS  QT

5. The distance between points M x ,5 and C 5,1 is 10 units. What is the x-
coordinate of M if it lies in the second quadrant?
A. -7 B. -3 C. -1 D. 13

231
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
6. What is the distance between points D(-10,2) and E(6,10)?
A. 16 B. 20 C. 10 2 D. 8 5

7. Which of the following equation describes a circle on the coordinate plane


with a center at 2,3 and a radius of 5 units?
A. x  22  y  32  252 C. x  32  y  22  252
B. x  22  y  32  52 D. x  22  y  32  52
8. Which of the following would give the coordinates of the midpoint of P(-6,13)
and Q(9,6)?
  6  13 9  6    6  13 9  6 

PY
A.  ,  C.  , 
 2 2   2 2 
  6  9 13  6    6  9 13  6 
B.  ,  D.  , 
 2 2   2 2 

O
9. The endpoints of a segment are (-5,2) and (9,12), respectively. What are the
coordinates of its midpoint?
A. (7,5) B. (2,7) C. (-7,5)
C D. (7,2)

10. The coordinates of the vertices of a rectangle are W  2,6 , I 10,6 ,


N 10,3, and D 2,3 . What is the length of a diagonal of the rectangle?
D
A. 7.5 B. 9 C. 12 D. 15

11. The coordinates of the vertices of a triangle are G 4,2 , O5,1 , and
E

T 10,8 . What is the length of the segment joining the midpoint of GT and
EP

O?
A. 2 10 B. 58 C. 3 10 D. 106

12. The endpoints of a diameter of a circle are E  6,8 and G4,2 . What is the
length of the radius of the circle?
D

A. 10 2 B. 5 2 C. 2 10 D. 10

13. What proof uses figures on a coordinate plane to prove geometric properties?
A. Indirect Proof C. Coordinate Proof
B. Direct Proof D. Two-Column Proof

14. What figure is formed when the points K(-2,10), L(8,8), M(6,2), and N(-4,4)
are connected consecutively?
A. Trapezoid B. Parallelogram C. Square D. Rectangle

232
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
15. Three speed cameras were installed at different points along an expressway.
On a map drawn on a coordinate plane, the coordinates of the first speed
camera are (-2,4). Suppose the second camera is exactly between the other
two and its coordinates are (12,8). What are the coordinates of the third speed
camera?
A. (26,12) B. (26,16) C. (22,12) D. (22,16)

16. In the equilateral triangle below, what are the coordinates of P?


A. 0,2a 
B. 2a,0
 
C. 0,a 3
D. 0,a 2 

PY
O
C
17. Jose, Andres, Emilio, and Juan live in different barangays of Magiting town as
shown on the coordinate plane below.
D
Andres
E

Jose
EP

Town Hall
D

Juan

Emilio

Who lives the farthest from the Town Hall if it is located at the origin?
A. Jose B. Andres C. Emilio D. Juan

233
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
18. What is the center of the circle x 2  y 2  4x  6y  36  0 ?
A. (9,-3) B. (3,-2) C. (2,-3) D. (2,-10)

19. A radius of a circle has endpoints  4,3 and 1 , 2 . What is the equation
that defines the circle if its center is at the second quadrant?
A. x  1  y  2  50 x  42  y  32  50
2 2
C.
B. x  1  y  2  50 x  42  y  32  50
2 2
D.

20. A radio signal can transmit messages up to a distance of 5 km. If the radio
signal’s origin is located at a point whose coordinates are (-2,7). What is the
equation of the circle that defines the boundary up to which the messages

PY
can be transmitted?
A. x  2  y  7  25 x  22  y  72  25
2 2
C.
B. x  2  y  7  5 x  22  y  72  5
2 2
D.

Part II

O
C
Directions: Solve each of the following problems. Show your complete solutions.

1. A tracking device that is installed in a mobile phone indicates that its user is
D
located at a point whose coordinates are (18,14). In the tracking device, each
unit on the grid is equivalent to 7 km. If the phone user came from a place
whose coordinates are (2,6)? How far has he travelled?
E

2. The equation that represents the transmission boundaries of a cellular phone


tower is x 2  y 2  10x  2y  199  0 . What is the greatest distance, in
EP

kilometers, can the signal of the tower be transmitted?

