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Mathematics

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Teacher’s Guide

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Unit 2

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educators from public and private schools, colleges, and/or universities.

We encourage teachers and other education stakeholders to email their

feedback, comments, and recommendations to the Department of

Education at action@deped.gov.ph.

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Department of Education

Republic of the Philippines

All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means -

electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

Mathematics – Grade 10

Teacher’s Guide

First Edition 2015

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Only institutions and companies which have entered an agreement with FILCOLS

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Published by the Department of Education

Secretary: Br. Armin A. Luistro FSC

Undersecretary: Dina S. Ocampo, PhD

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Development Team of the Teacher’s Guide

Consultants: Soledad A. Ulep, PhD, Debbie Marie B. Verzosa, PhD, and

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Rosemarievic Villena-Diaz, PhD

Authors: Melvin M. Callanta, Allan M. Canonigo, Arnaldo I. Chua, Jerry D.

Cruz, Mirla S. Esparrago, Elino S. Garcia, Aries N. Magnaye, Fernando B.

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Editor: Maxima J. Acelajado, PhD

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Reymond Anthony M. Quan

Illustrator: Cyrell T. Navarro

Layout Artists: Aro R. Rara, Jose Quirovin Mabuti, and Ronwaldo Victor Ma.

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

Introduction

10 Mathematics with guidelines on how to effectively use the Learner’s

Material to ensure that learners will attain the expected content and

performance standards.

This book consists of four units subdivided into modules which are

further subdivided into lessons. Each module contains the content and

performance standards and the learning competencies that must be attained

and developed by the learners which they could manifest through their

products and performances.

The special features of this Teacher’s Guide are:

A. Learning Outcomes. Each module contains the content and

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performance standards and the products and/ or performances

expected from the learners as a manifestation of their

understanding.

B. Planning for Assessment. The assessment map indicates the

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type of assessment and categorized the objectives to be assessed

into knowledge, process/skills, understanding, and performance

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C. Planning for Teaching-Learning. Each lesson has Learning

Goals and Targets, a Pre-Assessment, Activities with answers,

What to Know, What to Reflect on and Understand, What to

Transfer, and Summary / Synthesis / Generalization.

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D. Summative Test. After each module, answers to the summative

test are provided to help the teachers evaluate how much the

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E. Glossary of Terms. Important terms in the module are defined or

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clearly described.

F. References and Other Materials. This provides the teachers with

the list of reference materials used, both print and digital.

We hope that this Teacher’s Guide will provide the teachers with the

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creative, engaging, interactive, and effective manner.

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

Table of Contents

Curriculum Guide: Mathematics Grade 10

Unit 2

Module 3: Polynomial Functions................................................................ 82

Learning Outcomes ..............................................................................................82

Planning for Assessment ......................................................................................83

Planning for Teaching-Learning ...........................................................................86

Pre-Assessment ...................................................................................................87

Learning Goals and Targets .................................................................................87

Activity 1 ....................................................................................................88

Activity 2 ....................................................................................................89

Activity 3 ....................................................................................................90

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Activity 4 ....................................................................................................90

Activity 5 ....................................................................................................91

Activity 6 ....................................................................................................91

Activity 7 ....................................................................................................92

Activity 8 ....................................................................................................94

Activity 9 ....................................................................................................99

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Activity 10 ................................................................................................100

Activity 11 ................................................................................................101

Activity 12 ................................................................................................102

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Activity 13 ................................................................................................106

Activity 14 ................................................................................................107

Summary/Synthesis/Generalization ...................................................................108

Summative Test .......................................................................................................109

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Glossary of Terms ...................................................................................................114

References Used in This Module ........................................................................115

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Learning Outcomes ............................................................................................116

Planning for Assessment ....................................................................................117

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Pre-Assessment .................................................................................................125

Learning Goals and Targets ...............................................................................126

Lesson 1A: Chords, Arcs, and Central Angles................................................126

Activity 1 ..................................................................................................127

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Activity 2 ..................................................................................................128

Activity 3 ..................................................................................................129

Activity 4 ..................................................................................................130

Activity 5 ..................................................................................................131

Activity 6 ..................................................................................................132

Activity 7 ..................................................................................................132

Activity 8 ..................................................................................................132

Activity 9 ..................................................................................................133

Activity 10 ................................................................................................136

Activity 11 ................................................................................................136

Activity 12 ................................................................................................137

Activity 13 ................................................................................................138

Summary/Synthesis/Generalization ...................................................................139

Lesson 1B: Arcs and Inscribed Angles .............................................................139

Activity 1 ..................................................................................................140

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Activity 2 ..................................................................................................141

Activity 3 ..................................................................................................142

Activity 4 ..................................................................................................143

Activity 5 ..................................................................................................144

Activity 6 ..................................................................................................145

Activity 7 ..................................................................................................145

Activity 8 ..................................................................................................146

Activity 9 ..................................................................................................148

Activity 10 ................................................................................................151

Activity 11 ................................................................................................153

Activity 12 ................................................................................................154

Summary/Synthesis/Generalization ...................................................................154

Lesson 2A: Tangents and Secants of a Circle ................................................155

Activity 1 ..................................................................................................155

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Activity 2 ..................................................................................................159

Activity 3 ..................................................................................................160

Activity 4 ..................................................................................................161

Activity 5 ..................................................................................................162

Activity 6 ..................................................................................................163

Activity 7 ..................................................................................................164

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Activity 8 ..................................................................................................172

Summary/Synthesis/Generalization ...................................................................172

Lesson 2B: Tangent and Secant Segments .....................................................173

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Activity 1 ..................................................................................................173

Activity 2 ..................................................................................................174

Activity 3 ..................................................................................................174

Activity 4 ..................................................................................................175

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Activity 5 ..................................................................................................175

Activity 6 ..................................................................................................176

Activity 7 ..................................................................................................176

Activity 8 ..................................................................................................177

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Activity 9 ..................................................................................................179

Activity 10 ................................................................................................180

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Summary/Synthesis/Generalization ...................................................................180

Summative Test .......................................................................................................181

Glossary of Terms...................................................................................................189

List of Theorems and Postulates on Circles....................................................191

References and Website Links Used in This Module ....................................193

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Learning Outcomes ............................................................................................198

Planning for Assessment ....................................................................................199

Planning for Teaching-Learning .........................................................................205

Pre-Assessment .................................................................................................207

Learning Goals and Targets ...............................................................................207

Lesson 1: The Distance Formula, the Midpoint Formula,

and the Coordinate Proof ....................................................................207

Activity 1 ..................................................................................................208

Activity 2 ..................................................................................................208

Activity 3 ..................................................................................................209

Activity 4 ..................................................................................................210

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Activity 5 ..................................................................................................212

Activity 6 ..................................................................................................212

Activity 7 ..................................................................................................213

Activity 8 ..................................................................................................215

Activity 9 ..................................................................................................216

Activity 10 ................................................................................................217

Activity 11 ................................................................................................220

Summary/Synthesis/Generalization ...................................................................221

Lesson 2: The Equation of a Circle ....................................................................221

Activity 1 ..................................................................................................221

Activity 2 ..................................................................................................222

Activity 3 ..................................................................................................223

Activity 4 ..................................................................................................225

Activity 5 ..................................................................................................226

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Activity 6 ..................................................................................................227

Activity 7 ..................................................................................................227

Activity 8 ..................................................................................................228

Activity 9 ..................................................................................................228

Activity 10 ................................................................................................229

Summary/Synthesis/Generalization ...................................................................230

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Summative Test .......................................................................................................231

Glossary of Terms ...................................................................................................237

References and Website Links Used in This Module ....................................238

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

Module 3: Polynomial Functions

A. Learning Outcomes

Content Standard:

polynomial functions.

Performance Standard:

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a mathematical investigation involving polynomial functions.

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Quarter: Second Quarter

1. Illustrate polynomial functions

TOPIC: Polynomial

Functions

C2. Graph polynomial functions

Lesson:

3. Solve problems involving

Illustrating Polynomial

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polynomial functions

Functions, Graphs of

Polynomial Functions and

Solutions of Problems

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Involving Polynomial

Functions

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Essential Essential

Writer: Understanding: Question:

understand that mathematical

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functions are solve real-life

useful tools in problems that can

solving real-life be represented

problems and in as polynomial

making decisions functions?

given certain

constraints.

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

Transfer Goal:

concepts of polynomial functions in

finding solutions and making decisions

for certain life problems.

Product/Performance

The following are products and performances that students are

expected to come up with in this module.

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1. Write polynomial functions in standard form

2. List all intercepts of polynomial functions written in both standard and

factored forms

3. Make a list of ordered pairs of points that satisfy a polynomial function

4. Make a table of signs for polynomial functions

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5. Make a summary table of properties of the graph of polynomial functions

(behavior, number of turning points, location relative to the x-axis)

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6. Formulate and solve real-life problems applying polynomial functions

7. Sketch plans or designs of objects that illustrate polynomial functions

g. Create concrete objects as products of applying solutions to problems

involving polynomial functions (e.g. rectangular open box, candle mold)

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Assessment Map

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PROCESS/

TYPE KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE

SKILLS

Pre- Part I Part I Part I Part II

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Assessment/

Diagnostic Illustrating Illustrating Graphing Products and

polynomial polynomial polynomial performances

functions functions functions related to or

(Recalling the (Recalling (Describing the involving

definition of the definition properties of quadratic

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functions and functions and polynomial (Solving area

the terms the terms functions) problems)

associated associated

with it) with it) Solving problems

involving

Graphing polynomial

polynomial functions

functions

(Describing

the

properties of

graphs of

polynomial

functions)

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

PROCESS/

TYPE KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE

SKILLS

Formative Quiz 1: Quiz 2: Quiz 3:

polynomial polynomial polynomial

functions functions functions

(Writing (Finding the (Preparing table

polynomial intercepts of of signs)

functions in polynomial

standard form functions) (Describing the

and in (Finding behavior of the

factored form) additional graph using the

points on the Leading

graph of a Coefficient Test)

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polynomial

function)

Quiz 4: Quiz 5: Quiz 6:

polynomial polynomial involving

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functions functions polynomial

functions

(Identifying (Sketching

the number of

turning points

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the graph of

polynomial

(Solving real-life

problems that

and the functions apply polynomial

behavior of using all functions)

the graph properties)

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based on

multiplicity of Solving

zeros) problems

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involving

(Sketching the polynomial

graph of functions

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polynomial

functions

using all

properties)

Summative Part I Part I Part I Part II

Assessment

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polynomial polynomial polynomial performances

functions functions functions related to or

(Recalling the (Recalling (Describing the involving

definition of the definition properties of the polynomial

polynomial of polynomial graph of functions

functions and functions and polynomial (Solving

the terms the terms functions) problems

associated associated related to

with it) with it) Solving problems volume of an

involving open

Graphing polynomial rectangular box)

polynomial functions

functions

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

PROCESS/

TYPE KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE

SKILLS

(Describing

the

properties of

the graphs of

polynomial

functions)

Self- Journal Writing:

Assessment Expressing understanding of polynomial functions, graphing

(optional) polynomial functions, and solving problems involving polynomial

functions

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Levels of How will I

What will I assess? How Will I Score?

Assessment assess?

demonstrates Pencil Test

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Knowledge 15% understanding of key 1 point for every

concepts of Part I items 1, 2, correct response

polynomial functions. and 3

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Illustrate polynomial

Process/Skills functions. Part I items 4, 5, 1 point for every

25% 6, 7, and 8 correct response

Graph polynomial

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functions

Part I items 9, 1 point for every

Understanding 10, 11, 12, 13, correct response

Solve problems

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30% and 14

involving polynomial

functions

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conduct systematically (6 points) to the Problem

a mathematical Criteria:

investigation involving Use of polynomial

polynomial functions function as model

Use of appropriate

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in different fields.

mathematical

Solve problems concept

Product/

involving polynomial Correctness of the

Performance

functions. final answer

30%

Rubric for the

Output (Open Box)

Criteria:

Accuracy of

measurement

(Dimensions)

Durability and

Attributes

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

C. Planning for Teaching-Learning

Introduction

polynomial functions. It is composed of fourteen (14) activities, three

(3) of which are for illustration of polynomial functions, nine (9) are

for graphing polynomial functions, and two (2) are for solving real-life

problems involving polynomial functions.

students to:

1. define polynomial functions and the terms associated with it;

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2. write polynomial functions in standard and factored form;

3. write polynomial functions in standard form given real numbers as

coefficients and exponents;

4. recall and apply the different theorems in factoring polynomials to

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determine the x-intercepts;

5. determine more ordered pairs that satisfy a polynomial function;

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6. investigate and analyze the properties of the graphs of polynomial

functions (like end behaviors, behaviors relative to the x-axis,

number of turning points, etc.); and

7. solve real-life problems (like area and volume, deforestation,

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revenue-advertising expense situations, etc.) that apply

polynomial functions.

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to manually sketch the graph of polynomial functions which later on

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can be verified and validated with some graphing utilities like Grapes,

GeoGebra, or even Geometer’s Sketchpad.

given the opportunity to use their prior knowledge and required skills

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in previous tasks. They are also given varied activities to process the

knowledge and skills learned and further deepen and transfer their

understanding of the different lessons.

Lastly, you may prepare your own related activities if you feel

that the activities suggested here are not appropriate to the level and

contexts of students (for examples, slow/fast learners, and localized

situations/examples).

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As an introduction to the main lesson, show the students the

picture mosaic below, then ask them the question that follows:

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In this mosaic picture, can you see some mathematical

representations? Give some.

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Motivate the students to find out the answers and to determine

the essential applications of polynomial functions through this

module.

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Objectives:

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After the learners have gone through this module, they are expected

to:

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2. graph polynomial functions; and

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PRE-ASSESSMENT:

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these will facilitate your teaching and the students’ understanding of

the lessons in this module.

Students are expected to demonstrate understanding of key

concepts of polynomial functions, formulate real-life problems involving

these concepts, and solve these using a variety of strategies. They are

also expected to investigate mathematical relationships in various

situations involving polynomial functions.

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Answer Key

Part I: Part II.

1. B 8. B (Use the rubric to rate students’ work/output)

2. C 9. A Solution to the problem

3. A 10. A Since P 2l 2w , then 36 2l 2w or 18 l w , and

4. D 11. D w 18 l .

5. A 12. D The lot area can be expressed as A(l ) l (18 l ) or

6. D 13. A A(l ) 18l l 2 .

7. C 14. A

A(l ) (l 2 18l )

A(l ) (l 2 18l 81) 81

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A(l ) (l 9) 2 81, in vertex form.

Therefore, l 9 meters and w 18 l 18 9 9

meters, yielding the maximum area of 81 square

meters.

What to KNOW

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C

The students need first to recall the concept of polynomial

expressions. These will lead them to define and illustrate mathematically

the polynomial functions.

D

Activity 1: Which is which?

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Answer Key

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1. polynomial

2. not polynomial because the variable of one term is inside the radical

sign

3. polynomial

4. not polynomial because the exponents of the variable are not whole

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numbers

5. not polynomial because the variables are in the denominator

6. polynomial

7. not polynomial because the exponent of one variable is not a whole

number

8. polynomial

9. not polynomial because the exponent of one variable is negative

10. polynomial

88

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Let this activity be the starting point of defining a polynomial

function as follows:

coefficients, an x n is the leading term, an is the leading coefficient,

and a0 is the constant term.

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Other notations:

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or

y an x n an1x n1 an2 x n2 ... a1x a0 ,

C

Activity 2: Fix and Move Them, Then Fill Me Up

D

Answer Key

E

Polynomial Function Degree

Standard Form Coefficient Term

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1. f ( x ) 2 11x 2x 2 f ( x ) 2x 2 11x 2 2 2 2

3

2x 3 2 5

2. f ( x ) 2x 5 15x f (x) 15x

5

3

3 3 3 3 3 3

3. y x( x 5)

2

y x 3 5x 3 1 0

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4. y x( x 3)( x 3) y x 3 9x 3 -1 0

5. y ( x 4)( x 1)( x 1)2 y x 4 3x 3 5x 2 3x 4 4 1 4

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Activity 3: Be a Polynomial Function Architect

Answer Key

7 2 1 7 3 1 2

1. f ( x ) 2x 3 x x 4. f ( x ) x x 2x

4 6 4 6

1 7 1 7 2

2. f ( x ) 2x 3 x 2 x 5. f ( x ) x 3 x 2x

6 4 6 4

7 3 1 1 7

3. f ( x ) x 2x 2 x 6. f ( x ) x 3 2x 2 x

4 6 6 4

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The answers above are expected to be given by the students. In

addition, instruct them to classify each polynomial according to the

degree. Also, let them identify the leading coefficient and the constant

term.

What to PROCESS

O

C

In this section, the students need to revisit the lessons and their

knowledge on evaluating polynomials, factoring polynomials, solving

polynomial equations, and graphing by point-plotting.

D

E

Answer Key

EP

2. x 3x 2( x 3)( x 3) 7. y ( x 2)( x 2)( x 2 4)

3. (2x - 3) x -1 (x - 3) 8. y 2( x 1)( x 1)( x 1)( x 3)

D

5. (2x 3)( x 1)( x 2)( x 3) 10. y (2x 3)( x 1)( x 2)( x 3)

has something to do with the x-intercepts of a graph. These are the x-

values when y = 0, and, thus the point(s) where the graph intersects the

x-axis can be determined.

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Activity 5: Seize Me and Intercept Me

Answer Key

1. x-intercepts: 0, -4, 3

2. x-intercepts: 2, 1, -3

3. x-intercepts: 1, -1, -3

4. x-intercepts: 2, -2

5. x-intercepts: 0, 1, -1, -3, 3

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Answer Key

1. x-intercepts: -4, -2, 1, 3

y-intercept: 24

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x -5 -3 0 2 4

y C144 -24 24 -24 144

(2-24), (3,0), (4,144)

D

3

2. x-intercepts: -5, , 2, 4

2

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y-intercept: -90

x -6 -4 -0.5 3 5

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3

ordered pairs: (-6, -720), (-5, 0), (-4, 240), ( , 0), (-0.5, 101.2),

2

D

4

3. x-intercepts: -6, 0,

3

y-intercept: 0

x -7 -3 1 2

y 175 -117 7 -32

4

ordered pairs: (-7,175), (-6,0), (-3,-117), (0,0), (1,7), ( ,0),

3

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(2,-32)

y-intercept: 0

x -4 -2 -0.5 0.5 2 4

y 1680 -60 1.64 1.64 -60 1680

ordered pairs: (-4,1680), (-3, 0), (-2, -60), (-1, 0), (-0.5, 1.64),

(0, 0), (0.5, 1.64), (1, 0), (2, -60), (3, 0), (4, 1680)

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Activity 7: What is the destiny of my behavior?

Answer Key

O

Relation of y-value to Location of the Point

Value Value 0: (x,y): above the x-

of x of y axis, on the x-axis, or

y 0, y 0, or y 0 ?

C below the x-axis?

-5 144 y 0 above the x-axis

-4 0 y=0 on the x - axis

D

-3 -24 y 0 below the x-axis

-2 0 y=0 on the x - axis

0 24 y 0 above the x-axis

E

2 -24 y 0 below the x-axis

EP

4 144 y 0 above the x-axis

D

2. The graph is above the x-axis.

3. The graph is below the x-axis.

4. The graph is above the x-axis.

5. The graph is below the x-axis.

6. The graph is above the x-axis.

Show the students how to prepare a simpler but similar table, the

table of signs.

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Example:

are x = -4, - 2, 1, and 3 . These are the only values of x where the graph

will cross the x-axis. These roots partition the number line into intervals.

Test values are then chosen from within each interval.

Intervals

x 4 4 x 2 2 x 1 1 x 3 x 3

Test Value -5 -3 0 2 4

PY

x4 – + + + +

x2 – – + + +

x 1 – – – + +

x 3 – – – – +

+ – + – +

O

y ( x 4)( x 2)( x 1)( x 3)

position of the curve

above below above below above

relative to the x-axis

C

Give emphasis that at this level, though, we cannot yet determine

the turning points of the graph. We can only be certain that the graph is

correct with respect to intervals where the graph is above, below, or on

D

the x-axis as shown on the next page.

