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Engineering, term applied to the profession in which a knowledge of the mathematical and the materials and forces of nature. The term engineer properly denotes a person who has natural sciences, gained by study, experience, and practice, is applied to the efficient use of received professional training in pure and applied science, but is often loosely used to describe
the operator of an engine, as in the terms locomotive engineer, marine engineer, or stationary
engineer. In modern terminology these latter occupations are known as crafts or trades.
individuals known as subprofessionals or paraprofessionals, who apply scientific and inspectors, draftsmen, and the like.
Between the professional engineer and the craftsperson or tradesperson, however, are those engineering skills to technical problems; typical of these are engineering aides, technicians,
Before the middle of the 18th century, large-scale construction work was usually placed in the hands of military engineers. Military engineering involved such work as the preparation of topographical maps, the location, design, and construction of roads and bridges; and the
building of forts and docks; see Military Engineering below. In the 18th century, however, the term civil engineering came into use to describe engineering work that was performed by civilians for nonmilitary purposes. With the increasing use of machinery in the 19th century, engineering was similarly recognized.
mechanical engineering was recognized as a separate branch of engineering, and later mining
The technical advances of the 19th century greatly broadened the field of engineering and socioeconomic environment in the 20th century have widened the scope even further.
introduced a large number of engineering specialties, and the rapidly changing demands of the
FIELDS OF ENGINEERING
The main branches of engineering are discussed below in alphabetical order. The engineer who works in any of these fields usually requires a basic knowledge of the other engineering fields, because most engineering problems are complex and interrelated. Thus a chemical engineer designing a plant for the electrolytic refining of metal ores must deal with the design of structures, machinery, and electrical devices, as well as with purely chemical problems. Besides the principal branches discussed below, engineering includes many more specialties than can be described here, such as acoustical engineering (see Acoustics), architectural transportation engineering, and textile engineering. engineering (see Architecture: Construction), automotive engineering, ceramic engineering,
Aeronautical and Aerospace Engineering
Aeronautics deals with the whole field of design, manufacture, maintenance, testing, and use of aircraft for both civilian and military purposes. It involves the knowledge of aerodynamics, structural design, propulsion engines, navigation, communication, and other related areas.
See Airplane; Aviation.
Aerospace engineering is closely allied to aeronautics, but is concerned with the flight of
vehicles in space, beyond the earth's atmosphere, and includes the study and development of rocket engines, artificial satellites, and spacecraft for the exploration of outer space. See Space Exploration.
This branch of engineering is concerned with the design, construction, and management of factories in which the essential processes consist of chemical reactions. Because of the diversity of the materials dealt with, the practice, for more than 50 years, has been to analyze chemical engineering problems in terms of fundamental unit operations or unit processes such as the grinding or pulverizing of solids. It is the task of the chemical engineer to select and appropriate equipment for the new applications. specify the design that will best meet the particular requirements of production and the most
With the advance of technology, the number of unit operations increases, but of continuing
importance are distillation, crystallization, dissolution, filtration, and extraction. In each unit operation, engineers are concerned with four fundamentals: (1) the conservation of matter; (2) the conservation of energy; (3) the principles of chemical equilibrium; (4) the principles of chemical reactivity. In addition, chemical engineers must organize the unit operations in their continuous, or assembly-line, operation is more economical than a batch process, and is frequently amenable to automatic control, chemical engineers were among the first to incorporate automatic controls into their designs. correct sequence, and they must consider the economic cost of the overall process. Because a
Civil engineering is perhaps the broadest of the engineering fields, for it deals with the
creation, improvement, and protection of the communal environment, providing facilities for living, industry and transportation, including large buildings, roads, bridges, canals, railroad lines, airports, water-supply systems, dams, irrigation, harbors, docks, aqueducts, tunnels,
and other engineered constructions. The civil engineer must have a thorough knowledge of all types of surveying, of the properties and mechanics of construction materials, the mechanics of structures and soils, and of hydraulics and fluid mechanics. Among the important subdivisions of the field are construction engineering, irrigation engineering, transportation and coastal and ocean engineering.
engineering, soils and foundation engineering, geodetic engineering, hydraulic engineering,
Electrical and Electronics Engineering
The largest and most diverse field of engineering, it is concerned with the development and design, application, and manufacture of systems and devices that use electric power and signals. Among the most important subjects in the field in the late 1980s are electric power
and machinery, electronic circuits, control systems, computer design, superconductors, solidfiber optics.
state electronics, medical imaging systems, robotics, lasers, radar, consumer electronics, and
Despite its diversity, electrical engineering can be divided into four main branches: electric power and machinery, electronics, communications and control, and computers.
Electric Power and Machinery
The field of electric power is concerned with the design and operation of systems for
generating, transmitting, and distributing electric power. Engineers in this field have brought about several important developments since the late 1970s. One of these is the ability to transmit power at extremely high voltages in both the direct current (DC) and alternating
current (AC) modes, reducing power losses proportionately. Another is the real-time control of power generation, transmission, and distribution, using computers to analyze the data fed system while it is in operation. back from the power system to a central station and thereby optimizing the efficiency of the
A significant advance in the engineering of electric machinery has been the introduction of
electronic controls that enable AC motors to run at variable speeds by adjusting the frequency
See also Electronics. task of manufacturing these chips uses the most advanced technology. See also Electric Motors and Generators. adding binary numbers. to the exotic. as in television. Information is now generated. passenger-actuated. complex variables. and for correcting errors in digital information. including computers. such as design branches of advanced mathematics. package. circuits consisted of separate electronic devices—resistors. integration. faster switching of components. micro-manipulators. history. differential equations. systems are used extensively in aircraft and ships. from fundamental questions such as “What is information?” to the highly practical. Probability. and demodulating radio signals to recover the information Prior to the 1960s.of the current fed into them. in automated manufacturing. linear systems theory. D2 Electronics Electronic engineering deals with the research. in military fire-control systems. and there is every indication that the explosive rate of growth in this field will continue Electronic engineers design circuits to perform specific tasks. Matrix Theory and Linear Algebra. of telephone systems. Since then. The complex electron-beam lithography. Circuits are also used to generate waveforms useful for synchronization and timing. ion-beam implantation. as those that run an elevator. there has been a revolutionary trend toward integrating electronic inductors. design. signals. received. linear algebra. In designing communication systems. and application of circuits and devices used in the transmission and processing of information. See also Mathematics. and in robotics. Much of the research in electronics is directed toward creating even smaller D3 Communications and Control Engineers in this field are concerned with all aspects of electrical communications. Control transmission and distribution. and ultraclean chips. environments. such as amplifying electronic they carry. as systems for keeping spacecraft on course. as in telecommunications. such as Fourier analysis. and vacuum tubes—assembled on a chassis and connected by wires to form a bulky devices on a single tiny chip of silicon or some other semiconductive material. and stored electronically on a scale unprecedented in unabated. Electric Power Systems. and probability theory. transmitted. in power Engineers have been working to bring about two revolutionary changes in the field of communications and control: Digital systems are replacing analog ones at the same time that . engineers rely heavily on various Engineers work on control systems ranging from the everyday. DC motors have also been made to run more efficiently this way. and three-dimensional integrated circuits. capacitors.
mineralogy. Using VLSI. It is particularly important from the viewpoint of costs and economics of machinery. operation. development of higher level machine languages or other means. and are extremely light and inexpensive to manufacture. Fiber optics are likewise immune to interference. of central processing units. is generally regarded as One current trend in computer engineering is microminiaturization. and raw materials in industrial production. paleontology.). and the most advantageous deployment of automatic . superconducting materials. labor. The mining engineer is trained in historical geology. and of peripheral devices (see Computer). The employs such tools as the seismograph and the magnetometer for the location of ore or surveying and drawing of geological maps and sections is an important part of the work of the of a given location is suitable for the building of such large structures as dams. electrical noise. who is also responsible for determining whether the geological structure F Industrial or Management Engineering This field pertains to the efficient use of machinery. Another trend is toward increasing the speed of computer operations through use of parallel processors. recovery.fiber optics are superseding copper cables. and the like. and petroleum deposits beneath the surface of the earth (see Petroleum. construction. and marketing of crude minerals and mineral products. safety of human operators. The field of computer science is closely related to computer engineering. Foremost among the avenues now being pursued are the design of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) and new computer architectures. however. and geophysics. Digital systems offer far greater immunity to carrying capacity. the task of making computers more “intelligent” (artificial intelligence. engineering geologist. Seismology). they also have tremendous D4 Computers Virtually unknown just a few decades ago. computer engineering is now among the most rapidly growing fields. development. E Geological and Mining Engineering This branch of engineering includes activities related to the discovery and exploration of mineral deposits and the financing. The electronics of computers involve engineers in design and manufacture of memory systems. engineers continue to work to squeeze greater and greater numbers of circuit elements onto smaller and smaller chips. processing. production. through creation of sophisticated programs or being in the realm of computer science. purification.
they also work on a variety of manufactured goods and certain kinds of structures. and pneumatics. A mechanical engineer designs not only the machines that make products but the products themselves. therefore. mechanisms. and operate machinery of all types. the lighting system. and thermodynamics and must be fully grounded in such subjects as metallurgy and machine design. and air conditioning. the controls. the gearing by which the engine's power is delivered to of seat upholstery. materials. hydraulics. build. A typical example of the complexity of modern mechanical engineering is the design of an automobile. must be trained in mechanics. test. heating.G Mechanical Engineering Engineers in this field design. ventilating. The field is divided into (1) machinery. the wheels. hydraulics. The mechanical engineer. and the body. which entails not only the design of the engine that drives the car but also all its attendant accessories such as the steering and braking systems. including such details as the door latches and the type H Military Engineering . work and energy. and (2) heat as applied to engines. Some mechanical engineers specialize in particular types of machines such as pumps or steam turbines. and must design for both economy and efficiency.
S. resulting in separate engineering subdisciplines such as ordnance. and airfields. and the I Naval or Marine Engineering . telephone. harbors. radio. which applies electrical engineering to all problems of telegraph. army engineer battalions have been used to construct ports. and other communication. development of guns and chemical engineering to the development of propellants. works.This branch is concerned with the application of the engineering sciences to military purposes. It is generally divided into permanent land defense (see Fortification and Siege Warfare) and field engineering. military engineers also construct some public Military engineering has become an increasingly specialized science. national monuments. which applies mechanical engineering to the Signal Corps. depots. In war.. In the U. and dams (see Army Corps of Engineers).
as well as the projected costs of fuel and maintenance. needed to propel a ship. In doing so. and must how ships move through water. that provides enough power to move the ship at the and fuel bunkers will weigh and how much space they will occupy. nuclear engineers develop the special materials necessary to withstand the high .Engineers who have the overall responsibility for designing and supervising construction of ships are called naval architects. a naval Regardless of size. In helping diesel engine or geared steam turbine. fast enough to perform the type of work intended for them. have a thorough grounding in applied sciences. both mechanical and electrical. and architect must be familiar with the variety of techniques of modern shipbuilding. stable. ships must be designed and built so that they are safe. In addition to designing nuclear reactors to yield specified amounts of power. the naval architect design ships. and the manner in which nuclear fission may find practical applications. The ships they design range in size from ocean-going supertankers as much as 1300 feet long to small tugboats that operate in rivers and bays. See also Ships and Shipbuilding. To accomplish this. such as a speed required. the marine engineer must choose a propulsion unit. the engineer must take into consideration how much the engine J Nuclear Engineering This branch of engineering is concerned with the design and construction of nuclear reactors and devices. that bear directly on Marine engineering is a specialized branch of mechanical engineering devoted to the design and operation of systems. strong. such as the production of commercial power from the energy generated by nuclear reactions and the use of nuclear reactors for propulsion and of nuclear radiation to induce chemical and biological changes. such as fluid mechanics.
insect and vermin control. They also assist in designing machinery. Solid Waste Disposal. control of pollution of surface waterways. noise. operation. machinery. and soils. and roads. In designing roads the safety engineer seeks to avoid such hazards as sharp turns and blind intersections. See III MODERN ENGINEERING TRENDS Scientific methods of engineering are applied in several fields not connected directly to manufacture and construction. disposal of community wastes and reclamation of useful components of such wastes. Safety engineers develop methods and procedures to safeguard workers in hazardous occupations. It chiefly deals with problems involving water supply. and toxic materials in work areas. but because of its great importance for a healthy environment. The methods used for supplying communities Plumbing. and distribution. it has acquired the importance of a specialized field. Nuclear engineers also develop methods to shield people from the harmful materials. groundwaters. especially in dense urban-population areas. the safety engineer seeks to cover all moving parts or keep them suggesting alterations and improvements to reduce the likelihood of accident. See Industrial Safety. Water Pollution. rural and recreational-site sanitation. control of atmospheric pollution. Many large industrial and construction firms. and to eliminate dangerous projecting parts. In recent years safety engineering has become a specialty adopted by individuals trained in other branches of engineering. known to result in traffic accidents. See Nuclear Energy. ships. radiation produced by nuclear reactions and to ensure safe storage and disposal of fissionable K Safety Engineering This field of engineering has as its object the prevention of accidents. to put cutoff switches within reach of the operator. today maintain safety engineering departments.temperatures and concentrated bombardment of nuclear particles that accompany nuclear fission and fusion. and insurance companies engaged in the field of National Safety Council. factories. with pure water and for the disposal of sewage and other wastes are described separately. Water Supply and Waterworks. industrial hygiene. and other fields concerned with the control of environmental factors affecting health. including control of light. treatment. workers compensation. housing and institutional sanitation. The systems approach is a methodology of decision-making in design. Modern engineering is characterized by the broad application of what is known as systems engineering principles. for example. or construction that adopts (1) the formal process . milk and food sanitation. L Sanitary Engineering This is a branch of civil engineering. Sewage Disposal. In the design of from accidental contact with the operator. vibration.
but also determination determine. or a change in the muscular movements of the operator. received wide attention in the late 1970s and the '80s when the safety of nuclear reactors was questioned following serious accidents that were caused by operator errors. efficient. and behavioral fields as well. It is also concerned with setting up efficient and safe schedules. founded in 1964 as a private organization. how machines can be operated most efficiently by the workers. and the interaction of the system with the community and the environment. especially installations where public and worker safety is a consideration. like doctors and lawyers. therefore. and is concerned with the relationship of engineering to society. A small change in the location of the controls of a machine or of its position with relation to other machines or equipment. often results in greatly increased production. complicated control panels Among various recent trends in the engineering profession. for example. A related field of engineering. are licensed by the state. (2) an interdisciplinary. the large. transportation engineering in its broadest sense includes not only design of the traffic requirements of the route followed. (3) a formal sequence of procedure employing the In effect. and generating the enormous volume of data modern engineers must work with. human-factors engineering. Approvals by professionally licensed engineers are required for construction of public and commercial structures. to of the transportation system and building of its lines and rolling stock. social. licensing and computerization are the most widespread. sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs.included in what is known as the scientific method. Engineers in industry work not only with machines but also with people. . Computers are increasingly used for solving complex problems as well as for handling. This type of engineering work is called time-study engineering. human-centered design of. using specialists from not only the various engineering disciplines. many engineers. encourages new research. storing. design failures. but from legal. Human-factors engineering seeks to establish criteria for the that monitor and govern nuclear reactor operations. and malfunctioning equipment. also known as ergonomics. principles of operations research. or team. aesthetic. The trend in modern engineering offices is overwhelmingly toward computerization. approach. Today. among other things. The National Academy of Engineering.
This acceleration is the same for heavy objects as for light ones. mass. called If the object is rotating. time. If the object is large. Velocity (the time rate of change of position) is defined as the distance traveled divided by the time interval. however. . Modern descriptions of such behavior begin with a careful definition of such quantities as displacement (distance moved). For everyday phenomena. the center of mass. The English mathematician and physicist Sir Isaac Newton improved this analysis by defining force and mass and relating these to acceleration. velocity. He showed that the speed of falling objects increases steadily during the time of their fall. causes motion. the motion of which can be described as characteristic of the whole object.Mechanics I INTRODUCTION Mechanics. For example. and the perfect circles. motion was explained from a very different point of view. following the ideas of Greek philosopher and scientist Aristotle. the moon. and force. Until about 400 years ago. Velocity may be measured in such units as kilometers per hour. For objects traveling at speeds close to the speed of light. Newton’s laws were superseded by Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity. Acceleration is defined as the time rate of change of velocity: the change of velocity divided by the time interval during the change. Newton’s laws were superseded by quantum theory. Newton’s three laws of motion remain the cornerstone of dynamics. scientists reasoned that a cannonball falls down because its natural position is in the earth. For atomic and subatomic particles. no mathematical problems are presented if the object is very small compared with the distances involved. it contains one point. however. which is the study of what II KINETICS Kinetics is the description of motion without regard to what causes the motion. the sun. Acceleration may be measured in such units as meters per second per second or feet per second per second. it is frequently convenient to describe its rotation about an axis that goes through the center of mass. or meters per second. Regarding the size or weight of the moving object. provided air friction (air resistance) is discounted. miles per hour. stars travel in circles around the earth because it is the nature of heavenly objects to travel in The Italian physicist and astronomer Galileo brought together the ideas of other great thinkers of his time and began to analyze motion in terms of distance traveled from some starting position and the time that it took. acceleration. branch of physics concerning the motions of objects and their response to forces.
must be defined. a. First. For an object traveling at speed.To fully describe the motion of an object. If an object has constant speed but an acceleration always at right angles to its velocity.” is the short way of notating t × t). For constant acceleration. acceleration is constant. a (uninfluenced by air friction) near the surface of the earth undergoes constant acceleration. Because the velocity is changing. for example. for example.8 m/sec (32 ft/sec). starting with zero velocity ( v = 0) at t = 0. Velocity. in degrees of arc from a reference Several special types of motion are easily described. time. The magnitude of velocity is called speed.8 m/sec/sec (32 ft/sec/sec). or the velocity at a given instant. Meanwhile the horizontal component of the original velocity remains . At the end of the first second. A heavy object falling freely this case the acceleration is 9. In ball would have fallen 4. the centripetal acceleration is acceleration is directed toward the center of the circle and is called centripetal acceleration Another simple type of motion that is frequently observed occurs when a ball is thrown at an angle into the air.6 m/sec (64 ft/sec). t. With constant velocity. v. the ball undergoes a constant downward acceleration that first slows its original upward speed and then increases its downward speed as it falls back to earth. the ball would have fallen 19.9 m (16 ft) and would have a speed of 9. meters per second) and direction (measured. is v = at The distance traveled during this time is d = at2 An important feature revealed in this equation is the dependence of distance on the square of the time (t2. the velocity might be zero. v. The required (see Centripetal Force). has both magnitude (a scalar quantity measured.6 m (64 ft) and would have a speed of Circular motion is another simple type of motion. then the distance. velocity may be constant. it will travel in a circle. position would not change during the time interval. or “t squared. for example. d. end of the second second. the instantaneous velocity at time. instantaneous velocity. the direction of the displacement must be given. r. is equal to the product of velocity and time. Because of gravitation. in a circle of radius. is measured with a clock starting at t = 0. traveled at constant d = vt In the second special type of motion. At the 19. the average velocity is equal to the velocity at any particular time. in point). If velocity. In the simplest case. t.
For F = kx where k is a constant that depends on the nature of the spring material and its dimensions. or accelerate an object. The vertical and horizontal components of the motion are shape of a parabola. The resulting path of the ball is in the III DYNAMICS To understand why and how objects accelerate. A force can either distort something. IV VECTORS . over a limited range.constant (ignoring air resistance). such as a spring. the greater the stretch. See Ballistics. which can in turn be used to many springs. It can be measured in terms of either of two first effect can be used in the calibration of a spring scale. At the intuitive level. independent. a force is just a push or a pull. force and mass must be defined. F. and they can be analyzed separately. making the ball travel at a constant speed in the horizontal direction until it hits the earth. x. The measure the amplitude of a force: the greater the force. the stretch is proportional to the force effects.
the object does not necessarily have zero velocity. however. See Vector. Thus. at the greatest distance from the hinges. one hand is near the top of the book and the other hand near the bottom. edge on). When calculating V TORQUE For equilibrium. If the door were VI NEWTON’S THREE LAWS OF MOTION Newton’s first law of motion states that if the vector sum of the forces acting on an object is zero. the book is in equilibrium. the torque would be zero. the torque would be only half of its previous magnitude. repulsion of the tabletop. If the force were applied parallel to the door (that is. they cancel for all axes. the clockwise torques about any axis must be canceled by the counterclockwise torques about that axis. the net force on it must be zero. If. For example. it is necessary to add the forces as vectors.If an object is motionless. then the object will remain at rest or remain moving at constant velocity. and the book will fall on be zero. the force is exerted perpendicularly to the door and shoved with the same force at a point halfway between handle and hinge. but not sufficient. A book lying on a table is being pulled down by the earth’s gravitational attraction and is being pushed up by the molecular the net force. a torque is produced. Therefore. This condition is necessary for equilibrium. (The net result is that the book is being squeezed). all the horizontal components of the force must cancel one another. If the force exerted on an object is zero. The net force is zero. if a person stands a book up on a table and pushes on the book equally hard with one hand in one direction and with the other hand in the other direction. For equilibrium to exist it is also necessary that the sum of the torques about any axis A torque is the product of a force and the perpendicular distance to a turning axis. its side. and all the vertical components must cancel one another as well. Without any . the book will remain motionless if the person’s hands are opposite each other. For an object to be in equilibrium. When a force is applied to a heavy door to open it. a maximum torque is created. one could prove that if the torques cancel for any particular axis.
after the initials of Système International). is that it is impossible to distinguish at a point whether the point is in a gravitational field or in B Friction . which is the currently accepted theory of gravitation.2248 lb. The implication of this phenomenon an accelerated frame of reference. a. A net force on an object will accelerate it—that is. an object in motion will continue to travel at constant velocity. which is a measure of the inertia of an object (inertia is its exerts on other objects.forces acting on it. The acceleration will be proportional to the magnitude of the the object. Mass is measured in kilograms. The proportionality constant is the mass. acceleration. force. light object. including friction. Einstein made this one of the cornerstones of his general theory of relativity. F. force and in the same direction as the force. of F = ma In the International System of Units (also known as SI. A massive object will require a greater force for a given acceleration than a small. A newton is defined as the force necessary to impart to a mass of 1 kg an acceleration of 1 m/sec/sec. What is remarkable is that mass. A The Second Law Newton’s second law relates net force and acceleration. change its velocity. m. is also a measure of the gravitational attraction that the object gravitational property are determined by the same thing. is measured in meters per second per second. this is equivalent to about 0. It is surprising and profound that the inertial property and the reluctance to change velocity). in newtons.
where no lubrication is present. Frequently this force is just the weight of the sliding object. however. Newton’s second law is expanded to to the horizontal. the friction force is almost independent of velocity. Newton’s second law then becomes water or air (at subsonic speeds). the resulting friction is proportional to the square of the . For dry sliding friction. the downward vertical component of the force will. The actual contact area—that is. The friction force is proportional to the total perpendicular force. For most human-size objects moving in speed. the tiny bumps on the object and sliding surface collide. (Acceleration will be constant in the direction of the effective force). Where friction is present.Friction acts like a force applied in the direction opposite to an object’s velocity. the surface upon which it slides. and force is required to move the bumps past each other. the magnitude of the friction depends on the velocity. the area where the Also. If the object is pushed at an angle the weight of the object. however. in effect. When an object moves through a liquid. As the object moves across the sliding surface. add to The left side of the equation is simply the net effective force. the friction force does not depend on the apparent area of contact between an object and microscopic bumps on the object and sliding surface are actually touching each other—is relatively small. The actual contact area depends on the perpendicular force between the object and sliding surface.
however. For an isolated system. or the product of mass and velocity. its mass. Newton’s third law also requires the conservation of momentum. thus decreasing their distance from the axis of rotation. the child imparts an equal but oppositely directed force on the adult. k. During the interaction. In the example of the adult and child on the skating rink. The force that object 1 exerts on object 2 must be of the same magnitude but in the opposite direction as the force that object 2 exerts on object 1. The angular momentum of a rotating object depends on its speed of rotation. the product of the large mass and small velocity of the adult must equal the product of the small mass and large velocity of the child. If. their initial velocities are zero. for example. Because the mass of the adult is larger. but net external forces equal zero. is characteristic of the two materials that are sliding past each other. When a skater standing on a friction-free point spins faster and faster. C The Third Law Newton’s third law of motion states that an object experiences a force because it is interacting with some other object. Part of the mass is therefore at a large radius. and the distance of the mass from the axis. a large adult gently shoves away a child on a skating rink.The proportionality constant. angular momentum is conserved despite the increasing speed. spin. internal forces are at work between adult and child. the skater’s arms are outstretched. with no external forces acting on it. Therefore. the momentum of the system must remain zero. the acceleration of the adult will be smaller. thus adding to zero. and depends on the area of contact between the two surfaces and the degree of streamlining of the moving object. the rotational speed must increase in order to maintain constant angular momentum. After the adult pushes the child away. the momentum must remain constant. The momenta are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. and thus the initial momentum of the system is zero. As the . At the start of the skater’s arms are lowered. Another conserved quantity of great importance is angular (rotational) momentum. in addition to the force the adult imparts on the child.
the energy to another. the total energy is conserved. Many other forms of energy exist: electric and magnetic potential energy. . compressed gases. work is defined as the product of force and the distance an object moves in the direction of the force. This friction is transformed into heat. In the field of mechanics. or molecular bonds. When a force is exerted on an object but the force does not cause the object to move. For instance. or foot-pounds. Energy and work are both measured in the same units—ergs. energy stored in stretched springs. for example. and mass itself. no work is done. energy must be provided to do work. If work is done lifting an object to a greater height. kinetic energy. If the ball is then dropped. joules. In all transformations from one kind of to raise it. energy has been stored in the form of gravitational potential energy. When the ball hits the ground. or thermal energy.VII ENERGY The quantity called energy ties together all branches of physics. it becomes distorted and thereby creates friction between the molecules of the ball material. thermal energy. its gravitational potential energy is increased. if work is done on a rubber ball gravitational potential energy is transformed to kinetic energy.