Rubric for Problem Solving


D

4 3 2 1
Used an Used an Used an Attempted to solve
appropriate appropriate appropriate the problem but
strategy to come strategy to come strategy but came used an
up with correct up with a solution, up with an entirely inappropriate
solution and but a part of the wrong solution strategy that led to
arrived at a solution led to an that led to an a wrong solution
correct answer incorrect answer incorrect answer

234
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Part III A: GRASPS Assessment

Perform the following.

Goal: To prepare emergency measures to be undertaken in times of


natural calamities and disasters particularly typhoons and floods

Role: Radio Group Chairman of the Municipal Disaster and Risk


Management Committee

Audience: Municipal and Barangay Officials and Volunteers

PY
Situation: Typhoons and floods frequently affect your municipality during
rainy seasons. For the past years, losses of lives and damages to
properties have occurred. Because of this, your municipal mayor
designated you to chair the Radio Group of the Municipal Disaster
and Risk Management Committee to warn the residents of your

O
municipality of any imminent natural calamities and disasters like
typhoons and floods. The municipal government gave your group a
number of two-way radios and antennas to be installed in strategic
C
places in the municipality. These shall be used as the need arises.

As chairman of the Radio Group, you were tasked to prepare


emergency measures that you will undertake to reduce if not to
D
avoid losses of lives and damages to properties during rainy
seasons. These include the positioning of the different two-way
radios and antennas for communication and coordination among
E

the members of the Radio Group. You were also asked to prepare
a grid map of your municipality showing the positions of the two-
EP

way radios and antennas.

Products: 1. Emergency Measures to be undertaken in times of natural


calamities and disasters

2. Grid map of your municipality showing the locations of the


D

different two-way radios and antennas

Standards: The emergency measures must be clear, relevant, and systematic.


The grid map of the municipality must be accurate, presentable,
and appropriate.

235
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Rubric for the Prepared Emergency Measures

4 3 2 1
The emergency The emergency The emergency The emergency
measures are measures are measures are measures are not
clearly presented, clearly presented clearly presented clearly presented,
relevant to the and relevant to but not relevant to not relevant to the
situation, and the situation but the situation and situation, and not
systematic. not systematic. not systematic. systematic.

Rubric for Grid Map of the Municipality

PY
4 3 2 1
The grid map is The grid map is The grid map is The grid map is
accurately made, accurately made not accurately not accurately
appropriate, and and appropriate made but made and not

O
presentable. but not appropriate. appropriate.
presentable. C
Part III B

Use the prepared grid map of the municipality in Part III A in formulating
D
problems involving plane coordinate geometry, then solve.

Rubric on Problems Formulated and Solved


E

Score Descriptors
EP

Poses a more complex problem with 2 or more correct


6 possible solutions and communicates ideas unmistakably,
shows in-depth comprehension of the pertinent concepts
and/or processes, and provides explanations wherever
appropriate.
D

Poses a more complex problem and finishes all significant


5 parts of the solution and communicates ideas unmistakably,
shows in-depth comprehension of the pertinent concepts
and/or processes.
Poses a complex problem and finishes all significant parts of
4 the solution and communicates ideas unmistakably, shows in-
depth comprehension of the pertinent concepts and/or
processes.
Poses a complex problem and finishes most significant parts
3 of the solution and communicates ideas unmistakably, shows
comprehension of major concepts although neglects or

236
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Score Descriptors
misinterprets less significant ideas or details.
Poses a problem and finishes some significant parts of the
2 solution and communicates ideas unmistakably but shows
gaps on theoretical comprehension.
Poses a problem but demonstrates minor comprehension, not
1
being able to develop an approach.
Source: D.O. #73, s. 2012

Answer Key

Part I Part II (Use the rubric to rate students’ works/outputs)


1. C 11. A 1. 56 5 km

PY
2. C 12. B 2. 15 km
3. C 13. C
4. A 14. B
5. B 15. A Part III A (Use the rubric to rate students’ works/outputs)
6. D 16. C Part III B (Use the rubric to rate students’ works/outputs)

O
7. D 17. C
8. B 18. C
9. B 19. C
]10. D 20. C
C
D
Glossary of Terms

Coordinate Proof – a proof that uses figures on a coordinate plane to prove


E

geometric relationships.
EP

Distance Formula – an equation that can be used to find the distance between
any pair of points on the coordinate plane. The distance formula is
d x2  x12  y2  y12 or PQ  x2  x12  y2  y12 , if P x1, y1 and
Qx2 , y 2  are points on a coordinate plane.
D

Horizontal Distance (between two points) – the absolute value of the difference
of the x-coordinates of two points

Midpoint – a point on a line segment that divides the same segment into two
equal parts.