E

EP

D

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Activity 8: Sign on and Sketch Me

Answer Key

3

(a) , 1, 4

2

3 3

(b) x , x 1, 1 x 4 , x4

2 2

PY

(c)

Intervals

3 3

x x 1 1 x 4 x4

2 2

O

Test Value -2 0 2 5

2x 3 - + + +

x 1 -

C - + +

x4 - - - +

y (2x 3)( x 1)( x 4) – + – +

D

position of the curve

below above below above

relative to the x-axis

E

(d)

EP

D

(a) -3, 1, 4

(b) x 3 , 3 x 1, 1 x 4 , x4

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(c)

Intervals

x 3 3 x 1 1 x 4 x4

Test Value -4 0 2 5

x 3 - + + +

x 1 - - + +

x4 - - - +

y ( x 3)( x 1)( x 4) + - + -

position of the curve

above below above below

relative to the x-axis

PY

Note: Observe that there is one more factor, -1, that

affects the final sign of y. For example, under

x 3 , the sign of y is positive because

-(-)(-)(-) = + .

(d)

O

C

D

E

(b) x 5 , 5 x 1, 1 x 1, 1 x 5 ,

EP

x 5

(c)

Intervals

x 5 5 x 1 1 x 1 1 x 5 x 5

D

Test Value -6 -2 0 2 6

x 5 - + + + +

x 1 - - + + +

x 1 - - - + +

x 5 - - - - +

y x 26x 2 25

4

+ – + – +

position of the

curve relative to above below above below above

the x-axis

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(d)

PY

4. y x 4 5x 3 3x 2 13x 10 or

(a) -5, -2, 1

O

(b) x 5 , 5 x 2 , 2 x 1, x 1

(c)

C Intervals

x 5 5 x 2 2 x 1 x 1

Test Value -6 -3 0 2

D

x 5 - + + +

x2 - - + +

E

( x 1)2 + + + +

y ( x 5)( x 2)( x 1) 2

- + - -

EP

below above below below

relative to the x-axis

Note: Observe that there is one more factor, -1, that affects

the final sign of y. For example, under x 5 , the

sign of y is negative because -(-)(-)(+) = - . .

D

(d)

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5. y x 2 ( x 3)( x 1) 4 ( x 1)3

(a) -3, -1, 0, 1

(b) x 3 , 3 x 1, 1 x 0 , 0 x 1, x 1

(c)

Intervals

x 3 3 x 1 1 x 0 0 x 1 x 1

Test Value -4 -2 -0.5 0.5 2

x2 + + + + +

x 3 - + + + +

PY

( x 1) 4 + + + + +

( x 1)3 - - - - +

y x 2 ( x 3)( x 1)4 ( x 1)3 + – – – +

position of the curve

above below below below above

relative to the x-axis

(d)

O

C

E D

EP

and at a certain point, it turns upward to (-3,0).

Answers to the Questions:

1. For y (2x 3)( x 1)( x 4)

D

3

a. Since there is no other x-intercept to the left of , then the

2

graph falls to the left continuously without end.

3 3

b. (i) x 1 and x 4 (ii) x and 1 x 4

2 2

c. Since there is no other x-intercept to the right of 4, then the

graph rises to the right continuously without end.

d. leading term: 2x 3

e. leading coefficient: 2, degree: 3

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2. For y x 3 2x 2 11x 12 or y ( x 3)( x 1)( x 4)

a. Since there is no other x-intercept to the left of -3, then the

graph rises to the left continuously without end.

b. (i) x 3 and 1 x 4 (ii) 3 x 1 and x 4

c. Since there is no other x-intercept to the right of 4, then the

graph falls to the right continuously without end.

d. leading term: x 3

e. leading coefficient: -1, degree: 3

a. Since there is no other x-intercept to the left of -5, then the

graph rises to the left continuously without end.

PY

b. (i) x 5 and 1 x 1 (ii) 5 x 1 and 1 x 5

c. Since there is no other x-intercept to the right of 5, then the

graph rises to the right continuously without end.

d. leading term: x 4

O

e. leading coefficient: 1, degree: 4

C

a. Since there is no other x-intercept to the left of -5, then the

graph falls to the left continuously without end.

b. (i) 5 x 2 (ii) x 5 , 2 x 1 and x 1

c. Since there is no other x-intercept to the right of 1, then the

D

graph falls to the right continuously without end.

d. leading term: x 4

E

EP

graph rises to the left continuously without end.

b. (i) x 3 and x 1 (ii) 3 x 1, 1 x 0, and 0 x 1

c. Since there is no other x-intercept to the right of 1, then the

D

d. leading term: x 10

e. leading coefficient: 1, degree: 10

coefficient and degree of the polynomial affect the behavior of its

graph? Encourage them to do an investigation as they perform the next

activity.

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Activity 9: Follow My Path!

Answer Key

Case 1:

a. positive b. odd degree c. falling to the left

rising to the right

Case 2:

a. negative b. odd degree c. rising to the left

falling to the right

Case 3:

a. positive b. even degree c. rising to the left

rising to the right

PY

Case 4:

a. negative b. even degree c. falling to the left

falling to the right

Summary table:

O

Leading Behavior of

Coefficient: the Graph:

Degree:

Rising or Possible

Sample Polynomial Function

C n0

or

Even

or Odd

Falling

Left- Right-

Sketch

n0 hand hand

D

3 2

1. y 2x 7x 7x 12 n0 odd falling rising

E

5 4 3 2

2. y x 3x x 7x 4

EP

D

4 2

3. y x 7 x 6x n0 even rising rising

4 3 2

4. y x 2x 13x 14x 24 n0 even falling falling

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Synthesis: (The Leading Coefficient Test)

positive, then the graph falls to the left and rises to the right.

2. If the degree of the polynomial is odd and the leading coefficient is

negative, then the graph rises to the left and falls to the right.

3. If the degree of the polynomial is even and the leading coefficient is

positive, then the graph rises to the right and also rises to the left.

4. If the degree of the polynomial is even and the leading coefficient is

negative, then the graph falls to the left and also falls to the right.

PY

whether the graph crosses or is tangent to the x-axis at each x-intercept.

This strategy involves the concept of multiplicity of a root of a

polynomial function, the one generalized in the next activity.

O

Activity 10: How should I pass through? C

Answer Key

Characteristic

Behavior of Graph Relative

Root or of

Multiplicity to x-axis at this Root:

D

Zero Multiplicity:

Crosses or is Tangent to

Odd or even

-2 2 even tangent to x-axis

E

1 4 even tangent to x-axis

EP

a. The graph is tangent to the x-axis.

b. The graph crosses the x-axis.

D

graph of a polynomial function. The turning points of a graph occur

when the function changes from decreasing to increasing or from

increasing to decreasing values.

100

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Activity 11: Count Me In

Answer Key

Number

Polynomial of

Sketch Degree

Function Turning

Points

PY

1. y x 4 4 1

x

y

O

x

2. y x 4 2x 2 15

C 4 3

D

y

E

x

3. y x 5

5 0

EP

D

4. y x 5 x 3 2x 1 5 2

x

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y

5. y x 5 5 x 3 4x x

5 4

PY

a. Quartic functions: have an odd number of turning points; at most 3

turning points

Quintic functions: have an even number of turning points; at most

4 turning points

b. No. It is not possible.

O

c. The number of turning points is at most (n – 1).

has rounded turns.

C

D

What to REFLECT on and UNDERSTAND

E

Answer Key

1. y ( x 3)( x 1)2 (2x 5)

EP

a. leading term: 2x 4

b. end behaviors: rises to the left, falls to the right

5

c. x-intercepts: -3, -1,

D

2

5

points on x-axis: (-3,0), (-1,0), ( ,0)

2

d. multiplicity of roots: -3 has multiplicity 1, -1 has multiplicity 2,

5

has multiplicity 1

2

e. y-intercept: 15

point on y-axis: (0,15)

f. no. of turning points: 1 or 3

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g. expected graph:

PY

Note: At this stage, we cannot determine the exact values of all

the turning points of the graph. We need calculus for this.

For now, we just need to ensure that the graph's end

behaviors and intercepts are correctly graphed.

O

2. y ( x 2 5)( x 1)2 ( x 2)3

a. leading term: x7

b. end behaviors: falls to the left, rises to the right

c. x-intercepts:

C 5 , 1, 5 , 2

points on the x-axis: ( 5 ,0), (1,0), ( 5 ,0), (2,0)

d. multiplicity of roots: 5 has multiplicity 1, 1 has

D

multiplicity 2, 5 has multiplicity 1, 2

has multiplicity 3

E

e. y-intercept: 40

point on y-axis: (0, 40)

EP

g. expected graph:

D

they are connected. The graph goes upward from (1, 0) and

at a certain point, it turns downward to ( 5 , 0).

103

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3. y x 3 2x 2 2x 4 or in factored form y ( x 2 2)( x 2)

a. leading term: x3

b. end behaviors: rises to the left, falls to the right

c. x-intercept: 2

point on x-axis: (2, 0)

d. multiplicity of root: -2 has multiplicity 1

e. y-intercept: 4

point on y-axis: (0, 4)

f. no. of turning points: 0 or 2

g. expected graph:

PY

O

C

Note: The graph seems to be flat near x = 1. However, at this stage,

D

we cannot determine whether there are any “flat” parts in the

graph. We need calculus for this. For now, we just need to

ensure that the graph's end behaviors and intercepts are

E

correctly graphed.

EP

4. y x 2 ( x 2 7)(2x 3)

a. leading term: 2x 5

b. end behaviors: falls to the left, rises to the right

3

c. x-intercepts: 7, , 0, 7

2

D

3

points on the x-axis: ( 7 , 0), ( , 0), (0, 0), ( 7 , 0)

2

3

d. multiplicity of roots: 7 has multiplicity 1, has

2

multiplicity 1, 0 has multiplicity 2, 7

has multiplicity 1

e. y-intercept: 0

point on the y-axis: (0, 0)

f. no. of turning points: 2 or 4

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g. expected graph:

PY

5. y 2x 4 3x 3 18x 2 6x 28 or in factored form

y ( x 2 2)(2x 7)( x 2)

a. leading term: 2x 4

b. end behaviors: rises to the left, rises to the right

O

7

c. x-intercepts: -2, 2 , 2,

2

points on x-axis:

C (-2, 0), ( 2 , 0), ( 2 , 0), (

7

, 0)

2

d. multiplicity of roots: -2 has multiplicity 1, 2 has

D

multiplicity 1,

7

2 has multiplicity 1, has multiplicity

E

2

1

EP

e. y-intercept: 28

point on y-axis: (0, 28)

f. no. of turning points: 1 or 3

g. expected graph:

D

105

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Activity 13: Investigate Deeper and Decide Wisely

1. a. 50%

b. The value given by the table is 23.7%. The polynomial gives a

value of 26.3%. The given polynomial is the cubic polynomial

that best fits the data. We expect it to give a good

approximation of the forest cover but it may not necessarily

produce the exact values.

c. The domain of the function is [0,98]. Since year 2100

PY

corresponds to x = 200, we cannot use the function to predict

forest cover during this year. Moreover, if x = 200, the

polynomial predicts a forest cover of 59.46%. This is very

unrealistic unless major actions are done to reverse the trend.

O

You can find other data that can be modelled by a

polynomial. Use the regression tool in MS Excel or GeoGebra

to determine the best fit polynomial for the data.

C

2. The figure below can help solve the problem.

D

24

x x

E

x x

EP

18 18 - 2x

D

x x

x x

24 - 2x

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Solution:

Let x be the height of the box

18 – 2x be the width of the box

24 – 2x be the length of the box

(24 2x )(18 2x )x V ( x )

(24 2x )(18 2x )x 560

4x 3 84x 2 432x 560

4x 3 84x 2 432x 560 0

PY

x 3 21x 2 108x 140 0

( x 2)( x 5)( x 14) 0

To meet the requirements, the height of the box is either

2 inches or 5 inches. Both will result in the volume of 560 cubic

inches. In this problem, it is impossible to produce a box if the

O

height is 14 inches, so x = 14 is not a solution.

C

Encourage the students to write their insights. Let them show their

appreciation of polynomial functions. The following questions might be

helpful for them: Were you surprised that polynomial functions have

D

real and practical uses? What mathematical concepts do you need to

solve these kinds of problems?

E

What to TRANSFER

EP

The goal of this section is to check if the students can appl y polynomial

functions to real-life problems and produce a concrete object that

satisfies the conditions given in the problem.

D

Solution:

area of the base (B): B x2

height of the pyramid (h): h x 2

1

Working Equation: V Bh

3

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1 2

V (x) x ( x 2)

3

1 2

25 x ( x 2)

3

75 x 3 2x 2 x 3 2x 2 75 0

( x 5)( x 2 3x 15) 0

the square base is 5 inches long and the height of the pyramid is

3 inches.

Students’ outputs may vary depending on the materials used and in the

PY

way they consider the criteria.

Summary/Synthesis/Generalization:

O

This lesson was about polynomial functions. You learned how to :

C

illustrate and describe polynomial functions;

D

properties:

- the intercepts (x-intercept and y-intercept);

- the behavior of the graph using the Leading Coefficient Test,

E

EP

functions.

D

108

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SUMMATIVE TEST

Part I

f(x) = x n if f is a polynomial function?

1

A. –2 C.

4

B. 0 D. 3

PY

2. Which of the following is NOT a polynomial function?

A. f (x ) C. f ( x ) x 5 x 3

2 3 1

O

B. f ( x ) x 1 D. f ( x ) x 2x 2

5

3

3.

C

What is the leading coefficient of the polynomial function f ( x ) x 2x 3 4 ?

A. – 4 C. 1

B. – 2 D. 3

D

1

4. How should the polynomial function f ( x ) x x 2 11x 4 2x 3 be

2

E

1

A. f ( x ) 11x 4 2x 3 x x 2

2

EP

1

B. f ( x ) x 2 x 2x 3 11x 4

2

1

C. f ( x ) 11x 4 2x 3 x 2 x

2

D

1

D. f ( x ) x x 2 2x 3 11x 4

2

5. Which polynomial function in factored form represents the given

graph?

y

A. y (2x 3)( x 1)2

B. y (2x 3)( x 1)2

C. y (2x 3)2 ( x 1)

D. y (2x 3)2 ( x 1)

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6. Which of the following could be the graph of y x 4 5 x 2 4 ?

y

y

x

x

A. C.

y y

PY

x

x

B.

O

D.

C

7. If you will draw the graph of y x 2 ( x 1) , how will the graph behave

at the x-axis?

A. The graph crosses both (0, 0) and (1, 0).

D

B. The graph crosses (0, 0) and is tangent to the x-axis at (1, 0).

C. The graph crosses (1, 0) and is tangent to the x-axis at (0, 0).

E

D. The graph is tangent to the x-axis at both (0, 0) and (1, 0).

EP

y y

y

2 y 1

1

2

D

1 -6 -5 -4 -3 -6 -2 -5 -1 -4 O -3 1 x -2 -1 O 1 x

-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 O 1 x -1 -1

-6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 O 1 x

A. B. C. D.

-2 -2

-1

-1

-3 -3

3 n 2

9. Given that f ( x ) 7 x x , what value should be assigned to n to

-2

-2

-4 -4

7 3-3 3 7

-3

A. B. C. D.-5

3 7 7 3

-5

-4

-4 -6 -6

-5

-5

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10. If you were to choose from 2, 3, and 4, which pair of values for a

and n would you consider so that y = ax n could define the graph

below?

y

A. a = 2 , n = 3

2 B. a = 3 , n = 2

C. a = 2 , n = 4

1

D. a = 3 , n = 3

-8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 O x

-1

11. A car manufacturer determines that its profit, P, in thousands of

pesos, can be modeled by the function P(x) = 0.001 25x 4 + x – 3,

PY

-2

where x represents the number of cars sold. What is the profit at

x =150? -3

B. Php 632,959.50

-4

D. Php 10,125,297.00

O

12. Your friend Aaron

-5 Marielle asks your help in drawing a rough sketch

of the graph of y ( x 2 1)(2x 4 3) by means of the Leading

-6

Coefficient Test. How will you explain the behavior of the graph?

C

A. The graph is falling to the left and rising to the right.

B. The graph is rising to both left and right.

C. The graph is rising to the left and falling to the right.

D

D. The graph is falling to both left and right.

13. Lein Andrei is tasked to choose from the numbers –2, –1, 3, and 6 to

E

he assign to a and n so that the function could define the graph

EP

below?

y

x

A. a = 3 , n = -2

B. a = 3 , n=6

D

C. a = 6 , n=3

D. a = -1 , n=6

A drugstore that sells a certain brand of vitamin capsule estimates

that the profit P (in pesos) is given by

P 50x 3 2400x 2 2000 , 0 x 32

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where x is the amount spent on advertising (in thousands of pesos).

An advertising agency provides four (4) different advertising

packages with costs listed below. Which of these packages will

yield the highest revenue for the company?

A. Package A: Php 8,000.00

B. Package B: Php 16,000.00

C. Package C: Php 32,000.00

D. Package D: Php 48,000.00

Part 2

Read and analyze the situation below. Then, answer the questions or

perform the required task.

PY

An open box with dimensions 2 inches by 3 inches by 4 inches

needs to be increased in size to hold five times as much material as the

current box. (Assume each dimension is increased by the same

O

amount.)

Task:

C

(a) Write a function that represents the volume V of the new box.

(b) Find the dimensions of the new box.

(c) Using hard paperboard, make the two boxes - one with the

original dimensions and another with the new dimensions.

D

(d) On one face of the bigger box, write your mathematical

solution in getting the new dimensions.

E

Additional guidelines:

1. The boxes should look presentable and are durable enough to

EP

2. Consider the rubric below.

D

Point Descriptor

Polynomial function is correctly presented as model,

3 appropriate mathematical concepts are used in the solution,

and the correct final answer is obtained.

Polynomial function is correctly presented as model,

2 appropriate mathematical concepts are partially used in the

solution, and the correct final answer is obtained.

Polynomial function is not correctly presented as model,

1 other alternative mathematical concepts are used in the

solution, and the final answer is incorrect.

112

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Criteria for Rating the Output (Box):

Each box has the needed dimensions.

The boxes are durable and presentable.

Point/s to be Given:

3 points if the boxes have met the two criteria

2 points if the boxes have met only one criterion

1 point if the boxes have not met any of the criteria

PY

Part I: Part II.

1. B (Use the rubric to rate students’ work/output)

2. D

Solution for finding the dimensions of the desired box:

O

3. B

4. C Let x be the number to be added to each of length, width

5. B and height to increase the size of the box. Then the

6. A

C

dimensions of the new box are x+2 by x+3 by x+4.

7. C

8. C Since the volume of the original box is (2 inches)

9. A (3 inches) (4 inches) = 24 cubic inches, then the volume

D

10. B of the new box is 120 cubic inches.

11. B

E

13. D ( x 2)( x 3)( x 4) V ( x )

14. C x 3 9x 2 26x 24 120

EP

x 3 9x 2 26x 96 0 ,

( x 2)( x 2 11x 48) 0

D

inches by 5 inches by 6 inches.

To validate that the volume of the bigger box is five

times the volume of the other box, guide the students to

compare the content of both boxes using sand, rice

grains, or mongo seeds.

113

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Glossary of Terms

polynomial at a given value in its domain

either the x-coordinate or the y-coordinate

PY

Irreducible Factor - a factor that can no longer be factored using

coefficients that are real numbers

Leading Coefficient Test - a test that uses the leading term of the

O

polynomial function to determine the right-hand and the left-hand

behaviors of the graph

C

Linear Function - a polynomial function whose degree is 1

D

root for a given polynomial

E

EP

integer, a0 , a1, ..., an are real numbers called coefficients, but an 0, ,

an x n is the leading term, an is the leading coefficient, and a0 is the

constant term

D

arranged in decreasing powers of x

increasing or from increasing to decreasing values

114

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

References

Alferez, M. S., Duro, MC.A., & Tupaz, KK. L. (2008). MSA Advanced

Algebra. Quezon City, Philippines: MSA Publishing House

Berry, J., Graham, T., Sharp, J., & Berry, E. (2003). Schaum’s A-Z

Mathematics. London, United Kingdom: Hodder &Stoughton

Educational.

F. F., Garces, IJ. L., Marcelo, R. M., & Sarmiento, J. F. (2010).

Precalculus. Quezon City, Philippines: Ateneo de Manila University

PY

Press

Algebra, Trigonometry and Statistics. Quezon City, Philippines: JTW

Corporation

O

Lamayo, F. C., & Deauna, M. C. (1990). Fourth Year Integrated

C

Mathematics. Quezon City, Philippines: Phoenix Publishing House, Inc.

City, Philippines: Cengage Learning Asia Pte Ltd

D

Marasigan, J. A., Coronel, A. C., & Coronel, I. C. (2004). Advanced

Algebra with Trigonometry and Statistics. Makati City, Philippines: The

E

Bookmark, Inc.