This force is usually related to the weight of the of an object as it moves through air. water. the force depends upon the shape and speed Friction occurs to some degree in almost all situations involving physical objects.Friction I INTRODUCTION Friction. it hinders a process. shoes slip and slide instead of gripping because of the lack of friction. object or objects. making walking difficult. In many cases. In other cases. such as a refrigerator or bookcase. friction between the moving parts of an engine resists the engine’s motion and turns energy into heat. force that opposes the motion of an object when the object is in contact with another object or surface. In cases involving fluid friction. such as in a running automobile engine. such as ice. Friction also makes it difficult to slide a heavy object. or other fluid. For example. Friction allows car tires to grip and roll . Friction results from two surfaces rubbing against each other or moving relative to one another. Friction between people’s shoes and the ground allows people to walk by pushing off the ground without slipping. along the ground. On a slick surface. friction is helpful. The strength of frictional force depends on the nature of the surfaces that are in contact and the force pushing them together. It can hinder the motion of an object or prevent an object from moving at all. reducing the engine’s efficiency.
along the road without skidding. Friction between nails and beams prevents the nails from Sliding out and keeps buildings standing.
When friction affects a moving object, it turns the object’s kinetic energy, or energy of motion, into heat. People welcome the heat caused by friction when rubbing their hands together to stay warm. Frictional heat is not so welcome when it damages machine parts, such as car brakes.
CAUSES OF FRICTION
Friction occurs in part because rough surfaces tend to catch on one another as they slide past each other. Even surfaces that are apparently smooth can be rough at the microscopic level. of the other, effectively creating a type of mechanical bond, or glue, between the surfaces. Two surfaces in contact also tend to attract one another at the molecular level, forming They have many ridges and grooves. The ridges of each surface can get stuck in the grooves
chemical bonds (see Chemistry). These bonds can prevent an object from moving, even when it is pushed. If an object is in motion, these bonds form and release. Making and breaking the bonds takes energy away from the motion of the object.
Scientists do not yet fully understand the details of how friction works, but through
experiments they have found a way to describe frictional forces in a wide variety of situations. The force of friction between an object and a surface is equal to a constant number times the force the object exerts directly on the surface. The constant number is called the coefficient of
friction for the two materials and is abbreviated µ. The force the object exerts directly on the
increasing the amount of force increases the amount of contact that the object has with the calculated from the following formula:
surface is called the normal force and is abbreviated N. Friction depends on this force because surface at the microscopic level. The force of friction between an object and a surface can be
In this equation, F is the force of friction, µ is the coefficient of friction between the object and the surface, and N is the normal force.
Scientists have measured the coefficient of friction for many combinations of materials.
Coefficients of friction depend on whether the objects are initially moving or stationary and on the types of material involved. The coefficient of friction for rubber sliding on concrete is 0.8 (relatively high), while the coefficient for Teflon sliding on steel is 0.04 (relatively low).
The normal force is the force the object exerts perpendicular to the surface. In the case of a level surface, the normal force is equal to the weight of the object. If the surface is inclined, only a fraction of the object’s weight pushes directly into the surface, so the normal force is less than the object’s weight.
KINDS OF FRICTION
Different kinds of motion give rise to different types of friction between objects. Static friction occurs between stationary objects, while sliding friction occurs between objects as they slide against each other. Other types of friction include rolling friction and fluid friction. The coefficient of friction for two materials may differ depending on the type of friction involved. Static friction prevents an object from moving against a surface. It is the force that keeps a up an object without the object slipping through your fingers. In order to move something, you must first overcome the force of static friction between the object and the surface on
book from sliding off a desk, even when the desk is slightly tilted, and that allows you to pick
which it is resting. This force depends on the coefficient of static friction (µs) between the object and the surface and the normal force (N) of the object.
A book sliding off a desk or brakes slowing down a wheel are both examples of sliding friction, It prevents the book or wheel from moving as fast as it would without friction. When sliding friction is acting, another force must be present to keep an object moving. In the case of a book sliding off a desk, this force is gravity. The force of kinetic friction depends on the
also called kinetic friction. Sliding friction acts in the direction opposite the direction of motion.
coefficient of kinetic friction between the object and the surface on which it is moving (µk) and the normal force (N) of the object. For any pair of objects, the coefficient of kinetic friction is book sliding than it does to keep the book sliding. usually less than the coefficient of static friction. This means that it takes more force to start a
Rolling friction hinders the motion of an object rolling along a surface. Rolling friction slows rolling along the ground. Another force must be present to keep an object rolling. For
down a ball rolling on a basketball court or softball field, and it slows down the motion of a tire example, a pedaling bicyclist provides the force necessary to the keep a bike in motion. Rolling friction depends on the coefficient of rolling friction between the two materials (µr) and the normal force (N) of the object. The coefficient of rolling friction is usually about that of than they will slide along it.
sliding friction. Wheels and other round objects will roll along the ground much more easily
Metals, group of chemical elements that exhibit all or most of the following physical qualities: they are solid at ordinary temperatures; opaque, except in extremely thin films; good electrical and thermal conductors (see Conductor, Electrical); lustrous when polished; and
have a crystalline structure when in the solid state. Metals and nonmetals are separated in the periodic table by a diagonal line of elements. Elements to the left of this diagonal are metals, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, polonium, and astatine—have both metallic and nonmetallic properties (see Periodic Law). The common metallic elements include the cobalt, copper, gold, iridium, iron, lead, lithium, magnesium, manganese, mercury, following: aluminum, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, chromium, molybdenum, nickel, osmium, palladium, platinum, potassium, radium, rhodium, silver, and elements to the right are nonmetals. Elements that make up this diagonal—boron, silicon,
sodium, tantalum, thallium, thorium, tin, titanium, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. Metallic elements can combine with one another and with certain other elements, either as compounds, as solutions, or as intimate mixtures. A substance composed of two or more alloys. Alloys of mercury with other metallic elements are known as amalgams.
metals, or a substance composed of a metal and certain nonmetals such as carbon are called
Within the general limits of the definition of a metal, the properties of metals vary widely. Most metals are grayish in color, but bismuth is pinkish, copper is red, and gold is yellow. Some metals display more than one color, a phenomenon called pleochroism. The melting
points of metals range from about -39° C (about -38° F) for mercury to 3410° C (6170° F) for tungsten. Osmium and iridium (specific gravity 22.6) are the most dense metals, and lithium (specific gravity 0.53) is the least dense. The majority of metals crystallize in the cubic system, but some crystallize in the hexagonal and tetragonal systems (see Crystal). Bismuth has the lowest electrical conductivity of the metallic elements, and silver the highest at ordinary temperatures. (For conductivity at low temperatures, see Cryogenics;
Superconductivity.) The conductivity of most metals can be lowered by alloying. All metals expand when heated and contract when cooled, but certain alloys, such as platinum and iridium alloys, have extremely low coefficients of expansion.
Metals are generally very strong and resistant to different types of stresses. Though there is considerable variation from one metal to the next, in general metals are marked by such the resistance to breakage; elasticity, the ability to return to the original shape after properties as hardness, the resistance to surface deformation or abrasion; tensile strength, deformation; malleability, the ability to be shaped by hammering; fatigue resistance, the breaking. See Materials Science and Technology.
ability to resist repeated stresses; and ductility, the ability to undergo deformation without
Metals typically have positive valences in most of their compounds, which means they tend to donate electrons to the atoms to which they bond. Also, metals tend to form basic oxides. Typical nonmetallic elements, such as nitrogen, sulfur, and chlorine, have negative valences in most of their compounds—meaning they tend to accept electrons—and form acidic oxides (see Acids and Bases; Chemical Reaction).
Metals typically have low ionization potentials. This means that metals react easily by loss of carbonates, for example) by serving as reducing agents (electron donors).
electrons to form positive ions, or cations. Thus, metals can form salts (chlorides, sulfides, and
In early attempts to explain the electronic configurations of the metals, scientists cited the consist of ionized atoms in which the free electrons form a homogeneous sea of negative
characteristics of high thermal and electrical conductivity in support of a theory that metals charge. The electrostatic attraction between the positive metal ions and the free-moving and atoms. Free movement of the electrons was then held to be responsible for the high thermal then have higher specific heats than they do.
homogeneous sea of electrons was thought to be responsible for the bonds between the metal and electrical conductivities. The principal objection to this theory was that the metals should
In 1928 the German physicist Arnold Sommerfeld proposed that the electrons in metals exist in a quantized arrangement in which low energy levels available to the electrons are almost fully occupied (see Atom; Quantum Theory). In the same year the Swiss-American physicist Felix Bloch and later the French physicist Louis Brillouin used this idea of quantization in the currently accepted “band” theory of bonding in metallic solids.
According to the band theory, any given metal atom has only a limited number of valence among individual atoms is therefore required. This sharing of electrons is accomplished
electrons with which to bond to all of its nearest neighbors. Extensive sharing of electrons through overlap of equivalent-energy atomic orbitals on the metal atoms that are immediately adjacent to one another. This overlap is delocalized throughout the entire metal sample to form extensive orbitals that span the entire solid rather than being part of individual atoms. Each of these orbitals lies at different energies because the atomic orbitals from which they were constructed were at different energies to begin with. The orbitals, equal in number to the number of individual atomic orbitals that have been combined, each hold two electrons, and are filled in order from lowest to highest energy until the number of available electrons has
been used up. Groups of electrons are then said to reside in bands, which are collections of that band; in some metals, there are energy gaps between bands, meaning that there are
orbitals. Each band has a range of energy values that the electrons must possess to be part of certain energies that the electrons cannot possess. The highest energy band in a metal is not filled with electrons because metals characteristically possess too few electrons to fill it. The may be promoted by absorption of thermal energy into these unfilled energy levels of the band. high thermal electrical conductivities of metals is then explained by the notion that electrons
Objects moving through a fluid experience fluid friction, or drag. Drag acts between the object and the fluid and hinders the motion of the object. The force of drag depends upon the object’s shape, material, and speed, as well as the fluid’s viscosity. Viscosity is a measure of a fluid’s resistance to flow. It results from the friction that occurs between the fluid’s molecules, and it differs depending on the type of fluid. Drag slows down airplanes flying through the air and fish swimming through water. An airplane’s engines help it overcome drag and travel forward, while a fish uses its muscles to overcome drag and swim. Calculating the force of
drag is much more complicated than calculating other types of friction. (see Aerodynamics)
EFFECTS OF FRICTION
Friction helps people convert one form of motion into another. For example, when people
walk, friction allows them to convert a push backward along the ground into forward motion. Similarly, when car or bicycle tires push backward along the ground, friction with the ground makes the tires roll forward. Friction allows us to push and slide objects along the ground without our shoes slipping along the ground in the opposite direction.
While friction allows us to convert one form of motion to another, it also converts some energy into heat, noise, and wear and tear on material. Losing energy to these effects often reduces the efficiency of a machine. For example, a cyclist uses friction between shoes and pedals, the
chain and gears, and the bicycle’s tires and the road to make the bicycle move forward. At the the cyclist and the air all resist the cyclist’s motion. As the cyclist pedals, friction converts
same time, friction between the chain and gears, between the tires and the road, and between some of the cyclist’s energy into heat, noise, and wear and tear on the bicycle. This energy of the energy in the fuel into heat, noise, and wear and tear on the engine’s parts. Excess engines makes it necessary to periodically replace some parts.
loss reduces the efficiency of the bicycle. In automobiles and airplanes, friction converts some frictional heat can damage an engine and braking system. The wearing away of material in
Sometimes the heat that friction produces is useful. When a person strikes a match against a
rough surface, friction produces a large amount of heat on the head of the match and triggers the chemical process of burning. Static friction, which prevents motion, does not create heat.
Reducing the amount of friction in a machine increases the machine’s efficiency. Less friction methods to reduce friction. The first method involves reducing the roughness of the surfaces
means less energy lost to heat, noise, and wearing down of material. People normally use two in contact. For example, sanding two pieces of wood lessens the amount of friction that occurs between them when they slide against one another. Teflon creates very little friction because it is so smooth.
Applying a lubricant to a surface can also reduce friction. Common examples of lubricants are oil and grease. They reduce friction by minimizing the contact between rough surfaces. The between the surfaces. Lubricants such as machine oil reduce the amount of energy lost to lubricant’s particles slide easily against each other and cause far less friction than would occur frictional heating and reduce the wear damage to the machine surfaces caused by friction.
with or without the inclined plane. and the pulley). Mathematically. the wheel and axle. work is the result of a force. Two other simple machines. in physics. A sharp knife is an everyday example of a wedge. the work requires less force. are really alternate forms of the inclined plane. One of the most common examples of an inclined plane is a staircase. the screw and the wedge. In physical terms. is defined as the amount of force this can be expressed by the following equation: Work = Force x Distance When lifting an object is the work being done. less effort than climbing straight up a ladder would require. which allows people to move within a building from one floor to another with cars use threaded screws. Rather than lifting an object straight up. but because the inclined plane increases the distance over The inclined plane is one of the four simple machines (along with the lever. An inclined plane makes it easier to lift heavy objects by enabling a person to apply the necessary force over a greater distance. that moves an object over a distance. The same amount of work is accomplished in lifting the object which the force is applied. simple machine. Some jacks that are used to lift II WORK AND MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE An inclined plane makes doing work easier by changing both the direction and the amount of effort that are used to lift an object. Work. that makes doing a given amount of work easier. such as the effort of pushing or pulling something. consisting of a ramp or a similar wedge-shaped device. an inclined plane allows a person to lift an object gradually (at an angle) applied to an object multiplied by the distance over which the force is applied.Inclined Plane I INTRODUCTION Inclined Plane. the force needed is the effort required to lift the object. . and the distance corresponds to the distance the object is lifted.
The edge of the inclined plane forms a helix. The screw requires a lot of turning. more gradual path to the same height as that of the steep hill. the inclined plane decreases the amount of force needed to do the same amount of work without the plane. this allows heavy loads to be lifted with a small amount of effort. the larger the MA will a vertical ladder. This means that the ramp doubles the effort applied by the user. The actual MA of a machine is less than the theoretical MA because of friction. Since the pitch is generally small compared to the circumference.over a greater distance. A ramp that is twice as long as it is high has a mechanical advantage of 2. Theoretical MA is the MA a machine would have if it were perfect. By increasing distance. All machines. III MODIFIED INCLINED PLANES The screw and the wedge are common adaptations of the inclined plane. around the axis. There are two kinds of MA: theoretical and actual. Friction makes the process of moving objects. or pole. Wheels can be added to the load to decrease friction. The pitch of a thread is the distance along the axis of the screw from one thread to the next. like Friction is a phenomenon that reduces the efficiency of all machines. Walking up an inclined plane or rolling a load (such as a barrel) up a plane creates little friction. or spiral. Screws are often used to raise objects. The mechanical advantage (MA) of an inclined plane measures how much the plane magnifies the effort applied to the machine. which equates with effort applied over a long distance. the mechanical advantage would be 1. People also frequently build inclined planes with small rollers or casters built into the plane to reduce friction. or that the user needs to apply only half as much effort to lift an object to a desired height as he or she would without the ramp. the ramp would simply run straight up. be. and raises the automobile. a resistance created between objects when they move against each other. more difficult. and the actual MA is close to the theoretical MA. Increasing the ratio of the length of the ramp to the height of the ramp decreases the effort needed to lift an object. sliding a load (especially a flat load such as a crate) up a plane creates friction and causes the plane to lose much of its MA. A jack has a large screw attached to a small platform. which means the ramp did not magnify the user’s effort. However. which is placed under a vehicle. Turning the screw many times produces a small amount of vertical lift on the platform. Screws are also . lose some of their MA to friction. This idea explains why climbing up a steep hill takes more effort (and seems more difficult) than walking up a longer. The MA of an inclined plane without any friction is equal to the length of the plane divided by the height of the plane. large mechanical advantages can be achieved by using screws. The mechanical advantage of a screw is related to the circumference of the screw divided by the pitch of the threads. A screw is an inclined plane wrapped around an axis. In this case. and therefore doing work. however. The longer the inclined plane. If the length of a ramp was equal to its height. and some jacks used to lift automobiles rely on screws.
Wedges transfer downward effort applied to the blunt edge of the where two planes are joined at their bases. probably milk. transferring the force they applied to the blunt edge out to the sides of the wedge. which differs from an inclined plane. the mechanical advantage of a wedge is difficult to determine. Screws were used in ancient times as lifting devices. Screws driven straight into wood or other materials. from about 2700 that the Egyptians used a lubricant. Historians believe that Greek inventor Archimedes (287-212 BC) invented a screw-type device (known as Archimedes’ screw) for raising water. The joined inclined planes form a blunt end that wedge out to the sides of the wedge to help it cut through an object. and turning the screw lifts water up the cylinder to a higher level. This principle is still used in some pumps today. BC to 1000 BC. A knife is also a form of wedge. narrows down to a tip.useful as fastening devices. threaded nuts and bolts take advantage of the friction that results from the contact between A wedge is another form of inclined plane. Evidence from drawings of that time indicates People used wedges in ancient times to split wood. These devices use friction to hold things together. They placed dry wooden wedges into cracks in rocks and then allowed the wedges to swell by absorbing water. IV HISTORY The inclined plane is undoubtedly one of the first of the simple machines people ever used. A person walking up a gradual path to the top of a mountain rather than climbing straight up a steep face is taking advantage of the principle of the inclined plane. Wedges are often used to split materials such as wood or stone. . There are indications that the Egyptians created earthen ramps to raise huge blocks of stone during the construction of the pyramids. People also used wooden wedges in prehistoric times to split rocks. The wedge shape of the knife edge helps the user cut through material. A wedge is essentially a double inclined plane. where the effort travels along the plane. as well as the inclined plane and other objects. Since there is much friction involved. The main benefit of the wedge is changing the direction of effort to help split or cut through an object. The bottom end of the cylinder is set in water. It consists of a cylinder with a wide-threaded screw inside. The resulting pressure in the cracks caused the rocks to split. Effort is applied directly to the wedge. to reduce the sliding friction and thus increase the efficiency of the inclined planes.
II COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN Engineers use CAD to create two.and three-dimensional drawings. In the design stage. The CAD possible to perform the six-step "art-to-part" process with a computer. CAM engineers similarly use computer modeling to determine the best overall manufacturing procedures for use in an industrial plant. CAM adds a computer to a machine tool. it is much more efficient to change and distribute drawings by computer. The first two steps in . floor plans. including the testing and handling of finished products. Engineers use CAD and CAM together to create the design in CAD on one computer. the application of computers in the design and manufacture of components used in the production of items such as automobiles and jet engines.Computer-Aided Design/ComputerAided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) I INTRODUCTION Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM). Today. it is this process are the use of sketching software to capture the initial design ideas and to they incorporate the best balance of features. such as a drill or a lathe. CAD is software for creating precise engineering drawings. Designers manipulate and test these models on video display screens until information is then combined with CAM procedures through shared databases. While it may be faster for an engineer to create an initial drawing by hand. then transmit the design to a second computer that creates the part using CAM. drafting and computer graphics techniques are combined to produce models of objects. such as those for automobile and airplane parts. and maps. including ease of production and cost.
or model. and polishing. IV HISTORY American Ivan Sutherland invented CAD in 1961 when he described a computerized sketchpad in a doctoral thesis while attending the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge. He designed CAD to replace the traditional drafting board and software ran on large. that shows how the tool will cut the material. Massachusetts. engineers can run CAD software on personal computers or UNIX workstations. produces a smooth finish. other tools drafters used. The manufacturing operations may include milling. Today. The third step is rendering an accurate image of what the part will look like. expensive computers. and the surface finish cut. Since the the CAD software programs instead of through shared databases mid-1980s CAD and CAM have come closer together. drilling. which are most often made of metal.produce accurate engineering drawings. and electric eraser. such as the ink pen. or wood. plastic. plastic stencil. beyond which the tool may not cut. the rough cut. lathing. Punching buttons on the computer’s front panel programmed the software for the machine. CAM software selects the best cutting tools for the material and sets the most effective cutting speed. In the final step the CAM software controls the machine that produces the part. engineers use analysis software to ensure that the part is strong enough. The software generates an image. Early CAD The earliest CAM software was a simple computer attached to a milling machine. which removes large areas of material. Next. III COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING CAM uses a computer to control the manufacture of objects such as parts. as some CAM software operates within . much as print preview in a word- processing program displays a page before it is printed. and cleans up the part. which removes gouges. called a toolpath display. The tool's path has three stages: the containment area. Step five is the production of a prototype.
however. When the float reaches a certain height.” It was first used in the 1921 play R. the balls swung out due to centrifugal force. As the engine steam to the engine was decreased. engineer James Watt. specialized machines were developed for tasks such as placing caps on bottles or pouring liquid rubber into tire not reach for objects and place them in a desired location.Robot I INTRODUCTION Robot. the valve is closed and the water is shut off. thus regulating the speed. cheaply. tasks more quickly. meaning “compulsory labor. and releases more water into the trough. had none of the versatility of the human arm. so does the float. This device featured two metal balls connected to the drive shaft of a speed increased. The flow of Feedback control. The word that humans find difficult or undesirable. or manlike machines. (Rossum's Universal Robots) by the Czech novelist and playwright Karel Capek. and accomplish work while interacting with its environment. medieval churches. An example of feedback control is a watering trough that uses a float to sense the water level. and accurately than humans. they could . computer-controlled machine that is programmed to move. When the water falls past a certain level. tasks that could be performed by either workers or machines were essential ingredients in the molds. the float drops. The first true feedback controller was the Watt governor. invented in 1788 by the Scottish steam engine and also coupled to a valve that regulated the flow of steam. As technology improved.U. The term robot originates from the robot has been used since to refer to a machine that performs work to assist people or work II HISTORY The concept of automated machines dates to antiquity with myths of mechanical beings brought to life. also appeared in the clockwork figures of creatures. These machines.R. the development of specialized tools. closing the valve. and 18th-century watchmakers were famous for their clever mechanical Feedback (self-correcting) control mechanisms were used in some of the earliest robots and are still in use today. Automata. opens a valve. manipulate objects. As the water rises. and the division of work into smaller automation of factories in the 18th century. Robots are able to perform repetitive Czech word robota.
by sliding cylindrical sections one over another to lengthen the arm. or manipulator. Jr. desired location within its reach. a robot arm can extend by telescoping—that is. developed a truly flexible multipurpose manipulator known as the Programmable Universal Manipulation Arm (PUMA). Robot arms also can be constructed so that they bend like an elephant trunk.. PUMA was capable of moving an object and placing it with any orientation in a for most contemporary robots. Grippers. but with some differences. A primitive arm that could be programmed to perform specific tasks was developed by the American inventor George Devol. led to the modern robot. A computer calculates the joint angles needed to move the gripper to the desired position in a process known as inverse kinematics. In 1975 the American mechanical engineer Victor Scheinman. while a graduate student at Stanford University in California. Many robots are equipped with special purpose The joints of a robotic arm are usually driven by electric motors. The basic multijointed concept of the PUMA is the template III HOW ROBOTS WORK The inspiration for the design of a robot manipulator is the human arm. the gripper is moved from one position to another.The development of the multijointed artificial arm. or end effectors. function and structure of the human hand. are designed to mimic the grippers to grasp particular devices such as a rack of test tubes or an arc-welder. For example. In most robots. in 1954. . changing its orientation.