Midpoint Formula – a formula that can be used to find the coordinates of the
midpoint of a line segment on the coordinate plane. The midpoint of P x1, y1
 x  x2 y1  y 2 
and Qx2 , y 2  is  1 , .
 2 2 

237
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
The General Equation of a Circle – the equation of a circle obtained by
expanding x  h 2  y  k 2  r 2 . The general equation of a circle is
x 2  y 2  Dx  Ey  F  0 , where D, E, and F are real numbers.

The Standard Equation of a Circle – the equation that defines a circle with
 x  h   y  k 
2 2
center at (h, k) and a radius of r units. It is given by  r 2.

Vertical Distance (between two points) – the absolute value of the difference of
the y-coordinates of two points.

PY
DepEd INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS THAT CAN BE USED AS ADDITIONAL
RESOURCES:

1. Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao (BEAM) Learning Guide, Third

O
Year Mathematics. Plane Coordinate Geometry. Module 20: Distance and
Midpoint Formulae C
2. Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao (BEAM) Learning Guide, Third
Year Mathematics. Plane Coordinate Geometry. Module 22: Equation of a
Circle
D
3. Distance Learning Module (DLM) 3, Module 3: Plane Coordinate Geometry.

4. EASE Modules Year III, Module 2: Plane Coordinate Geometry


E
EP

References and Website Links Used in This Module:

References:

Bass, L. E., Charles, R. I., Hall, B., Johnson, A., & Kennedy, D. (2008) Texas
Geometry. Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson Prentice Hall.
D

Bass, L. E., Hall, B.R., Johnson, A., & Wood, D. F. (1998) Prentice Hall
Geometry Tools for a Changing World. NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Boyd, C., Malloy, C. & Flores. (2008) Glencoe McGraw-Hill Geometry. USA: The
McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Callanta, M. M. (2012) Infinity, Worktext in Mathematics III. Makati City: EUREKA


Scholastic Publishing, Inc.

238
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Chapin, I., Landau, M. & McCracken. (1997) Prentice Hall Middle Grades Math,
Tools for Success. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Cifarelli, V. (2009) cK-12 Geometry, Flexbook Next Generation Textbooks. USA:


Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike.

Clemens, S. R., O’Daffer, P. G., Cooney, T. J., & Dossey, J. A. (1990) Addison-
Wesley Geometry. USA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.

Clements, D. H., Jones, K. W., Moseley, L.G., & Schulman, L. (1999) Math in my
World. New York: McGraw-Hill Division.

Department of Education. (2012) K to 12 Curriculum Guide Mathematics.

PY
Philippines.

Gantert, A. X. (2008) AMSCO’s Geometry. NY, USA: AMSCO School


Publications, Inc.

O
Renfro, F. L. (1992) Addison-Wesley Geometry Teacher’s Edition. USA:
Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.
C
Rich, B. & Thomas, C. (2009) Schaum’s Outlines Geometry Fourth Edition. USA:
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Smith, S. A., Nelson, C.W., Koss, R. K., Keedy, M. L., & Bittinger, M. L. (1992)
D
Addison-Wesley Informal Geometry. USA: Addison-Wesley Publishing
Company, Inc.
E

Wilson, P. S. (1993) Mathematics, Applications and Connections, Course I.


Westerville, Ohio: Glencoe Division of Macmillan/McGraw-Hill Publishing
EP

Company.
D

239
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Website Links as References and Sources of Learning Activities:

CliffsNotes. Midpoint Formula. (2013). Retrieved from


http://www.cliffsnotes.com/math/geometry/coordinate-geometry/midpoint-formula

CliffsNotes. Distance Formula. (2013). Retrieved from


http://www.cliffsnotes.com/math/geometry/coordinate-geometry/distance-formula

Math Open Reference. Basic Equation of a Circle (Center at 0,0). (2009).