EP

Philippines

Mandaluyong City, Philippines: Capitol Publishing House.

D

Activities in Mathematics IV. Quezon City, Philippines: St. Jude

Thaddeus Publications.

115

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Module 4: Circles

A. Learning Outcomes

Content Standard:

Performance Standard:

situations involving circles and other related terms in different disciplines

PY

through appropriate and accurate representations.

O

1. Derive inductively the relations among

Quarter: Second Quarter chords, arcs, central angles, and inscribed

angles

TOPIC: Circles 2.

C

Illustrate segments and sectors of circles

3. Prove theorems related to chords, arcs,

LESSONS: central angles, and inscribed angles

1. A. Chords, Arcs, and

D

4. Solve problems involving chords, arcs,

Central Angles central angles, and inscribed angles of

B. Arcs and Inscribed circles

E

2. A. Tangents and 6. Prove theorems on tangents and secants

Secants 7. Solve problems involving tangents and

EP

B. Tangent and Secant

Segments

Essential Essential

Writer: Understanding: Question:

D

understand that the relationships

concept of circles has involving circles

wide applications in real help solve real-life

life and is a useful tool problems that are

in problem-solving and circular in nature?

in decision making.

116

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Transfer Goal:

concepts of circles in finding solutions and

in making decisions for certain real-life

problems.

Product/Performance

The following are products and performances that students are expected

to come up with in this module.

PY

1. Objects or situations in real life where chords, arcs, and central angles of

circles are illustrated

2. A circle graph applying the knowledge of central angles, arcs, and sectors

of a circle

O

3. Sketch plans or designs of a stage with circular objects that illustrate the

use of inscribed angles and arcs of a circle

4. Sketch plans or designs of an arch bridge that illustrate the applications of

secants and tangents

C

5. Deriving geometric relationships involving circles

6. Proof of theorems and other geometric relationships involving circles

7. Formulated and solved real-life problems

D

Assessment Map

E

PROCESS/

TYPE KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE

SKILLS

EP

Assessment/ Part I Part I Part I

Diagnostic Part II

Identifying Finding the

inscribed angle length of an arc Solving problems

of a circle given involving the key

D

external secant circles

segment Finding the

measure of a

Describing the central angle

opposite angles given its

of a quadrilateral intercepted arc

inscribed in a

circle Finding the

lengths of

Identifying the segments

sum of the formed by

measures of the intersecting

central angles of chords

a circle

117

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PROCESS/

TYPE KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE

SKILLS

inscribed angle measure of the

intercepting a angle formed by

semicircle two secants

number of line length of a chord

that can be that is

drawn tangent to perpendicular to

the circle a radius

Finding the

PY

length of a

secant segment

of a sector of a

O

circle

Finding the

measure of a

C

central angle

given its

supplement

D

Finding the

measure of an

angle of a

quadrilateral

E

inscribed in a

circle

EP

Finding the

measure of an

inscribed angle

given the

measure of a

D

central angle

intercepting the

same arc

Part III Part III Part III Part III

Situational Situational Situational Situational

Analysis Analysis Analysis Analysis

design of a part or portion of prepare the of gardens

garden the garden designs of the

including their garden

measurements

and accessories

118

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PROCESS/

TYPE KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE

SKILLS

Determining the

mathematics Formulating

concepts or problems that

principles describe the

involved in the situations

design of the

garden Solving the

problems

formulated

Formative Quiz: Quiz: Quiz:

Lesson 1A Lesson 1A Lesson 1A

PY

describing terms degree measure angles or arcs are

related to circles of the central congruent

angles and arcs

Explaining why

Finding the an arc is a

O

length of the semicircle

unknown

segments in a Explaining how to

circle find the degree

C measure of an

Determining the arc

reasons to

support the Explaining how to

D

given find the center of

statements in a a circular garden

two-column

E

proof of a

theorem Solving real-life

problems

EP

involving the

Solving the chords, arcs, and

length of an arc central angles of

of a circle given circles

its degree

measure

D

of the shaded

region of circles

Lesson 1B Lesson 1B Lesson 1B

inscribed angles measure of an the inscribed

and their inscribed angle angles are

intercepted arcs and its congruent

intercepted arc

Proving theorems

on inscribed

119

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PROCESS/

TYPE KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE

SKILLS

Determining the angles and

measure of an intercepted arcs

inscribed angle using two-column

that intercepts a proofs

semicircle

Proving

Determining the congruence of

reasons to triangles using

support the the theorems on

given inscribed angles

statements in a

two-column Solving real-life

proof of a problems

PY

theorem involving arcs and

inscribed angles

Explaining the

kind of

O

parallelogram that

can be inscribed

in a circle

Quiz: Quiz: Quiz:

Lesson 2A

C

Lesson 2A Lesson 2A

tangents and measures of the on tangents and

D

secants different angles, secants using

including the arcs, and two-column

angles they form segments proofs

E

Explaining how to

find the measure

EP

of an angle given

a circle with

tangents

Solving real-life

problems

D

involving tangents

and secants of a

circle

Quiz: Quiz: Quiz:

Lesson 2B Lesson 2B Lesson 2B

external secant length of the on intersecting

segment in a unknown chords, secant

circle segment in a segments, and

circle tangent segments

Explaining why

the solution for

finding the length

120

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PROCESS/

TYPE KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE

SKILLS

Drawing a circle of a segment is

with appropriate correct or

labels and incorrect

description

Solving real-life

problems

involving tangent

and secant

segments

Part I Part I Part I Part III A and B

Part II

PY

Identifying an Finding the Preparing

inscribed angle measure of an Solving problems sketches of the

arc intercepted involving the key different

Identifying a by a central concepts of formations to be

tangent angle circles followed in the

O

field

Describing the Finding the demonstrations

angles of a length of an arc including their

quadrilateral sequencing and

inscribed in a

C Finding the presentation on

circle lengths of how each will be

segments performed

Identifying the formed by

D

sum of the intersecting Formulating and

measures of the chords solving problems

central angles of involving the key

E

measure of the circles

Describing the angle formed by

EP

intercepting a secant

semicircle

Finding the

Determining the measure of an

number of lines inscribed angle

D

drawn tangent to measure of a

the circle central angle

intercepting the

same arc

Finding the

length of a

secant segment

of a sector of a

circle

121

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PROCESS/

TYPE KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE

SKILLS

Finding the

measure of a

central angle

given its

supplement

Finding the

measure of an

angle of a

quadrilateral

inscribed in a

circle

PY

Finding the

length of a chord

that is

perpendicular to

a radius

O

Self- Journal Writing:

Assessment Expressing understanding of the key concepts of circles

circles

C

Assessment Matrix (Summative Test)

D

Levels of How will I How Will I

What will I assess?

Assessment assess? Score?

E

understanding of key Test

EP

concepts of circles.

Part I items 1, 3, 4, 1 point for

Knowledge

1. Derive inductively the 6, 7, and 10 every correct

15%

relations among response

chords, arcs, central

angles, and inscribed

D

angles.

2. Illustrate segments Part I items 2, 5, 8, 1 point for

and sectors of circles. 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, every correct

Process/Skills

3. Prove theorems 15, and 16 response

25%

related to chords, arcs,

central angles and

inscribed angles Part I items 17, 18, 1 point for

4. Solve problems 19, and 20 every correct

involving chords, arcs, response

Understanding central angles, and

30% inscribed angles of

circles

122

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5. Illustrate tangents and Part II items 1 and Rubric on

secants of circles 2 Problem

6. Prove theorems on Solving

tangents and secants (maximum of

7. Solve problems 4 points for

involving tangents and each

secants of circles problem)

formulate and find Sketches of

solutions to challenging the Different

situations involving Formations

circles and other related

terms in different (Total Score:

PY

disciplines through maximum of

Product/

appropriate and accurate 6 points )

Performance

representations. Part III B

30%

Rubric on

Problems

O

Formulated

and Solved

(Total Score:

C maximum of

6 points )

D

C. Planning for Teaching-Learning

E

lessons namely: Chords, Arcs, and Central Angles, Arcs and Inscribed

Angles, Tangents and Secants of a Circle, and Tangent and Secant

Segments.

EP

angles of a circle, area of a segment and a sector, and arc length of a

circle. In this lesson, the students will determine the relationship between

the measures of the central angle and its intercepted arc, apply the

D

in solving problems, complete the proof of a theorem related to these

concepts, find the area of a segment and the sector of a circle, and

determine the length of an arc. (Note that all measures of angles and arcs

are in degrees.)

their understanding of the lesson by naming objects and citing real-life

situations where chords, arcs, and central angles of a circle are illustrated

and applied.

123

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The concepts about arcs and inscribed angles of a circle are

contained in Lesson 1B. In this lesson, the students will determine the

geometric relationships that exist among arcs and inscribed angles of a

circle, apply these in solving problems, and prove related theorems.

Moreover, they will formulate and solve real-life problems involving these

geometric concepts.

their applications in real life will be taken up in Lesson 2A. In this lesson,

the students will find the measures of angles formed by secants and

tangents and the arcs that these angles intercept. They will apply the

relationships involving tangents and secants in finding the lengths of

segments of some geometric figures. Moreover, the students will be given

PY

opportunities to formulate and solve real-life problems involving tangents

and secants of a circle.

relationships involving tangent and secant segments. The students will

O

apply these geometric relationships in finding the lengths of segments

formed by tangents and secants. To demonstrate their understanding of the

lesson, the students will make a design of a real-life object where tangent

C

and secant segments are illustrated or applied, then formulate and solve

problems out of this design.

D

In all the lessons, the students are given the opportunity to use their

prior knowledge and skills in learning circles. They are also given varied

activities to process the knowledge and skills learned and further deepen

E

EP

D

124

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Have you imagined yourself pushing a cart or riding a bus having

wheels that are not round? Do you think you can move heavy objects

from one place to another easily or travel distant places as fast as you

can? What difficulty do you think would you experience without circles?

Have you ever thought of the importance of circles in the field of

transportation, industries, sports, navigation, carpentry, and in your daily

life?

Entice the students to find out the answers to these questions and

to determine the vast applications of circles through this module.

Objectives:

PY

After the learners have gone through the lessons contained in this

module, they are expected to:

1. identify and describe terms related to circles;

O

2. use the relationship among chords, arcs, central angles, and

inscribed angles of circles; C

3. find the area of segments and sectors of circles;

D

5. use two-column proofs in proving theorems related to chords, arcs,

central angles, and inscribed angles of circles;

E

EP

and inscribed angles of circles;

D

circles.

PRE-ASSESSMENT:

mathematics concepts related to circles. Assessing these will facilitate

teaching and students’ understanding of the lessons in this module.

125

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Answer Key

1. B 11. A works/outputs)

2. A 12. A 1. 24.67 m

3. D 13. B 2. 27.38 km

4. D 14. A

5. C 15. A Part III (Use the rubric to rate students’

6. C 16. A works/outputs)

7. C 17. A

8. B 18. C

9. A 19. B

PY

10. D 20. C

O

Students are expected to demonstrate understanding of key concepts

of circles, formulate real-life problems involving these concepts, and solve

C

these using a variety of strategies. They are also expected to investigate

mathematical relationships in various situations involving circles.

D

Lesson 1A: Chords, arcs, and Central angles

E

What to Know

EP

Assessing these will facilitate teaching and students’ understanding of chords,

arcs, and central angles. Tell them that as they go through this lesson, they

have to think of this important question: “How do the relationships among

D

chords, arcs, and central angles of a circle facilitate finding solutions to real-

life problems and making decisions?”

Ask the students to identify, name, and describe the terms related to circles

by doing Activity 1. Let them explain how they arrived at their answers. Also,

ask them to describe and differentiate these terms.

126

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Activity 1: Know My Terms and Conditions…

Answer Key

1. AN , AJ , AE 5. JL , JN , EN , EL

2. EJ 6. LEN , LJE , ENL , JLN , LNJ

3. EL , EJ 7. JAN , NAE

4. JNE , JLE 8. LEJ , JEN

Questions:

a. Recall the definition of the terms related to circles.

PY

Terms related to circle Description

1. radius It is a segment drawn from the center of

the circle to any point on the circle.

2. diameter It is a segment whose endpoints are on the

O

circle and it passes through the center of

the circle. It is the longest chord.

3. chord It is a segment joining any two points on

the circle.

C

4. semicircle It is an arc measuring one-half of the

circumference of a circle.

5. minor arc It is an arc of a circle that measures less

D

than a semicircle.

6. major arc It is an arc of a circle that measures

E

7. central angle It is an angle whose vertex is at the center

of the circle and with two radii as its sides.

EP

and whose sides contain chords of the

circle.

D

127

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Answer Key

2. A diameter is twice the measure of the radius and it is the longest

chord.

3. A chord is a segment joining any two points on the circle.

4. A semicircle is an arc measuring one-half the circumference of a

circle.

5. A minor arc is an arc of a circle that measures less than the

semicircle.

6. A major arc is an arc of a circle that measures greater than the

semicircle.

PY

7. A central angle is an angle whose vertex is the center of the circle

and with two radii as its sides.

8. An inscribed angle is an angle whose vertex is on a circle and

whose sides contain chords of the circle.

O

Show the students the right triangles with different measures of sides

and let them find the missing side. Give focus on the mathematics concepts

C

or principles applied to find the unknown side particularly the Pythagorean

theorem.

D

Activity 2: What is my missing side?

E

Answer Key

1. c 10 units

EP

2. c 17.49 units

3. c 12.73 units

4. a 12 units

5. b 4 units

D

6. b 12.12 units

Questions:

a. Using the equation a2 b2 c 2 .

b. Pythagorean theorem

128

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Provide the students with an opportunity to derive the relationship

between the measures of the central angle and the measure of its intercepted

arc. Ask them to perform Activity 3. In this activity, students will measure the

angles of the given figures using a protractor. Ask them to get the sum of the

angles in the first figure as well as the sum of the central angles in the second

figure. Ask them also to identify the intercepted arc of each central angle.

Emphasize that the sum of the angles formed by the coplanar rays with

common vertex but with no common interior points is equal to the sum of the

central angles formed by the radii of a circle with no common interior points.

PY

Answer Key

1. a. 105 d. 90

b. 75 e. 30

O

c. 60

2. a. 105 d. 90

b. 75

C e. 30

c. 60

D

4. 360 ; 360

5. 360

E

6. 360

7.

EP

1. FAB 105 FB

2. BAC 75 BC

D

3. CAD 60 CD

4. EAD 90 ED

5. EAF 30 EF

measure of its intercepted arc.

9. Equal

129

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Present a real-life situation to the students to develop their

understanding of arcs and central angles of circles. In this activity, ask them

to find the degree measure of each arc of the wheel and also the angle

formed at the hub. Ask them further the importance of the spokes of the

wheel.

Answer Key

a. 60 ; 60

PY

b. Evaluate students’ responses

Before proceeding to the next activities, let the students give a brief

summary of what they have learned so far. Provide them with an opportunity

to relate or connect their responses in the activities given to this lesson. Let

O

the students read and understand some important notes on chords, arcs, and

central angles. Tell them to study carefully the examples given.

C

What to PROCESS

D

In this section, let the students apply the key concepts of chords, arcs,

and central angles. Tell them to use the mathematical ideas and the

examples presented in the preceding section to answer the activities

E

provided.

EP

Ask the students to perform Activity 5. In this activity, the students will

identify and name arcs and central angles in the given circle and explain how

they identified them.

D

130

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Activity 5: Identify and Name Me

Answer Key

1. LMH (or LGH ) and LKH (or LJH ); JKM (or JLM ) and

JGM (or JHM )

2.

Minor Arcs Major Arcs

JK KMJ

PY

KL KGL

LM LJM

MG MKG

HG HKG

O

JH C JMH

Note: There are many ways of naming the major arcs. The given

answers are just some of those ways.

D

LAK

E

Questions:

a. A semicircle is an arc with measure equal to one-half of the

circumference of a circle and is named by using the two endpoints

EP

A minor arc is an arc of a circle that measures less than the

semicircle. It is named by using the two endpoints on the circle.

A major arc is an arc of a circle that measures greater than the

semicircle. It is named by using the two endpoints and another point

D

on the arc.

A central angle is an angle whose vertex is the center of the circle

and with two radii as its sides.

b. Yes. A circle has an infinite set of points. Therefore, a circle has

many semicircles, arcs, and central angles.

geometric relationships in finding the degree measure of the central angles,

the arcs that the angles intercept, and the lengths of chords. Then, let them

explain how they arrived at their answers.

131

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Activity 6: Find My Degree Measure

Answer Key

1. 90 6. 90

2. 48 7. 48

3. 138 8. 150

4. 42 9. 42

5. 132 10. 132

PY

Answer Key

1. JSO and NSI ; JSN and OSI . They are vertical angles.

2. a. 113

O

b. 67

c. 67

3. Yes. Yes. Opposite sides of rectangles are congruent.

C

4. JO and NI ; JN and OI . The central angles that intercept the arcs

are congruent.

5. a. 67 d. 113

b. 113 e. 180

D

c. 67 f. 180

6. NJO ; NIO ; JOI ; JNI . The arcs measure 180°. Each arc or

E

EP

Answer Key

D

2. 2 units 6. 8 units

3. 5 units 7. 2 7 5.29 units

4. 39 6.24 units 8. 4 7 10.58 units

Note: Evaluate students’ explanations.

Ask them to complete the proof of a theorem involving the diameter, chord,

and arc of a circle by doing Activity 9. If needed, guide the students as they

complete the proof of the theorem.

132

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Activity 9: Make Me Complete!

with the same endpoints if and only if it is perpendicular to the

chord. The proof has two parts.

E

perpendicular to chord GN at I. I G

Prove: 1. NI GI U

2. EN EG

PY

3. NS GS S

Answer Key

O

Proof of Part 1: We will show that ES bisects GN and the minor arc GN.

C

Statements Reasons

1. U with diameter ES and chord Given

D

GN ; ES GN

2. GIU and NIU are right angles. Definition of perpendicular lines

3. GIU NIU Right angles are congruent.

E

congruent.

EP

D

133

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Answer Key

Proof:

Statements Reasons

5. UI UI Reflexive/Identity Property

6. GIU NIU HyL Theorem

7. GI NI Corresponding parts of congruent

triangles are congruent (CPCTC).

8. ES bisects GN . Definition of segment bisector

9. GUI NUI From 6, CPCTC

PY

10. GUI and GUE are the E, I, U are collinear.

same angles.

NUI and NUE are the same

angles.

11. mGUE mNUE From 9, 10, definition of congruent

O

angles

Degree measure of an arc

12. mEG mGUE

mEN mNUE

C

From 11, 12, substitution

13. mEN mEG

D

14. mGUS mNUS From 11, definition of

supplementary angles, angles that

are supplementary to congruent

E

Degree measure of an arc

EP

mNS mNUS

From 14, 15, substitution

16. mNS mGS

D

17. ES bisects GN .

134

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E

Given: ES is a diameter of U; ES bisects GN

N

at I and the minor arc GN. I G

PY

Answer Key

Statements Reasons

O

1. U with diameter ES , ES Given

bisects GN at I and the minor

arc

C

GN.

2. GI NI Definition of bisector

D

GE NE

3. UI UI Reflexive/Identity Property

E

congruent.

EP

6. UIG UIN CPCTC

7. UIG and UIN are right Angles which form a linear pair and

angles. are congruent are right angles.

8. IU GN Definition of perpendicular lines

D

9. ES GN IU is on ES

Have the students apply the knowledge and skills they have learned

about arc length, segment, and sector of a circle. Ask the students to perform

Activity 10 and Activity 11.

135

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Activity 10: Find My Arc Length

Answer Key

1. 3.925 units

2. 5.23 units or 5.23 units

3. 7.85 units

4. 10.46 units or 10.47 units

5. 8.29 units

Questions:

a. The area of each shaded region was determined by using the

PY

A l

proportion where A = degree measure of the arc,

360 2r

l = length of the arc, r = radius of the circle. Use the formula for

finding the area of a segment and the area of a triangle.

O

A l

b. The proportion , area of a segment and the area of a

360 2r

triangle were used and so with substitution and the division

property.

C

D

Activity 11: Find This Part!

Answer Key

E

EP

3. 52.77 cm2

4. 9.31 cm2

5. 59.04 cm2

6. 40 cm2

D

Questions:

a. The area of the sector is equal to the product of the ratio

measure of the arc

and the area of the circle.