Controllers and associated computers also must process sensor information collected from cameras that locate objects to be grasped. Robots can perform these repetitive. Safety must be integral to the design of human service robots. such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) planetary rovers. Over 500. Any robot designed to move in an unstructured or unknown environment will require multiple sensors and controls. Many robot applications are for tasks that are either dangerous or unpleasant for human beings. to avoid obstacles. This is particularly true for robots designed to work in close proximity meals in a hospital. such as ultrasonic or infrared sensors. or they must touch sensors on grippers that regulate the grasping force. In other cases.000 in the United States. robots handle potentially hazardous materials. about 120. high- . Each joint in the arm has a device to measure its angle and send that value computed angle. robots are used in repetitive.000 robots were operating in the industrialized world. If the actual angle of the arm does not equal the computed angle for the desired position. and about 60. such as blood or urine samples. require a multitude of sensors and powerful onboard computers to process the complex information that allows them mobility.Some multijointed arms are equipped with servo.000 in Western Europe. such as robots that assist persons with disabilities and robots that deliver IV USES FOR ROBOTS In 1995 about 700. the servo controller moves the joint until the arm's angle matches the from a computer.000 were used in Japan. controllers that receive input to the controller. Robots. or feedback. with human beings. monotonous tasks in which human performance might degrade over time. In medical laboratories.
robots can assist surgeons with delicate operations on the human eye. New and in the conversion of old factories and the design of new ones. . are ideally suited to robots. jobs are created in software and sensor development. Similarly. machine loading. such as locating sunken ships. Robots are being used to assist surgeons in installing artificial hips. however. parts transfer.precision operations 24 hours a day without fatigue. Research in telesurgery V IMPACT OF ROBOTS Robotic manipulators create manufactured products that are of higher quality and lower cost. and very high-precision uses robots. traveled to Jupiter in 1996 and performed tasks such as determining the chemical content of the Jovian atmosphere. cleanup of nuclear waste. A major user of robots is the automobile welding. But robots can cause the loss of unskilled jobs. painting. particularly on assembly lines in factories. These new jobs. and active volcano exploration. Assembly is one of the painting and depends on low-cost sensor systems and powerful inexpensive computers. Robots are used in electronic assembly where they mount microchips on circuit boards. under the remote control of expert surgeons that may one day perform operations in distant battlefields. and assembly. in robot installation and maintenance. an unpiloted space probe. General Motors Corporation uses approximately 16.000 robots for tasks such as spot fastest growing industrial applications of robotics. NASA's Galileo. robots can explore distant planets. prospecting for underwater mineral deposits. industry. It requires higher precision than welding or Activities in environments that pose great danger to humans.
They also may work inside large Perhaps the most dramatic changes in future robots will arise from their increasing ability to reason. and the care of homes and businesses. diagnosis of failures in aircraft or satellites. vessels to deliver medicine or clean arterial blockages. clean underground pipelines. Increasingly. ranging in size from centimeters to millimeters. and mow lawns. or the control of a large factory will be performed by intelligent computers. providing them with new skills so that they VI FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES Automated machines will increasingly assist humans in the manufacture of new products. the management of a battlefield. construct steel frameworks of buildings.require higher levels of skill and training. One important trend is the development of microelectromechanical systems. Robots will be able to make new highways. such as strategic planning and learning from experience. and machines are being developed that can perform cognitive tasks. The field of artificial intelligence is moving rapidly from university laboratories to practical application in industry. These tiny robots may be used to move through blood machines to diagnose impending mechanical problems. of retraining workers who lose jobs to automation. the maintenance of the world's infrastructure. . Technologically oriented societies must face the task can be employable in the industries of the 21st century. Prototypes of systems to perform all of these tasks already exist.
minivans. and intended use. style. including a driver. auto.Automobile I INTRODUCTION Automobile. omnibuses. the so-called horseless carriage has forever altered the leading causes of death and injury throughout the world. and automobile accidents rank among the elaborate road and highway systems. also called a car. and cars will no doubt continue to shape our culture Automobiles are classified by size. or buses. particularly in the United States and other industrialized nations. Automobiles changed the world during the 20th century. has four wheels and can carry up to six people. can be called the Age of the Automobile. motorcar. From the growth of suburbs to the development of modern landscape. and servicing of automobiles have become key elements of industrial economies. the automobile has brought noise and air pollution. self-propelled vehicle used primarily on public roads but adaptable to other surfaces. Those used to carry cargo are called pickups . But along with greater mobility and job creation. sale. the 1900s and economy well into the 21st century. and passenger car. number of doors. But for better or worse. The manufacture. The typical automobile. Larger vehicles designed to carry more passengers are called vans.
which includes a transmission. and powers such components as headlights and radios. and remove exhaust gases it creates. The engine drivetrain. Sport-utility vehicles. and help protect the vehicle from being damaged by bumps. II POWER SYSTEM Gasoline internal-combustion engines power most automobiles. In 2001 manufacturing plants in more than 35 countries produced 39. and other stresses. which include springs and shock absorbers. also known as SUVs. direction and speed. see Automobile Industry. electricity. cool it produces mechanical power that is transmitted to the automobile’s wheels through a during operation. Minivans are van-style vehicles built on a passenger car frame that can usually carry up to eight passengers. Safety features such as bumpers. and seat belts help protect occupants in an accident. For information on the business of making cars. The automobile is built around an engine. Steering and braking systems provide control over controls many aspects of the vehicle’s operation. Suspension systems. air bags. lubricate its moving parts. when rotated by powered axles. An electrical system starts and operates the engine. a differential gear.5 million passenger cars. heavy loads.or trucks. one or more driveshafts. cushion the ride and Wheels and tires support the vehicle on the roadway and. solar energy. or fuels derived from methanol (wood alcohol) and . but some engines use diesel ethanol (grain alcohol).3 million passenger vehicles were produced in North America in 2001. natural gas. Various systems supply the engine with fuel. axles. depending on their size and design. About 7. are more rugged than passenger cars and are designed for driving in mud or snow. fuel. monitors and propel the vehicle forward or backward.
A rod connects the bottom of pivot. Fuel vapor enters and exhaust gases leave the combustion chamber through openings in the cylinder head controlled by valves. a carburetor deliver fuel vapor from the gas tank to the engine cylinders. The block is manufactured with internal and formed with a set of round cylinders. permitting the starter A Engine The basic components of an internal-combustion engine are the engine block. cylinders. Bolted to the top of the block. The rotating crankshaft move up and down. The lower part of the engine. houses the cylinders. The motor to disengage from the flywheel. The components of other engine passageways for lubricants and coolant. Pistons compress air and fuel against the cylinder head prior to ignition. Lubricated bearings enable both ends of the connecting rod to The top of the piston forms the floor of the combustion chamber. Engine blocks are made of cast iron or aluminum alloy The upper part of the engine is the cylinder head. pistons. The typical engine valve is a metal shaft with a disk at one . depending on how much fuel is delivered to the cylinders. The fuel mixture explodes. engine block. crankshaft. which in turn causes the engine’s crankshaft to revolve. transferring the piston’s vertical motion into the crankshaft’s rotational force. creating hot expanding gases that push the pistons down the cylinders and cause the crankshaft to rotate. and camshaft. pistons. it seals the tops of the cylinders. called the systems bolt or attach to the engine block. which are solid cylinders that fit snugly inside the engine’s hollow cylinders. or combusts. An electric current flows through a spark plug to ignite the vapor. causes pistons. crankshaft is now rotating via the up-and-down motion of the pistons. Fuel-injection systems or. or torque. cylinder head. valves. the piston to the crankshaft. The starter motor turns a disk known as a flywheel. to The pistons compress the vapor inside the cylinders. The pistons’ motion rotates the crankshaft at speeds ranging from about 600 to thousands of revolutions per minute (rpm).Most gasoline engines work in the following way: Turning the ignition key operates a switch that sends electricity from a battery to a starter motor. in older cars. and crankshaft.
HEVs have higher fuel efficiency and emit .or diesel-powered engine. Outlet valves open to let exhaust gases out. Some cars have rotary engines. 3. fit into a shorter. space. and use more fuel. In-line configurations of six or eight cylinders require long engine compartments found more often in trucks than in cars. belt. instead of pistons. By relying more on electricity and less on fuel combustion. or chain links the camshaft to the crankshaft. and more cylinders. A gear wheel. Inlet valves open to allow fuel to enter the combustion chambers. which rotates a driveshaft. which have one or more elliptical chambers in which triangular-shaped rotors. two rows of cylinders are set at an angle to form a V. the intake and outlet valves close B Engine Types The blocks in most internal-combustion engines are in-line designs or V designs. but car Diesel engines. increase. The other end of the shaft is mechanically linked to a camshaft. 6-. but they have a different ignition system. 5. A typical hybrid is an electric motor with batteries that are recharged by a generator run by a small gas. Another engine design that fits into shorter. a round rod with odd-shaped lobes located inside the engine block or in the cylinder head. the shaft that transmits engine power to the axles. In a V design. lobes on the camshaft cause valves to open and close at precise tightly to direct the force of the explosion downward on the piston. When fuel vapor ignites. In-line designs are arranged so that the cylinders stand upright in a single line over the crankshaft.end fitted to block the opening. or flat. are similar to gasoline internal-combustion engines. moments in the engine’s cycle. The V design allows the same number of cylinders to spaces is a horizontally opposed. These hybrids are known as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). although wider. or 8-cylinder engines. At the bottom of the V is the crankshaft. Electric power supplied by batteries runs the motor. producing temperatures hot enough to ignite Electric motors have been used to power automobiles since the late 1800s. 12. with greater force than a gasoline engine does. rotate. Most modern vehicles in the United States have 4-. also known as Wankel engines. When the crankshaft forces the camshaft to turn. common in large trucks or buses. shallower Engines become more powerful. available in the 1980s. Diesels compress air inside the cylinders the diesel fuel on contact. General Motors Corporation introduced a mass-production all-electric Automobiles that combine two or more types of engines are called hybrids. arrangement in which the crankshaft lies between two rows of cylinders. Commercial electric car models for specialized purposes were car in the mid-1990s. as the size and number of cylinders engines have been designed with 1. 2.
. Several automakers have experimented with hybrids. called the intake manifold. Ltd. A vacuum created by the downward strokes of pistons draws air through the carburetor and intake The intake manifold delivers the fuel vapor to the cylinders. It mixes fuel with air at the head of a pipe. and pollution control. and more consistent than a openings to the combustion chambers. the Honda Insight. the airflow transforms drops of fuel into a fine mist. Fuel is stored in a tank until it is needed. fuel and air in the cylinders’ combustion chambers. Fuel-injection systems vary widely.fewer pollutants. In 1997 Toyota Motor in Japan in 1997 and in North America in 2000.. to a fuel-injection system. the Prius. was offered by Honda Motor Co. in 1999. or vapor. Fuel injectors spray carefully calibrated bursts of fuel mist into cylinders either at or near the cylinders. It became available C Fuel Supply The internal-combustion engine is powered by the burning of a precise mixture of liquefied then pumped to a carburetor or. fuel injection is more precise. manifold. in newer cars. where it is ignited. Corporation became the first to mass-produce a hybrid vehicle. . engine responsiveness. gas mileage. easier to adjust. The first hybrid available for sale in North America. but most are operated or managed electronically. leading to the cylinders. Inside the carburetor. Since the exact quantity of gas needed is injected into carburetor. The carburetor controls the mixture of gas and air that travels to the engine. delivering better efficiency. All new cars produced today are equipped with fuel injection systems instead of carburetors.
In early engines. The sound waves from the electronic muffler collide with the exhaust sound waves and they cancel each other out. Chemical reactions inside the catalytic converter change most of the hazardous hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide produced by the engine into water vapor and carbon dioxide. Exhaust gases leave the engine in a pipe. which uses sensors to monitor the sound waves of the exhaust noise. that is. a liquid coolant circulates through the engine. The system generates sound waves 180 degrees out E Cooling and Heating System Combustion inside an engine produces temperatures high enough to melt cast iron. This unit uses engine heat to warm the interior of the passenger compartment and supply heat to the windshield defroster. Turbochargers are turbine-powered compressors run by pressurized exhaust gas. A pump sends the coolant from the engine to a radiator. A cooling system conducts this heat away from the engine’s cylinders and radiates it into the air. leaving only low-level heat to emerge from the tailpipe. Car manufacturers are experimenting with an electronic muffler. The conventional muffler is an enclosed metal tube packed with sound-deadening material. making it A second. In most automobiles today. Superchargers are compressors powered by the crankshaft. the coolant is a chemical solution effective in temperature extremes. engine noise. atmosphere and reduces. Some engines are air cooled. By increasing the air and fuel flow to the engine. The sound wave data are sent to a computer of phase with the engine noise. D Exhaust System The exhaust system carries exhaust gases from the engine’s combustion chamber to the traveling through a catalytic converter and a muffler before exiting through the tailpipe. In most automobiles. these features produce greater horsepower. called antifreeze that has a higher boiling point and lower freezing point than water. the coolant was water. Some contain partitions to help reduce engine noise.High-performance automobiles are often fitted with air-compressing equipment that increases an engine’s output. smaller radiator is fitted to all modern cars. that controls speakers near the tailpipe. Most conventional mufflers are round or oval-shaped with an inlet and outlet pipe at either end. or muffles. which transfers heat from the coolant to the air. they are designed so a flow of air can reach metal fins that conduct heat away from the cylinders. III DRIVETRAIN .
while low a and for climbing hills. As the engine’s crankshaft rotates. also known as the gearbox. standstill The transmission usually is located just behind the engine. By using gears of different sizes. Higher gears permit the car to travel faster. wheels make up the drivetrain. and axles. combinations of transmission gears pass the energy along to a driveshaft. A manual transmission has a gearbox from which the driver selects specific gears depending on road speed and engine load. transfers power from the engine to the driveshaft.The rotational force of the engine’s crankshaft turns other shafts and gears that eventually cause the drive wheels to rotate. The driveshaft causes axles to rotate and turn the wheels. a transmission alters the rotational speed and torque of the gears provide more power for starting a car from engine passed along to the driveshaft. automatic. The major parts of the drivetrain include the transmission. and continuously variable. differential gears. one A Transmission The transmission. The various components that link the crankshaft to the drive or more driveshafts. There are three basic transmission types: manual. although some automobiles were designed with a transmission mounted on the rear axle. Gears are selected with a shift lever located on the floor next .
to the driver or on the steering column. . Commercial applications have been limited to small engines. The clutch disk attaches to the transmission’s input shaft. An automatic transmission selects gears itself according to road conditions and the amount of load on the engine. Instead of a manual clutch. automatic transmissions use a hydraulic torque converter to transfer engine power to the transmission. Releasing the clutch pedal presses the two disks together. The transmission keeps the engine running at its most B Front. engine automobiles as early as 1900. or to all four wheels. In some vehicles. Instead of making distinct changes from one gear to the next. engine power is transmitted by the transmission to the front wheels. all-wh eel drive. The driver presses on the clutch to disengage the transmission from the engine to permit a change of gears. The wheels receiving power are called drive wheels: They propel the vehicle forward or backward. a continuously variable transmission uses belts and pulleys to smoothly slide the gear ratio up or down. Most automobiles either are frontwheel or rear-wheel drive. It presses against a circular plate attached to the engine’s flywheel. others feature full-time. When the driver presses down on the clutch pedal to shift gears. transferring torque from the engine to the transmission. Continuously variable transmissions appeared on machinery during the 19th century and on a few smallefficient speed by more precisely matching the gear ratio to the situation. a mechanical lever called a clutch fork and a device called a throwout bearing separate the two disks. four-wheel drive is an option the driver selects for certain road conditions.and Rear-Wheel Drive Depending on the vehicle’s design. the rear wheels.
contains springs that move up and down to absorb bumps and vibrations. Older automobiles were equipped with one-piece front axles attached to the frame with semielliptic leaf springs. and air. Shock absorbers control. The driveshaft connects the transmission’s allow it to rotate as the axles move up and down over the road surface. luxury sedans. the driveshaft runs under the car to a differential gear at the rear axle. Each not transferred across a common axle to the other wheel or the rest of the car. shock absorbers and other devices to protect the auto body and passenger compartment from A Suspension System The suspension system. without a system of severe bumps and bounces. so the shock of one wheel hitting a bump is suspensions for automobiles and heavier vehicles use rigid axles with coil or leaf springs. gas. IV SUPPORT SYSTEMS Automobiles would deliver jolting rides. In one type of suspension system. Many rear-axle However. . or a Luxury sedans generally have a soft suspension for comfortable riding. Modern shock absorbers have a telescoping design and use oil. Front wheels on wheel has its own axle and suspension supports. a long tube. or strut. Sports cars and sportutility vehicles have firmer suspensions to improve cornering ability and control over rough terrain.The differential is a gear assembly in an axle that enables each powered wheel to turn at different speeds when the vehicle makes a turn. One shock absorber is installed at combination to absorb energy. Sensors. a pump. the differential is on the front axle and the connections to the transmission are much shorter. has a shock absorber built into its center section. part of the undercarriage of an automobile. and hydraulic cylinders. Four-wheel-drive vehicles have drive shafts and differentials for both axles. the sudden loading and unloading of suspension springs to reduce wheel bounce and each wheel. wheel suspension systems. In front-wheel drive. much like the arrangement on horse-drawn buggies. output shaft to a differential gear in the axle. or the shock transferred from the road wheels to the body. Universal joints at both ends of the driveshaft In rear-wheel drive. and sports cars feature independent rear- Active suspensions are computer-controlled adjustments of the downward force of each wheel as the vehicle corners or rides over uneven terrain. advanced passenger cars. dampen. especially on unpaved roads. modern cars roll independently of each other on half-shafts instead of on a common axle.
first patented in 1845. traction and strength are primary requirements. fit on the outside rims of the wheels. and more expensive. Tire treads come in several varieties to match V CONTROL SYSTEMS A driver controls the automobile’s motion by keeping the wheels pointed in the desired direction. and by stopping or slowing the speed at which the wheels rotate. so driving conditions. more impact absorbent. which adjusts the amount of fuel fed . These controls are made possible by the steering and braking systems. Tires help smooth out the ride and provide the automobile’s only contact with the road. enable the vehicle to lean into corners and compensate for the dips and dives that accompany emergency stops and rapid acceleration. Aluminum wheels are lighter. Pneumatic (air-filled) rubber tires.all monitored and controlled by computer. vehicle’s speed with the transmission and the gas pedal. In addition. Automobile wheels generally are made of steel or aluminum. B Wheels and Tires Wheels support the vehicle’s weight and transfer torque to the tires from the drivetrain and braking systems. the driver controls the to the engine.
Since the drum and wheel rotate together. known as the shoe. Introduced in the 1980s. The first automobile brakes were much like those on horse-drawn wagons. although a few automobile types have The tie-rod insures that the turning of one wheel is matched by a corresponding turn in the other. Disk brakes. securely park the car. called drum brakes. or metal. With sufficient pressure. A brake system with shoes that pressed against the inside of a drum fitted to the wheel. gears or other devices convert the rotating motion of the steering wheel into a horizontal force that turns the wheels. in which friction pads clamp down on both sides of a disk attached to the axle. were in use by the 1950s. friction applied by linings. the driver pressed a block of friction between the wheel and the brake shoe caused the vehicle to slow down or stop. requiring less effort by the driver. Hydraulically assisted braking was introduced in the 1920s. and a hydraulic pump to stop the automobile’s forward motion without locking the wheels and putting the vehicle into a skid. against the wheel rims. When a driver turns the steering wheel. sensors. Automobiles are also equipped with a hand-operated brake used for emergencies and to foot pedal sets the brake. An antilock braking system (ABS) uses a computer. augment that force. greatly extending the life of the brake the shoes inside the drum slowed or stopped the wheel. Electric power steering uses an electric B Brakes Brakes enable the driver to slow or stop the moving vehicle. all-wheel steering. or mechanism. Another method was to use a lever to clamp a strap or brake shoes tightly around the driveshaft. Manual steering relies only on the force exerted by the driver to turn the wheels. Cotton and leather shoe coverings.A Steering Automobiles are steered by turning the front wheels. ABS helps the driver maintain better control over the car during emergency stops and while braking on slippery surfaces. appeared in 1903. Conventional power steering uses hydraulic pressure. Depending on the steering mechanism. were replaced by asbestos after 1908. to motor instead of hydraulic pressure. the mechanical action rotates a steering shaft inside the steering column. By pulling a lever. operated by the pressure or movement of a liquid. wood. Pulling on a lever or pushing down on a . especially on uneven terrain. Most steering systems link the front wheels together by means of a tie-rod. leather.
significantly increase the current’s voltage. battery stores electricity for starting the car. The distributor’s housing contains a switch called the breaker . There are many variations. but 12 volts became standard after World War II (1939-1945) to operate the growing number of electrical accessories. The Early automotive electrical systems ran on 6 volts. The alternator generates electric current while the engine is running. recharging the battery and powering the rest of the car’s electrical needs. Eventually. horn. a distributor. In older vehicles. then deliver it to spark plugs that project into the combustion chambers. windshield wipers. but all gasoline-engine ignition systems draw electric current from the battery. which is an electrical switching device. An electric arc between two electrodes at the bottom of the spark plug ignites the fuel vapor. turn signals. A battery and an alternator supply electricity. 24automobiles. routes high-voltage current to the spark plugs.VI ELECTRICAL SYSTEM The automobile depends on electricity for fuel ignition. headlights. and other accessories. or 48-volt systems may become the standard as more computers and electronics are built into A Ignition System The ignition system supplies high-voltage current to spark plugs to ignite fuel vapor in the cylinders. radio.
At impact. Some car models are equipped with shoulder-restraint An air bag is a high-speed inflation device hidden in the hub of the steering wheel or in the or seats. which mechanically routes it through wires to spark plugs. and protective beams in the doors to help protect passengers from side impacts. while others can Modern vehicles feature crumple zones. Over the years. located in doors cushion between the occupant and the vehicle’s interior. withstand 8-km/h (5-mph) collisions with no damage. The distributor and other devices control the In modern ignition systems. VII SAFETY FEATURES Manufacturers continue to build lighter vehicles with improved structural rigidity and ability to protect the driver and passengers during collisions. Eventually. Seat belt and upper-body restraints that relax to permit comfort but tighten automatically belts that slide into position automatically when the car’s doors close.000 volts or more. Air bags first appeared in the midsold in the United States. the bag inflates almost instantaneously. coil. available as an optional accessory. Passenger compartments overturns. The inflated bag creates a dash on the passenger’s side. The coil uses electromagnetic induction (see Electricity: Electromagnetism) to convert interruptions of the 12-volt current into surges of 20. portions of the automobile designed to absorb forces on many vehicles also have reinforced roll bar structures in the roof. producing a spark that ignites the gas vapor in the cylinders. Today they are installed on all new passenger cars . bumpers became stylish and. not strong enough to survive minor collisions without expensive repairs. points. in some cases. Some automobiles have side-impact air bags. 1970s. A condenser absorbs excess current and protects the breaker timing of the spark-plug discharges.points. Bumpers evolved as rails or bars to protect the front and rear of the car’s body from damage in minor collisions.5-mph) collisions with no damage. during an impact are now common. A rotating shaft in the distributor causes the switch to open and close. points from damage by the high-voltage surge. and condenser have been replaced by solid-state electronics controlled by a computer. government regulations required bumpers designed to withstand low-speed collisions with less damage. in case the vehicle that otherwise would be transmitted to the passenger compartment. A computer controls the ignition system and adjusts it to provide maximum efficiency in a variety of driving conditions. This high-voltage current passes back to the distributor. Some bumpers can withstand 4-km/h (2. the distributor. interrupting the supply of low-voltage current to a transformer called a coil.