Retrieved from http://www.mathopenref.com/ coordbasiccircle.html

Math Open Reference. Equation of a Circle, General Form (Center anywhere).

PY
(2009). Retrieved from http://www.mathopenref.com/coordgeneralcircle.html

Math-worksheet.org. Using equations of circles. (2014). Retrieved from


http://www.math-worksheet.org/using-equations-of-circles

O
Math-worksheet.org. Writing equations of circles. (2014). Retrieved from
http://www.math-worksheet.org/writing-equations-of-circles
C
Roberts, Donna. Oswego City School District Regents exam Prep Center.
Geometry Lesson Page. Midpoint of a Line Segment. (2012). Retrieved from
http://www.regentsprep.org/Regents/ math/geometry/GCG2/ Lmidpoint.htm
D
Roberts, Donna. Oswego City School District Regents exam Prep Center.
Geometry Lesson Page. Midpoint of a Line Segment. (2012). Retrieved from
http://www.regentsprep.org/Regents/math/geometry/GCG3/ Ldistance.htm
E

Stapel, Elizabeth. "Conics: Circles: Introduction & Drawing." Purplemath.


EP

Retrieved from http://www.purplemath.com/modules/ circle.htm

Website Links for Videos:

Khan Academy. Equation for a circle using the Pythagorean Theorem. Retrieved
D

from https://www.khanacademy.org/math/geometry/ cc-geometry-


circles/equation-of-a-circle/v/equation-for-a-circle-using-the-pythagorean-theorem

Khan Academy. Completing the square to write equation in standard form of a


circle. Retrieved from https://www.khanacademy.org/math/ geometry/cc-
geometry-circles/equation-of-a-circle/v/completing-the-square-to-write-equation-
in-standard-form-of-a-circle

Khan Academy. Equation for a circle using the Pythagorean Theorem. Retrieved
from https://www.khanacademy.org/math/geometry/ cc-geometry-
circles/equation-of-a-circle/v/equation-for-a-circle-using-the-pythagorean-theorem

240
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.
Khan Academy. Equation for a circle using the Pythagorean Theorem. Retrieved
from https://www.khanacademy.org/math/geometry/ cc-geometry-
circles/equation-of-a-circle/v/equation-for-a-circle-using-the-pythagorean-theorem

Ukmathsteacher. Core 1 – Coordinate Geometry (3) – Midpoint and distance


formula and Length of Line Segment. Retrieved from
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qTliFzj4wuc

VividMaths.com. Distance Formula. Retrieved from


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QPIWrQyeuYw

PY
Website Links for Images:

asiatravel.com. Pangasinan Map. Retrieved from


http://www.asiatravel.com/philippines/pangasinan/pangasinanmap.jpg

O
DownTheRoad.org. Pictures of, Chengdu to Kangding, China Photo, Images,
Picture from. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.downtheroad.org/Asia/Photo/
9Sichuan_China_Image/3Chengdu_Kangding_China.htm
C
funcheap.com. globe-map-wallpapers_5921_1600[1]. Retrieved from
http://sf.funcheap.com/hostelling-internationals-world-travel-101-santa-
clara/globe-map-wallpapers_5921_16001/
D
Hugh Odom Vertical Consultants. eleven40 theme on Genesis Framework·
WordPress. Cell Tower Development – How Are Cell Tower Locations Selected?
E

Retrieved from http://blog.thebrokerlist.com/cell-tower-development-how-are-cell-


tower-locations-selected/
EP

LiveViewGPS, Inc. GPS Tracking PT-10 Series. (2014). Retrieved from


http://www.liveviewgps.com/gps+tracking+device+pt-10+series.html

Sloan, Chris. Current "1991" Air Traffic Control Tower at Amsterdam Schiphol
Airport – 2012. (2012). Retrieved from http://airchive.com/html/airplanes-and-
D

airports/amsterdam-schipol-airport-the-netherlands-/current-1991-air-traffic-
control-tower-at-amsterdam-schiphol-airport-2012-/25510

wordfromthewell.com. Your Mind is Like an Airplane. (2012). Retrieved from


http://wordfromthewell.com/2012/11/14/your-mind-is-like-an-airplane/

241
All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -
electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.