360

Subtract the area of the triangle from the area of the sector.

b. Area of a circle, area of a triangle, ratio, equilateral triangle, and

regular pentagon

136

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What to REFLECT on and UNDERSTAND

geometric concepts contained in this lesson. Provide them opportunities to

think deeply and test further their understanding of the lesson by doing

Activity 12. In this activity, the students will solve problems involving chords,

arcs, central angles, area of a segment and a sector, and arc length of a

circle.

PY

Answer Key

1. a. 72

b. 3.768 cm

c. regular pentagon

2. Yes. There are two pairs of congruent central angles/vertical angles

O

formed and they intercept congruent arcs.

3. a. Yes. because the arcs are intercepted by the same central angle.

b. No. Even if the two circles have the same central angles, the

C

lengths of their intercepted arcs are not equal because the 2

circles have different radii.

4. 60. (Evaluate students’ explanations. They are expected to use the

A l

D

proportion to support their explanations.)

360 2r

5. Draw two chords on the garden and a perpendicular bisector to

E

to the chord is the center of the circular garden.

6. a. Education, because it has the highest budget which is

EP

Php12,000.00

Savings & Utilities, because they have the lowest budget which

is Php4,500.00

b. Education. It should be given the greater allocation because it is

a very good investment.

D

c. Education – 120

Food – 90

Utilities – 45

Savings – 45

Other expenses – 60

d. Get the percentage for each item by dividing the allotted budget

by the monthly income, then multiply it by 360.

137

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e.

Item Sector Arc Length

Education 654.16 cm2 52.3 cm

Food 490.625 cm2 39.25 cm

Utilities 245.3125 cm2 19.625 cm

Savings 245.3125 cm2 19.625 cm

Other expenses 327.083 cm2 26.16 cm

Before the students move to the next section of this lesson, give a

short test (formative test) to find out how well they understood the lesson. Ask

PY

them also to write a journal about their understanding of chords, arcs, and

central angles. Refer to the Assessment Map.

What to TRANSFER

O

Give the students opportunities to demonstrate their understanding of

circles by doing a practical task. Let them perform Activity 13. You can ask

the students to work individually or in group. In this activity, the students will

C

name 5 objects or cite 5 situations in real life where chords, arcs, and central

angles of a circle are illustrated. Then, instruct them to formulate and solve

problems out of these objects or situations. Also, ask them to make a circle

graph showing the different school fees that students like them have to pay

D

voluntarily like Parents-Teachers Association fee, miscellaneous fee, school

paper fee, Supreme Student Government fee, and other fees. Ask them to

explain how they applied their knowledge of central angles and arcs of circle

E

in preparing the graph. Then, using the circle graph that they made, ask them

to formulate and solve at least two problems involving arcs, central angles,

EP

D

Answer Key

138

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Summary/Synthesis/Generalization:

This lesson was about chords, arcs and central angles of a circle, area

of a segment and a sector, and arc length of a circle. In this lesson, the

students determined the relationship between the measures of the central

angle and its intercepted arc.

They were also given the opportunity to apply the different geometric

relationships among chords, arcs, and central angles in solving problems,

complete the proof of a theorem related to these concepts, find the area of a

segment and the sector of a circle, and determine the length of an arc.

PY

Moreover, the students were asked to name objects and cite real-life

situations where chords, arcs, and central angles of a circle are illustrated and

the relationships among these concepts are applied.

O

Lesson 1B: Arcs and Inscribed Angles

C

What to KNOW

D

Let the students relate and connect previously learned mathematics

concepts to the new lesson, arcs and inscribed angles. As they go through

this lesson, tell them to think of this important question: “How do geometric

E

problems and making decisions?”

EP

activity, the students will identify in a given figure the angles and their

intercepted arcs. The students should be able to explain how they identified

and named these angles and intercepted arcs.

D

139

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Activity 1: My Angles and Intercepted Arcs

Answer Key

MSC MC

CSD CD

MSD MD

PY

MGC MC

DGC CD

MGD MD

O

1. Determine the chords having a common endpoint on the circle. The

chords are the sides of the angle and the common endpoint on the

circle is the vertex.

C

Determine two radii of the circle. The two radii are the sides of the angle

and the center of the circle is the vertex.

D

Determine the arc that lies in the interior of the angle with endpoints on

the same angle.

E

2. There are 6 angles and there are also 6 arcs that these angles

intercept.

EP

endpoint of the arc.

D

the measure of an inscribed angle and the measure of its intercepted arc by

performing Activity 2. The students should be able to realize in this activity

that the measure of an angle inscribed in a circle is one-half the measure of

its intercepted arc (or the measure of the intercepted arc is twice the measure

of the inscribed angle).

140

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Activity 2: Inscribe Me!

Answer Key

Possible Responses

1. 2.

PY

O

3. C mWEL 60 ;

mLW 60

equal to the measure of its intercepted

D

arc.

E

EP

4. mLDW 30

D

sides contain chords of the circle.

141

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Answer Key

these angles and the degree measures of their respective intercepted

arcs. (Check students’ drawings.)

of its intercepted arc.

PY

equals one-half the measure of its intercepted arc (or the measure of

the intercepted arc is twice the measure of the inscribed angle).

determine the relationship that exists when an inscribed angle intercepts a

O

semicircle. They should be able to find out that the measure of an inscribed

angle that intercepts a semicircle is 90°.

C

Activity 3: Intercept Me so I Won’t Fall!

D

Answer Key

E

1. 2.

EP

D

3. 4.

The measures of the three angles are equal. Each angle measures 90°.

The measure of an inscribed angle intercepting a semicircle is 90°.

The measures of inscribed angles intercepting the same arc are equal.

142

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Develop students’ understanding of the lesson by relating it to a real-

life situation. Ask them to determine the mathematics concepts that they can

apply to solve the problem presented in Activity 4.

Answer Key

1.

PY

O

C

D

80°

E

EP

40°

D

could photograph the entire

house with the telephoto lens

2. Relationship between the central angle or inscribed angle and the arc

that the angle intercepts.

3. Go farther from the house until the entire house is seen on the eye

piece or on the LCD screen viewer of the camera.

143

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Before proceeding to the next section of this lesson, let the students

give a brief summary of the activities done. Provide them with an opportunity

to relate or connect their responses in the activities given to their new lesson,

Arcs and Inscribed Angles. Let the students read and understand some

important notes on the different geometric relationships involving arcs and

inscribed angles and let them study carefully the examples given.

What to PROCESS

relationships involving arcs and inscribed angles, and the examples

presented in the preceding section to perform the succeeding activities.

PY

Ask the students to perform Activities 5, 6, and 7. In these activities,

they will identify the inscribed angles and their intercepted arcs, and apply the

theorems pertaining to these geometric concepts and other mathematics

concepts in finding their degree measures. Provide the students opportunities

to explain their answers.

O

Activity 5: Inscribe, Intercept, then Measure

C

Answer Key

D

1. LCA , LCE , ACE , ALC , CAE , CAL , LAE , and AEC

2.

E

a. CAL

b. ACE

c. LCE and LAE

EP

3.

a. m1 28 d. m4 56 g. m7 28

b. m2 62 e. m5 124 h. m8 62

c. m3 62 f. m6 56 i. m9 62

D

4.

a. mCL 52 c. mAE 52

144

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Activity 6: Half, Equal or Twice As?

Answer Key

same arc, then the angles are congruent.

2. mCD 108

3. mACB 48

4.

a. x 7 c. mDCA 38

b. mABD 38 d. mAD 76

PY

5.

a. x 5 c. mBC 52

b. mBDC 26 d. mBAC 26

O

C

Answer Key

1. 4.

D

a. mOA 150 a. mTIA 105

b. mOG 50 b. mFAI 82

E

c. mGOA 80

d. mGAO 25

EP

2. 5.

a. mCAR 65 a. mTM 116

b. mACR 57.5 b. mMA 64

c. mARC 57.5 c. mAE 116

D

e. mAR 115 e. mTAM 58

3.

a. mRDM 35

b. mDRM 55

c. mDMR 90

d. mDM 110

e. mRD 180

145

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In Activity 8, ask the students to complete the proof of the theorem on

inscribed angle and its intercepted arc. This activity would further develop

their skills in writing proofs which they need in proving other geometric

relationships.

measure of the angle equals one-half the measure of its

intercepted arc (or the measure of the intercepted arc is twice

PY

the measure of the inscribed angle).

Case 1:

Q

O

Given: PQR inscribed in S and x

PQ is a diameter.

S

C

1

Prove: mPQR mPR

2

R

P

D

Draw RS and let mPQR x .

E

EP

D

146

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Answer Key

Statements Reasons

1. PQR inscribed in S

and PQ is a diameter. Given

3. QRS is an isosceles . Definition of isosceles triangle

4. PQR QRS The base angles of an isosceles

triangle are congruent.

5. mPQR mQRS The measures of congruent angles

PY

are equal.

6. mQRS x Transitive Property

O

7. mPSR 2x triangle is equal to the sum of the

measures of its remote interior

angles.

C The measure of a central angle is

8. mPSR mPR equal to the measure of its

intercepted arc.

D

9. mPR 2x Transitive Property

E

EP

1

11. mQRS mPR Multiplication Property of Equality

2

D

Provide the students with opportunities to think deeply and test further

their understanding of the lesson. Let them prove the different theorems on

arcs and inscribed angles of a circle and other geometric relationships by

performing Activity 9 and Activity 10. Moreover, ask the students to solve the

problems in Activity 11 for them to realize the wide applications of the lesson

in real life.

147

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Activity 9: Prove It or Else …!

Answer Key

1. Case 2

Given: KLM inscribed in O.

1

Prove: mKLM mKM

2

PY

Proof:

Statements Reasons

1 1 The measure of an

mKLN mKN and mMLN mMN inscribed angle is one-half

O

2 2

the measure of its

intercepted arc (Case 1).

Addition Property

mKLN mMLN

1 1

mKN mMN or

C

2 2

1

mKLN mMLN mKN mMN

2

D

mKLN mMLN mKLM Angle Addition Postulate

Arc Addition Postulate

mKN mMN mKM

E

1 Substitution

mKLM mKM

2

EP

Answer Key

D

1. Case 3

Given: SMC inscribed in A.

1

Prove: mSMC mSC

2

148

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Proof:

Statements Reasons

1 1 The measure of an

mPMS mPS and mPMC mPC inscribed angle is one-half

2 2

the measure of its

intercepted arc (Case 1).

mPMS mSMC mPMC or

Angle Addition Postulate

mSMC mPMC mPMS

mSC mPC mPS

PY

1 1

mPMC mPMS mPC mPS or

2 2

1 By Subtraction

mPMC mPMS mPC mPS

2

O

1

mSMC mSC Substitution

2 C

2. Given: In T, PR and AC are the

intercepted arcs of PQR

and ABC , respectively.

D

PR AC

Prove: PQR ABC

E

Proof:

EP

Statements Reasons

Given

PR AC

Congruent arcs have equal

mPR mAC measures.

D

1

mPQR mPR and The measure of an inscribed

2

1 angle is one-half the measure

mABC mAC of its intercepted arc.

2

1 Substitution

mPQR mAC

2

mPQR mABC Transitive Property

Angles with equal measures

PQR ABC

are congruent.

149

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3. Given: In C, GML intercepts

semicircle GEL.

Proof:

Statements Reasons

GML intercepts semicircle GEL. Given

The degree measure of a

PY

mGEL 180 semicircle is 180.

The measure of an inscribed

1 angle is one-half the measure

mGML mGEL

2 of its intercepted arc.

Substitution

O

1

mGML 180 or mGML 90

2

GML is a right angle. Definition of right angle

C

4. Given: Quadrilateral WIND is inscribed

in Y .

D

Prove: 1. W and N are supplementary.

E

EP

Proof:

Statements Reasons

The sum of the measures

D

circle is 360.

The measure of a central

mWYI mWI , mIYN mIN , angle is equal to the

measure of its intercepted

mNYD mND , and mDYW mDW arc.

mDNI mDWI 360

150

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Answer Key

Statements Reasons

1 1 The measure of an inscribed

mDWI mDNI and mDNI mDWI angle is one-half the

2 2

measure of its intercepted

arc.

1 1

mDWI mDNI mDNI mDWI or By Addition

2 2

1

mDWI mDNI mDNI mDWI

2

PY

1

mDWI mDNI 360 or

2 Substitution

mDWI mDNI 180

Definition of supplementary

W and N are supplementary.

O

angles

The sum of the measures of

mW mI mN mD 360 the angles of a quadrilateral

C is 360.

mI mD 180 360 Substitution

mI mD 180 Addition Property

Definition of supplementary

D

I and D are supplementary.

angles

E

EP

Answer Key C

and MC AT , D

M T

D

H

Prove: CHM THA .

Proof A

Statements Reasons

1. MT and AC are chords of

Given

D and MC AT .

2. MCA , ATM , CMT , and

Definition of inscribed angle

CAT are inscribed angles.

3. MCA ATM and Inscribed angles intercepting the

CMT CAT same arc are congruent.

4. CHM THA ASA Congruence Postulate

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Answer Key

RV is a diagonal that passes through

the center of the circle.

DV IV E I

D V

Proof:

Statements Reasons

PY

1. RV is a diagonal that

passes through the center of Given

the circle

2. RV RV Reflexive Property

3. DRV VRI Inscribed angles intercepting the

O

same arc are congruent.

4. RIV and RDV are

Definition of semicircle

semicircles.

5. RDV and RIV are right

C Inscribed angle intercepting a

angles. semicircle measures 90°

6. RVD and RVI are right

Definition of right triangle

D

triangles.

Hypotenuse-Angle Congruence

7. RVD RVI

Theorem

E

C

3. Given: In A, SE NE and SC NT .

EP

A

E

D

Proof: N

Statements Reasons

1. SE NE and SC NT Given

If two arcs are congruent, then

2. SE NE and SC NT the chords joined by their

respective endpoints are also

congruent.

3. mSE mNE and Congruent arcs have equal

mSC mNT measures.

4. mSE mSC mEC and Arc Addition Postulate

mEN mNT mET

152

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Answer Key

Statements Reasons

Substitution

1. mEC mET

Definition of Congruence

2. EC ET

3. Draw chord CT . Definition of chord of a circle

4. ECT ETC Inscribed angles intercepting

congruent arcs are congruent.

5. CET is an isosceles triangle. Definition of isosceles triangle.

The legs of an isosceles triangle are

PY

6. CE TE

congruent.

7. CSE TNE SSS Congruence Postulate

Answer Key

O

C

1. a. 72°

b. 36°. The measure of an inscribed angle is one-half the measure of

its intercepted arc.

D

E

the diagonals of the parallelogram are also the diameters of the circle.

Hence, each inscribed angle formed by the adjacent sides of the

EP

Juliana intercept the same arc. Hence, the viewing angles of Joanna

and Juliana measure the same as the viewing angle of Clarissa.

D

4. Mang Ador has to draw two inscribed angles on the circle such that

each measures 90°. Then, connect the other endpoints of the sides of

each angle to form the diameter. The point of intersection of the two

diameters is the center of the circle.

b. The length of RS is the geometric mean of the lengths of PS and

QS .

c. PS = 6 in.; QS = 2 in.; RS = 2 3 in.

d. RT 4 3 in. and MN 4 3 in.

153

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Before the students move to the next section of this lesson, give a

short test (formative test) to find out how well they understood the lesson. Ask

them also to write a journal about their understanding of arcs and inscribed

angles. Refer to the Assessment Map.

What to TRANSFER

the geometric relationships involving arcs and inscribed angles. In Activity 12,

ask the students to make a design of a stage where a special event will be

held. Tell them to include in the design some circular objects that illustrate the

use of inscribed angles and arcs of a circle, and explain how they applied

PY

these concepts in preparing the design. Then, ask them to formulate and

solve problems out of the design they made. You can ask the students to

work individually or in groups.

O

Activity 12: How special is the event?

Answer Key

C

Evaluate students’ product. You may use the given rubric.

E D

Summary/Synthesis/Generalization:

This lesson was about arcs and inscribed angles of a circle. In this

EP

lesson, the students were given the opportunity to determine the geometric

relationships that exist among arcs and inscribed angles of a circle, apply

these in solving problems, and prove related theorems. Moreover, they were

given the chance to formulate and solve real-life problems involving these

geometric concepts out of the product they were asked to come up with as a

D

154

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Lesson 2A: Tangents and Secants of a Circle

What to KNOW

Assess students’ prior mathematical knowledge and skills that are

related to tangents and secants of a circle. This would facilitate teaching and

guide the students in understanding the different geometric relationships

involving tangents and secants of a circle.

activity would lead them to some geometric relationships involving tangents

and segments drawn from the center of the circle to the point of tangency.

That is, the radius of a circle that is drawn to the point of tangency is

PY

perpendicular to the tangent line and is also the shortest segment.

O

Answer Key

C S.

E D

2. Draw line m such that it intersects S at exactly one point. Label the

EP

point of intersection as T.

D

TS is a radius of S.

155

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4. Mark four other points on line m such that two of these points are on

the left side of T and the other two points are on the right side. Label

these points as M, N, P, and Q, respectively.

PY

5. Using a protractor, find the measures of MTS , NTS , PTS, and

O

QTS . How do the measures of the four angles compare?

The four angles have equal measures. Each angle measures 90°.

C

6. Repeat step 2 to 5. This time, draw line n such that it intersects the

circle at another point. Name this point V.

E D

EP

D

The four angles, AVS , BVS , DVS , and EVS have equal

measures. Each angle measures 90°.

156

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7. Draw MS , NS , PS , and QS .

PY

O

C

8. Using a ruler, find the lengths of TS , MS , NS , PS , and QS .

D

How do the lengths of the five segments compare?

The lengths of the five segments, TS , MS , NS , PS , and QS are

E

not equal.

What do you think is the shortest segment from the center of a circle

EP

answer.

The shortest segment from the center of a circle to the line that

intersects the circle at exactly one point is the segment

D

hypotenuses of the right triangles formed. Recall that the

hypotenuse is the longest side of a right triangle.

157

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Provide the students with opportunities to investigate relationships

among arcs and angles formed by secants and tangents. Ask them to perform

Activity 2 and Activity 3. Let the students realize the following geometric

relationships:

1. If two secants intersect on a circle, then the measure of the angle formed

is one-half the measure of the intercepted arc. (Note: Relate this to the

relationship between the measure of the inscribed angle and the measure

of its intercepted arc.)

measure of the angle formed is one-half the positive difference of the

measures of the intercepted arcs.

PY

3. If a secant and a tangent intersect at the point of tangency, then the

measure of each angle formed is one-half the measure of its intercepted

arc.

O

4. If two secants intersect in the exterior of a circle, then the measure of the

angle formed is one-half the positive difference of the measures of the

intercepted arcs.

C

5. If two tangents intersect in the exterior of a circle, then the measure of the

angle formed is one-half the positive difference of the measures of the

D

intercepted arcs.

E

angle formed is one-half the sum of the measures of the arcs intercepted

by the angle and its vertical angle.

EP

D

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Activity 2: Investigate Me!

Answer Key

PY

How about the lines that intersect the circle at exactly one point? BG

O

DAE, EAG, DAB, DAG . There are still other angles with A as

the vertex, but for the purpose of our new lesson, we consider these

angles.

C

C as the vertex? ACD, ACG, ECF, DCE

D as the vertex? ADG. There are still other angles with D as the

vertex but for the meantime, we only consider this.

G as the vertex? AGD. There are still other angles with G as the

D

vertex but for the meantime, we only consider this.

E

DAE DE ACD AD

EP

EAG EFA ECF EF

ADF AF AGD AF and AD

D

ACF , ADF , and AGD AF

mEAG 90 mECF 111.14

mDAB 55.57 mDCE 68.87

mDAG 124.43 mADG 34.43

mACD 111.14 mAGD 21.13

159

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Answer Key

6. Determine the measure of the central angle that intercepts the same

arc. The measure of the central angle is equal to the measure of its

intercepted arc.

mAD= 111.14 mEFA= 180

mDEA= 248.86 mAF= 68.86

7. mDCE 2mDAE

mDE 2mDAE . Since mDCE mDE ,

PY

then mDE 2mDAE .

8. mAD 2mDAB

mEFA 2mEAG

O

1

9. mBGD mAD mAF

2

C

Activity 3: Find Out by Yourself!

D

Answer Key

E

EP

4. mRST

1

mST

2

1

D

2

1

8. Yes. mRST mRT mNT

2

1

10. Yes. mRST mRT mMN

2

1

12. Yes. mRST mRT mMN

2

160

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Let the students give their realizations of the activities done before

proceeding to the next activities. Provide them with an opportunity to relate or

connect their responses to the activities given in their lesson, tangents and

secants of a circle. Let the students read and understand some important

notes on tangents and secants of a circle and study carefully the examples

given.