French engineer Onésiphore Pecqueur built one in 1828. As early as 1801 successful but very heavy steam automobiles were introduced in England. until 1932. Manufacturers produced about 125 models of steam-powered automobiles.573 mph). Horse-drawn stagecoach companies and the new railroad vehicles. Steam power caught the attention of other vehicle builders. Cugnot’s three-wheeled. models had been developed. The tolls quickly drove the steam coach operators out of business. Most famous was the Stanley Steamer. including the creation of a wheel that turned under its own power. Stanley. By the 1600s small steam-powered engine vehicle was created. In 1804 American inventor Oliver Evans built a steampowered vehicle in Chicago. yet VIII HISTORY The history of the automobile actually began about 4.000 years ago when the first wheel was the interaction of the two cultures led to a variety of new technologies.Air bags inflate with great force. Illinois. In the early 15th century the Portuguese arrived in China and In 1769 French Army officer Captain Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built what has been called the first automobile. companies pressured the British Parliament to approve heavy tolls on steam-powered road During the early 20th century steam cars were popular in the United States. which occasionally endangers a child or infant passenger. Some newer automobile models are equipped with switches to disable the passenger-side air research ways to make air-bag systems less dangerous for frail and small passengers. In 1802 a steam-powered coach designed by British engineer Richard Trevithick Laws barred them from public roads and forced their owners to run them like trains on private journeyed more than 160 km (100 mi) from Cornwall to London.2 km/h (2 mph) and had to stop every 20 minutes to build up a fresh head of steam. By the mid-1800s England had an extensive network of steam coach lines. built by American twin brothers Freelan and Francis Stanley. tracks. Designed to move artillery pieces. including the A Internal-Combustion Engine . Automakers continue to effective in collisions. steam-powered vehicle carried four persons.44 km/h (121. but it was another century before a full-sized engine-powered used for transportation in India. bags when a child or infant is traveling in the passenger seat. British inventor Walter Handcock built a series of steam carriages in the mid-1830s that were used for the first omnibus service in London. A Stanley Steamer established a world land speed record in 1906 of 205. it had a top speed of a little more than 3.
In 1891 this first Peugeot automobile paced a 1. Fiat . and the car body. in 1885. The company’s first model was a gasoline-powered buggy steered by a tiller. in stroke three the vapor explodes and the hot gases push the pistons cylinders. German engineer onto a bicycle. but less efficiently and with more exhaust emissions. Instead of installing the engine under the seats. Engines with two or more cylinders are designed so combustion occurs in one steps.046-km (650-mi) professional bicycle race between Paris and Brest. including Renault. down the cylinders. Other French (Fabbrica Italiana Automobili di Torino) began building cars in 1899. In France. In Italy. Two-stroke engines accomplish the same Automobile manufacturing began in earnest in Europe by the late 1880s. French bicycle manufacturer Armand Peugeot saw the Panhard-Levassor car and designed an automobile using a similar Daimler engine. as other car designers had done. they were called internal-combustion engines. Two years later. The joint company makes cars today under the Mercedes-Benz nameplate (see DaimlerChrysler AG). Pennsylvania. a carriage propelled by a two-cylinder gasoline engine. Panhard-Levassor also introduced a clutch and gears. or underlying structure of the car. Karl successful car manufacturing company. In 1860 French inventor Jean-Joseph-Étienne Lenoir patented a one-cylinder engine that used kerosene for fuel. in stroke two. Another German engineer. and separate construction of the chassis.4 km/h (about 4 mph).Development of lighter steam cars during the 19th century coincided with major developments in engines that ran on gasoline or other fuels. automobile manufacturers opened shop in the late 1800s. a vehicle powered by Lenoir’s engine reached a top speed of about 6. In 1887 they manufactured their first car. In 1864 Austrian inventor Siegfried Marcus built and drove internal-combustion engine that was displayed at the 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia. produced his first gasoline car in 1886. the most direct ancestor to today’s automobile engines. American George Brayton patented an In 1876 German engineer Nikolaus August Otto built a four-stroke gas engine. The Daimler Motor Company. Benz. the pistons move up to compress the vapor. In a four-stroke engine the pistons move down to draw fuel vapor into the cylinder during stroke one. In 1890 Daimler and Maybach started a Gottlieb Daimler and German inventor Wilhelm Maybach mounted a gasoline-powered engine which included a steering tiller and a four-speed gearbox. Because the newer engines burned fuel in cylinders inside the engine. creating a motorcycle. the company introduced the design of a front-mounted engine under the hood. which eventually merged with Benz’s manufacturing firm in 1926 to create Daimler-Benz. and in stroke four the pistons move up to push exhaust gases out of the cylinder after the other instead of in all at once. a company called Panhard-Levassor began making cars in 1894 using Daimler’s patents.
In 1896 he used an engine to power a vehicle mounted on bicycle wheels and steered by a tiller. Electric automobiles were manufactured in quantity in the United States IX AUTOMOBILES IN THE 20TH CENTURY For many years after the introduction of automobiles.170 were steam cars. 800 were electric cars. Most electric cars had needed recharging. 1. a American industrialist Henry Ford built an internal-combustion engine from plans he saw in a B Early Electric Cars For a few decades in the 1800s. Ford and most other royalties for Ford-manufactured engines. looked much like a Panhard-Levassor model. three kinds of power sources were in common use: steam engines. After eight years of court battles. connected the batteries to a motor between the front and rear axles. Selden sued when Ford refused to pay 1911 that Selden’s patent applied only to two-stroke engines. Of these. But development of gasoline cars in the early 1900s was hindered in the United States by legal battles over a patent obtained by New York lawyer George B.American automobile builders were not far behind. Illinois. He then designed a similar one and obtained a broad patent that for many years was interpreted to apply to all gasoline engines for automobiles. Boston. In 1893 magazine. Henry Ford believed Selden’s patent was invalid. By 1899 an km/h (65. . gasoline engines. he collected royalties from those who did. electric car designed and driven by Belgian inventor Camille Jenatzy set a record of 105. the courts ruled in manufacturers were using four-stroke engines. four-horsepower model. electric engines enjoyed great popularity because they were quiet and ran at slow speeds that were less likely to scare horses and people. and electric motors. The first Duryea.79 mph). Frank Duryea built several gas-powered vehicles between 1893 and 1895.300 automobiles were registered in New York City. Massachusetts. and Chicago. Although Selden did not manufacture engines or automobiles. but could go only 80 km (50 mi) before their batteries until 1930. and only 400 were gasoline cars. Heavy cables top speeds of 48 km/h (30 mph). In 1900 more than 2. so Selden could not charge them royalties. Selden saw a gasoline engine at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition in 1876. Selden.8810 Early electric cars featured a large bank of storage batteries under the hood. Gasoline-powered engines eventually became the nearly universal choice for automobiles because they allowed longer trips and faster speeds than engines powered by steam or electricity. Brothers Charles Edgar Duryea and James one-cylinder.
and mechanically operated From 1930 to 1937. By 1907.Improvements in the operating and riding qualities of gasoline automobiles developed quickly after 1900. watercooled. very similar in design to most cars today. which introduced its first automobile. vehicle. An electric self-starter was introduced in 1911 to replace the hand crank used to start the engine turning. and each model was named Ford’s famous Model T debuted in 1908 but was called a 1909 Ford. Ford’s share of the domestic automobile market had soared to 35 percent. windshield wipers. Independent front suspension. heaters. The passenger compartment was behind the engine. balloon tires. automobile engines and bodies became large and luxurious. Improvements in engine-powered cars during the 1920s contributed to their popularity: synchromesh transmissions for easier gear shifting. the Model A. Automobiles on both sides of the . automotive steering wheels were on the left in the United States. Popularly known as the Tin Lizzy. the Model T became one of production of the model in 1927. the assembly-line method of building it. Electric headlights were introduced at about the same time. Ford sold more than 15 million before stopping the cars was widely adopted in the automobile industry. Most automobiles at the turn of the 20th century appeared more or less like horseless carriages. Two kerosene or acetylene lamps mounted to the front served as headlights. which made the big cars more braking systems. which was hardly surprising since Ford had designed cars the previous year for the Cadillac Motor Car with a letter of the alphabet.771 Model the biggest-selling automobiles of all time. The company’s innovative assembly-line method of building By 1920 more than 8 million Americans owned cars. improved carburetors. T’s and offered nine body styles. Cars had fenders that covered the wheels and step-up platforms called running boards. The 1902 Locomobile was the first American car with a four-cylinder. Although drivers of horse-drawn In 1903 Henry Ford incorporated the Ford Motor Company. comfortable. more reliable Mercedes introduced the world’s first diesel car in 1936. In these new models. four-wheel hydraulic brake systems. appeared in 1933. Many 12- and 16-cylinder cars were built. Major reasons for the surge in automobile ownership were Ford’s Model T. Built-in baggage compartments appeared in 1906. front-mounted gasoline engine. which developed more horsepower. which helped passengers get in and out of the vehicles usually sat on the right. and higher-compression engines. shatterproof glass. Ford built 17. along with weather resistant tops and side curtains. and the affordability of cars for the ordinary wage earner. Ford’s company rolled out new car models each year. Also introduced during the 1930s were stronger. when models R and S appeared. Company. In 1906 gasoline-powered cars were produced that had a style all their own. in that same year. It closely resembled the 1903 Cadillac. a hood covered the front-mounted engine.
some weighing as much as 2. In America. In the 1950s new automotive features were introduced. long hoods. and Hudson Motor Car Company. and the automatic transmission were introduced. which gave better engine performance and more reliable operation of the growing number of electrical accessories. smaller in overall size than a standard car but with virtually the same interior body dimensions. and its new styling was so well accepted the car continued in production virtually unchanged for three years. it did not attract buyers on a large scale until 1958. The Europeans continued to produce small. aerodynamic automobiles. automobile designers borrowed features for their cars that were normally found on aircraft and ships. Styling sometimes prevailed over practicality—some cars were built in even the least expensive models. The first Japanese imports. Automatic transmissions. power brakes. one on each side of the Atlantic. Nash. including tailfins and portholes. offered postwar designs that merged fenders into the bodywork. arrived in buying the Beetle and other small imports by the thousands. 16 compact trucks. Introduction of power steering and power brakes made bigger cars easier to handle. more power. but the majority of designs still had separate fenders with pontoon shapes holding headlight assemblies.800 lb). That prompted a downsizing of some American-made vehicles. Automobiles were produced that had more space. The first import by German manufacturer Volkswagen AG. Some of the first vehicles to fully incorporate the fender into the bodywork came along just after World War II. tubeless tires. Two schools of styling emerged in the 1950s. American cars were built smaller.495 kg (5. Cadillac Automobile Company. By 1960 sales of foreign and domestic compacts accounted for about one-third of all passenger cars sold in the United States. The 1949 Ford was a landmark in this respect.Atlantic were styled with gracious proportions. sealed-beam headlights. including air conditioning and electrically operated car windows and seat adjusters. Only two were sold that year. but with increased engine size and horsepower. advertised as the Beetle. but American consumers soon began compacts. During the 1940s. Ford. Creative artistry merged with industrial design to produce appealing. and pontoon-shaped fenders. Olds Motor Vehicle Company (Oldsmobile). Introduced in 1950. and power steering . light cars weighing less than 1. selling more than 3 million. The first American car called a compact was the Nash Rambler. Manufacturers changed from the 6-volt to the 12-volt ignition system. emerged from the factories of many major manufacturers. and smoother riding capability. Three companies.500 lb). European sports cars of that era featured hand-fashioned aluminum bodies over a steel chassis and framework. Heating and ventilating systems became standard equipment on became widespread. and Ford all built enormous cars.300 kg (2. The Buick Motor Car Company. More the United States in 1949. arrived in the United States in 1956.
electric. More buyers chose the smaller. no carbon dioxide. Hydrogen combustion produces only a trace of harmful emissions. In 1981 Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW) introduced an on3. a cartel of oil-producing countries. the bigger sedans that led their product lines. Diesel engines burn fuel more efficiently. but they are noisy. . and less pollution. and weak consumer interest. in passenger cars. Japanese manufacturers opened plants in the United States. At the same time. driving up the price of gasoline. The California Air Resources Board required companies with the largest market shares to begin selling vehicles that were pollution free—in other words. 1980s. board computer to monitor engine performance. cut back on sales to other countries.000 km (1. but Japanese and European compacts continued During this period. SunRaycer. diesel engines are only a small portion of the automobile market. quieter diesel engine introduced by Volkswagen in 1996 may pave the way for more diesels. The allelectric cars introduced so far have been limited by low range. created when the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).864 mi) in Australia in six days. compacts were getting as much as 35 mpg. Back seats were designed with no legroom. and produce fewer pollutants. Large cars were getting as little as 8 miles per gallon (mpg). the auto industry was hurt by the energy crisis. like changing the spark plugs. traveled X NEW TECHNOLOGIES Pollution-control laws adopted at the beginning of the 1990s in some of the United States and in Europe called for automobiles that produced better gas mileage with lower emissions. long recharges. sporty Advances in automobile technology in the 1980s included better engine control and the use of innovative types of fuel. more fuel-efficient Digital speedometers and electronic prompts to service parts of the vehicle appeared in the cars and family minivans surged in popularity. to California buyers. In the 1970s American manufacturers continued to offer smaller. lighter models in addition to to sell well. In 1996 General Motors became the first to begin selling an all-electric car. Catalytic converters were introduced to help reduce exhaust emissions. and a water-vapor by-product.which the engines had to be lifted to allow simple service operations. A redesigned. Engines that run on hydrogen have been tested. Popular in trucks and heavy vehicles. A solar-powered vehicle. However. the EV1. while imported imports. technical problems related to the gas’s density and flammability remain to be solved. The price of crude oil skyrocketed.
In many models. They adjust the antilock conditioning and heating. a computer in the automobile can pinpoint the compass. Insight debuted in North America in late 1999. Prius hit automobile showrooms in Japan in 1997. the sound system. Future built-in computer systems may be used to automatically obtain business information During the 1980s and 1990s. and exhaust-emission levels. Cars equipped with computers and cellular telephones can link to the Internet to obtain constantly updated traffic reports. route directions. such as . Both vehicles. Further reductions plastics. known as hybrid electric vehicles Computer control of automobile systems increased dramatically during the 1990s. aluminum alloys. digitized maps. in vehicle size are not practical. Two automobiles with such hybrid engines. Less weight. Microprocessors regulating other systems share data with the CPU. By using the vehicle’s location within a few meters. enabling a GPS system operator to locate the vehicle.While some developers searched for additional alternatives. doubled the gas mileage obtained by the average new car between 1974 and 1995. The onboard navigation system uses an electronic satellite-aided global positioning system (GPS). manufacturers trimmed 450 kg (1. coupled with more efficient engines. the computer locates it Some cars now come equipped with GPS locator beacons. and if necessary. offering alternative routes if needed. others investigated ways to combine electricity with liquid fuels to produce low-emissions power systems. development of stronger and lighter materials. and the information displayed in the vehicle’s Expanded use of computer technology. In the 1980s the reality. The Prius became available for sale in North America in 2000. Computers manage fuel braking and traction control systems. promised to double the fuel efficiency of conventional gasoline-powered cars while significantly reducing toxic emissions. destination the driver wants to reach. selling 30. The central processing unit (CPU) in modern engines manages overall engine performance. by the 1990s it had become Onboard navigation was one of the new automotive technologies in the 1990s. weather information. and other data.000 lb) from the weight of the typical car by making cars smaller. and air mixture ratios. the Toyota Prius and the Honda Insight. and a display screen showing where the vehicle is relative to the and directs the driver to it. in the engine and the rest of the vehicle. ignition timing. so the emphasis has shifted to using lighter materials.000 models in its first two years of production. direct repair or emergency workers to the scene. “smarter” automobiles. and carbon composites. After being told the destination. notion that a car would “talk” to its driver was science fiction. The Honda (HEVs). and research on pollution control will produce better. over the Internet and manage personal affairs while the vehicle’s owner is driving. computers also control the air dashboard. map its location. became available in the late 1990s.
engineers are devising ways to reduce driver errors and poor driving habits. the car’s brakes automatically slow the warn drivers when another vehicle is in their “blind spot. The technology may be expanded to new vehicles. Anticollision systems with sensors and warning signals are being developed. transmitting motion from one shaft to another. with suitably rotating motion.” vehicle if it is following another vehicle too closely. Gearing is chiefly used to transmit rotating motion. New infrared sensors or radar systems may Catalytic converters work only when they are warm. or heat the converters more rapidly. but can. a wheel with teeth cut across its edge parallel to the axis. Spur gears transmit rotating motion between two shafts or other parts with parallel axes. At one time various mechanisms were collectively called gearing. Systems already exist in some locales to prevent intoxicated drivers from starting their vehicles. Now. meshing teeth. Gear I INTRODUCTION Gear. If . In simple spur gearing. Two or more gears. however. the word gearing is used only to describe systems of wheels or cylinders with constitute a gear train. the driven shaft revolves in the opposite direction to the driving shaft. and vice versa. so most of the pollution they emit occurs in the first few minutes of operation. Engineers are working on ways to keep the converters warm for longer periods between drives. In some. be employed to transform reciprocating motion into II SIMPLE GEARS The simplest gear is the spur gear.Looking ahead. toothed wheel or cylinder used to transmit rotary or reciprocating motion from one part of a machine to another. designed gears and flat-toothed sectors.
also called the screw gear. across the teeth of the driven gear instead of exerting a direct rolling pressure. or herringbone. gears. Worm gears differ from helical gears in that the teeth of the worm slide are used chiefly to transmit rotation. Hypoid gears are helical bevel gears employed when the axes of the two shafts are perpendicular but do not intersect. A rack. and a 20-tooth Internal. a small gear with few teeth. By using a train of several gears.rotation in the same direction is desired. Worm gears . gears are variations of the spur gear in which the teeth are cut on the driven by a pinion. or annular. Simple helical gearing has shafts. the bevel gears used are called miter gears. which have V-shaped teeth composed of half a right-handed helical tooth and half a left-handed helical tooth. inside of a ring or flanged wheel rather than on the outside. or vice versa. Such gears are suitable for heavy loads because the gear teeth come the disadvantage of producing a thrust that tends to move the gears along their respective together at an acute angle rather than at 90° as in spur gearing. A worm gear is a long. an idler gear is placed between the driving gear and the driven gear. operates like a gear wheel with an infinite radius and can be used to transform Bevel gears are employed to transmit rotation between shafts that do not have parallel axes. from one shaft to another at a 90° angle. One of the most common uses of hypoid gearing is to rotation between shafts that are not parallel is often incorrectly called spiral gearing. thin cylinder that has one or more continuous helical teeth that mesh with a helical gear. III HELICAL GEARS These have teeth that are not parallel to the axis of the shaft but are spiraled around the shaft in the form of a helix. Helical gearing used to transmit Another variation of helical gearing is provided by the worm gear. When the angle between the rotating shafts is 90°. These gears have cone-shaped bodies and straight teeth. In any form of gearing the speed of the driven shaft depends on the number of teeth in each gear. The idler revolves in the opposite direction to the driving gear and therefore turns the driven gear in the same direction as the driving gear. This thrust can be avoided by using double helical. toothed bar that moves in a the rotation of a pinion to reciprocating motion. a flat. the ratio of driving to driven speed may be varied within wide limits. driving a gear with 20 teeth will revolve twice as fast as the gear it is driving. with a large reduction in speed. A gear with 10 teeth gear driving a 10-tooth gear will revolve at half the speed. connect the drive shaft and the rear axle in automobiles. Internal gears usually drive or are straight line.
II MECHANISMS . is usually intended to be kept in one place. which is larger than a watch. as well as indicators to register the lapse of time units. Both types of timepieces require a source of power and a means of transmitting and controlling it.Clocks and Watches I INTRODUCTION Clocks and Watches. a watch is designed to be carried or worn. devices used to measure or indicate the passage of time. A clock.
In such a clock. The motive force generated by the power source in a mechanical clock is transmitted by a gear train and regulated by a pendulum or a balance and is registered visually by the rotation of wheels bearing numerals or by the position of wheel. The quartz-crystal clock developed in 1929 for precision timekeeping employs a ring of quartz that is connected to an electrical circuit and made to oscillate between 10. and thus made to . such as lifting the weight or tightening the spring. the source of power may be produced by weight. reduced to a frequency more convenient for time measurement. A mechanical watch uses a coiled spring as its power source. As in spring-powered clocks. are needed. a small motor runs in unison with the power- station generator. Except in electric or electronic clocks. a mainspring.In a clock. periodic adjustments. In electric or electronic clocks. The high-frequency oscillation is converted to an alternating current. the watch conserves energy by means of a gear train.000 hertz (cycles per second). In self-winding watches. the mainspring is tightened automatically by means of a weight III ELECTRIC TIMEPIECES In the electric clocks used in homes today. the time may be reported audibly by the striking of a gong or chime hands on a dial. or an electric current. which is regulated to deliver an alternating current of precisely 60 cycles per second. Electric currents may also be used to keep the movements of several “slave” clocks synchronized with the pendulum in a master clock.000 and 100. time may be shown by a display of numbers. with a balance wheel regulating the motive on a rotor that responds to the arm movements of the wearer. force.
These portable instruments are mounted on a box chronometer is a precision watch regulated in different positions and at various temperatures Another precision timekeeper is the chronograph. The battery may drive the balance wheel of an otherwise mechanical clock. or stopwatch. The maximum error of the most accurate quartz-crystal clocks is plus or minus one second in ten years. which determines pulse rate. The electric or electronic watch is powered by a small battery that functions for about one year without replacement. including the telemeter. which indicates the number of products made in a given time. in 1761 by English horologist John Harrison. shows elapsed time without providing the time of day. a form of chronograph used in athletic contests. or it may be used to drive the oscillations of either a small tuning fork or a quartz crystal. Various forms of chronographs exist. which not only provides accurate time but also registers elapsed time in fractions of a second. which measures speed of rotation. IV CHRONOMETERS Carefully constructed mechanical timepieces known as chronometers are precision devices used by navigators in the determination of their longitude at sea and by astronomers and jewelers for calibrating measuring devices. and the production counter. The V ATOMIC CLOCKS . which measures the distance of an object from the observer. The modern wrist and certified by testing bureaus in Switzerland.drive the motor of a synchronous clock or a digital display. The first successful chronometer was constructed on gimbals so as to maintain the delicate movements in a level position. the pulsometer. the tachometer. timer.
The frequency of the microwave radiation is then used to determine the period of the microwave. the The cesium-atom clock is used to define the second. the basic unit of time of the International System of Units. corresponding period of the waves can be used as a standard to define time intervals.770 periods of radiation.The most precise timekeeping devices are atomic clocks. Their uses include measuring the systems such as the global positioning system in computing distances. Because the frequency of these waves is unaffected by external forces.631. The second is defined as the duration of 9.192. cesium-133 atoms in one hyperfine energy state are subjected to microwave radiation that is near the resonant frequency of the transition to another hyperfine energy state. Atomic clocks are tuned to the frequency of the electromagnetic waves that are emitted or absorbed when rotation of the earth. or hyperfine. The cesium-atom clock is very accurate and remains stable over long periods of one million years. In this clock. and aiding navigational certain atoms or molecules make the transition between two closely spaced. which may vary by 4 to 5 milliseconds per day. time. or the time interval between wave crests. energy states. The most stable cesium-atom clocks have an error of about plus or minus one second in . The microwave frequency is adjusted. many atoms make the transition to the new energy state. and when the correct frequency is reached.