What to PROCESS

In this section, let the students use the geometric concepts and

relationships they have studied and the examples presented in the preceding

section to answer the succeeding activities.

PY

Present to the students the figure given in Activity 4. In this activity, the

students should be able to identify the tangents and secants in the figure

including the angles that they form and the arcs that these angles intercept.

They should be able to determine also the unknown measure of the angle

formed by secants intersecting in the exterior of the circle. Give emphasis to

O

the geometric relationship the students applied in finding the measure of the

angle. Provide them opportunities to compare their answers and correct their

errors, if there are any.

C

Activity 4: Tangents or Secants?

D

Answer Key

E

1. KL and LM. Each line intersects the circle at exactly one point.

EP

D

4. There are other angles formed but only these are considered.

KOM is formed by two secant lines.

KLM is formed by two tangent lines.

LMP, LKN, PMR, and NKS. Each is formed by a secant and a

tangent.

KPM KLM

6. mKLM 50 ; mNP = 30

161

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In Activity 5, provide the students with opportunities to apply the

different geometric relationships in finding the measures of the angles formed

by tangents and secants and the arcs that these angles intercept. Let them

also determine the lengths of segments tangent to circle/s and other

segments drawn on a circle. Ask them to support their answers by stating the

geometric relationships applied.

Answer Key

PY

1. mABC 40 7. mPQO 61

2. mMQL 40 mPQR 119

3. mPTR 47 8. a. mPW 125

mRTS 133 b. mRPW 27.5

4. a. x 10 c. mPRW 62.5

O

b. mCG 65 d. mWRE 27.5

c. mAR 55 e. mWER 62.5

5. mMC 71 f. mWER 62.5

C

6. OR 4 85 9. PQ 6 4 5

RS 24 10. a. x 6

KS 4 85 24 b. ST 19

D

c. RT 19

d. AT 19

E

EP

Let the students think deeply and test further their understanding of the

different geometric relationships involving tangents and secants of circles by

doing Activity 6. In this activity, they will apply these geometric relationships in

D

solving problems.

162

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Activity 6: Think of These Relationships Deeply!

Answer Key

1.

a. mRON 90 ; mRON 90 . The radius of a circle is

perpendicular to a tangent line at the point of tangency.

b. NRO NUD

c. mNRO 59

d. mNDU 41; mDUO 131

e. RO 5 ; DN 12 ; DU 6 3

NRO is not congruent to DUN . The lengths of their sides are

PY

not equal.

3.

O

a. RL LI . If two segments from the same exterior point are tangent

to a circle, then the two segments are congruent.

b. LTR LTI by HyL Theorem.

C

c. mILT 38 ; mITL 52 ; mRTL 52

d. TL 26 ; LI 24 ; AL 16

4.

D

a. SZ 6

b. DZ 3

c. CX 7.5

E

d. CY 7.5

If two segments from the same exterior point are tangent to a circle,

EP

5. 5 55 m

6.

a. mP 55

D

mR 55

mS 55

b. The angle that I will make with the lighthouse must be less than

55°.

tangents and secants of circles. Let them perform Activity 7. Guide the

students in writing the proof. If needed, provide hints.

163

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Activity 7: Is this true?

Answer Key

1. Given: AB is tangent to C at D.

Prove: AB CD

To prove: a. Draw AC

b. Assume AB is not perpendicular

to CD and AB AC

PY

Proof:

Statement Reason

AB is not perpendicular Assumption

to CD and AB AC .

O

E is a point on AD such that Ruler Postulate

DE 2DA

DA AE

C Betweenness and Congruence

of Segments

CAE CAD Right angles are congruent.

Reflexive Property

D

AC AC

CDA CEA SAS Congruence Postulate

CD CE CPCTC

E

CD CE

segments are equal.

EP

D and E are the points of intersection

A tangent intersects the circle at

of tangent line AB and

exactly one point.

C is not true.

Only one line can be drawn on a

D

point of tangency.

2. Given: RS is a radius of S.

PQ RS

Prove: PQ is tangent to S at R.

To prove: Draw QS .

164

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Answer Key

Proof:

Statement Reason

RS is a radius of S and PQ RS . Given

The shortest segment from the

QS >RS center of a circle to a line tangent

to it is the perpendicular

segment.

No other point of a tangent line

Q is not on S. other than the point of tangency

lies on a circle.

PY

PQ is tangent to S at R. A tangent intersects the circle at

exactly one point.

O

S at M and L, respectively.

Prove: EM EL

C

To prove: Draw MS , LS , and ES .

E D

Proof:

EP

Statement Reason

MS LS Radii of the same circle are

congruent.

EL LS and EM MS . A line tangent to a circle is

perpendicular to the radius.

D

ES ES Reflexive Property

ESM ESL Hypotenuse-Leg Congruence

Theorem

EM EL CPCTC

165

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4.

a. Given: RS and TS are tangent to V at R and T, respectively,

and intersect at the exterior S.

PY

1

Prove: mRST mTQR mTR

2

O

To prove: Draw RV , TV , and SV .

Proof:

C

Statement Reason

SVR SVT (Proven)

mRVS mRSV 90 and Acute angles of a right

D

mTVS mTSV 90 triangle are complementary.

mRVS mTVS mRVT Angle Addition Postulate

E

mRVT 90 x 90 x

Substitution

180 2x

EP

mTR 180 2x angle is equal to the

measure of its intercepted

arc.

The degree measure of a

D

Substitution and Addition

mTQR 180 2x

Property of Equality

mRSV mTSV mRST Angle Addition Postulate

mRSV mTSV x x By Substitution and Addition

2x

mRST 2x Transitive Property

22x Subtraction

166

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Answer Key

By Substitution

mTQR mTR 2mRST

1 Multiplication Property

mRST mTQR mTR

2

b. Given:KL is tangent to O at K.

PY

exterior point L.

O

C

1

D

Prove: mKLN mNPK mMK

2

E

EP

Proof:

Statement Reason

The measure of an

D

mNMK mNPK the measure of its

2

intercepted arc.

The measure of the

exterior angle of a triangle

mNMK mMKL mNLK is equal to the sum of the

measures of its remote

interior angles.

The measure of a central

mKOM mKM angle is equal to the

measure of its intercepted

arc.

167

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The sum of the

mMKL mMKO 90 measures of

complementary angles is

90.

The sum of the

mKMO mMKO mKOM 180 measures of the interior

angle of a triangle is 180

mKOM 2x Addition Property

mKM 2x Transitive Property

1

2mMKL mKM or mMKL mKM Multiplication Property

PY

2

1

mNPK 1 mKM mNMK mMKL

2 2

mMKL mNLK mMKL By Subtraction

mNLK

mNLK

1

mNPK mKM

O By Substitution

2

C

c. Given: AC is a secant that passes

through T at A and B.

D

E

through T at E and D.

EP

exterior point C.

D

1

Prove: mACE mAE mBD

2

168

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Answer Key

Proof:

Statement Reason

The measure of the

exterior angle of a

mADE mDAC mACE triangle is equal to the

sum of the measures of

its remote interior

angles.

1 The measure of an

mADE mAE and inscribed angle is one-

2

PY

1 half the measure of its

mDAB mBD intercepted arc.

2

1

mAE 1 mBD mADE mDAB By Subtraction

2 2

O

mADE mDAC mACE Addition Property

1 1

mACE mAE mBD or

2 2

C Transitive Property

1

mACE mAE mBD

2

D

E

of V at T.

EP

arcs of PTS and QTR .

D

1

Prove: mPTS mPS mQR

2

To prove: Draw RS .

169

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Proof:

Statement Reason

1 The measure of an

mPRS mPS and inscribed angle is one-half

2

1 the measure of its

mQSR mQR intercepted arc.

2

mQTR mPRS mQSR The measure of the

exterior angle of a triangle

is equal to the sum of the

measures of its remote

interior angles.

PY

1

mQTR mPS 1 mQR or

2 2

1 Substitution

mQTR mPS mQR

2

O

mQTR mPTS The measures of vertical

angles are equal.

1 Transitive Property

mPTS

2

mPS mQR

C

D

6. Given: MP and LN are secant and

tangent, respectively, and

intersect at C at the point

E

of tangency, M.

EP

1

Prove: mNMP mMP and

2

1

mLMP mMKP

2

D

Let mNMP x so that mOMP 90 x and

mOPM 90 x .

170

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Answer Key

Proof:

Statement Reason

The measure of a central

mMOP mMP angle is equal to the

measure of its intercepted

arc.

The sum of the measures

mNMP mOMP 90 of complementary angles

is 90.

The sum of the measures

mOMP mOPM mMOP 180

PY

of a triangle is 180.

Addition Property

mMOP 2x

mMP 2x Transitive Property

O

1 Multiplication Property

mNMP mMP

2

mMP mMKP 360

C The degree measure of a

circle is 360.

mMKP 360 2x By Substitution and

Subtraction

D

mMKP 2180 x By Factoring

mLMP 90 90 x or Angle Addition Postulate

E

mLMP 180 x

mMKP 2mLMP Substitution

EP

1 Multiplication Property

mLMP mMKP

2

D

Before the students move to the next section of this lesson, give a

short test (formative test) to find out how well they understood the lesson. Ask

them also to write a journal about their understanding of tangents and secants

of a circle. Refer to the Assessment Map.

171

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What to TRANSFER

the different geometric relationships involving tangents and secants of circles

by doing a practical task. Let them perform Activity 8. You can ask the

students to work individually or in a group. In this activity, the students will

formulate and solve problems involving tangents and secants of circles as

illustrated in some real-life objects.

PY

Answer Key

Summary/Synthesis/Generalization:

O

C

This lesson was about the geometric relationships involving tangents

and secants of a circle, the angles they form and the arcs that these angles

intercept. The lesson provided the students with opportunities to derive

D

geometric relationships involving radius of a circle drawn to the point of

tangency, investigate relationships among arcs and angles formed by secants

and tangents, and apply these in solving problems. Moreover, they were given

E

the chance to prove the different theorems on tangents and secants and

demonstrate their understanding of these concepts by doing a practical task.

EP

concepts and principles will facilitate their learning of the wide applications of

circles in real life.

D

172

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Lesson 2B: Tangent and Secant Segments

What to KNOW

Find out how much students have learned about the different

mathematics concepts previously studied and their skills in performing

mathematical operations. Checking these will facilitate teaching and students’

understanding of the geometric relationships involving tangent and secant

segments. Tell them that as they go through this lesson, they have to think of

this important question: How do geometric relationships involving tangent and

secant segments facilitate solving real-life problems and making decisions?

PY

Provide the students with opportunities to enhance further their skills in

finding solutions to mathematical sentences previously studied. Let them

perform Activity1. In this activity, the students will solve linear and quadratic

equations in one variable. These mathematical skills are prerequisites to

learning the geometric relationships involving tangent and secant segments.

O

Ask the students to explain how they arrived at the solutions and how

they applied the mathematics concepts or principles in solving each

mathematical sentence.

C

Activity 1: What is my value?

D

Answer Key

E

1. x 9 6. x 5

2. x 5 7. x 8

EP

3. x 6 8. x 2 3

4. x 9 9. x 3 5

5. x 12 10. x 4 5

D

Questions:

a. Applying the Division Property of Equality and Extracting Square

Roots

b. Division Property of Equality and Extracting Square Roots

Present to the students the figure in Activity 2. Then, let them identify

the tangent and secant lines and the chords, name all the segments they can

see, and describe a point in relation to the circle. This activity has something

to do with the lesson. Let the students relate this to the succeeding activities.

173

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Activity 2: My Segments

Answer Key

2. NE ; ET ; AE ; EL

3. AS ; AJ ; JL

4. A point outside the circle

PY

exists among segments formed by intersecting chords of a circle. In this

activity, the students might not be able to arrive at the accurate

measurements of the chords due to the limitations of the measuring

instrument to be used. If possible, use math freeware like GeoGebra in

performing the activity.

O

C

Answer Key

E D

EP

1-2.

3. a. BA = 2.8 units c. MA = 1.95 units

b. TA = 2.8 units d. NA = 4.02 units

D

5. If two chords of a circle intersect, then the product of the measures

of the segments of one chord is equal to the product of the measures

of the segments of the other chord. (Emphasize this idea.)

Present to the students a situation that would capture their interest and

develop their understanding of the lesson. Let them perform Activity 4. In this

activity, the students will determine the mathematics concepts or principles to

solve the given problem.

174

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Activity 4: Fly Me to Your World

Answer Key

1. d = 27.67 km

2. External secant segment, tangent, Pythagorean theorem

the next activities. Provide them with an opportunity to relate or connect their

responses in the activities given to their new lesson, Tangent and Secant

Segments. Let the students read and understand some important notes on

tangent and secant segments and study carefully the examples given.

PY

What to PROCESS

O

tangent and secant segments and the examples presented in the preceding

section to answer the succeeding activities.C

In Activity 5, the students will name the external secant segments in

the given figures. This activity would familiarize them with the geometric

concept and facilitate problem solving.

D

E

Answer Key

EP

1. IM and IL

2. TS and DS

3. OS

4. IR

D

5. LF and WE

6. IH , FG , IJ , EF , AK , DC

175

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Have the students apply the different theorems involving chords and

tangent and secant segments to find the unknown lengths of segments on a

circle and solve related problems. Ask the students to perform Activity 6 and

Activity 7.

Answer Key

2. x 8 units 7. x 4.8 units

PY

3. x 9 units 8. x 15 units

4. x 5 units 9. x 2 10 6.32 units

5. x 6.64 units 10. x 4 units

Questions:

O

a. The theorems on two intersecting chords, secant segments, tangent

segments, and external secant segments were applied.

b. Evaluate students’ responses.

C

D

E

Answer Key

EP

1. Possible answer:

2. a. VU = 4.57 units

b. XU = 8 units

D

176

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What to REFLECT on and UNDERSTAND

relationships involving tangent and secant segments including chords by

doing Activity 8 and Activity 9. Let the students prove the different theorems

on intersecting chords, secant segments, tangent segments, and external

secant segments and solve problems involving these concepts.

Answer Key

PY

1. Given: AB and DE are chords of C

intersecting at M.

O

Prove: AM BM DM EM

C

D

Proof:

Statement Reason

1

E

2 angle is one-half the

1 measure of its intercepted

mBDE mBE

EP

2 arc.

Inscribed angles intercepting

BAE BDE

the same arc are congruent.

AME ~ DMB AA Similarity Theorem

D

triangles are proportional.

AM DM

AM BM DM EM Multiplication Property

177

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Answer Key

segments of T drawn

from exterior point D.

Prove: DP DQ DS DR

Proof:

PY

Statement Reason

Inscribed angles

QPR RSQ and PQS SRP intercepting the same arc

are congruent.

Supplements of congruent

DQS DRP

O

angles are congruent

DQS ~ DRP AA Similarity Theorem

DP DS Lengths of sides of similar

DR DQ

C triangles are proportional.

DP DQ DS DR Multiplication Property

D

3. Given: KL and KM are tangent

and secant segments,

E

respectively of O drawn

from exterior point K.

EP

KM intersects O at N.

2

Prove: KM KN KL

D

178

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Answer Key

Proof:

Statement Reason

1 The measure of an inscribed

mNLK mLN and angle is one-half the measure

2

1 of its intercepted arc.

mLMN mLN

2

mNLK mLMN Transitive Property

Angles with equal measures

NLK LMN

are congruent.

PY

The measure of the exterior

angle of a triangle is equal to

mLNK mNLM mLMN

the sum of the measures of its

remote interior angles.

mLNK mNLM mNLK Substitution

O

mKLM mNLM mNLK Angle Addition Postulate

mLNK mKLM Transitive Property

Angles with equal measures

LNK KLM

C are congruent.

MKL ~ LNM AA Similarity Theorem

KM KL Lengths of sides of similar

triangles are proportional.

D

KL KN

2

KM KN KL Multiplication Property

E

EP

Answer Key

D

1. Janel. She used the theorem “If two secant segments are drawn to a

circle from an exterior point, then the product of the lengths of one

secant segment and its external secant segment is equal to the product

of the lengths of the other secant segment and its external secant

segment.”

2. Gate 1 is 91.65 m from the main road.

3. a. The point of tangency of the two light balls from the ceiling is about

44.72 cm.

b. Anton needs about 1967.53 cm of string.

179

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Find out how well the students understood the lesson by giving a short

test (formative test) before proceeding to the next section. Ask them also to

write a journal about their understanding of tangent and secant segments.

Refer to the Assessment Map.

What to TRANSFER

tangent and secant segments including chords of a circle by doing a practical

task. Let them perform Activity 10. You can ask the students to work

individually or in a group.

PY

In Activity 10, the students will make a design of an arch bridge that

would connect two places which are separated by a river, 20 m wide. Tell

them to indicate on the design the different measurements of the parts of the

bridge. The students are expected to formulate and solve problems involving

tangent and secant segments out of the design and the measurements of its

O

parts. C

Activity 10: My True World!

Answer Key

D

E

EP

Summary/Synthesis/Generalization:

tangents, secants, and chords of a circle. The lesson provided the students

with opportunities to derive geometric relationship involving intersecting

D

chords, identify tangent and secant segments, and prove and apply different

theorems on chords, tangent, and secant segments. These theorems were

used to solve various geometric problems. Understanding the ideas

presented in this lesson will facilitate their learning of the succeeding lessons.

180

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SUMMATIVE TEST

Part I

Choose the letter that you think best answers each of the following questions.

A. RST

B. PQR

C. QVT

D. QST

PY

O

2. In F below, AG is a diameter. What is mAD if mDFG 65 ?

A. 65°

B. 115°

C

C. 130°

D. 230°

E D

EP

below?

A. DE

D

B. AG

C. BD

D. AE

181

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4. Quadrilateral ABCD is inscribed in a circle. Which of the following is true

about the angle measures of the quadrilateral?

II. mB mD 180

III. mA mC 90

5. An arc of a circle measures 72°. If the radius of the circle is 6 cm, about

how long is the arc?

A. 1.884 cm B. 2.4 cm C. 3.768 cm D. 7.54 cm

PY

6. What is the total measure of the central angles of a circle with no common

interior points?

A. 480 B. 360 C. 180 D. 120

O

7. What kind of angle is the inscribed angle that intercepts a semicircle?

A. straight B. obtuse C. right C D. acute

A. 6.92 units C. 14.4 units

117 130

D

B. units D. units

10 9

E

EP

mABF ?

D

A. 44

B. 61

C. 88

D. 122

182

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10. How many line/s can be drawn through a given point on a circle that is

tangent to the circle?

A. four B. three C. two D. one

A. 28 C. 56

B. 34 D. 124

U

PY

R

and AE = 10 cm,

O

L T

A C E

H

D

what is the length of AH in the given figure?

A. 18 cm C. 22.5 cm

E

B. 20 cm D. 24.5 cm

EP

radius is 8 cm. What is the area of the shaded region T

D

in terms of ?

45°

A. 6 cm 2 C. 10 cm 2

B. 8 cm 2 D. 12 cm 2 H

8 cm

O

183

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14. In the circle on the right, what is the measure of SRT if AST is a

semicircle and mSRA 74 ?

A. 16 S

B. 74

C. 106

D. 154

A T

R

PY

15. Quadrilateral LUCK is inscribed in S. If mLUC 96 and

mUCK 77, find mULK .

U C

A. 77 77°

96°

B. 84

O

C. 96

D. 103 L S

C

K

D

E

and VW = 4 units?

A. 4 2 units

EP

B. 8 2 units

C. 14 units

D. 16 2 units

D

17. A circular garden has a radius of 2 m. Find the area of the smaller

segment of the garden determined by a 90 arc.

A. 2 m2 B. 2 m2 C. m2 D. 4 2 m2

184

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18. Karen has a necklace with a circular pendant hanging

from a chain around her neck. The chain is tangent to

the pendant. If the chain is extended as shown in the

diagram on the right, it forms an angle of 30° below

the pendant. What is the measure of the arc at the

bottom of the pendant?

A. 60°

B. 75°

30°

C. 120°

D. 150°

19. Mang Jose cut a circular board with a diameter 80 cm. Then, he divided

PY

the board into 20 congruent sectors. What is the area of each sector?

A. 80 cm2 B. 320 cm2 C. 800 cm2 D. 1 600 cm2

O

the opposite vertices are connected by line segments and meet at the

center of the circle. What is the measure of each angle formed at the

center?