Rubidium clocks are not as stable or as accurate as cesiumatom clocks. even to the inclusion of gearing in about 270 BC Eventually. When many atoms make the transition. are first forced to change their hyperfine energy state and are then subjected to microwave radiation to return them to their original state. by Greek inventor Ctesibius of Alexandria. The rubidium atoms. emitting energy in the form of an clock is very stable for several hours at a time. the correct transition frequency has been reached and the period of the wave can be used to measure time. The hydrogen clock and the ammonia clock rely on the maser principle. Devices almost as old as the shadow clock and sundial include the hourglass. In a hydrogen clock. A The Mechanical Clock The historical origin of the mechanical clock is obscure. a focused magnetic field selects hydrogen atoms in a specific hyperfine energy state. in which the flow of sand is used to measure time intervals. Ancient methods of measuring is still in existence. Throughout history. a time-measuring instrument was known as a horologium. These they begin to oscillate between the two states. a vertical stick or obelisk that casts a shadow. The hydrogen VI HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT BC. The name clock. dating from as far back as 3500 clock of the 8th century about the 3rd century BC shadow clock. time has been measured by the movement of the earth relative to the sun and stars.8 m (32 ft). or gnomon. The period of this emitted wave is used to measure time. When many atoms return to their original state. a weight falling under the force of gravity was substituted for the flow of water in time devices. The earliest type of timekeeper. The Henry De Vick of Württemberg for the royal palace (now the Palais de Justice) in Paris was . atoms are forced to change to a lower energy state. sense to the huge. The first recorded examples are found or hour teller. electromagnetic wave. mechanical time indicators installed in bell towers in the late Middle Ages. A clock built in the 14th century by powered by a 227-kg (500-lb) weight that descended a distance of 9. in which the flow of water indicates passage of time. or clepsydra. Clockworks were initially heavy.The rubidium clock uses the transition of the rubidium-87 atom between two hyperfine energy states.” was first applied in the present in the 14th century. anticipating the mechanical clock. Until that time. but they are more compact and less expensive. however. which originally meant “bell. The first hemispherical sundial was described burning a knotted rope and noting the length of time required for the fire to travel from one knot to the next. Clepsydras became more complicated. and the water clock. An Egyptian shadow BC was the hours in the absence of sunlight included the notched candle and the Chinese practice of by Chaldean astronomer Berossus. cumbersome devices. It employs the same basic principle as the cesium-atom clock.
to equalize the uneven pull of the spring. invented a fusee. clockmaking and its apprenticeship. first appeared on were introduced in the 18th century. Jeweled bearings to reduce friction and prolong the life of watchworks In the centuries that preceded the introduction of machine-made parts. which permitted the use in clocks of a pendulum with a small arc of oscillation. Other improvements that increased the accuracy of watches a lever escapement devised by British inventor Thomas Mudge about 1765. and Minute and second hands. British of compensating for variations in the length of a pendulum resulting from changes in temperature. is still in existence. Early clocks were highly ornamented. began producing portable timepieces known popularly as Nürnberg eggs. durable clocks and watches. known as isochronism. Jacob Zech of Prague. Clocks of that period had dials with only one hand. a locksmith in Nürnberg. craftsmanship of a high order was required to manufacture accurate. Many bore sculptured figures. and Switzerland also produced many fine artisans whose work was noted for beauty and a high degree of mechanical perfection. Germany. which indicated the nearest quarter hour. 17th-century watches. included a spiral hairspring. The Netherlands. A guild known as the Clockmakers Company. founded in D Decorative Clocks The clock was often a decorative as well as a useful instrument. invented about 1660 by Robert Hooke. Germany. or spiral pulley. In 1657 Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens showed how a pendulum could be used to regulate a clock. About 1500 Peter Henlein. This type of spring was used in Italy about 1450. B The Pendulum A series of inventions in the 17th and 18th centuries increased the accuracy of clockworks and the property of a pendulum. and crystals to protect both the dial and hands.apparatus for controlling its rate of fall was crude and the clock inaccurate. and clockworks were used in the towers of late . In 1525 another artisan. Galileo had described late in the 16th century constant. for the balance wheel. clockmaker George Graham improved the escapement. and John Harrison developed a means C Watches Watchworks were developed when coiled springs were introduced as a source of power. Ten years later English physicist Robert Hooke invented an escapement. stating that the period of the swing is reduced the weight and bulk of the mechanisms. Such local craft organizations as the Paris Guild of Clockmakers (1544) were organized to control the art of London in 1630.
which temporarily crippled American industry. and a clock was installed in Independence Hall in Philadelphia. which emerge and “sing” to tell the time. and it continues to be a popular ornamental clock. Connecticut. Pennsylvania. Swiss watchmaking by the 1850s had led to the development of a number of small factories and the foundation of earrings. however. Wristwatches became popular as watchworks became smaller. the manufacture of this watch was discontinued as a result of the During this period. which was. devised a rolled-brass clock movement that could be sold at a low price. Some early English clocks pendulum and weight exposed beneath a gear housing at the top of a tall cabinet. In the early 1800s. before the introduction of the pendulum clock. accuracy and durability. Simon Willard of Roxbury. a clock could be built in 1716 for the City Hall at Nassau and Wall streets. Chauncey Jerome of Bristol. containing carved wooden birds. In 1836 the Pitkin brothers of East Hartford. established a factory with a capacity of 200 units a year. or case. Such innovations. together with the . which required winding only once a day. The grandfather. Connecticut. by 1753. were made in the Black Forest of Germany as early as 1730 and are still popular. Massachusetts. with families manufacturing kept in a pocket. Cuckoo clocks. Because of the scarcity of metals. Some modern Swiss watchworks are tiny enough to fit into pencil ends or in VII PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES European clockmakers and watchmakers brought their skills and mechanical ingenuity to colonial America. In 1650. Beginning in watch parts at home to be assembled and sold by a master watchmaker. found in a Boston. Despite a reputation for depression of 1837. when Thomas Harland of Norwich. About the same time in American Revolution (1775-1783). and Eli Terry of Connecticut evolved a shelf clock called the Plymouth Hollow (now Thomaston). in the mid-20th century. Massachusetts. Switzerland became the center of a watchmaking industry. were made in the form of lanterns or birdcages. Watches were not produced in significant volume in the United States until about 1800. produced the first Americandesigned watch and the first containing a machine-made part. was designed before machine-cut gears were introduced. one of the largest clock factories in the world. particularly in the villages of the Jura Mountains.medieval Europe to set in motion huge statues of saints or allegorical figures. The first public clock in New York City was Mass production of clocks with interchangeable parts began in the United States after the used for the movements. pillar-and-scroll clock. Connecticut. a major industry. At first a cottage industry. which has the Watches were originally shaped like drums or balls and were worn suspended from a belt or the 18th century. Seth Thomas founded the Seth Thomas Clock Company. Connecticut. church tower. well-seasoned wood was patented the popular banjo clock. clock.
working in Massachusetts. could be sold for only $4 because it used a stamped-out mechanism without jewels. became known as the dollar watches. The first Waterbury. and for the first time most families could afford a clock. developed in England in 1955. American horologists Aaron Dennison and Edward Howard. made possible the most accurate timekeeper until the introduction of the quartz clock in the United States in 1929. New designs reduced the number of parts required. invented by Henry E. As production increased. first installed in the Edinburgh Observatory. for example. who induced producers of electric power to time the alternating-current cycles carefully so that synchronous motors could be used for clocks. Watches also became cheaper as production rose. VIII RECENT DEVELOPMENTS The electric clock was an American innovation of the early 1900s. Watches wound with keys were replaced after 1875 by stem-wound types. H. . soon made the United States the leading clock-making country of the world.economies of mass production. invented and perfected automatic production machinery in the 1850s. Later watches were even less expensive. Warren. The invention by W. Shortt in 1921 of the Shortt Free Pendulum. a famous American pocket watch. The first improvement over the quartz clock was the cesium atomic clock. The Ingersol and the Ingraham. competition reduced the price of a clock to $1 or less.
synthetics have replaced precious stones in special-purpose watches include the Braille watch for the blind. a quartz crystal provides the oscillations that are reduced to compute time. which functions as a tiny. body heat. and raised dots on the dial to mark the hours. The LED. The LCD. and the calendar watch. uses the light-producing characteristics of certain semiconductors to illuminate its digital time display. are being investigated in current horological research. materials having optical properties similar to liquids and solid crystals. New sources of power. which . Scientific advances in metallurgy and other fields have led to many improvements in timekeeping devices of all types. developed in the 1960s. with a battery to power the transistorized oscillating circuit. the alarm watch for the shows the day of month and the week. pocket or wrist. Other covered with a crystal. produced in the 1970s. followed in 1959 by an electronic watch that substituted a small tuning fork for the usual escapement. and atomic energy. uses liquid crystals. The mainsprings of present-day mechanical watches are made from metals that resist breakage and rust. More recent developments have been the LED (light-emitting diode) and LCD (liquid crystal display) watches. and cases have been perfected that seal out both dust and moisture.Electric wristwatches appeared on the market in 1957. which has sturdy hands not jeweled bearings. portable alarm clock. such as sunlight.
The speed of . the upward force on the plane. Airplanes are heavier than air. The wings alter the direction of the flow of air as it passes. because they have rigid wings. such as movable parts of the wings and tail. or special engines that permit level or climbing flight. The exact shape of the surface of a wing is critical to its ability to generate lift. as they interact with the flow of air around them. to great jumbo jets. engine-driven vehicle that can fly through the air supported by the action of air against its wings. which are lighter than air.Airplane I INTRODUCTION Airplane. Airplanes are adapted to specialized uses. capable of carrying several hundred people. meant to carry a single pilot. ground using the jet thrust of their engines or rotors (rotating wings) and then switch to wing- II HOW AN AIRPLANE FLIES An airplane flies because its wings create lift. and airplanes that can leave the borne flight. Today there are land planes (aircraft that take off from and land on the ground). such as helicopters. which make it possible to guide their flight. amphibians (aircraft that can operate on both land and sea). and weighing nearly 454 metric tons. and power plants. Modern airplanes range from ultralight aircraft weighing no more than 46 kg (100 lb) and several hundred tons of cargo. Airplanes also differ from other heavier-than-air craft. control surfaces. seaplanes (aircraft that take off from and land on water). in contrast to vehicles such as balloons and airships.
Conversely. The third law of motion formulated by English physicist Isaac Newton specially designed shape of the wing. An airplane’s wings push down on the air flowing past them. Thrust is provided by the airplane’s propulsion system. Thrust is the force that propels an airplane forward through the air. Lift is one of the four primary forces acting upon an airplane. and the air pushing the wings upward is the reaction. In this case. A fourth force acting on all airplanes is drag. The weight of the airplane must be overcome by the lift produced by the wings. Lift is also often explained using Bernoulli’s principle. The air on the top of an airplane wing moves faster and is at a lower pressure than the air underneath the wing. As the wings move through the air. it will climb. because it acts in the opposite direction. the amount of drag associated with it. for example. thick wing because high lift is more important than airplanes. an airplane will accelerate. either a propeller or jet engine or combination of the two. Drag is created because any object moving through a fluid. . this angle causes them to push air flowing under them downward. This causes lift. The others are weight. then the lift produced by its wings must be greater than 4. When thrust is greater than drag. with shapes that slip easily through the air. the wings pushing air downward is the action. but because of its large size. That is why high-speed fighters and missiles have such thin wings—they need to minimize drag created by lift. produces friction as it interacts with that fluid and because it must move the fluid out of its way to do its work. may create a great deal of lift for an airplane. a crop duster.the airflow and the angle at which the wing meets the oncoming airstream also contribute to the amount of lift generated. the air pushes up on the wings. and the lift generated by the wing can be modeled using equations derived from Bernoulli’s principle. Designing a wing that is powerful enough to lift an airplane off the ground. and drag. under certain circumstances. is one of the marvels of modern aircraft technology.5 metric tons. which flies at relatively slow speeds. the front edges of its wings ride higher than the rear edges. such as an airplane through air. Weight is the force that offsets lift. If an airplane weighs 4. When an airplane is level or rising. and in reaction. When lift is greater than weight. thrust. A steeper angle of attack will cause the wings to push states that every action produces an equal and opposite reaction (see Mechanics: The Third Law). and yet efficient enough to fly at high speeds over extremely long distances. it is also creating a significant amount of drag. a faster moving fluid (such as air) will have a lower pressure than a slower moving fluid.5 metric tons in order for the airplane to leave the ground. A high-lift wing surface. Air flowing over the top of the wing is also deflected downward as it follows the more air downward. Drag is also minimized by designing sleek. may have a big. The angle the wings make with the horizontal is called the angle of attack. aerodynamic Managing the balance between these four forces is the challenge of flight. the upward force on the plane. which states that.
a pilot can manipulate the balance of the four forces to change the direction or speed. designers . A pilot can reduce thrust in order to slow down or descend. tackled the realm of supersonic flight. In some cases. After World War II. primarily for military airplanes. Fighter pilots in World War II (1939-1945) first ran up against this so-called barrier in high-speed dives during air combat. the pilot can accelerate or climb. III SUPERSONIC FLIGHT In addition to balancing lift. by retracting the landing gear and flaps. weight. and thereby reducing drag. effectively locking the controls and leaving the crews helpless. and drag. The pilot can add thrust either to speed up or climb. modern airplanes have to contend with another phenomenon. pilots lost control of the aircraft as shock waves built up on control surfaces. thrust.Using various control surfaces and propulsion systems. The sound barrier is not a physical barrier but a speed at which the behavior of the airflow around an airplane changes dramatically. The pilot can lower the landing gear into the airstream and deploy the landing flaps on the wings to increase drag. Or. but with commercial applications as well. which has the same effect as reducing thrust.
220 km/h (760 mph). At the speed .Supersonic flight is defined as flight at a speed greater than that of the local speed of sound. sound travels through air at approximately 1. of sound. a shock wave consisting of highly compressed air forms at the nose of the plane. At sea level. This shock wave moves back at a sharp angle as the speed increases.
At such high speeds. Speeds at or near supersonic flight are measured in units called Mach numbers. Airplane designers have concluded that a speed of Mach 2. Speeds of Designers in Europe and the United States developed succeeding generations of military 25 Foxbat interceptor. and would most likely have to find a way IV AIRPLANE STRUCTURE . an airplane is traveling at twice the speed of sound (supersonic flight). and the SR-71 spy plane. which ended its regular passenger service in October 2003. culminating in the 1960s and 1970s with Mach 3+ speedsters such as the Soviet MiG- The shock wave created by an airplane moving at supersonic and hypersonic speeds represents a rather abrupt change in air pressure and is perceived on the ground as a sonic distance of the observer from the flight path. at Mach 1. metals are more heat-resistant. but harder to manufacture and maintain. Sonic booms at low altitudes over populated areas are generally considered a significant problem and have prevented most supersonic boom. sound as it moves air. and expensive. An airplane traveling at less than Mach 1 is traveling below the speed of Mach 1 to 5 are referred to as supersonic. One of the most difficult practical barriers to supersonic flight is the fact that high-speed flight produces heat through friction.7 is about the limit for conventional.Supersonic flight was achieved in 1947 for the first time by the Bell X-1 rocket plane. speeds of Mach 5 and above are called hypersonic. then the temperature rose above the surface of the craft. an airplane would need to be to cool its fuel. a commercial supersonic aircraft. For example. constructed of more temperature-resistant materials. at Mach 2. the exact nature of which varies depending upon how far away the aircraft is and the airplanes from efficiently utilizing overland routes. Above that speed. which represent the ratio of the speed of the airplane to the speed of sound (subsonic). Titanium and other relatively exotic. or to those over sparsely populated regions of the world. the XB-70 Valkyrie bomber. relatively inexpensive materials and fuels. was generally limited to over-water routes. enormous temperatures are reached at temperature requirements. an airplane is traveling at the speed of sound (transonic). if the aircraft moved too fast. For example. flown by Air Force test pilot Chuck Yeager. aircraft. Designers today believe they can help lessen the impact of sonic booms created by supersonic airliners but probably cannot eliminate them. the Concorde was forced to fly a flight profile dictated by safe limits for the aluminum structure of the airplane. This limitation impacted the commercial viability of the Concorde. the Anglo-French Concorde.
A Fuselage . tail. wings. landing gear. and a set of specialized control surfaces mounted on the wings and tail.Airplanes generally share the same basic configuration—each usually has a fuselage.
wings were made of wooden ribs and spars (or beams). and linen for the cloth covering. or leading edge. which run from the front. cockpit. Some are nearly all wing with a very small cockpit. Before the 20th century. cargo. Wood and fabric wings often used spruce for the structure. Generally the fuselage has a cockpit section at the front end. and a cabin section. or trailing edge. The cabin section may be designed to carry passengers.The fuselage is the main cabin. These are carefully constructed to shape the wing in a manner that determines its lifting . electronics. the fuselage may house the engines. tail. the fuselage may be nothing more than a minimal structure connecting the wings. Perpendicular to the spar are a wing. covered with fabric that was sewn tightly and varnished to be extremely stiff. In some of the sleekest of gliders and ultralight airplanes. A conventional wing has one series of ribs. In a military fighter plane. or both. have wings. and some weapons. and engines. aerodynamic fuselage. where the pilot controls the airplane. or body of the airplane. of the properties. to the rear. or wings that seem to be merely extensions of a blended. Others have minimal wings. B Wings All airplanes. fuel. because of that material’s relatively light weight and high strength. such as the space shuttle. by definition. or more spars that run from one end of the wing to the other.
these materials enabled the development of modern all-metal wings capable not only of developing lift but of housing landing gear. benefiting from modern computer-aided design (CAD). but airline and airport managers have been unable to integrate these unusual shapes C Tail Assembly Most airplanes. many airplane designers have postulated that the ideal airplane would. and. a rudder. advanced materials. and elevators. simplicity. which are pushed by the pilot. have a tail assembly attached to the rear of the fuselage. consisting of vertical and horizontal stabilizers. in fact. A pilot controls pitch by moving a control column or stick. Elevators are control surfaces at the trailing edge of horizontal stabilizers. designers began moving toward wings made of steel and aluminum. as they are called. The stabilizers serve to help keep the airplane stable while in flight. An airplane actually turns by banking. weapons.5 m (about 5 to 6 ft) above the other. or single-wing airplane. or moving. and 1940s. Rudder motion is usually controlled by two pedals on the floor of the cockpit. The components of the tail assembly are collectively referred to as the empennage. were first developed in the 1930s and 2 bomber. wood. but the rudder helps keep the turn coordinated by serving much like a boat’s rudder to move the nose of the airplane left or right. In pushing the they could build such wings relatively easily and brace them together using wires to connect many cables. developed in the 1980s. airliners. . which look like small wings. these designs created a great deal of drag. American aerospace manufacturer Northrop Grumman Corporation’s flying wing. and fabric through the air. Flying wings. Popular magazines routinely show artists’ concepts of flying-wing into conventional airline and airport facilities. the B- computerized flight controls. After World War I (1914-1918). or pitch. and fuel. its wings laterally. Over the years. The rudder is at the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer and is used by the airplane to help control turns. and visibility for the pilot. so aircraft engineers eventually pursued the monoplane. be nothing but wing. The elevators control the up-and-down motion. Moving the elevators up into the airstream will cause the tail to go down and the nose to pitch up. usually one mounted about 1. combined with new construction techniques. Aircraft pioneers found the upper and lower wing to create a strong structure with substantial lift.Early airplanes were usually biplanes—craft with two wings on each side of the fuselage. or stealth bomber. of the airplane’s nose. Moving an airplane’s nose left or right is known as a yaw motion. A monoplane’s single wing gives it great advantages in speed. except for flying wings. has been a great success as a flying machine.
the pilot will manipulate controls in the cockpit that direct control surfaces on the wings and tail to move into the airstream. common on automobiles today. the pilot must press upon rudder pedals on the floor of the cockpit. the left wing goes down. The airplane will yaw. are moved in exactly the opposite fashion. banking its wings either left or right. or deflected. as well as carrying nearly 454 metric tons. a plane may pitch its nose up or down. The right wing then comes up. which runs the length of the craft. and it makes use of this same airflow to move in any way about the three axes. often incorporating special heat-resistant materials. pitch.D Landing Gear All airplanes must have some type of landing gear. or roll. To do so. wheels. In order to bank and begin a turn. Finally. which may be thought of as a straight line running from wingtip to wingtip. vertical axis. a conventional airplane will deflect control surfaces on the trailing edge of the wings known as ailerons. and tires designed specifically for the demands of flight. The airplane may yaw its nose either left or right about the plane may fly steadily in one direction and at one altitude—or it may turn. moving about its lateral axis. depending on which control surfaces or combination of surfaces are moved. the right aileron is pushed down into the airstream. The An airplane may roll. An airplane relies on the movement of air across its wings for lift. the ailerons In order to yaw. and the rudder at the trailing . Having retractable gear greatly E Control Components An airplane is capable of three types of motion that revolve around three separate axes. about the longitudinal axis. the left aileron is lifted up into the airstream over the left wing. Tires must be capable of going from a Brakes. which runs straight down through the middle of the airplane. To bank to the right. creating a small amount of drag and decreasing the lift produced by that wing. Push down on the left pedal. and the airplane banks to the left. In order to bank left. Larger and more complex aircraft typically have retractable landing gear—so called because reduces the drag generated by the wheel structures that would otherwise hang out in the airstream. they can be pulled up into the wing or fuselage after takeoff. must be able to handle standstill to nearly 322 km/h (200 mph) at landing. At the same time. by the pilot. or turn the airplane’s nose left or right. Modern aircraft employ brakes. thereby increasing slightly the lift produced by the right wing. emergencies. such as a 400-metric-ton airliner aborting a takeoff at the last possible moment. were originally developed for aircraft and are used to gain maximum possible braking power on wet or icy runways. climb. or descend. Antiskid braking systems.