A. 22.5 B. 45

C

C. 67.5 D. 135

Part II

D

E

1. Mr. Jaena designed an arch for the top part of a subdivision’s main gate.

The arch will be made out of bent iron. In the design, the 16 segments

EP

between the two concentric semicircles are each 0.7 meter long. Suppose

the diameter of the outer semicircle is 8 meters. What is the length, in

whole meters, of the shortest iron needed to make the arch?

2. A rope fits tightly around two pulleys. What is the distance between the

D

centers of the pulleys if the radii of the bigger and smaller pulleys are

10 cm and 6 cm, respectively, and the portion of the rope tangent to the

two pulleys is 50 cm long?

185

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Rubric for Problem Solving

4 3 2 1

Used an Used an Used an Attempted to

appropriate appropriate appropriate solve the problem

strategy to come strategy to come strategy but but used an

up with a correct up with a came up with an inappropriate

solution and solution, but a entirely wrong strategy that led

arrived at a part of the solution that led to a wrong

correct answer solution led to an to an incorrect solution

incorrect answer answer

PY

Part III A: GRASPS Assessment

O

Goal: To prepare the different student formations to be done during a

field demonstration

C

Role: Student assigned to prepare the different formations to be

followed in the field demonstration

D

Audience: The school principal, your teacher, and your fellow students

E

local event where many visitors and spectators are expected to

EP

school designated one of your teachers to organize and lead the

group of students who will perform the field demonstration.

D

formations for the field demonstration. In particular, your teacher

instructed you to include arrangements that show geometric

figures such as circles, arcs, tangents, and secants. Your

teacher also asked you to make a sketch of the various

formations and include the order in which these will be

performed by the group.

186

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Products: Sketches of the different formations to be followed in the field

demonstrations including the order and manner on how each

will be performed

presentable, and the sequencing must also be systematic.

4 3 2 1

The sketches of The sketches of The sketches of The sketches of

the different the different the different the different

PY

formations are formations are formations are not formations are

accurately made, accurately made accurately made made but not

presentable, and and the but the accurate and the

the sequencing is sequencing is sequencing is sequencing is not

systematic. systematic but not systematic. systematic.

O

presentable.

Part III B

C

Use the prepared sketches of the different formations in Part III A in

D

formulating problems involving circles, then solve.

E

EP

D

187

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Rubric on Problems Formulated and Solved

Score Descriptors

Poses a more complex problem with 2 or more correct possible

solutions and communicates ideas unmistakably, shows in-

6 depth comprehension of the pertinent concepts and/or

processes, and provides explanations wherever appropriate.

Poses a more complex problem and finishes all significant

parts of the solution and communicates ideas unmistakably,

5 shows in-depth comprehension of the pertinent concepts

and/or processes.

Poses a complex problem and finishes all significant parts of

PY

the solution and communicates ideas unmistakably, shows in-

4 depth comprehension of the pertinent concepts and/or

processes.

Poses a complex problem and finishes most significant parts of

O

the solution and communicates ideas unmistakably, shows

3 comprehension of major concepts although neglects or

misinterprets less significant ideas or details.

C

Poses a problem and finishes some significant parts of the

2 solution and communicates ideas unmistakably but shows

gaps on theoretical comprehension.

D

Poses a problem but demonstrates minor comprehension, not

1 being able to develop an approach.

E

EP

Answer Key

1. B 11. A 1. 35 m

D

2. B 12. C 2. 50.16 cm

3. D 13. B

4. A 14. C

5. D 15. D Part III A (Use the rubric to rate students’ works/outputs)

6. B 16. D Part III B (Use the rubric to rate students’ works/outputs)

7. C 17. A

8. D 18. D

9. A 19. A

10. D 20. B

188

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GLOSSARY OF TERMS

Arc Length – the length of an arc which can be determined by using the

A l

proportion = , where A is the degree measure of an arc, r is the

360 2 r

radius of the circle, and l is the arc length

Central Angle – an angle formed by two rays whose vertex is the center of

the circle

PY

Common External Tangents – tangents which do not intersect the segment

joining the centers of the two circles

O

Common Internal Tangents – tangents that intersect the segment joining

the centers of the two circles C

Common Tangent – a line that is tangent to two circles on the same plane

Congruent Arcs – arcs of the same circle or of congruent circles with equal

D

measures

E

EP

Degree Measure of a Major Arc – the measure of a major arc that is equal

to 360 minus the measure of the minor arc with the same endpoints.

Degree Measure of a Minor Arc – the measure of the central angle which

intercepts the arc

D

circle

contain chords of the circle

Intercepted Arc – an arc that lies in the interior of an inscribed angle and has

endpoints on the angle

189

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Major Arc – an arc of a circle whose measure is greater than that of a

semicircle

Minor Arc – an arc of a circle whose measure is less than that of a semicircle

Point of Tangency – the point of intersection of the tangent line and the

circle

Secant – a line that intersects a circle at exactly two points. A secant contains

a chord of a circle

PY

Sector of a Circle – the region bounded by an arc of the circle and the two

radii to the endpoints of the arc

O

its endpoints

C

Tangent to a Circle – a line coplanar with the circle and intersects it at one

and only one point

E D

EP

D

190

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List of Theorems And Postulates On Circles

Postulates:

arcs is the sum of the measures of the two arcs.

2. At a given point on a circle, one and only one line can be drawn that is

tangent to the circle.

Theorems:

PY

1. In a circle or in congruent circles, two minor arcs are congruent if and only

if their corresponding central angles are congruent.

O

2. In a circle or in congruent circles, two minor arcs are congruent if and only

if their corresponding chords are congruent.

C

3. In a circle, a diameter bisects a chord and an arc with the same endpoints

if and only if it is perpendicular to the chord.

D

4. If an angle is inscribed in a circle, then the measure of the angle equals

one-half the measure of its intercepted arc (or the measure of the

E

EP

arcs or the same arc, then the angles are congruent.

right angle.

D

supplementary.

the point of tangency.

circle, then the line is tangent to the circle.

191

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10. If two segments from the same exterior point are tangent to a circle, then

the two segments are congruent.

11. If two secants intersect in the exterior of a circle, then the measure of the

angle formed is one-half the positive difference of the measures of the

intercepted arcs.

12. If a secant and a tangent intersect in the exterior of a circle, then the

measure of the angle formed is one-half the positive difference of the

measures of the intercepted arcs.

PY

13. If two tangents intersect in the exterior of a circle, then the measure of

the angle formed is one-half the positive difference of the measures of

the intercepted arcs.

O

14. If two secants intersect in the interior of a circle, then the measure of an

angle formed is one-half the sum of the measures of the arcs intercepted

by the angle and its vertical angle.

C

15. If a secant and a tangent intersect at the point of tangency, then the

measure of each angle formed is one-half the measure of its intercepted

D

arc.

E

16. If two chords of a circle intersect, then the product of the measures of

the segments of one chord is equal to the product of the measures of the

EP

17. If two secant segments are drawn to a circle from an exterior point, then

the product of the lengths of one secant segment and its external secant

segment is equal to the product of the lengths of the other secant

D

18. If a tangent segment and a secant segment are drawn to a circle from an

exterior point, then the square of the length of the tangent segment is

equal to the product of the lengths of the secant segment and its

external secant segment.

192

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DEPED INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS THAT CAN BE USED AS

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES FOR THE LESSON ON CIRCLES:

Year Mathematics. Module 18: Circles and Their Properties.

References:

PY

Bass, L. E., Charles, R.I., Hall, B., Johnson, A., & Kennedy, D. (2008). Texas

Geometry. Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Bass, L. E., Hall B.R., Johnson A., & Wood, D.F. (1998). Prentice Hall

Geometry Tools for a Changing World. NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

O

Boyd, C., Malloy, C., & Flores. (2008). McGraw-Hill Geometry. USA: The

McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

C

Callanta, M. M. (2002). Infinity, Worktext in Mathematics III. Makati City:

EUREKA Scholastic Publishing, Inc.

D

Chapin, I., Landau, M. & McCracken. (1997). Prentice Hall Middle Grades

Math, Tools for Success. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-

E

Hall, Inc.

EP

USA: Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike.

Geometry. USA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.

D

Clements, D. H., Jones, K.W., Moseley, L. G., & Schulman, L. (1999). Math in

My World. Farmington, New York: McGraw-Hill Division.

Department of Education, Philippines.

Publications, Inc.

Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.

193

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

Rich, B. and Thomas, C. (2009). Schaum’s Outlines Geometry (4th ed.) USA:

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Smith, S. A., Nelson, C.W., Koss, R. K., Keedy, M. L., & Bittinger, M. L.

(1992) Addison-Wesley Informal Geometry. USA: Addison-Wesley

Publishing Company, Inc.

Westerville, Ohio: Glencoe Division of Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Publishing Company.

PY

Website Links as References and Source of for Learning Activities:

http://www.ck12.org/book/CK-12-Geometry-Honors-Concepts/ section/8.7/

O

CK-12 Foundation. cK-12 Secant Lines to Circles. (2014). Retrieved from

http://www.ck12.org/book/CK-12-Geometry-Honors-Concepts/ section/8.8/

C

CK-12 Foundation. cK-12 Tangent Lines to Circles. (2014). Retrieved from

http://www.ck12.org/book/CK-12-Geometry-Honors-Concepts/ section/8.4/

D

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Cliffs Notes. Arcs and Inscribed Angles. (2013).

Retrieved from http://www.cliffsnotes.com/math/geometry/circles/arcs-and-

inscribed-angles

E

EP

http://www.cliffsnotes.com/math/geometry/circles/segments-of-chords-

secants-tangents

D

http://www.mathopenref.com/arc.html

http://www.mathopenref.com/arclength.html

http://www.mathopenref.com/circlecentral.html

http://www.mathopenref.com/arccentralangletheorem.html

194

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

Math Open Reference. Chord. (2009). Retrieved from

http://www.mathopenref.com/chord.html

http://www.mathopenref.com/circleinscribed.html

http://www.mathopenref.com/secantsintersecting.html

http://www.mathopenref.com/arcsector.html

PY

http://www.mathopenref.com/segment.html

(2014). Retrieved from http://www.math-worksheet.org/arc-length-and-sector-

area

O

math-worksheet.org. Free Math Worksheets. Inscribed Angles. (2014).

C

Retrieved from http://www.math-worksheet.org/inscribed-angles

Retrieved from http://www.math-worksheet.org/secant-tangent-angles

D

math-worksheet.org. Free Math Worksheets. Tangents. (2014). Retrieved

from tangents

E

EP

http://www.onlinemathlearning.com/circle-theorems.html

Roberts, Donna. Oswego City School District Regents exam Prep Center.

Geometry Lesson Page. Formulas for Angles in Circles Formed by Radii,

Chords, Tangents, Secants. (2012). Retrieved from

D

http://www.regentsprep.org/Regents/math/geometry/ GP15/CircleAngles.htm

195

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

Website Links for Videos:

Circles. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jUAHw-

JIobc

Retrieved from https://www.khanacademy.org/math/geometry/cc-geometry-

circles

Schmidt, Larry. Angles and Arcs Formed by Tangents, Secants, and Chords.

(2013). Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I-RyXI7h1bM

PY

Sophia.org. Geometry. Circles. (2014). Retrieved from

http://www.sophia.org/topics/circles

O

Cherry Valley Nursery and Landscape Supply. Seasonal Colors Flowers and

C

Plants. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.cherryvalleynursery.com/

eBay Inc. Commodore Holden CSA Mullins pursuit mag wheel 17 inch

genuine - 4blok #34. (2014). Retrieved from

D

http://www.ebay.com.au/itm/Commodore-Holden-CSA-Mullins-pursuit-mag-

wheel-17-inch-genuine-4blok-34-/221275049465

E

Fort Worth Weekly. Facebook Fact: Cowboys Are World’s Team. (2012) .

Retrieved from http://www.fwweekly.com/2012/08/21/facebook-fact-cowboys-

EP

now-worlds-team/

Hill Photos. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.everytrail.com/ guide/circular-

quay-sydney-harbour-to-historic-hunters-hill/photos

D

HiSupplier.com Online Inc. Shandong Sun Paper Industry Joint Stock Co.,Ltd.

Retrieved from http://pappapers.en.hisupplier.com/product-66751-Art-

Boards.html

technology.com/features/feature1674/feature1674-5.html

http://materiageek.com/2009/04/nikon-d5000-presentada-oficialmente/

196

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

Piatt, Andy. Dreamstime.com. Rainbow Stripe Hot Air Balloon. Retrieved from

http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/z/rainbow-stripe-hot-air-balloon-788611.jpg

from http://www.teachengineering.org/view_activity.php?url=

collection/cub_/activities/cub_navigation/cub_navigation_lesson07_activity1.x

ml

http://www.indiamart.com/sambhav-transmission/industrial-pulleys.html

Retrieved from http://www.flowerpicturegallery.com/v/halifax-public-

PY

gardens/Circular+mini+garden+with+white+red+flowers+and+dark+

grass+in+the+middle+at+Halifax+Public+Gardens.jpg.html

http://youveneverheardofjentidwell.com/2012/03/02/home-sweet-house/

O

Weston Digital Services. FWR Motorcycles LTD. CHAINS AND

SPROCKETS. (2014). Retrieved from

C

http://fwrm.co.uk/index.php?main_page=index&cPath=585&zenid=10omr4he

hmnbkktbl94th0mlp6

E D

EP

D

197

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Module 5: Plane Coordinate Geometry

A. Learning Outcomes

Content Standard:

coordinate geometry.

Performance Standard:

geometric figures on the rectangular coordinate plane with perseverance and

PY

accuracy.

O

Mathematics 10

Derive the distance formula

Quarter: Second Apply the distance formula to prove some geometric

Quarter properties

C

Topic: Plane Illustrate the center-radius form of the equation of a

Coordinate Geometry circle

D

Determine the center and radius of a circle given its

Lessons: equation and vice versa

1. The Distance

E

Formula

coordinate plane

2. The Equation of a

EP

coordinate plane

Essential Essential

Writer: Understanding: Question:

D

the concepts involving plane concepts of plane

coordinate geometry are coordinate geometry

useful tools in solving real-life facilitate finding

problems like finding solutions to real-life

locations, distances, problems involving

mapping, etc. geometric figures?

198

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Transfer Goal:

accuracy the key concepts of plane coordinate

geometry in formulating and solving problems involving

geometric figures on the rectangular coordinate plane.

Product/Performance

The following are products and performances that students are expected to

PY

come up with in this module.

1. Ground Plan drawn on a grid with coordinates

2. Equations and problems involving mathematics concepts already learned

such as coordinate plane, slope and equation of a line, parallel and

perpendicular lines, polygons, distance, angles, etc

O

3. Finding the distance between a pair of points on the coordinate plane

4. Determining the missing coordinates of the endpoints of a segment

5. Finding the coordinates of the midpoint of the segment whose endpoints

are given

C

6. Describing the figure formed by a set of points on a coordinate plane

7. Determining the missing coordinates corresponding to the vertices of

some polygons

D

8. Solutions to problems involving the distance and the midpoint formulas

9. Coordinate Proofs of some geometric properties

10. Sketch of a municipal, city, or provincial map on a coordinate plane with

E

11. Formulating and solving real-life problems involving the distance and the

EP

midpoint formula

12. Finding the radius of a circle drawn on a coordinate plane

13. Determining the center and the radius of a circle given the equation

14. Graphing a circle given the equation

15. Writing the equation of a circle given the center and the radius

D

16. Writing the equation of a circle from standard form to general form and

vice-versa

17. Determining the equation that describes a circle

18. Solutions to problems involving the equation of a circle

19. Formulating and solving real-life problems involving the equation of a

circle

199

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Assessment Map

PROCESS/

TYPE KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE

SKILLS

Pre- Pre-Test: Pre-Test: Pre-Test:

Assessment/ Part I Part I Part I and Part II

Diagnostic

Identifying the Determining the Solving problems

distance distance involving the

formula between a pair Distance Formula

of points including the

Illustrating the Midpoint Formula,

distance Determining the and the Equation

between two coordinate of a of a Circle

PY

points on the point given its

coordinate distance from

plane another point

midpoint coordinates of

O

formula the midpoint

and the

Illustrating the endpoints of a

midpoint of a

segment

segment

C

Describing the

Defining figure formed by

D

coordinate a set of points

proof

Determining the

Identifying an coordinates of

E

circle geometric figure

EP

Finding the

length of the

radius of a circle

given the

endpoints of a

D

diameter

Finding the

center of a circle

given the

equation

Finding the

equation of a

circle given the

endpoints of a

radius

200

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PROCESS/

TYPE KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE

SKILLS

Part III Part III Part III Part III

Situational Situational Situational Situational

Analysis Analysis Analysis Analysis

Determining Illustrating the Explaining how to Making a

the locations of prepare the ground ground plan for

mathematics objects or plan for the Boy the Boy Scouts

concepts or groups Scouts Jamboree

Jamboree

principles

involved in a Writing the Solving real-life

Formulating

prepared equations that problems

equations,

PY

ground plan describe the

situations or inequalities, and

problems problems

Solving

equations

O

Formative Quiz: Quiz: Quiz: Lesson 1

Lesson 1 Lesson 1

C

Identifying the Finding the Explaining how to

coordinates of distance find the distance

points to be between each between two

substituted in pair of points on points

the distance the coordinate

D

formula and in plane Explaining how to

the midpoint find the midpoint of

formula Finding the a segment

E

coordinates of

Identifying the the midpoint of Describing figures

figures formed a segment given formed by some

EP

of points

Plotting some Explaining how to

Identifying sets of points on find the missing

parts of some the coordinate coordinates of

geometric plane some geometric

D

their properties Naming the

missing Solving real-life

coordinates of problems involving

the vertices of the distance

some geometric formula and the

figures midpoint formula

Using coordinate

proof to justify

claims

201

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

PROCESS/

TYPE KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE

SKILLS

Writing a

coordinate proof to

prove geometric

properties

Lesson 2 Lesson 2

equations of center and the determine the

circles in radius of a circle center of a circle

center-radius

PY

form or Graphing a Explaining how to

standard form circle given the graph circles given

and in general equation written the equations

form in center-radius written in center-

form. radius form and

general form

O

Writing the

equation of a Explaining how to

circle given the write the equation

radius

C

center and the of a circle given

the center and the

radius

Writing the

equation of a Explaining how to

D

circle from write the equation

standard form to of a circle from

general form standard form to

E

vice-versa

EP

Solving problems

involving the

equation of a circle

Part I Part I Part I and Part II Part III A and B

D

distance distance involving the emergency

formula between a pair Distance Formula, measures to be

of points including the undertaken in

Illustrating the Midpoint Formula, times of natural

distance Determining the and the Equation calamities and

between two coordinate of a of a Circle disasters

points on the point given its particularly

coordinate distance from typhoons and

plane another point floods

202

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

PROCESS/

TYPE KNOWLEDGE UNDERSTANDING PERFORMANCE

SKILLS

midpoint coordinates of map of a

formula the midpoint municipality

and the

Illustrating the endpoints of a Formulating and

midpoint of a segment solving problems

segment Describing the involving the key

figure formed by concepts of

a set of points plane coordinate

Defining geometry

coordinate Determining the

proof coordinates of

PY

Identifying an the vertex of a

equation of a geometric figure

circle

Finding the

length of the

radius of a circle

O

given the

endpoints of a

diameter

C

Finding the

center of a circle

given the

equation

D

Finding the

equation of a

E

endpoints of a

radius

EP

Assessment Expressing understanding of the distance formula, midpoint formula,

coordinate proof, and the equation of a circle.

D

203

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

Assessment Matrix (Summative Test))

What will I assess? How Will I Score?

Assessment assess?

The learner Paper and

demonstrates Pencil Test

Knowledge understanding of key

15% concepts of plane Part I items 1, 3, 1 point for every

coordinate geometry. 4, 7, 8, and 13 correct response

Derive the distance

formula. Part I items 5, 6, 1 point for every

Process/Skills Apply the distance 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, correct response

25%

PY

formula to prove some 16, 18, and 19

geometric properties.

Illustrate the center- Part I items 2, 1 point for every

radius form of the 15, 17, and 20 correct response

equation of a circle.

O

Determine the center

and radius of a circle

given its equation and Part II items 1 Rubric on Problem

Understanding

vice versa.

C and 2 Solving (maximum of 4

Graph a circle and points for each

30%

other geometric problem)

figures on the

D

coordinate plane.

Solve problems

E

involving geometric

figures on the

coordinate plane.

EP

formulate and solve Prepared Emergency

problems involving Measures

geometric figures on the

rectangular coordinate Rubric for Grip Map of

D

Product/

and accuracy. (Total Score: maximum

Performance

of 6 points )

30%

Part III B Rubric on Problems

Formulated and Solved

(Total Score: maximum

of 6 points )

204

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

C. Planning for Teaching-Learning

divided into two lessons, namely: The Distance Formula and the Equation of

a Circle.

In Lesson 1 of this module, the students will derive the distance

formula and apply it in proving geometric relationships and in solving

problems, particularly finding the distance between objects or points. They

will also learn about the midpoint formula and its applications. Moreover, the

students will graph and describe geometric figures on the coordinate plane.

PY

The second lesson is about the equation of a circle. In this lesson, the

students will illustrate the center-radius form of the equation of a circle,

determine the center and the radius given its equation and vice-versa, and

show its graph on the coordinate plane (or by using the computer freeware,

GeoGebra). More importantly, the students will solve problems involving the

O

equation of a circle.

In learning the equation of a circle, the students will use their prior

C

knowledge and skills through the different activities provided. This is to

connect and relate those mathematics concepts and skills that students

previously studied to their new lesson. They will also perform varied learning

D

tasks to process the knowledge and skills learned and to further deepen and

transfer their understanding of the different lessons in real-life situations.

E

pictures below, then ask them the questions that follow:

EP

D

205

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Look around! What geometric figures do you see in your classroom,

school buildings, houses, bridges, roads, and other structures? Have you

ever asked yourself how geometric figures helped in planning the

construction of these structures?

stranger or a tourist asked you about the location of a place or a

landmark? Were you able to give the right direction and its distance? If

not, could you give the right information the next time somebody asks you

the same question?

PY

Entice the students to find the answers to these questions and to

determine the vast applications of plane coordinate geometry through this

module.

O

Objectives:

After the learners have gone through the lessons contained in this module,

they are expected to:

C

1. derive the distance formula;

D

2. find the distance between points;

E

EP

D

7. determine the center and radius of a circle given its equation and vice versa;

8. write the equation of a circle from standard form to general form and vice

versa;

9. graph a circle and other geometric figures on the coordinate plane; and

206

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

PRE-ASSESSMENT:

Assess students’ prior knowledge, skills, and understanding of mathematics

concepts related to the Distance Formula, the Midpoint Formula, the

Coordinate Proof, and the Equation of a Circle. These will facilitate teaching

and students’ understanding of the lessons in this module.

Answer Key

works/outputs)

PY

1. C 11. D 1. 100 km

2. C 12. A 2. x 42 y 92 9

3. B 13. A

4. B 14. B

5. B 15. C Part III (Use the rubric to rate students’

O

works/outputs)

6. D 16. C

7. B 17. C

8. D 18. B

C

9. A 19. D

10. C 20. B

D

E

plane coordinate geometry, formulate real-life problems involving these concepts,

EP

Lesson 1: The Distance Formula, the Midpoint Formula, and the Coordinate

Proof

D

What to KNOW

Check students’ knowledge of the different mathematics concepts

previously studied and their skills in performing mathematical operations. These

will facilitate teaching and students’ understanding of the distance formula and

the midpoint formula and in writing coordinate proofs. Tell them that as they go

through this lesson, they have to think of this important question: How do the

distance formula, the midpoint formula, and the coordinate proof facilitate finding

solutions to real-life problems and making decisions?

Let the students start the lesson by doing Activity 1. Ask them to use the

given number line in determining the lengths of segments. Let them explain how

207

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they used the coordinates of points in finding each length. Emphasize in this

activity the relationships among the segments based on their lengths, the

distance between the endpoints of segments whose coordinates on the number

line are known, and the significance of these to the lesson.

Answer Key

1. 4 units

2. 4 units

3. 6 units

4. 2 units

PY

5. 3 units

6. 1 unit

a. Counting the number of units from one point to the other point using

the number line or finding the absolute value of the difference of the

coordinates of the points

O

b. Yes. By counting the number of units from one point to the other

point using the number line or finding the absolute value of the

difference of the coordinates of the points

C

c. AB BC , AC CE , CD DG , AB EG . The two segments

have the same lengths.

d. d.1) AB + BC = AC; d.2) AC + CE = AE

D

e. Yes. The absolute values of the difference of their coordinates are

equal.

AD = 10 4 = 14

E

DA = 4 10 = 14

EP

BF = 6 9 = 15

FB = 9 6 = 15

triangle is a prerequisite to the derivation of the Distance Formula. In Activity 2,

D

to find the length of the unknown side of a right triangle. Tell them to explain how

they arrived at each length of a side.

Answer Key

1. 5 units

2. 12 units

3. 12 units

4. 2 13 units 7.21 units

208

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5. 4 5 units 8.94 units

6. 2 63 units 15.87 units

The length of the unknown side of each right triangle is obtained by

applying the Pythagorean theorem.

finding the distance between objects or points on the coordinate plane. This

would help them understand the derivation of the distance formula.

presented with a situation involving distances of objects or points on a coordinate

plane. If possible, let the students find out how the coordinates of points can be

PY

used in finding distances between objects.

O

Answer Key

1. 10 km. By applying the Pythagorean theorem. That is, 6 2 8 2 c 2 ; c = 10

km.

C

2. 3 km. distance from City Hall 0,4 to Plaza 3,4 = 0 3 = 3

9 km. distance from City Hall 0,4 to Emilio’s house 9,4 = 0 9 = 9

3. 9 km. distance from Jose’s house 0,0 to Gasoline Station 9,0 = 0 9 = 9

D

9,4 – Emilio’s house 3,4 – Plaza

E

EP

points corresponding to Emilio’s house and the City Hall and Jose’s house

and the Gasoline Station, respectively

D

=9

Answer: 9 km

= 9 km

Answer: 9 km

The distances of the houses of Jose, Emilio, and Diego from each other

can be determined by applying the Pythagorean Theorem.

Jose’s house 0,0 to Emilio’s house 9,4

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4 2 9 2 c 2 ; c = 97 km 9.85 km

Jose’s house 0,0 to Diego’s house 3,12

3 2 122 c 2 ; c = 153 km 12.37 km

Emilio’s house 9,4 to Diego’s house 3,12

6 2 8 2 c 2 ; c = 10 km

them to perform Activity 4. In this activity, the students should be able to come up

with the Distance Formula starting from two given points on the coordinate plane.

PY

Activity 4: Let Me Formulate!

Answer Key

y y

O

1. 2.

C

E D

x x

EP

y

3. C 8,1 . By determining the coordinates

of the point of intersection of the

two lines

AC = 6 units

D

BC = 8 units

the triangle contains a 90-degree

angle. Pythagorean Theorem can

be applied. x

AB = 10 units

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y

5. C x1,y 2

AC = x1 x 2 or x 2 x1

BC = y1 y 2 or y 2 y1

AB = x 2 x1 y 2 y1

2 2 2

PY

Before proceeding to the next activities, let the students give a brief

O

summary of the activities done. Provide them an opportunity to relate or connect

their responses in the activities given to their new lesson. Let the students read

and understand some important notes on the distance formula and the midpoint

C

formula and in writing coordinate proofs. Tell them to study carefully the

examples given.

What to PROCESS

D

In this section, let the students apply the key concepts of the Distance

Formula, Midpoint Formula, and Coordinate Proof. Tell them to use the

E

answer the activities provided.

EP

Ask the students to perform Activity 5. In this activity, the students will

determine the distance between two points on the coordinate plane using the

Distance Formula. They should be able to explain how to find the distance

between points that are aligned horizontally, vertically, or neither.

D

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Activity 5: How far are we from each other?

Answer Key

1. 8 units 6. 13 units

2. 15 units 7. 10.3 units

3. 11.4 units 8. 11.66 units

4. 13 units 9. 13.6 units

5. 6.4 units 10. 12.81 units

the distance d between these points can be determined using the

PY

Distance Formula, d x2 x12 y 2 y12 . Moreover, the

following formulas can also be used.

a.1) d = x 2 x1 , for the distance d between two points that are

O

aligned horizontally

aligned vertically

C

b. The Distance Formula can be used to find the distance between two

D

points on a coordinate plane.

E

Let the students apply the Midpoint Formula in finding the coordinates of

the midpoint of a segment whose endpoints are given by doing Activity 6. This

activity will enhance their skill in proving geometric relationships using coordinate

EP

D

Answer Key

1. 9,9 6. 8,9

2. 7,8 7. 5,4

15 15

3. 4,4 8. ,

2 2

4. 4,1 9. 8,7

3 5

5. , 10. 5,4

2 2

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Provide the students opportunity to relate the properties of some

geometric figures to the new lesson by performing Activity 7. Ask them to plot

some set of points on the coordinate plane. Then, connect the consecutive points

by a line segment to form a figure. Tell them to identify the figures formed and

use the distance formula to characterize or describe each. Emphasize to the

students the different properties of these geometric figures for they need this in

determining the missing coordinates of each figure’s vertices.

Answer Key

PY

1. 2.

y

y

O

C

x

x

E D

3. 4.

EP

y y

D

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5. 6.

y y

x

x

PY

7. 8.

y y

O

x

C x

E D

9. 10.

EP

y

y

D

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a. The figures formed in #1, #2, and #3 are triangles. Each figure has three

sides.

The figures formed in #4, #5, #6, #7, #8, and #9 are quadrilaterals. Each

figure has four sides.

The figure formed in #10 is a pentagon. It has five sides.

b. ΔABC and ΔFUN are isosceles triangles. ΔGOT and ΔFUN are right

triangles.

c. ΔABC and ΔFUN are isosceles because each has two sides congruent or

with equal lengths.

ΔGOT and ΔFUN are right triangles because each contains a right angle.

d. Quadrilaterals LIKE and LOVE are squares.

Quadrilaterals LIKE, DATE, LOVE and SONG are rectangles.

Quadrilaterals LIKE, DATE, LOVE, SONG, and BEAT are parallelograms.

PY

Quadrilateral WIND is a trapezoid.

e. Quadrilaterals LIKE and LOVE are squares because each has four sides

congruent and contains four right angles.

Quadrilaterals LIKE, DATE, LOVE, and SONG are rectangles because

each has two pairs of congruent and parallel sides and contains four right

O

angles.

Quadrilaterals LIKE, DATE, LOVE, SONG, and BEAT are parallelograms

because each has two pairs of congruent and parallel sides and has

opposite angles that are congruent.

C

Quadrilateral WIND is a trapezoid because it has a pair of parallel sides.

D

An important skill that students need in writing coordinate proof is to name

the missing coordinates of geometric figures drawn on a coordinate plane.

E

Activity 8 provides the students opportunity to develop such skill. In this activity,

the students will name the missing coordinates of the vertices of geometric

EP

D

Answer Key

1. O a b, c 5. A a,0

For questions a-d, evaluate

2. V a, b D a, d students’ responses.

3. V 3a,0 E b, c

M 3a, b 6. S 0,0

4. W b, c P a, b

215

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Ask the students to take a closer look at some aspects of the Distance

Formula, the Midpoint Formula, and the Coordinate Proof. Provide them with

opportunities to think deeply and test further their understanding of the lesson by

doing Activity 9. In this activity, the students will solve problems involving these

mathematics concepts and explain or justify their answers.

Answer Key

The values of x were obtained

1. y = 15 or y = -9; by using the distance formula

PY

2. a. x = 21 – if N is in the first quadrant and the coordinates of the

midpoint were determined by

x = -3 – if N is in the second quadrant using the midpoint formula.

5 Students may further give

b. 3, explanations to their answers

2

based on the solutions

3. 7,4

O

presented.

4. 99 km

5. Luisa and Grace are both correct. If the expressions are evaluated,

Luisa and Grace will arrive at the same value.

C

6. a. Possible answer: To become more accessible to students coming

from both buildings.

b. 90,70

D

c. The distance between the two buildings is about 357.8 m.

Since the study shed is midway between the two school buildings,

E

357.8 by 2.

7. a. 100 km b. 5 hours

EP

triangle. The distance between A and C is 2a while the distance

between A and B or B and C is a 2 .

9. a. Yes. FS c a2 b d 2 and AT a c 2 b d 2 .

D

2 2

b. Rectangle; The quadrilateral has two pairs of opposite sides that are

parallel and congruent and has four right angles.

them to perform Activity 10. Ask the students to write a coordinate proof to prove

the particular geometric relationship. Let them realize the significance of the

Distance Formula, the Midpoint Formula, and the different mathematics concepts

already studied in coming up with the coordinate proof.

216

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Activity 10: Prove that this is True!

Answer Key

1. Show that PR QS .

If PR QS , then PR QS .

PR b a2 c 02

b2 2ab a2 c 2

PR a2 2ab b2 c 2

PY

QS b a2 c 02

b a2 c 02

b2 2ab a2 c 2

O

QS a2 2ab b2 c 2 C

Therefore, PR QS and PR QS . Hence, the diagonals of an

isosceles trapezoid are congruent.

1

D

2. Show that MC LG .

2

2 2

E

a b

MC 0 0

2 2

EP

a2 b2

4 4

a2 b 2

MC

2

D

LG 0 a2 b 02

a2 b 2

1 a2 b 2

LG

2 2

1

Therefore, MC LG . Hence, the median to the hypotenuse of a right

2

triangle is half the hypotenuse.

217

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3. Show that PQ QR RS PS .

2 2

b a c

PQ 0 c

2 2

2 2

b a c

2 2

b 2 2ab a2 c 2

PQ

2

PY

2 2 2 2

ba c b a c

QR 0 0 RS 0 0

2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2

O

b a c b a c

2 2 2 2

b2 2ab a2 c 2 b 2 2ab a2 c 2

QR

C RS

2 2

2 2

D

b a c

PS 0 c

2 2

E

2 2

b a c

2 2

EP

b2 2ab a2 c 2

PS

2

D

218

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4. Show that BT CS .

If BT CS , then BT CS .

2 2

a b

BT a 0

2 2

2 2

a b

a 0

2 2

2 2

3a b

2 2

PY

9a2 b 2

BT

2

O

2 2 Therefore, BT CS and BT CS .

a b

CS a 0 Hence, the medians to the legs of an

2 2

C isosceles triangle are congruent.

2 2

3a b

2 2

D

9a2 b 2

CS

2

E

EP

AC BD

b a2 c 02 a b 02 c 02

D

b2 2ab a2 c 2 a2 2ab b2 c 2

b2 2ab a2 c 2 a2 2ab b2 c 2

2ab 2ab

4ab 0

Since a > 0, then b = 0. And that A is along the y – axis. Also, B is along the

line parallel to the y-axis. Therefore, ADC is a right angle and ABCD is a

rectangle.

219

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1

6. Show that CG LE

2

LE b 02 c 02

LE b2 c 2

2 2

ab a c

CG 0

2 2 2

2 2

b c

2 2

PY

b2 c 2

CG

2

1

Therefore, CG LE .

O

2

Before the students move to the next section of this lesson, give a short

C

test (formative test) to find out how well they understood the lesson. Ask them

also to write a journal about their understanding of the distance formula, midpoint

formula, and the coordinate proof. Refer to the Assessment Map.

D

What to TRANSFER

E

Distance Formula, the Midpoint Formula, and the use of Coordinate Proofs by

EP

doing a practical task. Let them perform Activity 11. You can ask the students to

work individually or in group. In this activity, the students will make a sketch of

the map of their municipality, city, or province on a coordinate plane. They will

indicate on the map some important landmarks, and then determine the

coordinates of each. Tell them to explain why the landmarks they have indicated

D

are significant in their community and to write a paragraph explaining how they

selected the coordinates of these landmarks. Using the coordinates assigned to

the different landmarks, the students will formulate then solve problems involving

the distance formula and the midpoint formula. They will also formulate problems

which require the use of coordinate proofs.

Answer Key

Evaluate students’ answers. You may use the rubric.

220

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Summary/Synthesis/Generalization:

This lesson was about the distance formula, the midpoint formula, the use

of coordinate proofs, and the applications of these mathematical concepts in real

life. The lesson provided the students with opportunities to derive the distance

formula, find the distance between points, determine the coordinates of the

midpoint of a segment, name the missing coordinates of the vertices of some

geometric figures, write a coordinate proof to prove some geometric relationships,

and solve problems involving the different concepts learned in this lesson. Moreover,

the students were given the opportunities to formulate then solve problems

involving the distance formula, the midpoint formula, and the coordinate proof.

PY

Lesson 2: The Equation of a Circle

What to KNOW

Find out how much the students have learned about the different

O

mathematics concepts previously studied and their skills in performing

mathematical operations. Checking these will facilitate teaching and students’

understanding of the equation of a circle. Tell them that as they go through this

C

lesson, they have to think of this important question: “How does the equation of a

circle facilitate finding solutions to real-life problems and making decisions?”

D

understanding the equation of a circle are the perfect square trinomial and the

square of a binomial. Activity 1 of this lesson will provide them opportunity to

recall these concepts. In this activity, the students will determine the number that

E

then express the result as a square of a binomial. They should be able to explain

EP

how they came up with the perfect square trinomial and the square of a binomial.

Emphasize to the students that the process they have done in producing a

perfect square trinomial is also referred to as completing the square.

D

Answer Key

1. 4; x 22 a. Add the square of one-half the

25; t 5

2

2. coefficient of the linear term.

b. Factor the perfect square trinomial.

49; r 7

2

3. c. Use the distributive property of

4. 121; r 112 multiplication or FOIL Method.

324; x 18

2

5.

221

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Answer Key

2 2

81 9 1 1

6. ; w 9. ; s

4 2 36 6

2 2

121 11 9 3

7. ; x 10. ; t

4 2 64 8

2

625 25

8. ; v

4 2

PY

equation of a circle. Ask them to perform Activity 2. In this activity, the students

will be presented with a situation involving the equation of a circle. Let them find

the distance of the plane from the air traffic controller given the coordinates of the

point where it is located and the y-coordinate of the position of the plane at a

particular instance if its x-coordinate is given. Furthermore, ask them to describe

O

the path of the plane as it goes around the airport. Challenge them to determine

the equation that would define the path of the plane. Let them realize that the

distance formula is related to the equation defining the plane’s path around the

airport.

C

Activity 2: Is there a traffic in the air?

D

Answer Key

E

1. 50 km

2. When x = 5, y = 49.75 or y = -49.75.

EP

When x = 15, y = 47.7 or y = -47.4

When x = 15, y = 47.7 or y = -47.4

When x = -20, y = 45.83 or y = -45.83.

When x = -30, y = 40 or y = -40.

Answers Key

D

is 60 because its distance from the air traffic controller would be

greater than 50 km.

4. The path is circular. x 2 y 2 2500

used in finding the radius of a circle. Ask them to perform Activity 3. In this

activity, the students should be able to realize that the Distance Formula can be

used in finding the radius of a circle. And that the distance of a point from the

center of a circle is also the radius of the circle.

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Activity 3: How far am I from my point of rotation?

A.

Answer Key

y

1. 8 units

2. Yes, the circle will pass through

0,8 , 8,0 , and 0,8 because

the distance from these points to

the center of the circle is 8 units.

x

3. No, because the distance from point

M 4,6 to the center of the circle

PY

is less than 8 units.

No, because the distance from point

N 9,2 to the center of the circle is

more than 8 units.

O

4. 8 units; 8 0 = 8

5. If a point is on the circle, its distance from the center is equal to the

radius.

C

6. Since the distance d of a point from the center of the circle is

d x 2 y 2 and is equal to the radius r, then r x 2 y 2 or

D

x2 y 2 r 2 .

E

EP

D

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B.

Answer Key

y

1. 61 units or approximately 7.81 units

2,7 , 8,7 , and 3,4 because

the distance from each of these points x

to the center of the circle is 61 units

or approximately 7.81 units.

PY

3. No, because the distance from point

M 7,6 to the center of the circle is

more than 7.81 units.

O

4. 61 units or approximately 7.81 units.

Note: Evaluate students’ explanations.

C

5. If the center of the circle is not at the origin, its radius can be

determined by using the distance formula,

d x2 x12 y 2 y12 . Since the distance of the point from

D

the center of the circle is equal to the radius r, then

E

P x , y is a point on the circle and C h ,k is the center, then

EP

Before proceeding to the next activities, let the students give a brief

summary of the activities they have done. Provide them with an opportunity to

D

relate or connect their responses in the activities given to their new lesson,

equation of a circle. Let the students read and understand some important notes

on equation of a circle. Tell them to study carefully the examples given.

What to PROCESS

Let the students use the mathematical ideas they have learned about the

equation of a circle and the examples presented in the preceding section to

perform the succeeding activities.