For example. Piston-engine instruments monitor engine and exhaustgas temperatures. altitude. Flaps also often serve to Trim tabs are miniature control surfaces incorporated into larger control surfaces. as well as gas temperatures and fuel Flight instruments are those used to tell a pilot the course. lifting the tail and forcing the nose down. to control the flight of the aircraft. Airplanes that are more complex also have a set of secondary control surfaces that may include devices such as flaps. speed. an artificial horizon. For example. A push on the right pedal causes the airplane to yaw to the right. spoilers. thereby increasing lift. although some jets have leading-edge flaps as well. and to navigate. thereby moving the elevators at the trailing edge of the horizontal stabilizer. In order to pitch the nose up or down. Pulling back on the wheel deflects the elevators upward into the airstream. the entire horizontal stabilizer moves in small increments to serve the same function as a trim tab. They may include an airspeed indicator. and a compass. the pilot usually pulls or pushes on a control wheel or stick. On some airplanes. (the angle of the airplane in relation to the Earth) for a given speed through the air. and fuel systems. and speed brakes. high-speed jet aircraft have airspeed indicators that . These kinds of controls are used to adjust more precisely the flight path of an airplane that may be slightly out of balance or alignment. and oil pressures and temperatures. depending on the complexity and performance of the airplane. These instruments have many variations. Leading-edge slats usually extend from the front of the wing at low speeds increase drag and slow the approach of a landing airplane. and attitude of the airplane. the left rudder moves the nose of the plane to the left. they also can be extended back generally used during takeoff and landing to increase the amount of lift produced by the wing beyond the normal trailing edge of the wing to increase the surface area of the wing as well as change its shape. slats. to change the way the air flows over the wing. Pushing forward on the wheel causes the elevators to drop down. an aileron tab acts like a miniature aileron within the larger aileron. trim tabs. As in a boat. pushing the tail down and the nose up. rotational speeds of the rotating blades in the turbines. an altimeter. Elevator trim tabs are usually used to help set the pitch attitude airplanes. Systems instruments will tell a pilot about the condition of the airplane’s engines and electrical. hydraulic. Flaps and slats are at low speeds. Flaps usually droop down from the trailing edge of the wing.edge of the vertical stabilizer moves to the left. On some F Instruments Airplane pilots rely on a set of instruments in the cockpit to monitor airplane systems. Jet-engine instruments measure the flow.
provides an airplane with its position to within a few meters. known as Instrument Landing to land during conditions of poor visibility. or diving. The compass is the simplest of these. but many airplanes now employ without any help from the ground. Systems (ILS) and Microwave Landing Systems (MLS). which either pulls or pushes an airplane through the air. developed for the United States military but now used by many civilian pilots. climbing. . depending on its airspeed and momentum.may indicate speeds both in nautical miles per hour (slightly faster than miles per hour used with ground vehicles) and in Mach number. in relation to the Earth. a conventional gas-powered piston engine turns a propeller. V PROPULSION Airplanes use either piston or turbine (rotating blades) engines to provide propulsion. In larger airplanes. or uses its jet thrust directly to move an airplane through the air. An airplane with its nose up General-aviation (private aircraft). a turbine engine either turns a propeller through a gearbox. Many airplanes still employ radio receivers that tune to a satellite navigation systems and computers to navigate from any point on the globe to another ground-based radio-beacon system in order to navigate cross-country. combined with special cockpit displays. The artificial horizon indicates whether the may or may not be climbing. In smaller airplanes. Specially equipped airplanes can use ultraprecise radio beacons and receivers. The Global Positioning System (GPS). military. airplane is banking. and commercial airplanes also have instruments that aid in navigation.
which states that for every action. or fan-jet. a turbine to take some power out of the exhaust A modern derivative known as the turbofan. a combustion chamber. Thrust from the engine is derived purely from the acceleration of the released exhaust gases out the rear. by itself. but with the addition of a and spin the compressor. where it cools and quiets the exhaust noise. This fan flow is mixed with the hot jet exhaust at the rear of the engine. lighter weight. all of the air taken into the compressor at the front of the engine is sent through the core of the engine. Aircraft designers throughout the 20th century and greater reliability. however. The rest runs along the outside of the core case and inside the engine casing. There are several different types of jet engines. these engines produce most of their thrust through the propeller. In addition. These piston engines are examples of internal-combustion engines. machinery. and an exhaust nozzle. This elegant simplicity is offset by the need to boost a ramjet to several hundred miles an hour before ram-air compression is sufficient to operate the engine. which is usually driven by the jet . which then explodes with great force rearward through the exhaust nozzle. eliminating the need for the spinning compressor section. A jet sucks air into the front. A rocket engine operates on the same principle. The earliest powered airplanes relied on crude steam or gas engines. and released. the engine must provide enough power to move the weight of the airplane forward through the airstream. even though it is never burned. produces a great deal of thrust In fact. Although enormously improved over the past 90 years of flight and still suitable for modern jet propulsion and required for commercial and military aviation. mixes it with fuel and ignites the mixture. Known as turboprops. many smaller general aviation aircraft. adds a large fan in front of the compressor section. acting much like a propeller. which takes advantage of high speed to ram or force the air into the engine. Piston engines. with many precision-machined parts moving through large ranges and in complex motions. accelerated rearward by the fan. they fall short of the higher performance possible with The turbine or jet engine operates on the principle of Newton’s third law of motion. In a turbojet. The turbojet is based on the jet-propulsion system of the ramjet. only a relatively small fraction of which is sent through the core for combustion. compressor section. except that. in order to operate in the airless vacuum of space. for combustion. This fan pulls an enormous amount of air into the engine case. The rearward force is balanced with an equal force that pushes forward the jet engine and the airplane attached to it. the rocket must carry along its own air. squeezes the air by pulling it through a series of spinning compressors. The simplest is the ramjet.In either case. in the form of solid propellant or liquid oxidizer. this high-volume mass of air. there is an opposite but equal reaction. some smaller jet engines are used to turn propellers. burned. are still relatively complicated pieces of pushed their engineering colleagues constantly for engines with more power.
usually into the fuselage or wings. amphibians. shuttles all take advantage of the same basic technology. Landing gear may be fixed. as in more-sophisticated airplanes in general the Arctic or Antarctic regions have skis in place of wheels. Some land planes are specially equipped to operate from grass or other unfinished surfaces. retractable. carrier-based airplanes. seaplanes. Land planes.engine through a set of gears. as in some general-aviation airplanes. and space them seem only distantly related. take off. The wheels are sometimes referred B Carrier-Based Aircraft . turboprops. short takeoff and landing (STOL). and many smaller airliners in the 19. but their capabilities and uses make A Land Planes Land planes are designed to operate from a hard surface. together with the associated brakes. although they are often called. and land. As a power source for a propeller. a turbine engine is extremely efficient.to 70-passenger-capacity range use km/h (400 mph). typically a paved runway. A land plane usually has wheels to taxi. the landing gear. They are particularly efficient at lower altitudes and medium speeds up to 640 VI TYPES OF AIRPLANES There are a wide variety of types of airplanes. although some specialized aircraft operating in to as the undercarriage. vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL). or and commercial aviation.
made by using a hook attached to the underside of the aircraft’s tail to catch one of four wires strung across the flight deck of the carrier. including their landing gear. in which the C Seaplanes . Carrier airplanes have a strengthened structure. to handle the stresses of catapult-assisted takeoff. and arrested landings.Carrier-based airplanes are a specially modified type of land plane designed for takeoff from and landing aboard naval aircraft carriers. craft is launched by a steam-driven catapult.
Known as flying boats. a system of rolled onto land. sometimes called floatplanes or pontoon planes. are often ordinary land planes have been designed from scratch to operate only from water bases. Such seaplanes have small floats attached to their outer wing panels to help steady them at low speeds on the water. modified with floats instead of wheels so they can operate from water. but the weight of the airplane is borne by the floating hull. Historically. cases. with a boat hull and the addition of specially designed cradles on wheels positioned under the floating aircraft. some flying boats were fitted with so-called beaching gear. but there are very few VTOL airplanes. which then allowed the aircraft to be E Vertical Takeoff and Landing Airplanes Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) airplanes typically use the jet thrust from their engines. pointed down at the Earth. In many landing gear that can be extended to allow the airplane to taxi right out of the water onto land. a VTOL airplane usually transitions to wing-borne flight in order to cover a longer distance or carry a significant load. A number of seaplanes fuselages that resemble and perform like ship hulls. like their animal namesakes. they may have D Amphibians Amphibians. an amphibian is a true seaplane. . After taking off. A helicopter is a type of VTOL aircraft.Seaplanes. to take off and land straight up and down. operate from both water and land bases.
much like a helicopter. Their designs usually employ wings and high-lift devices on the wings optimized for best performance during takeoff and landing.One unique type of VTOL aircraft is the tilt-rotor. the engine/rotor combination tilts forward. After takeoff. it flies like a rocket . F Short Takeoff and Landing Airplanes Short Takeoff and Landing (STOL) airplanes are designed to be able to function on relatively short runways. and the wing takes on the load of the craft. For takeoff and landing. propeller-like rotating wings or rotors driven by jet engines at the wingtips. however. as well as in Spain. the engines and rotors are positioned vertically. Italy. When the space shuttle takes off. The most prominent example of a true VTOL airplane flying today is the AV-8B Harrier II. India. G Space Shuttle The space shuttle. the Harrier can take off vertically from smaller ships. is an aircraft unlike any other because it flies as a fixed-wing airplane within the atmosphere and as a spacecraft outside Earth’s atmosphere. Flown in the United States by the Marine Corps. although some serve in a passenger-carrying capacity as well. STOL airplanes are usually cargo airplanes. where it was originally developed. or it can be flown to operating areas near the ground troops it supports in its ground-attack role. as distinguished from an airplane that has a wing optimized for high-speed cruise at high altitude. and United Kingdom. a military attack plane that uses rotating nozzles attached to its jet engine to direct the engine exhaust in the appropriate direction. flown by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). which has large.
During landing. and in other countries. such as commercial. all of which fall under different government-mandated certification A Commercial Airplanes Commercial aircraft are those used for profit making. They are strictly regulated—in the United States. the shuttle becomes the world’s most sophisticated glider. and and operating rules. VII CLASSES OF AIRPLANES Airplanes can be grouped into a handful of major classes. Modern large commercial-airplane manufacturers—such The Boeing Company in the United jet airliners carry anywhere from 100 passengers to more than 500 over short and long distances. usually by carrying cargo or passengers for hire (see Air Transport Industry). and out of the landing without propulsion. by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). by other national aviation authorities. States and Airbus in Europe—offer a wide variety of aircraft with different capabilities. Today’s . atmosphere. by Transport Canada.175 metric tons of thrust generated by its solid-fuel rocket boosters and liquid-fueled main engines to power its way up. military. relying on the 3.with wings. general-aviation airplanes. through. in Canada.
Fighters are designed to engage in air combat have been capable of Mach 2+ flight (a Mach number represents the ratio of the speed of an role as well and are designed to carry both air-to-air weapons. It returned to service only to witness a B Military Airplanes Military aircraft are usually grouped into four categories: combat. which cost about $9. Declining ticket sales for the high-priced service. in either defensive or offensive situations. The Concorde flew for British Airways and Air France. flag carriers States had an SST program. The United at twice the speed of sound. Some fighters have a ground-attack . and air-towith other airplanes.000 and up crash in 2000 grounded the Concorde for a full year. although some airplanes have both capabilities. Combat airplanes are generally either fighters or bombers.Beginning in 1976 the British-French Concorde supersonic transport (SST) carried passengers of the two nations that funded its development during the late 1960s and 1970s. Since the 1950s many fighters airplane to the speed of sound as it travels through air). profitability. A fatal air sharp decline in airline travel following the September 11 terrorist attacks. such as missiles. cargo. combined with higher costs led to the Concorde’s demise. training. and observation (see Military Aviation). The Concorde ended its regular passenger service in October 2003 due to its lack of for a round-trip fare. but it was ended because of budget and environmental concerns in 1971.
the Boeing F-15 Eagle. while others. may use sophisticated . the Boeing B-1. Fighters include aircraft such as the Panavia Tornado. Some well-known bombers include the Boeing B-52. the Lockheed-Martin F-16 Falcon. Bombers are designed to carry large air-to-ground-weapons loads and either penetrate or avoid enemy air defenses in order to deliver those weapons. such as the B-2. the MiG-29 Fulcrum. and the Northrop-Grumman B-2 stealth bomber. Bombers such as the B-52 are designed to fly fast at low altitudes.ground weapons. and the Su-27 Flanker. following the terrain. in radar-defeating technologies to fly virtually unobserved. order to fly under enemy radar defenses. such as bombs.
artillery pieces. Such tankers include the Boeing KC-135 and KC-10. Some cargo planes can serve a dual role as aerial gas stations. refueling different types of military airplanes while in flight. armored personnel 5B and Boeing C-17 were designed expressly for such roles. carriers. Cargo planes such as the giant Lockheed C- .Today’s military cargo airplanes are capable of carrying enormous tanks. and even smaller aircraft.
Most business airplanes require more reliable performance and more range and Another class of general-aviation airplanes is used in agriculture. Inc. and capable of hauling several hundred pounds VIII HISTORY . highly maneuverable. crop dusters are rugged. or transports. the T-37 and T-38. Pleasure aircraft range from simple single-seat. appointments. known as Unmanned Combat Aerial C General-Aviation Aircraft General-aviation aircraft are certified for and intended primarily for noncommercial or private operations. containing navigational instructions and operated from the ground. propeller airplanes and move into basic jets before specializing in a career path involving fighters. Some military trainers include the T-34 Mentor.000 ft) and speeds well over Mach 3. observation airplanes were developed solely for highly specialized missions. Not intended for serious crosscountry navigation.000 m (80. Business aircraft transport business executives to all-weather capability. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) also were developed for reconnaissance in situations considered too dangerous for piloted aircraft or in instances where pilot fatigue would be a based in San Diego. a two-seat airplane. crop dusters lack sophisticated navigation aids and complex systems. These unpiloted aircraft are flown by software programs infrared images in real time to military commanders.. They can be seen swooping low over farm fields. Lockheed’s SR-71. and the Boeing T-45 Goshawk. ultralight airplanes to sleek twin turboprops capable of carrying eight people. factor. providing instantaneous views of Vehicles (UCAVs). Large farms require efficient ways to spread fertilizer and insecticides over a large area. bombers. of chemicals.All military pilots go through rigorous training and education programs using military training airplanes to prepare them to fly the high-performance aircraft of the armed forces. With the advent of the Lockheed U-2 spy plane in the 1950s. Some UAVs. uses specialized engines and fuel to reach altitudes greater than 25. or reconnaissance. also carry weapons that can be fired by ground operators using the aircraft’s video and infrared cameras to locate their targets. California. They typically begin the flight training in relatively simple. They relay video and battlegrounds during the day or at night. A final category of military airplane is the observation. made by General Atomics Aeronautical Systems. A very specialized type of airplane. UAVs include the Predator drone. aircraft.
in his third full-size machine. the kite. the use of the rudder-elevator unit mounted on a universal joint. during the 15th century. and roll stability. in which both lift and thrust are provided propelling devices to provide thrust. and designed airplanes with rigid wings to provide lift. He demonstrated. Apart from Leonardo’s efforts. an early propeller. flight control by means of a single of aerodynamics. and the model helicopter. technical value to experimenters but was a source of inspiration to aspiring engineers. Through his published works. One was the Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci. and with separate airplane. Leonardo was preoccupied chiefly with bird flight and with flapping-wing machines. His aeronautical work lay unknown until late in the 19th century. and other devices and first gliding flight in history. few people had applied themselves to the study of flight. both with models and with full-size gliders. called ornithopters. practices. In 1853.Before the end of the 18th century. Cayley sent his unwilling coachman on the . three devices important to aviation had been invented in Europe in the Middle Ages and had reached a high stage of development by Leonardo’s time—the windmill. Cayley laid the foundations inclined plane to provide lift. when it could furnish little of A The First Airplanes Between 1799 and 1809 English baronet Sir George Cayley created the concept of the modern by the wings. an early airplane wing. Cayley abandoned the ornithopter tradition. pitch. streamlining.
an effective system for controlling the aircraft. Henson’s design did more than any other to establish the form of the modern In 1890 French engineer Clément Ader built a steam-powered airplane and made the first actual flight of a piloted. unpiloted aircraft. turn. which the Wrights constructed in 1905. However. Through the disciplines of critical characteristics that other designs of the day lacked—a relatively lightweight (337 kg/750 lb). up to half an hour on occasion. hung in a frame between the wings and controlled his gliders entirely by swinging his torso control system and a reliable method for powering the craft. but it represented the beginning of a new age in technology and human achievement. a reliable transmission and efficient propellers. Ohio. was the world’s first fully practical airplane. and in 1896 made the first sustained flight of any mechanically propelled heavier-than-air craft. as Langley called it. North Carolina. and with flight control by means of rear elevator and rudder. It could bank. circle. the flight was not sustained. heavier-than-air. While successful as gliders. and a wing and structure that were both strong and lightweight. That first flight traveled a distance of about 37 m (120 ft). The distance was less than the wingspan of many modern airliners. Virginia. Between 1891 and 1896 German aeronautical engineer Otto Lilienthal made thousands of successful flights in hang gliders of his own design. Launched by catapult from a houseboat on the Potomac River near Quantico. Langley began experimenting in 1892 with a steam-powered. are considered the fathers of the first successful piloted heavier-than-air flying machine. make figure eights. Orville Wright made the first successful flight of a piloted. called the Flyer. of sound scientific research and engineering. The third Flyer.In 1843 British inventor William Samuel Henson published his patented design for an Aerial airplane—a fixed-wing monoplane with propellers. Inventors continued to pursue the dream of sustained flight. He was killed in a gliding accident American inventor Samuel Pierpont Langley had been working for several years on flying machines. Steam Carriage. Their fourth and final flight of the day lasted 59 seconds and covered only 260 m (852 ft). self-propelled craft. the Wright brothers put together the combination At Kitty Hawk. his designs lacked a in 1896. 1903. and remain in the air for as long as the fuel lasted. powerful engine. the unpiloted Aerodrome. Lilienthal and legs in the direction he wished to go. . Steam-powered models made by Henson in 1847 were promising but unsuccessful. heavier-than-air craft. suffered from design faults. and wheeled landing gear. and thus prevented Langley from earning the place in history claimed by the Wright brothers. and the airplane brushed the ground over a distance of 50 m (160 ft). B The First Airplane Flight American aviators Orville Wright and Wilbur Wright of Dayton. The Aerodrome never successfully carried a person. on December 17. fuselage.
for a time. the most successful fighter in the skies. and the first nonstop flight across the Mediterranean Sea. Fokker’s biplanes. Virginia.000-km (2. was not immediately recognized for its potential.” Aerobatics. air craft as early as 1898. One exception was the United States War Department. which had long been using balloons to observe the battlefield and expressed an interest in heavier-thanSignal Corps at Fort Myer. the airplane was used in its first wartime operation when an Italian captain flew over and observed Turkish positions during the Italo-Turkish War of 1911 to 1912. when monoplane of his own design. while circling the field at Fort died from his injuries and became the first fatality from the crash of a powered airplane. a modified Farnborough B. Army’s Myer. Orville crashed while carrying an army observer. with many stops. Also in 1911. French engineer Louis Blériot crossed the English channel in a Blériot XI.000 were subsequently built.E.E. In 1908 the Wrights demonstrated their airplane to the U. Long-distance flights made in 1913 included a 4. D Planes of World War I During World War I. Blériot’s channel crossing made clear to the world the airplane’s American pilot Eugene Ely took off from and landed on warships. and this potential was further demonstrated in 1910 and 1911. the development of the airplane accelerated dramatically. airplanes. In 1915 Fokker mounted a machine gun with a timing gear so that the gun could fire between the rotating propellers. the airplane was relegated mostly to the county-fair circuit. . a wartime potential. loops. During the very early 1900s. were considered superior to their Allied competition. The resulting Fokker Eindecker monoplane fighter was. In Britain. 2c version of this airplane was so successful that nearly 2. American inventor and aviator Glenn Curtiss introduced the first practical seaplane. The B. Selfridge On July 25.S. That same year. Army used a Wright brothers’ biplane to make the first live bomb test from an airplane. This was a biplane with a large float beneath the center of the lower wing and two smaller floats beneath the tips of the lower wing.S. and deadlier combat airplanes. and upside-down flying.500-mi) flight from was introduced. prior to World War I (1914-1918). such as the D-VII and D-VIII flown by German pilots. 1909. where daredevil pilots drew large crowds but few investors. The year 1913 became known as the “glorious year of flying. like many other milestone inventions throughout history. In September of that year. more capable.C Early Military and Public Interest The airplane. and other stunts proved the maneuverability of France to Egypt. 2 proved itself to be the first naturally stable airplane in the world. from France to Tunisia. or acrobatic flying. European designers such as Louis Blériot and Dutch-American engineer Anthony Herman Fokker exploited basic concepts created by the Wrights and developed ever faster. Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge. In 1911 the U.
1929. low-wing monoplane. Notable French fighters included the Spad (1916) and the Nieuport 28 (1918). It was for ten passengers. outstanding early British fighters included the Sopwith Pup (1916) and the Sopwith Camel (1917). Boeing’s Model 247 was considered the first truly modern airliner. In the early 1920s the air-cooled engine was perfected. Post Office for airmail. On September 24. strong. both warring sides had fighters that could fly at altitudes of 7. with retractable landing gear.S. which flew as high as 5. The inexpensive DeHavilland Moth biplane.600 m (25. and club and private pleasure flying became popular. travel at 145 km/h (90 mph) and was light. engine casing. and easy to handle. not willing to wait for Boeing to finish the order from United. these engines gave strong competition to the older. California. put flying within the financial reach of many enthusiasts. the DC-1. used powerful. and some DC- . Trans World Airlines. An order from United Air Lines for 60 planes of this type tied up Boeing’s airliner in history.000-horsepower engines. although it had to stop many times for 3s are still in service today. an all-metal. During World War I. In the mid-1920s light airplanes were produced in great numbers. for an alternative. and landing. The DC-3 carried 21 passengers. Florida. driven by the two world wars and service demands of the U. By the end of World War I in 1918. which became.000 ft) and had a top speed of 190 km/h (120 mph). liquid- introduced in 1925. an American pilot and army officer. when the American inventor Elmer Sperry perfected the artificial horizon and directional gyro. Light and powerful. James Doolittle.000 ft) and speeds up to 250 km/h (155 mph). Commercial aviation developed slowly during the next 30 years. or cooled engines. along with its streamlined cowling. approached airplane manufacturer Donald Douglas in Long and the DC-3. the Douglas DC-3. proved the value of Sperry’s instruments by taking off. The DC-3 quickly came to dominate commercial aviation in the late 1930s. Introduced in 1933. and could travel across the country in less than 24 hours of travel time. just 10 years after the Wrights pioneered the skies. an insulated cabin. in quick succession. fuel. E Development of Commercial Aviation Commercial aviation began in January 1914. the DC-2. The Moth could Instrument flying became practical in 1929. flying over a predetermined course. all without visual reference to the Earth. and room production line and led indirectly to the development of perhaps the most successful propeller Beach.800 m (19. 1. The first regularly scheduled passenger line in the world operated between Saint Petersburg and Tampa.The concentrated research and development made necessary by wartime pressures produced great progress in airplane design and construction.
000 m (20. Pan American World Airways inaugurated Boeing 707 jet service in October of 1958. After the big. and air travel changed dramatically almost overnight. the war ended. pressure. With its regulated cabin air at speeds of 320 km/h (200 mph). shorter-range jets. there were fewer than 300 planes in airline service. early versions of which carried troops and VIPs during the war. now carried Wartime technology efforts also brought to aviation critical new developments. Airplane production concentrated mainly on fighters and bombers. airlines clamored for smaller. A large number of sophisticated new transports. Boeing’s new 707 carried 112 passengers at high speed and quickly brought an end to the propeller era for large commercial airplanes. The Comet quickly suffered two fatal crashes due to structural problems and was grounded. that the airline industry really prospered. When the United nearly 50. the Stratoliner could carry 33 passengers at altitudes up to 6. and Boeing and Douglas delivered. in less than eight hours. a pressurized derivative of the famous B-17 bomber.000 ft) and F Aircraft Developments of World War II It was not until after World War II (1939-1945). used in wartime for troop and cargo carriage. four-engine 707s and DC-8s had established themselves. four-engine jet. such as the jet engine. Pressurized propeller planes such as the Douglas DC-6 and Lockheed paying passengers on transcontinental and transatlantic flights. pressurized air transports States entered World War II in 1941. and reached a rate of became available in large numbers.Boeing provided the next major breakthrough with its Model 307 Stratoliner. an 885-km/h (550-mph). Douglas produced the DC-9 and Boeing both the 737 and the trijet 727. when comfortable. half the propeller-airplane time. G The Jumbo Jet Era . Transatlantic jet service enabled travelers to fly from New York City to London. entering service in 1940. This complication gave American manufacturers Boeing and Douglas time to bring the 707 and DC-8 to the market. England.000 a year by the end of the war. became available to commercial operators after Constellation. Jet transportation in the commercial-aviation arena arrived in 1952 with Britain’s DeHavilland Comet.
Boeing developed and still builds the 747. pioneered in the late 1960s. Boeing introduced the 777. was the age of the jumbo jet. 80. and Lockheed-Martin no longer builds commercial airliners. McDonnell Douglas built a somewhat smaller. The company ceded the superjumbo jet market to Airbus and instead focused . In 2000 the company launched production of the A380. in 1995. and Boeing brought online the narrow-body 757 and wide-body 767 twin jets. both of which extend the entire length of the fuselage.The next frontier. on which passenger loads are somewhat 555 passengers on two decks. a four-engine airplane for longer routes. and a year later the company announced its intention to halt production of the passenger workhorses MD-11. Airbus had developed the A300 wide-body twin during the 1970s. a unique. McDonnell Douglas. In the 1980s McDonnell Douglas introduced the twin-engine MD-80 family. and MD-90. a wide-body jumbo jet that can hold up to 400 passengers. three-engine jet called the DC-10. MDits efforts on developing a midsize passenger airplane. The L-1011 is no longer in production. the jet will be the world’s largest passenger airliner. Boeing. sometimes called jumbo jets. produced later in an updated version known as the MD-11. Lockheed built the L-1011 Tristar. so-called fly-by-wire aircraft with sidestick controllers for the pilots rather than conventional control columns and wheels. a trijet that competed with the DC-10. and Lockheed all produced wide-body airliners. Airbus also introduced the larger A330 twin and the A340. In 1997 Boeing acquired longtime rival McDonnell Douglas. a superjumbo jet that will seat Scheduled to enter service in 2006. During the 1980s and 1990s Airbus expanded its family of aircraft by introducing the slightly smaller A310 twin jet and the narrow-body A320 twin. lighter.
Computer I INTRODUCTION Computer. machine that performs tasks. computer and are retrieved and processed by the computer’s electronics. and quickly. such as calculations or electronic communication. Programs usually reside within the are stored or routed to output devices. under the control of a set of instructions called a program. Computers perform a wide variety of activities reliably. accurately. such as video display monitors or printers. The program results II USES OF COMPUTERS .
they Instruction). operate home security systems. such as testing the air flow around the next generation of aircraft. In homes. and turn videocassette recorders (VCRs) on and off. creating digitized sound on stereo systems or computer-animated features from a digitally encoded laser disc. exist to aid every level of education. Computer hardware includes the memory that stores data and program instructions. such as printers . sound. computers track inventories with bar codes and scanners. and to keep III HOW COMPUTERS WORK The physical computer and its components are known as hardware. that allow the user to communicate with the computer. tell the time. such as a keyboard or mouse. Computers in automobiles regulate the flow of fuel. or model systems that are too costly or impractical to build. and transfer funds electronically. Computer programs. with computer-controlled projection units. Computers also entertain. or applications. check the credit status of customers. investigate complicated data. The military employs track of personnel and supplies. In business. the output devices. Educators use computers to can add graphics. and animation to their communications (see Computer-Aided track grades and communicate with students. tiny computers embedded in the electronic circuitry of most appliances control the indoor temperature. thereby increasing gas mileage.People use computers in many ways. the central processing unit (CPU) that carries out program instructions. the input devices. computers in sophisticated communications to encode and unscramble messages. from programs that teach simple addition or sentence construction to programs that teach advanced calculus. Computers are used extensively in scientific research to solve mathematical problems.
or other input methods. to display and modify a photograph. to represent various files and presses a combination of keys on the keyboard. stores and manages data. Some operating systems allow the user to B Computer Memory . reports the results of operating system loads the program in the computer’s memory and runs the program. touch. the work.and video display monitors. or to direct the general operation A The Operating System When a computer is turned on it searches for instructions in its memory. Software generally is designed to perform a particular type of task—for example. and controls the sequence of the software and hardware actions. These instructions tell the computer how to start up. such as Microsoft Windows and the Macintosh system (Mac OS). that enable the computer to present information to the user. and buses (hardware lines or wires) that connect these and other computer components. The programs that run the computer are called software. which is the software that makes the computer these commands and other operations. It prompts the user (or other machines) for input and commands. body. the user clicks the mouse on the icon or carry out these tasks via voice. to control the arm of a robot to weld a car’s of the computer. have commands. Usually. or icons. Popular operating systems. To access these files or commands. graphical user interfaces (GUIs)—that use tiny pictures. When the user requests that a program run. one of the first sets of these instructions is a special program called the operating system. to write a letter.
101. Computer programmers usually decide how a text. each having two possible representations (0 or 1). which can be read by . in lower and upper cases. called a byte. a megabyte can store about 1 million characters. or 11. A kilobyte—1. Numbers can represent anything from chemical bonds to dollar figures to colors to sounds.To process information electronically. 100. 01. as well as numeric digits. 10. a byte has 256 possible combinations of 0s and 1s. and several character-sized graphics symbols. A third bit added to this two-bit representation again doubles 110.000 characters. characters such as . or bits. or part of a larger number. or 111. including non-English patterns to represent the entire alphabet. If a second bit is added to a single bit of information.024 bytes—can store about 1. the number of possible patterns is doubled. which can be read or changed by the user or computer. given byte should be interpreted—that is. as a single character. the number of representations is doubled. 001. Eight bits is Extended Memory. 010. a single number. a character within a string of The physical memory of a computer is either random access memory (RAM). 011. A byte is a useful quantity in which to store information because it provides enough possible punctuation marks. Each time a bit is added. a gigabyte can store about 1 billion characters. combinations: 00. See also Expanded Memory. data are stored in a computer in the form of binary digits. or read-only memory (ROM). resulting in four possible the number of combinations. A byte also can be interpreted as a pattern that represents a number between 0 and 255. resulting in eight possibilities: 000. and a terabyte can store about 1 trillion characters.
compact discs (CDs). Other input devices include a joystick. temporarily storing instructions or data. which can store 8. When a program is running. The memory within these computer chips is RAM. one special register called the program counter keeps track of which program instruction comes next by maintaining the memory location of the next program instruction to be executed. which can store up to 680 megabytes of information. permit the computer user to communicate with the computer. hard drives. The . The bus is usually a flat cable with numerous parallel wires. and digital video discs (DVDs).the computer but not altered in any way. allows the simultaneous transmission of 16 bits (2 bytes) of information from one component to another. One way to store memory is within the circuitry of the computer. such as a keyboard or mouse. used to input sounds such as the human voice which can activate computer commands in conjunction with voice recognition software. a single piece of silicon containing millions of tiny. which can store gigabytes of information. “Tablet” computers are being developed that will allow users to interact with their screens using a penlike device. which is the part of the computer that translates commands and runs programs. usually in tiny computer chips that hold millions of bytes of information. which senses the placement of a user’s finger and can be used to execute commands or access files. some of them specialized to carry particular forms of data. and some DVDs can hold more than 12 times as much data as a CD.5 gigabytes of information. such as graphics. The CPU is a microprocessor chip—that is. Memory also can be stored outside the circuitry of the computer on external storage devices. A single CD can store nearly as much information as several hundred floppy disks. Information is stored in a CPU memory location called a register. For example. with 16 parallel wires. a touch panel. and a microphone. a rodlike device often used by people who play computer games. Each wire can carry one bit. which converts images such as photographs into digital images that the computer can manipulate. which can store about 2 megabytes of information. microscopically wired electrical components. a 16-bit bus. such as the CPU and the memory circuits. E The Central Processing Unit Information from an input device or from the computer’s memory is communicated via the bus to the central processing unit (CPU). so the bus can transmit many bits along the cable at the same time. such as magnetic floppy disks. Early computer designs utilized a single or very few buses. D Input Devices Input devices. Registers can be thought of as the CPU’s tiny scratchpad. a scanner. Modern designs typically use many buses. C The Bus The bus enables the components in a computer. to communicate as program instructions are being carried out.
All other programming languages must be converted to machine code for them to be understood. The CPU can understand only this language. for example. These instructions are specific to the individual computer’s CPU and associated hardware. Frequently. Typical instructions are for copying data from a memory location or for adding the code instructions are few in number (roughly 20 to 200. Meanwhile. depending on the computer and the . videocassette IV PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES Programming languages contain the series of commands that create software. In a typical sequence. See also Input/Output Devices. The current instruction is analyzed by a decoder. called an instruction cycle. such as a video display monitor or a flat recorders (VCRs). Computer programmers. however. An executable program is a sequence of extremely simple instructions known as machine code. where it is executed next. Any data the instruction needs are retrieved via the bus and placed in the register or copied to specific memory locations via a bus. the CPU locates the next instruction in the appropriate memory device. several instructions may be in process simultaneously. and it uses the program counter to locate and retrieve the next instruction from memory. F Output Devices Once the CPU has executed the program instruction. These other languages are slower because the language must be translated first so that the than code written directly in the machine’s language. This is called pipeline processing. and the results are stored in another instruction will do. Other output devices are printers. liquid crystal display. computer can understand it. which determines what the CPU’s registers. the program counter changes—usually increasing a small amount—so that it contains the location of the instruction that will be The instruction then travels along the bus from the computer’s memory to the CPU. A CPU has a limited set of instructions known as machine code that it is capable of understanding. prefer to use other computer languages that use words or other commands because they are easier to use. Machine CPU). The translation can lead to code that may be less efficient to run A Machine Language Computer programs that can be run by a computer’s operating system are called executables. stored in a special instruction register.CPU’s control unit coordinates and times the CPU’s functions. Intel Pentium and Power PC microprocessor chips each have different machine languages and require different sets of codes to perform the same task. This entire sequence of steps is each at a different stage in its instruction cycle. The CPU executes the instruction. the program may request that the information be communicated to an output device. overhead projectors. and speakers.
programmers quickly become accustomed to their meanings. to display a greeting need include only the following command: cout << ‘Hello. a programmer writing in the high-level C++ programming language who wants what type of CPU the computer uses. Each machine language instruction has an statement “MOV A. B Assembly Language Assembly language uses easy-to-remember commands that are more understandable to programmers than machine-language commands. Because these sequences are long strings of 0s and 1s and are usually not easy to understand. Machine code instructions are binary—that is. equivalent command in assembly language. This command directs the computer’s CPU to display the greeting. because assembly-language instructions are a series of abstract codes and each instruction carries out a relatively simple task. It is still difficult to use. computer programmers write code in languages known as an assembly language or a high-level language. B” instructs the computer to copy data from location A to location B. and it will work no matter between the quotes will be displayed. Encarta User!’ << endl. the program is written. Instead. When this statement is executed. the text that appears statement appear cryptic. Although the “cout” and “endl” parts of the above For example. these languages are not CPU-specific. computer instructions usually are not written in machine code. however. For example. Assembly language is sometimes inserted into a high-level language that are executed frequently. in one Intel assembly language. In addition. it is converted to a machine-language program by another program called Assembly language is fast and powerful because of its correspondence with machine language. In addition. For example. Once an assembly-language an assembler. sequences of bits (0s and 1s). they contain general commands that work on different CPUs. Complex tasks require a sequence of these simple instructions. CPUs use different machine languages and therefore require different programs and different program to carry out specific hardware tasks or to speed up parts of the high-level program C High-Level Languages High-level languages were developed because of the difficulty of programming using assembly languages. The same instruction in machine code is a string of 16 0s and 1s. Instead. different assembly languages. “cout” sends the greeting message to the “standard output” (usually the computer .contents of two memory locations (usually registers in the CPU). High-level languages are easier to use than machine and assembly languages because their commands are closer to natural human language.
Unlike languages that require all their instructions to be translated closeness to natural human language. a program that divides a number in half 10 INPUT “ENTER A NUMBER.” VI FORTRAN From 1954 to 1958 American computer scientist John Backus of International Business Machines. standard programming language because it could process mathematical formulas. Inc. computer (PC).” X 20 Y=X/2 . Hopper is credited for inventing the term bug. Hopper taped the moth into her notebook and wrote. Fortran and VII BASIC Kurtz at Dartmouth College in Hanover. high-level languages also must be translated. FLOW-MATIC. including one based strictly on incorrect instructions in software. For example. This simplifies the programmer’s V FLOW-MATIC American naval officer and mathematician Grace Murray Hopper helped develop the first commercially available high-level software language. developed BASIC (Beginner’s Allpurpose Symbolic Instruction Code) in 1964. in 1957.user’s screen) and “endl” is how to tell the computer (when using the C++ language) to go to a new line after it outputs the message. using compilers designed for those machines. Like assembly-language instructions. A compiler turns a high-level program into a CPU-specific machine language. and the term discovered a hardware failure in the Mark II computer caused by a moth trapped between its eventually came to represent any computer error. (IBM) developed Fortran. especially in physics. This is the task of a special program called a compiler. such as a Sun Microsystems work station or a personal task and makes the software more portable to different users and machines. an acronym for Formula Translation. BASIC commands typify high-level languages because of their simplicity and their can be written as Hungarian-American mathematician John Kemeny and American mathematician Thomas early personal computers. which indicates a computer malfunction. in 1945 she mechanical relays. a programmer may write a program in a high-level language such as C++ or Java and then prepare it for different machines. For example. “First actual case of a bug being found. interactive nature and its inclusion on into machine code first. It became a its variations are still in use today. BASIC is turned into machine language line by line as the program runs. New Hampshire. The language was easier to learn than its predecessors and became popular due to its friendly. She documented the event in her laboratory notebook.
5. Both 0 and 1 can be represented by analog computers. 1. designed. such as the “markup languages” known as HTML. and it results in more IX A TYPES OF COMPUTERS Digital and Analog Computers can be either digital or analog. COBOL. this simple languages. are based on traditional high-level languages.30 PRINT “HALF OF THAT NUMBER IS. but they have become increasingly sophisticated. have properties such as the radius of the circle and the command that draws it on the computer screen. This set of programming classes simplifies the programmer’s task. The first line prints “ENTER A NUMBER” on the computer screen followed by program demonstrates how data are stored and manipulated in most high-level programming VIII OTHER HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES Other high-level languages in use today include C. are intended to display data. and their variants. XML. and media selections. Some languages.” Y The numbers that precede each line are chosen by the programmer to indicate the sequence a question mark to prompt the user to type in the number labeled “X. Even though BASIC is rarely used today.5. C++. Objects. such as a circle. Digital refers to the processes in computers that manipulate binary numbers (0s or 1s). but so can 0.14). Ada. . the result of the operation is displayed on the computer screen. Analog refers to circuits or numerical values that have a continuous range. Pascal. which represent switches that are turned on or off by electrical current. and tested. or a number like (approximately 3. written. such as C++ and Java. Virtually all modern computers are digital. A bit can have the value 0 or the value 1. graphics. programming languages. that number is divided by two and stored as “Y. resulting in more “reusable” computer code.” In the next line. For example. Prolog. and Java. Reusable code allows a programmer to use code that has already been reliable and efficient programs. Markup languages are often not considered A Object-Oriented Programming Languages Object-oriented programming (OOP) languages. Classes of objects can inherit features from other classes of objects. of the commands. but nothing in between 0 and 1. Visual Basic. but they enable a programmer to think in terms of collections of cooperating objects instead of lists of commands.” In the third line. especially for users of the World Wide Web. This makes the programmer’s task easier. a class defining squares can inherit features such as right angles from a class defining rectangles. LISP.
then the lamp system is digital. They have large amounts of internal memory to store hundreds of pointing device. These bits can be combined to denote information such as numbers. such as televisions and wristwatches. A popular analog computer used a narrow. such as tuning to a particular television frequency. and a video display monitor or liquid crystal display (LCD) to display programs and documents. and physical size. They generally are “hard-wired”—that Programmable computers vary enormously in their computational power. lightweight LCDs instead of television-like video display monitors. exchange information regardless of location. are digital machines whose components have a finite number of states—for example. then the lamp in between. They can be in the 20th century was the slide rule. the 0 or 1. and address books. because the lamp either produces light at a given moment or it does not. If the lamp has a simple on/off switch. and for entertainment. Laptop and notebook computers usually have hardware and software similar to PCs. Most sources consider the terms “laptop” and “notebook” synonymous. sound. letters. These computers are typically preprogrammed for a specific task. for word processing. or other information. Hand-held game devices are also examples of Portable laptop and notebook computers and desktop PCs are typically used in businesses and at home to communicate on computer networks. speed. their programs are represented as circuits that cannot be reprogrammed. They are used as notepads. New interest has are specialized computer designs that attempt to mimic neurons of the brain. Because the sliding is continuous and there is no mechanism to stop at any exact values. Some small computers can be held in one hand and are called personal digital assistants (PDAs). the slide rule is analog. because the amount of light can vary continuously from on to off and all intensities Analog computer systems were the first type to be produced. and program instructions. If a dimmer replaces the on/off switch. scheduling systems. delivering doses of medicine.A desk lamp can serve as an example of the difference between analog and digital. to track finances. or on or off bits. particularly in areas such as neural networks. or keeping accurate time. Most modern computers. memory. a mouse. These built to respond to continuous electrical signals. the user slides been shown recently in analog computers. gauged wooden strip inside a rulerlike holder. is analog. . They are equipped with a keyboard. is. but they are more compact and have flat. trackball. if equipped with a cellular phone. To perform calculations with a slide rule. graphics. B Range of Computer Ability Computers exist in a wide range of sizes and power. however. The smallest are embedded within the circuitry of appliances. they can connect to worldwide computer networks to small computers.
each PC may have “local” memory (for example. The most powerful mainframe computers. and each CPU processes a portion of the task to increase overall speed and efficiency. and it simplifies each individual workstation or PC. workstations. The advantage of a network is that data can be exchanged rapidly. speed. .Workstations are similar to personal computers but have greater memory and more extensive exchange data. Large businesses. the central computer. In this scenario. but the bulk of storage resides on the server. They are typically found in scientific. This reduces the cost of the maintenance of software because the software resides only on the server rather than on Mainframe computers and supercomputers commonly are networked. become less rigid. industrial. For example. and the military use them. the boundaries between the various types have from one type of computer to another. networked PCs can work together on a given task in a version of parallel processing known as distributed computing. and business environments— especially financial ones. and capabilities than workstations and are usually shared by multiple users through a series of interconnected computers. One type of network. often within the same building or office networked group’s data and enables LAN workstations or PCs to be set up without large complex. They may be connected to PCs. consists of several PCs or workstations connected to a special computer called a server. These computers have increased in sophistication. such as hard-disk space or printers. These “dumb” terminals are used only to enter data into. process complex and time-consuming calculations. can be shared. Some supercomputers have many sets of CPUs. A server often contains all of a storage capabilities. mathematical abilities. As institutions. called supercomputers. Such computers are called parallel processors. and software and hardware resources. such as stock exchanges—that require complex and fast computations. or terminals that have no computational abilities of their own. drive) specific to itself. They control businesses and industrial facilities and are used for scientific research. The performance of various tasks and types of computing have also moved X NETWORKS Computers can communicate with other computers through a series of connections and associated hardware called a network. scientific computers break a task into small pieces. The server stores and manages programs and data. Networks also allow remote use of a computer by a user who cannot physically access the computer. a hard the workstation or PC because less expensive computers can be purchased. such as those used to create weather predictions. a local area network (LAN). and they are connected to other workstations or personal computers to Mainframe computers have more memory. or receive output from.
B First Punch Cards . For example. The World Wide Web. Users can obtain a variety of information in the form of text. These data are extensively cross-indexed. government. American computer scientist Vinton Cerf was largely responsible for Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The Internet is a mammoth resource of data. In 1623 German scientist Wilhelm could add. a global consortium of networks linked by common communication programs and protocols (a set of established standards that enable computers to communicate with each other). XI A HISTORY Beginnings The history of computing began with an analog machine. and with the aid of logarithm tables. programs. Schikard invented a machine that used 11 complete and 6 incomplete sprocketed wheels that French philosopher.C. and scientific agencies. multiply and divide. developed in the 1980s by British physicist Timothy Berners-Lee. Seventeenth-century German mathematician Gottfried Leibniz designed a special gearing system to enable multiplication on Pascal’s machine. mathematician.Wide area networks (WANs) are networks that span large geographical areas. Computers can Los Angeles can browse through the computerized archives of the Library of Congress in connect to these networks to use facilities in another city or country. and physicist Blaise Pascal invented a machine in 1642 that added and subtracted. Pascal built 50 copies of his machine. D. The largest WAN is the Internet. graphics. highlighted text. sounds. and utilities. enabling users to browse (transfer their attention from one information site to another) via buttons. is a system of information resources accessed primarily through the Internet. In 1984 the development of Internet technology was creating the Internet in 1973 as part of the United States Department of Defense Advanced turned over to private. but most served as curiosities in parlors of the wealthy. automatically carrying and borrowing digits from column to column. a person in Washington. or sophisticated searching software known as search engines. or video.
more than 30. designed in the early 1820s by British mathematician and scientist Charles Babbage. considered the mechanical precursor of the modern computer. Engine. emperor Napoleon I for his work. The loom prevailed. countess of Lovelace. he fled for his life from the city of Lyon pursued by weavers however: When Jacquard died. The looms are C Precursor to Modern Computer Another early mechanical computer was the Difference Engine. the Analytical was designed to perform all arithmetic operations efficiently. The Analytical Engine Augusta Ada Byron. Although Jacquard was rewarded and admired by French who feared their jobs were in jeopardy due to Jacquard’s invention. was a personal friend and student of Babbage. especially in the manufacture of fine furniture fabrics. Babbage’s lack of political skills kept him from obtaining the approval and funds to build it. She was the daughter of the famous poet Lord Byron and one of only a few woman mathematicians of her time. Although never completed by Babbage. however. the Difference Engine was intended to be a machine with a 20-decimal capacity that could solve mathematical problems.000 of his looms existed in Lyon. She prepared extensive notes concerning Babbage’s ideas and the Analytical Engine. Lovelace’s conceptual programs for the machine led to the naming of a programming language (Ada) in her honor. Jacquard’s loom used punched cards to program patterns that helped the loom create woven fabrics. still used today.In the early 19th century French inventor Joseph-Marie Jacquard devised a specialized type of computer: a silk loom. Although the Analytical Engine was never built. Babbage also made plans for another machine. its .
and hydrodynamics. He also urged the National Bureau of Standards not to support the six of them nationwide. insisting that there would never be a need for more than five or B EDVAC. Hollerith’s Tabulating-Recording Company. The Turing machine model is still used by modern computational In the 1930s American mathematician Howard Aiken developed the Mark I calculating machine. Turing equations without human direction. development of computers. the modern digital computer. meteorology.S. Aiken also introduced computers to universities by establishing the first computer mistrusted the concept of storing a program within the computer. the use of punched cards as a primitive memory. In 1924 the company changed its name to International Business Machines (IBM). used an idea similar to Jacquard’s loom when he combined the use of punched cards with devices that created and electronically read the cards. XII A DEVELOPMENTS IN THE 20TH CENTURY Early Electronic Calculators Herman Hollerith.key concepts. census. which could be stored away from the computer. Hollerith’s tabulator was used for the 1890 U. In later machines. and the ability to print. can be found in many modern computers. insisting that the integrity of the machine could be maintained only through a strict separation of program instructions from data. Aiken used vacuum tubes and solid state transistors (tiny electrical switches) to manipulate the binary science program at Harvard University in Cambridge. an American inventor. which was built by IBM. The machine (now known as a Turing machine) resembled intended the device to be a “universal machine” that could be used to duplicate or represent the function of any other existing machine. Aiken obsessively numbers. such as the capacity to store instructions. Von Neumann's 1945 design for the Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC)—in stark contrast to . Hungarian-American mathematician John von Neumann developed one of the first computers used to solve problems in mathematics. His computer had to read instructions from punched cards. Turing’s machine was the theoretical precursor to theorists. ENIAC. and UNIVAC At the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. Massachusetts. New Jersey. and it made the computational time three to four times shorter than the time previously needed for hand counts. Tabulating Machine Company eventually merged with two companies to form the Computing- In 1936 British mathematician Alan Turing proposed the idea of a machine that could process an automatic typewriter that used symbols for math and logic instead of letters. economics. This electronic calculating machine used relays and electromagnetic components to replace mechanical components.
They produced the Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC). general digital computer.the designs of Aiken. his contemporary—was the first electronic computer design to some with clever names like ILLIAC. it had to be reprogrammed for each task. weighed more than 27. This machine led to several others. but it is not clear whether a functional version was ever built.000 kg (60. Roughly 2. incorporate a program stored entirely within its memory. such as stored program machine. which was United States Census Bureau in 1951. when a lawsuit regarding the XIII THE TRANSISTOR AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS TRANSFORM COMPUTING . while teaching at Iowa State College. American physicist John Mauchly proposed the electronic digital computer called ENIAC.. patent on ENIAC was settled. and MANIAC. vacuum tubes. It is regarded as the first successful. ENIAC was operational in 1945 and introduced to the public in 1946. American physicist John Vincent Atanasoff built a prototype computing device called the Atanasoff-Berry Computer. Clifford Berry.000 of the computer’s vacuum tubes were replaced each month by a calculating ballistic firing tables and designing atomic weapons. Atanasoff’s device was the first computer to separate ABC. Many of ENIAC’s first tasks were for military purposes. and contained more than 18. JOHNNIAC.000 lb). Atanasoff developed the concepts that were data processing from memory. there were 46 UNIVACs in use. or later used in the design of the ENIAC. Jr. He helped build it along with American engineer John Presper Eckert. which was then bought by the Rand Corporation. with the help of his assistant. at the Moore School of Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. Atanasoff did not receive credit for his contributions until 1973. The first UNIVAC was delivered to the Between 1937 and 1939. By 1957. used for a broader variety of commercial applications. It occupied 167 sq m (1.000 team of six technicians.800 sq ft). the Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer. Since ENIAC was initially not a Eckert and Mauchly eventually formed their own company.
Refinements in the PC continued abilities. In the late 1960s integrated circuits (tiny transistors and other electrical components arranged on a single chip of silicon) replaced individual transistors in computers. As integrated resulted from the simultaneous.In 1948. and William Bradford Shockley developed the transistor. more components could be designed into a single computer circuit. American physicists Walter Houser Brattain. and displayed output on rows of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). the Mac OS. received input through switches on the front panel. at Bell Telephone Laboratories. The transistor had a tremendous impact on computer design. had 256 bytes of RAM. sold by Micro Instrumentation Telemetry Systems (MITS). and Linux enables computer users to run programs and manipulate data in ways that were unimaginable in the mid-20th century. independent work of Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments and circuits became miniaturized. better storage devices.. electric switch. Integrated circuits Robert Noyce of the Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation in the late 1950s. and unreliable vacuum tubes. John Bardeen. Today the development of sophisticated operating systems such as Windows. The first of these so-called personal computers (PCs)—the Altair 8800—appeared in 1975. replacing costly. The Altair used an 8-bit Intel 8080 microprocessor. Inc. . In the 1970s refinements in integrated circuit technology led to the development of the modern microprocessor. integrated circuits that contained thousands of transistors. and CPUs with more computational used successfully by Apple Computer. Modern microprocessors can contain more than 40 million transistors. Graphical user interfaces were first designed by the Xerox Corporation. Manufacturers used integrated circuit technology to build smaller and cheaper computers. a device that can act as an energy-inefficient. then later with the inclusion of video displays.