224

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In Activity 4, the students will determine the center and the radius of each

circle, given its equation. Then, the students will be asked to graph the circle. Ask

them to explain how they determined the center and the radius of the circle.

Furthermore, tell them to explain how to graph a circle given its equation in

different forms. Strengthen students’ understanding of the graphs of circles

through the use of available mathematics freeware like Geogebra.

Answer Key

PY

Radius: 7 units Radius: 10 units

y y

O

C x x

E D

EP

Radius: 9 units Radius: 7 units

y y

D

225

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Answer Key

5. Center: 4,3 6. Center: 5,8

Radius: 8 units Radius: 11 units

y y

PY

a. Note: Evaluate students’ responses.

b. Determine first the center and the radius of the circle defined by the

O

equation, then graph.

If the given equation is in the form x 2 y 2 r 2 , the center is at the

origin and the radius of the circle is r.

C

If the given equation is in the form x h y k r 2 , the center is

2 2

If the given equation is in the form x 2 y 2 Dx Ey F 0 ,

D

2 2

transform it into the

E

EP

Ask the students to perform Activity 5. This time, the students will write the

equation of a circle given the center and the radius. Ask them to explain how to

determine the equation of a circle whether or not the center is the origin.

D

Answer Key

a. Write the equation in the

2 2 2 2 2

1. x y 144 form x y r where the origin is the

2. x 22 y 62 81 center and r is the radius of the circle.

Write the equation in the

3. x 72 y 22 225 form x h y k r where h, k is

2 2 2

b. No, because the two circles have different

5. x 102 y 82 27 radii.

226

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Activities 6 and 7 provide students opportunities to write equations of

circles from center-radius form or standard form to general form and vice-versa.

At this point, ask them to explain how to transform the equation of a circle from

one form to another form and discuss the mathematics concepts or principles

applied. Furthermore, challenge them to find a shorter way of transforming

equation of a circle from general form to standard form and vice-versa.

Answer Key

1. x 2 y 2 4x 8y 16 0 6. x 2 y 2 14x 15 0

PY

2. x 2 y 2 8 x 18y 47 0 7. x 2 y 2 4y 45 0

3. x 2 y 2 12x 2y 44 0 8. x 2 y 2 4 x 96 0

4. x 2 y 2 16x 14y 112 0 9. x 2 y 2 10x 10y 23 0

O

5. x 2 y 2 10y 11 0 10. x 2 y 2 8 x 8y 0

Note: Evaluate students’ explanations. C

Activity 7: Don’t Treat this as a Demotion!

Answer Key

D

1. x 12 y 42 64 4. x 2 y 4 100

2

E

2 2

EP

2 1

2. x 22 y 22 36 5. x y 4

3 3

2 1

Center: 2,2 Center: ,

3 3

Radius: 6 units Radius: 2 units

D

2 2

5 3

3. x 5 2

y 2 32

2

6. x y 9

2 2

5 3

Center: 5,2 Center: ,

2 2

Radius: 4 2 units Radius: 3 units

property of equality and factoring.

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b. Completing the square, Addition Property of Equality, Square of a

Binomial

c. Using the values of D, E, and F in the general equation of a circle,

x 2 y 2 Dx Ey F 0 , to find the center (h,k) and radius r. The

GeoGebra freeware can also be used for verification.

Ask the students to have a closer look at some aspects of the equation of

a circle. Provide them with opportunities to think deeply and test further their

understanding of the equation of a circle by doing Activities 8 and 9. Give more

focus on the real-life applications of the equation of a circle.

PY

Activity 8: A Circle? Why not?

Answer Key

O

1. No. x 2 y 2 2x 8y 26 0 can be written as x 12 y 42 9 .

Notice that -9 cannot be expressed as a square of another number.

C

2. Yes. x 2 y 2 9 4x 10y can be written as x 22 y 52 20 .

3. No. x 2 y 2 6x 8y 32 is not an equation of a circle. Its graph is not

also a circle.

D

4. No. x 2 y 2 8x 14y 65 0 is merely a point. The radius must be

greater than 0 for a circle to exist.

E

EP

Answer Key

1. x 32 y 82 81

D

3. 3x 5y 7

4. x 52 y 52 13

a. x 3 y 4 100

2 2

5.

b. Yes, because point 11,6 is still within the critical area.

c. Follow the advice of PDRRMC.

d. (Evaluate students’ responses/explanations.)

228

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Answer Key

6. a. Wise Tower - x 5 y 3 81

2 2

Global Tower - x 3 y 6 16

2 2

2 2

6,7 - Wise Tower

2,8 - Global Tower

1,3 - Wise and Global Tower

c. Many possible answers. Evaluate students’ responses.

PY

Before the students move to the next section of this lesson, give a short

test (formative test) to find out how well they understood the lesson. Ask them

also to write a journal about their understanding of the equation of a circle. Refer

O

to the Assessment Map.

What to TRANSFER

C

Give the students opportunities to demonstrate their understanding of the

equation of a circle by doing a practical task. Let them perform Activity 10. You

D

can ask the students to work individually or in a group.

In Activity 10, the students will paste some small pictures of objects on

E

grid paper and position them at different coordinates. Then, the students will

draw circles that contain these pictures. Using the pictures and the circles drawn

EP

on the grid, they will formulate problems involving the equation of the circle, and

then solve them.

D

Answer Key

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Summary/Synthesis/Generalization:

This lesson was about the equation of circles. The lesson provided the

students with opportunities to illustrate the center-radius form of the equation of a

circle, determine the center and the radius of a circle given its equation and vice

versa, write the equation of a circle from standard form to general form and vice-

versa, graph circles on the coordinate plane, and solve problems involving the

equation of circles. Moreover, they were given the opportunity to formulate and

solve real-life problems involving the equation of a circle through the practical task

performed. Their understanding of this lesson and other previously learned

mathematics concepts and principles will facilitate their learning of other related

mathematics concepts.

PY

O

C

E D

EP

D

230

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SUMMATIVE TEST

Part I

Choose the letter that you think best answers the question.

1. Which of the following is NOT a formula for finding the distance between two

points on the coordinate plane?

A. d x2 x1 C. d x2 x12 y 2 y12

B. d y 2 y1 D. d x2 x12 y 2 y12

PY

2. A map is drawn on a grid where 1 unit is equivalent to 2 km. On the same

map, the coordinates of the point corresponding to San Rafael is (1,4).

Suppose San Quintin is 20 km away from San Rafael. Which of the following

could be the coordinates of the point corresponding to San Rafael?

O

A. (17,16) B. (17,10) C. (9,10) D. (-15,16)

3. Let M and N be points on the coordinate plane as shown in the figure below.

C y

E D

x

EP

If the coordinates of M and N are 5,7 and 5,4 , which of the following

would give the distance between the two points?

D

A. 7 4 B. 7 5 C. 4 7 D. 4 5

A. ST QS QT C. ST 2 QS QT

B. ST QS QT D. ST 2 QS QT

5. The distance between points M x ,5 and C 5,1 is 10 units. What is the x-

coordinate of M if it lies in the second quadrant?

A. -7 B. -3 C. -1 D. 13

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6. What is the distance between points D(-10,2) and E(6,10)?

A. 16 B. 20 C. 10 2 D. 8 5

with a center at 2,3 and a radius of 5 units?

A. x 22 y 32 252 C. x 32 y 22 252

B. x 22 y 32 52 D. x 22 y 32 52

8. Which of the following would give the coordinates of the midpoint of P(-6,13)

and Q(9,6)?

6 13 9 6 6 13 9 6

PY

A. , C. ,

2 2 2 2

6 9 13 6 6 9 13 6

B. , D. ,

2 2 2 2

O

9. The endpoints of a segment are (-5,2) and (9,12), respectively. What are the

coordinates of its midpoint?

A. (7,5) B. (2,7) C. (-7,5)

C D. (7,2)

N 10,3, and D 2,3 . What is the length of a diagonal of the rectangle?

D

A. 7.5 B. 9 C. 12 D. 15

11. The coordinates of the vertices of a triangle are G 4,2 , O5,1 , and

E

T 10,8 . What is the length of the segment joining the midpoint of GT and

EP

O?

A. 2 10 B. 58 C. 3 10 D. 106

12. The endpoints of a diameter of a circle are E 6,8 and G4,2 . What is the

length of the radius of the circle?

D

A. 10 2 B. 5 2 C. 2 10 D. 10

13. What proof uses figures on a coordinate plane to prove geometric properties?

A. Indirect Proof C. Coordinate Proof

B. Direct Proof D. Two-Column Proof

14. What figure is formed when the points K(-2,10), L(8,8), M(6,2), and N(-4,4)

are connected consecutively?

A. Trapezoid B. Parallelogram C. Square D. Rectangle

232

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15. Three speed cameras were installed at different points along an expressway.

On a map drawn on a coordinate plane, the coordinates of the first speed

camera are (-2,4). Suppose the second camera is exactly between the other

two and its coordinates are (12,8). What are the coordinates of the third speed

camera?

A. (26,12) B. (26,16) C. (22,12) D. (22,16)

A. 0,2a

B. 2a,0

C. 0,a 3

D. 0,a 2

PY

O

C

17. Jose, Andres, Emilio, and Juan live in different barangays of Magiting town as

shown on the coordinate plane below.

D

Andres

E

Jose

EP

Town Hall

D

Juan

Emilio

Who lives the farthest from the Town Hall if it is located at the origin?

A. Jose B. Andres C. Emilio D. Juan

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18. What is the center of the circle x 2 y 2 4x 6y 36 0 ?

A. (9,-3) B. (3,-2) C. (2,-3) D. (2,-10)

19. A radius of a circle has endpoints 4,3 and 1 , 2 . What is the equation

that defines the circle if its center is at the second quadrant?

A. x 1 y 2 50 x 42 y 32 50

2 2

C.

B. x 1 y 2 50 x 42 y 32 50

2 2

D.

20. A radio signal can transmit messages up to a distance of 5 km. If the radio

signal’s origin is located at a point whose coordinates are (-2,7). What is the

equation of the circle that defines the boundary up to which the messages

PY

can be transmitted?

A. x 2 y 7 25 x 22 y 72 25

2 2

C.

B. x 2 y 7 5 x 22 y 72 5

2 2

D.

Part II

O

C

Directions: Solve each of the following problems. Show your complete solutions.

1. A tracking device that is installed in a mobile phone indicates that its user is

D

located at a point whose coordinates are (18,14). In the tracking device, each

unit on the grid is equivalent to 7 km. If the phone user came from a place

whose coordinates are (2,6)? How far has he travelled?

E

tower is x 2 y 2 10x 2y 199 0 . What is the greatest distance, in

EP

D

4 3 2 1

Used an Used an Used an Attempted to solve

appropriate appropriate appropriate the problem but

strategy to come strategy to come strategy but came used an

up with correct up with a solution, up with an entirely inappropriate

solution and but a part of the wrong solution strategy that led to

arrived at a solution led to an that led to an a wrong solution

correct answer incorrect answer incorrect answer

234

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Part III A: GRASPS Assessment

natural calamities and disasters particularly typhoons and floods

Management Committee

PY

Situation: Typhoons and floods frequently affect your municipality during

rainy seasons. For the past years, losses of lives and damages to

properties have occurred. Because of this, your municipal mayor

designated you to chair the Radio Group of the Municipal Disaster

and Risk Management Committee to warn the residents of your

O

municipality of any imminent natural calamities and disasters like

typhoons and floods. The municipal government gave your group a

number of two-way radios and antennas to be installed in strategic

C

places in the municipality. These shall be used as the need arises.

emergency measures that you will undertake to reduce if not to

D

avoid losses of lives and damages to properties during rainy

seasons. These include the positioning of the different two-way

radios and antennas for communication and coordination among

E

the members of the Radio Group. You were also asked to prepare

a grid map of your municipality showing the positions of the two-

EP

calamities and disasters

D

The grid map of the municipality must be accurate, presentable,

and appropriate.

235

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Rubric for the Prepared Emergency Measures

4 3 2 1

The emergency The emergency The emergency The emergency

measures are measures are measures are measures are not

clearly presented, clearly presented clearly presented clearly presented,

relevant to the and relevant to but not relevant to not relevant to the

situation, and the situation but the situation and situation, and not

systematic. not systematic. not systematic. systematic.

PY

4 3 2 1

The grid map is The grid map is The grid map is The grid map is

accurately made, accurately made not accurately not accurately

appropriate, and and appropriate made but made and not

O

presentable. but not appropriate. appropriate.

presentable. C

Part III B

Use the prepared grid map of the municipality in Part III A in formulating

D

problems involving plane coordinate geometry, then solve.

E

Score Descriptors

EP

6 possible solutions and communicates ideas unmistakably,

shows in-depth comprehension of the pertinent concepts

and/or processes, and provides explanations wherever

appropriate.

D

5 parts of the solution and communicates ideas unmistakably,

shows in-depth comprehension of the pertinent concepts

and/or processes.

Poses a complex problem and finishes all significant parts of

4 the solution and communicates ideas unmistakably, shows in-

depth comprehension of the pertinent concepts and/or

processes.

Poses a complex problem and finishes most significant parts

3 of the solution and communicates ideas unmistakably, shows

comprehension of major concepts although neglects or

236

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

Score Descriptors

misinterprets less significant ideas or details.

Poses a problem and finishes some significant parts of the

2 solution and communicates ideas unmistakably but shows

gaps on theoretical comprehension.

Poses a problem but demonstrates minor comprehension, not

1

being able to develop an approach.

Source: D.O. #73, s. 2012

Answer Key

1. C 11. A 1. 56 5 km

PY

2. C 12. B 2. 15 km

3. C 13. C

4. A 14. B

5. B 15. A Part III A (Use the rubric to rate students’ works/outputs)

6. D 16. C Part III B (Use the rubric to rate students’ works/outputs)

O

7. D 17. C

8. B 18. C

9. B 19. C

]10. D 20. C

C

D

Glossary of Terms

E

geometric relationships.

EP

Distance Formula – an equation that can be used to find the distance between

any pair of points on the coordinate plane. The distance formula is

d x2 x12 y2 y12 or PQ x2 x12 y2 y12 , if P x1, y1 and

Qx2 , y 2 are points on a coordinate plane.

D

Horizontal Distance (between two points) – the absolute value of the difference

of the x-coordinates of two points

Midpoint – a point on a line segment that divides the same segment into two

equal parts.

Midpoint Formula – a formula that can be used to find the coordinates of the

midpoint of a line segment on the coordinate plane. The midpoint of P x1, y1

x x2 y1 y 2

and Qx2 , y 2 is 1 , .

2 2

237

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The General Equation of a Circle – the equation of a circle obtained by

expanding x h 2 y k 2 r 2 . The general equation of a circle is

x 2 y 2 Dx Ey F 0 , where D, E, and F are real numbers.

The Standard Equation of a Circle – the equation that defines a circle with

x h y k

2 2

center at (h, k) and a radius of r units. It is given by r 2.

Vertical Distance (between two points) – the absolute value of the difference of

the y-coordinates of two points.

PY

DepEd INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS THAT CAN BE USED AS ADDITIONAL

RESOURCES:

O

Year Mathematics. Plane Coordinate Geometry. Module 20: Distance and

Midpoint Formulae C

2. Basic Education Assistance for Mindanao (BEAM) Learning Guide, Third

Year Mathematics. Plane Coordinate Geometry. Module 22: Equation of a

Circle

D

3. Distance Learning Module (DLM) 3, Module 3: Plane Coordinate Geometry.

E

EP

References:

Bass, L. E., Charles, R. I., Hall, B., Johnson, A., & Kennedy, D. (2008) Texas

Geometry. Boston, Massachusetts: Pearson Prentice Hall.

D

Bass, L. E., Hall, B.R., Johnson, A., & Wood, D. F. (1998) Prentice Hall

Geometry Tools for a Changing World. NJ, USA: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Boyd, C., Malloy, C. & Flores. (2008) Glencoe McGraw-Hill Geometry. USA: The

McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Scholastic Publishing, Inc.

238

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

Chapin, I., Landau, M. & McCracken. (1997) Prentice Hall Middle Grades Math,

Tools for Success. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike.

Clemens, S. R., O’Daffer, P. G., Cooney, T. J., & Dossey, J. A. (1990) Addison-

Wesley Geometry. USA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.

Clements, D. H., Jones, K. W., Moseley, L.G., & Schulman, L. (1999) Math in my

World. New York: McGraw-Hill Division.

PY

Philippines.

Publications, Inc.

O

Renfro, F. L. (1992) Addison-Wesley Geometry Teacher’s Edition. USA:

Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc.

C

Rich, B. & Thomas, C. (2009) Schaum’s Outlines Geometry Fourth Edition. USA:

The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Smith, S. A., Nelson, C.W., Koss, R. K., Keedy, M. L., & Bittinger, M. L. (1992)

D

Addison-Wesley Informal Geometry. USA: Addison-Wesley Publishing

Company, Inc.

E

Westerville, Ohio: Glencoe Division of Macmillan/McGraw-Hill Publishing

EP

Company.

D

239

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Website Links as References and Sources of Learning Activities:

http://www.cliffsnotes.com/math/geometry/coordinate-geometry/midpoint-formula

http://www.cliffsnotes.com/math/geometry/coordinate-geometry/distance-formula

Retrieved from http://www.mathopenref.com/ coordbasiccircle.html

PY

(2009). Retrieved from http://www.mathopenref.com/coordgeneralcircle.html

http://www.math-worksheet.org/using-equations-of-circles

O

Math-worksheet.org. Writing equations of circles. (2014). Retrieved from

http://www.math-worksheet.org/writing-equations-of-circles

C

Roberts, Donna. Oswego City School District Regents exam Prep Center.

Geometry Lesson Page. Midpoint of a Line Segment. (2012). Retrieved from

http://www.regentsprep.org/Regents/ math/geometry/GCG2/ Lmidpoint.htm

D

Roberts, Donna. Oswego City School District Regents exam Prep Center.

Geometry Lesson Page. Midpoint of a Line Segment. (2012). Retrieved from

http://www.regentsprep.org/Regents/math/geometry/GCG3/ Ldistance.htm

E

EP

Khan Academy. Equation for a circle using the Pythagorean Theorem. Retrieved

D

circles/equation-of-a-circle/v/equation-for-a-circle-using-the-pythagorean-theorem

circle. Retrieved from https://www.khanacademy.org/math/ geometry/cc-

geometry-circles/equation-of-a-circle/v/completing-the-square-to-write-equation-

in-standard-form-of-a-circle

Khan Academy. Equation for a circle using the Pythagorean Theorem. Retrieved

from https://www.khanacademy.org/math/geometry/ cc-geometry-

circles/equation-of-a-circle/v/equation-for-a-circle-using-the-pythagorean-theorem

240

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electronic or mechanical including photocopying – without written permission from the DepEd Central Office. First Edition, 2015.

Khan Academy. Equation for a circle using the Pythagorean Theorem. Retrieved

from https://www.khanacademy.org/math/geometry/ cc-geometry-

circles/equation-of-a-circle/v/equation-for-a-circle-using-the-pythagorean-theorem

formula and Length of Line Segment. Retrieved from

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qTliFzj4wuc

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QPIWrQyeuYw

PY

Website Links for Images:

http://www.asiatravel.com/philippines/pangasinan/pangasinanmap.jpg

O

DownTheRoad.org. Pictures of, Chengdu to Kangding, China Photo, Images,

Picture from. (2005). Retrieved from http://www.downtheroad.org/Asia/Photo/

9Sichuan_China_Image/3Chengdu_Kangding_China.htm

C

funcheap.com. globe-map-wallpapers_5921_1600[1]. Retrieved from

http://sf.funcheap.com/hostelling-internationals-world-travel-101-santa-

clara/globe-map-wallpapers_5921_16001/

D

Hugh Odom Vertical Consultants. eleven40 theme on Genesis Framework·

WordPress. Cell Tower Development – How Are Cell Tower Locations Selected?

E

tower-locations-selected/

EP

http://www.liveviewgps.com/gps+tracking+device+pt-10+series.html

Sloan, Chris. Current "1991" Air Traffic Control Tower at Amsterdam Schiphol

Airport – 2012. (2012). Retrieved from http://airchive.com/html/airplanes-and-

D

airports/amsterdam-schipol-airport-the-netherlands-/current-1991-air-traffic-

control-tower-at-amsterdam-schiphol-airport-2012-/25510

http://wordfromthewell.com/2012/11/14/your-mind-is-like-an-airplane/

241

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