They solved one million trillion mathematical subproblems by continuously running 448 computers for two years. to a chess match with a supercomputer called Deep Blue. the reigning world chess champion. developed with the ability to learn to solve problems on its own. Italy. rather than one programmed XIV THE FUTURE OF COMPUTERS . Their analysis demonstrated the existence of a previously hypothetical subatomic supercomputers that will run these types of calculations 100 times faster. however. particle called a glueball. and the United States are collaborating to develop new In 1996 IBM challenged Garry Kasparov. Many experts predict these types of parallel processing machines will soon surpass human chess playing ability. In a 1997 rematch Deep Blue defeated Kasparov. and some speculate that massive calculating power will one day replace intelligence. is whether a computer can be to solve a specific set of tasks. The computer had the ability to compute more than 100 million chess positions per second. One large single calculation was accomplished by physicists at IBM in 1995.Several researchers claim the “record” for the largest single calculation ever performed. becoming the first computer to win a match against a reigning world chess champion with regulation time controls. Deep Blue serves as a prototype for future computers that will be required to solve complex problems. At issue. Japan.
Long-standing issues. Virtual Reality Modeling language (VRML)—are currently in use or are being developed for the World Wide Web. and it has proven to be somewhat accurate. including biological computing that uses living organisms. the technology of interacting with a computer using all of the human senses. and regulatory legislation. Quantum computers under development use components of a chloroform molecule (a combination of chlorine and hydrogen atoms) and a variation of a medical procedure called physics called quantum mechanics. and carry out operations. Virtual reality. Improved speech recognition will make the operation of a computer easier. speed of microprocessors currently doubles approximately every 18 months.In 1965 semiconductor pioneer Gordon Moore predicted that the number of transistors contained on a computer chip would double every year. and Computers will become more advanced and they will also become easier to use. as computer use becomes more widespread. so do the opportunities for misuse. Future uses of . Standards for virtual-reality program languages—for example. such as privacy and freedom of governments are working to solve these problems through informed conversation. are being reexamined in light of the digital revolution. The number of transistors and the computational With their increasing power and versatility. exotic models of computation are being developed. will also contribute to better human and computer interfaces. Unfortunately. and computing that uses deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). This is now known as Moore’s Law. Quantum computers may one day be thousands to millions of times faster than current computers. Individuals. because they take advantage of the laws that govern the behavior of subatomic particles. These are examples of possible future computational platforms that. molecular computing that uses molecules with particular properties. better computer security. to store data so far. the basic unit of heredity. There are also limitations Intriguing breakthroughs occurred in the area of quantum computing in the late 1990s. the physical limitations of miniaturizing circuits embedded in silicon. and more versatile. expression. Other. as the basis for quantum computing. compromise. New ethical issues also have arisen. which describes the behavior of subatomic particles magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compute at a molecular level. Scientists investigate them because of related to heat generated by even the tiniest of transistors. Other individuals Security). Scientists use a branch of (particles that make up atoms). such as how to regulate material on the have used computers to electronically embezzle funds and alter credit histories (see Computer Internet and the World Wide Web. companies. erasing information or causing malfunctions. cheaper. Computer hackers—people who illegally gain access to computer systems—often violate privacy and can tamper with or destroy records. are limited in abilities or are strictly theoretical. These laws allow quantum computers could include code breaking (see cryptography) and large database quantum computers to examine all possible answers to a query simultaneously. Programs called viruses or worms can replicate and spread from computer to computer. Components continue to shrink in size and are becoming faster. computers simplify day-to-day life.
computer science. mathematics. Communications between computer users and networks will benefit from new technologies such as broadband communication systems that can carry significantly more data faster or more conveniently to and from the vast interconnected databases that continue to grow in number and type.queries. and physics are now working to determine the possibilities and limitations of quantum computing. Theorists of chemistry. .
and laser printers. can be extremely intense. a device that produces and amplifies light. Masers are similar devices that produce and amplify microwaves. Lasers can generate light beyond the range visible to the human eye. from II PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION . Lasers are used in many modern technological devices including bar code readers. and can be directed with great accuracy. The word laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.Laser I INTRODUCTION Laser. compact disc (CD) players. Laser light is very pure in color. the infrared through the X-ray range.
made up of two types of particles: protons. The nucleus makes up more than 99. inducing the electrons to emit the absorbed energy as light.Lasers generate light by storing energy in particles called electrons inside atoms and then all matter on Earth and are a thousand times smaller than viruses. which occupies only a tiny part of the atom’s space. Atoms are the building blocks of Light is composed of tiny packets of energy called photons. A Excited Atoms At the heart of an atom is a tightly bound cluster of particles called the nucleus. Lasers produce coherent light: light that is monochromatic (one color) and whose photons are “in step” with one another. Electrons are the underlying source of almost all light.9 percent of the atom’s mass but Stadium and the equally magnified nucleus is only the size of a baseball. Enlarge an atom up to the size of Yankee . and neutrons. This cluster is have no charge. which have a positive charge.
The electrons in the atoms of a laser are first pumped. color. the same wavelength) as the photon this atom is about to emit energy source. electrons quickly jump back to the low energy level. light (see Photoelectric Effect). An atom with at least one electron that occupies a higher energy level than it normally would is said to be excited. The new light . the peaks and troughs of their waves line up. or energized. Electrons can move from a low to a high energy level by absorbing energy. Neon signs and fluorescent lamps glow with this kind of light as B Stimulated Emission Lasers are different from more familiar sources of light. the photon can stimulate the excited atom to immediately emit light that has the same wavelength and is in step with the photon that interacted with it. Excited atoms in lasers collectively emit photons of a single color. frequency. equivalently. giving off the extra energy as many electrons independently emit photons of different colors in all directions.Electrons. If the photon approaches closely enough. and wavelength are directly related: All photons of a given energy are the same color and have the same frequency and wavelength. An atom can become excited by absorbing a photon whose energy equals the difference between the two energy levels. to an excited state by an color (or. Electrons travel in complex orbits and exist only in certain specific energy states or levels (see Quantum Theory). Usually. An excited atom can then be “stimulated” by a photon of exactly the same spontaneously. This stimulated emission is the key to laser operation. tiny particles that have a negative charge. A photon’s energy. all traveling in the same direction and all in step with one another. whirl through the rest of the space inside atoms. When two photons are in step.
who had written down some ideas and laser. The patent for the laser was granted to Townes and Schawlow. and single-colored laser light finally escapes through this slightly transparent mirror. In a gas laser. and free electron are all common types of lasers. As the photons bounce between the two silvered. Bursts as short as 12 × 10-15 sec have been achieved. coherent beam of light: laser light. for example. or metal-vapor lamps. the photons usually zip back and forth in a gas-filled tube with parallel mirrors. The most common solid laser media are rods of ruby crystals and neodymium-doped glasses and crystals. (Both men won Nobel Prizes in physics for their work. again in step. allowing a small amount of light to pass through rather than reflecting it all. The ends of the rods are fashioned into two parallel surfaces coated with a highly reflecting nonmetallic film. liquid. arc lamps. the underlying process for laser action. Translating the idea of stimulated emission into a working model. in 1917. These short bursts One method of exciting the atoms in lasers is to illuminate the solid laser material with higherenergy light than the laser produces. The escaped light forms the laser beam. Townes in 1964 and Schawlow in 1981). required more than four decades. brief burst of light. coined the word laser in 1957. Gould eventually won a partial patent covering several types of III TYPES OF LASERS Lasers are generally classified according to the material. They are usually pulsed to generate a very are useful for studying physical phenomena of very brief duration. gas. The Albert Einstein first proposed stimulated emission. The phenomenon snowballs into an amplified. The working principles of lasers were outlined by the American physicists Charles Hard Townes and Arthur Leonard Schawlow in a 1958 patent application. however. Solid-state. called pumping. One of the mirrors is only partially intense. . This procedure. is achieved with brilliant strobe light from xenon flash tubes. called the medium. Solid-state lasers offer the highest power output. but it was later challenged by the American physicist and engineer Gordon Gould. they use to produce the laser light. highly reflective mirrors facing inward at each end. A Solid-State Lasers Solid-state lasers produce light by means of a solid medium. semiconductor.adds to the existing light. In 1960 American physicist Theodore Maiman of Hughes Aircraft Corporation constructed the first working laser from a ruby rod. and the two photons go on to stimulate other excited atoms to give up their extra energy. they trigger further stimulated emissions and the light gets brighter and brighter with each pass through the excited atoms. directional.
called quantum-dot verticalon a chip the size of a fingernail. They can be Scientists have developed extremely tiny semiconductor lasers. One layer is treated with an impurity whose atoms provide an extra electron. Gas lasers can be pumped by ultraviolet turning the energy used to excite their atoms into laser light. wave mode. Two mirrors are located light. Carbon dioxide lasers are very efficient at outside the ends of the tube to form the laser cavity. A typical semiconductor laser consists of a junction between two flat layers of gallium arsenide. Semiconductor lasers also form the heart of fiber-optics communication systems (see Fiber Optics). Free electron lasers employ an array of magnets to excite free electrons (electrons not bound to atoms). First developed in 1977. The helium-neon laser is known for its color purity and minimal beam spread. They are pumped by intense flash lamps in a pulse mode or by a separate gas laser in the continuous can be adjusted with the help of a prism located inside the laser cavity. they are the most powerful continuous wave (CW) lasers—that is. lasers that emit light continuously rather than in pulses. or chemical reactions. cavity surface-emitting lasers. These lasers are so tiny that more than a million of them can fit Common uses for semiconductor lasers include compact disc (CD) players and laser printers. Semiconductor operated in the continuous wave mode with better than 50 percent efficiency. and the other with an impurity whose atoms are one electron short. or even metal vapor. Gallium arsenide is the most common semiconductor used. meaning that the color of the laser light they emit D Semiconductor Lasers Semiconductor lasers are the most compact lasers. Only a small percentage of the energy used to excite most other lasers is converted into light. lasers are pumped by the direct application of electric current across the junction. electric current. electron beams. C Liquid Lasers The most common liquid laser media are inorganic dyes contained in glass vessels.B Gas Lasers The lasing medium of a gas laser can be a pure gas. Some dye lasers are tunable. a mixture of gases. they are now becoming important research instruments. The medium is usually contained in a cylindrical glass or quartz tube. . Consequently. E Free Electron Lasers.
the focused beams can readily and precisely heat. medicine. and the arts. trim microelectronics. electron lasers can function even in the The free electron laser facility at the University of California at Santa Barbara uses intense farinfrared light to investigate mutations in DNA molecules and to study the properties of semiconductor materials. Consequently. communications. or vaporize material. for example. scientific research. The devices become more difficult to operate at higher energies but generally work successfully from X-ray range. to shape machine tools. Theoretically. Lasers have become valuable tools in industry. to synthesize new material. infrared through ultraviolet wavelengths. melt. A Industry Powerful laser beams can be focused on a small spot to generate enormous temperatures. Free electron lasers should also eventually become capable of near-infrared beams from a free electron laser could defend against a missile attack. Lasers have been used. producing very high-power radiation that is currently too expensive to produce. At high power.Free electron lasers are tunable over a broader range of energies than dye lasers. IV LASER APPLICATIONS The use of lasers is restricted only by imagination. and to attempt to . to cut fashion patterns. the military. to drill holes in diamonds. to induce controlled nuclear fusion (see Nuclear Energy).
for example. scientists can study molecular structures of matter. By measuring the scattering and color shifts. Lasers are also the most effective Scientists use lasers to make extremely accurate measurements. and in precise tests to confirm Einstein’s theory of relativity. (see Chemical Analysis. extremely small amounts of light scattering and small shifts in color caused by the interaction between laser light and matter can easily be detected. short of a second possible. and the detectors of certain types of air pollution. Perfectly straight and uniformly sized tunnels. Earth and the Moon. Lasers have been used for precise determination (to within one inch) of the distance between . Photochemistry). Chemical reactions can be selectively induced. Scientists also have used lasers to determine the speed of light to an unprecedented accuracy. laser pulses also make high-speed photography with exposure times of only several trillionths B Scientific Research Because laser light is highly directional and monochromatic.Highly directional laser beams are used for alignment in construction. existence of trace substances in samples can be detected. Lasers are used in this way for monitoring small movements associated with plate tectonics and for geographic surveys. may be dug using lasers for guidance. Powerful.
Laser techniques have also been developed for lab tests of small E Military Applications . laser light simplifies the recording of a hologram. tiny bits of matter (see Particle Trap). dimensional image can be reconstructed with a laser beam. bore holes in the skull. Lasers are also used to play audio D Medicine Lasers have a wide range of medical uses. Intense. Laser surgery has virtually replaced older surgical biological samples. Low-loss optical addition. narrow beams of laser light can cut and cauterize certain body tissues in a small fraction of a second without damaging surrounding lesions. and cauterize blood vessels.Very fast laser-activated switches are being developed for use in particle accelerators. For instance. Laser techniques have also been used for high-density information recording. healthy tissues. Lasers are therefore ideal for space communications.000 times the television channels today carried by fibers have been developed to transmit laser light for earthbound communication in telephone and computer systems. high-energy laser light can carry 1. from which a threeCDs and videodiscs (see Sound Recording and Reproduction). In microwave signals. Lasers have been used to “weld” the retina. Scientists also use lasers to trap single atoms and subatomic particles in order to study these C Communications Laser light can travel a large distance in outer space with little reduction in signal strength. vaporize procedures for eye disorders.
The CDRH has divided lasers into six groups. The ability of tunable dye lasers to selectively excite an atom or molecule may open up V LASER SAFETY Because the eye focuses laser light just as it does other light. reflected. and laser use in Canada is overseen by Health Canada’s Radiation . The higher the laser’s energy. High-powered lasers of the Class IV type (the highest classification is then attached to the laser as a sticker. Bush. and satellites have been constructed. Guns can missiles has been proposed. their emission duration. Canada uses the same Protection Bureau. The use of laser beams to destroy hostile ballistic Ronald Reagan and the Ballistic Missile Defense program supported by President George W. The higher its potential to injure. as in the Strategic Defense Initiative urged by U. depending on their power output. Lasers sold and used commercially in the United States must comply with a strict set of laws and Drug Administration. classification system. the chief danger in working with lasers is eye damage. Therefore. burn flesh. or diffused. laser light should not be viewed either directly or reflected. president be fitted with laser sights and range finders. the enforced by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH). aircraft. and the energy of the photons they emit.Laser guidance systems for missiles. more efficient ways to separate isotopes for construction of nuclear weapons. a department of the Food classification) generate a beam of energy that can start fires. and cause permanent eye damage whether the light is direct.S.
and metallurgy. including levitating trains and superfast computers. nonmetallic as well as metallic. the study of materials. ways that metals could not. are possible.Goggles blocking the specific color of photons that a laser produces are mandatory for the safe use of lasers. scientists and engineers devised ways of fashioning thousands of In the late 1980s. and how they can be adapted and fabricated to meet the needs of modern technology. gave materials science its first major impetus. direct exposure to laser light should be avoided. and other nonmetals in applications formerly reserved for metals. chemistry. . materials science research was given renewed emphasis with the discovery of ceramics that display superconductivity at higher temperatures than metals do. Materials Science and Technology I INTRODUCTION Materials Science and Technology. ceramics. laboratory techniques and research tools of physics. Having discovered that nonmetallic materials such as silicon could be made to conduct electricity in tiny integrated circuits (see Integrated Circuit) on a small chip of silicon. This then made it possible to miniaturize the components of electronic devices such as computers. beginning in the early 1960s. scientists are II RECENT DEVELOPMENTS The rapid development of semiconductors (see Semiconductor) for the electronics industry. If the temperature at which these new materials become superconductive can be raised high enough. Even with goggles. new applications. Using the finding new ways of using plastics.
Although the latest developments in materials science have tended to focus on electrical properties. compression. In many cases the slow deformation stops because the force causing the creep is eliminated by material. and shear. which are defined below. composite materials that are lighter. No deformation is apparent during fatigue. permanent deformation. such as titanium alloys. for instance. the sagging of long-span cables. such as vibration. Even when the maximum stress never exceeds the elastic limit. Materials subjected to high temperatures are especially susceptible to this deformation. Under tension. When a rod is bent. mechanical properties are also of major. such as tension. For the aircraft industry. the material returns to its original size and form when the external force is lifted). compressive forces are simultaneously at work. See also Metals. Creep extended over a long time eventually leads to the rupture of the Fatigue can be defined as progressive fracture. Knowledge of tensile stress. and the resistance of materials to creep and fatigue are of basic importance in engineering. . When a material is subjected to a bending. and engineers testing. returning to its original length if the force does not exceed the material's elastic limit (see Elasticity). fatigue can be avoided by keeping the cyclic force below a certain level. It occurs when a mechanical part is subjected to a repeated or cyclic stress. both tensile and is stretched and subjected to a tensional force. Under larger tensions. but small localized cracks develop and propagate through the material until the remaining cross-sectional area cannot support the maximum stress of the cyclic force. With some metals. failure of the material can occur even after a short time. the material ruptures. and the other side is compressed. The gradual loosening of bolts. one side of it Creep is a slowly progressing. an example is the force in a cable holding a weight. torsion. elastic limits. bending. Time-dependent effects of external forces are creep and fatigue. scientists have been developing. and easier to fabricate than the aluminum and III MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS Engineers must know how solid materials respond to external forces. and the deformation of components of machines and engines are all noticeable examples of creep. for example. and under even greater forces the Compression is the decrease in volume that results from the application of pressure. or fracture. Solid materials respond to these forces by elastic deformation (that is. a material usually stretches. nonmetallic other metals currently used to form the outer skin of aircraft. permanent deformation that results from a steady force acting on a material. material does not return completely to its original condition. or torsional (twisting) force. continuing importance. shearing. Tension is a pulling force that acts in one direction. stronger. the deformation itself.
In order to melt. process of lowering the temperature and maintaining it in a given space for the purpose of chilling foods. constant cooling is achieved by the circulation of a refrigerant in a closed system. when mechanical or electric refrigerators became available. The use of natural or manufactured ice for refrigeration was widespread until shortly before World War I. and the absorption system. used in domestic units for large coldstorage applications and for most air conditioning. Melting ice in the presence of a dissolving salt lowers its melting point by several degrees. or power. The two main types of mechanical refrigeration systems used are the compression system.5° C (-109.3° F). expansion valve. pharmaceuticals. known as dry ice. in which it evaporates to a gas and then condenses back again to a liquid in a continuous cycle.I INTRODUCTION Refrigeration. ice must absorb heat amounting to 333. Having no liquid phase at temperature of -78. is used also as a refrigerant. Ice owes its effectiveness as a cooling agent to the fact that it has a constant fusion temperature of 0° C (32° F).3 Btu/lb). condenser. If no leakage occurs. or providing an atmosphere conducive to bodily comfort. and a method of dissipating waste heat. Foodstuffs maintained at this temperature or slightly above have an increased storage life. In the evaporator the refrigerant is vaporized and heat is absorbed from the material contents or the space being cooled. now employed largely for heat-operated air-conditioning units but formerly also used for heat-operated domestic units. furs. it sublimes directly from the solid to vapor phase at a temperatures during the period of sublimation. and evaporator. the refrigerant lasts indefinitely throughout the entire life of the system. normal atmospheric pressure. Such refrigeration checks both bacterial growth and adverse chemical reactions that occur in the normal atmosphere. Storing perishable foods. Dry ice is effective for maintaining products at low In mechanical refrigeration.1 kJ/kg (143. All that is required to maintain cooling is a constant supply of energy. or other items under refrigeration is commonly known as cold storage. II COMPRESSION SYSTEMS Compression systems employ four elements in the refrigeration cycle: compressor. Solid carbon dioxide. The vapor next is drawn into a . preserving certain substances.
7° C (20° F) in its evaporator under a pressure of 246.8° C (100° F) in the condenser. For example. Instead of the gas being inducted into a compressor on exit from the returning from the generator. which passes into a condenser. In such gas refrigerators a strong solution of ammonia in water is heated by a gas flame in a container called a generator. IV ABSORPTION SYSTEM A few household units. or vaporization. the ammonia gas is reabsorbed in the partially cooled. which raises its temperature.9 psi) would condense at 37. A frozen-food refrigerator resembles the household refrigerator except that its compressor and motor must be of sufficient size to handle the larger gas volume of the refrigerant at its lower evaporator pressure.2 kPa (35. the ammonia flows to the evaporator as in the compression system. This synthetic chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) when used as a of the most widely used refrigerants for many years has been dichlorodifluoromethane.7 psi). III REFRIGERANTS For every refrigerant there is a specific boiling. The lower temperatures. to maintain a temperature of -23.2 kPa (131. The condenser. Changed to a liquid state in the condenser. vaporize at -6. known refrigerant would. called gas refrigerators.3° C (-10° F) an evaporator pressure of 132. so that if it ran continuously it would produce progressively temperature range. called the freezer. temperature associated with each pressure. and the ammonia is driven off as a vapor. is always placed in an insulated space. This process of evaporator. so that it is only necessary to control the pressure in the evaporator to obtain a desired temperature. for example.2 psi) is required with Refrigerant-12. In small domestic refrigerators used for food storage. high-pressure gas is then condensed to liquid in an air. With air-conditioning units the condenser heat must be dissipated out of doors or directly into cooling water.or water-cooled pressure and temperature are reduced to the conditions that are maintained in the evaporator. the condenser heat is dissipated into the kitchen or other room housing the refrigerator. and after compression to 909. In some cases this space constitutes the whole refrigerator cabinet. In order to maintain the interior of the box within the desired compressor is usually oversized. weak solution . in which its resulting superheated. to form the strong ammonia solution. From the condenser the liquid flows through an expansion valve. the motor driving the compressor is controlled by a thermostatic switch.3 kPa (19. operate on the absorption principle. One popularly as Refrigerant-12. however. In a domestic refrigeration system the evaporator. The resulting condensed liquid would then enter the expansion valve to drop to evaporator pressure and repeat the cycle of absorbing heat at low temperature and low pressure and dissipating heat at the much higher condenser pressure and temperature. A similar pressure-temperature relationship holds in the condenser.motor-driven compressor and elevated to high pressure.
this solution. however. the surplus water is boiled off to increase the salt concentration of the solution. The very cold boiling water from the evaporator is absorbed in concentrated salt solution. usually lithium bromide. and some manufacturers of CFCs have already pledged to phase out these products by the end of the century. Refrigerant-11 and Refrigerant-22. .0 kPa (0. that CFCs are posing a major threat to the global environment through their role in the destruction of the ozone layer.reabsorption occurs in a container called the absorber. Increasing use of absorption refrigeration now occurs in refrigeration units for comfort space cooling.2° to 10° C) are suitable. A search has therefore begun for replacements. It has been found.145 psi). the generator and condenser operate at about 10. after cooling.0 kPa (1.45 psi). water can be used as a refrigerant with an aqueous salt solution. This solution is then pumped into the generator. for which purpose refrigerant temperatures of 45° to 50° F (7. The units are usually direct-fired or use steam generated in a boiler. from which the enriched liquid flows back to the generator to complete the cycle. where. In this temperature range. at elevated temperature. V REFRIGERANTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT Refrigerant-12 and related CFCs. recirculates back to the absorber to complete the cycle. as the absorbent material. are currently the major compounds used in the cooling and insulation systems of home refrigeration units. The system operates at high vacuum at an evaporator pressure of about 1.
as in a central system in which steam. Heating an area raises temperature in a given space to a more satisfactory level than that of the atmosphere. Ventilation. and purity for the occupants of that space or for the industrial materials that are II HEATING The heating process may be direct. Air conditioning designates control of the indoor environment year-round to create and maintain desirable temperature. heated water. humidity. and Air Conditioning (HVAC). as from a fireplace or stove in an individual room. or heated air passing through pipes or other ducts transports thermal energy to all the rooms of a building. Ventilating. controls both the supply and exhaust of air within given areas in order to provide sufficient oxygen to the occupants and to eliminate odors. The earliest heating system was the open fire with which people warmed their dwellings. either separately or in combination with the heating or air-conditioning system. air handled or stored there. braziers of various types that were developed by the ancient Romans are still employed in . circulation.Heating. and Air Conditioning (HVAC) I INTRODUCTION Heating. Ventilating. related processes designed to regulate ambient conditions within buildings for comfort or for industrial purposes. or indirect. Stoves and some parts of the world.
some modern fireplaces are built with an arrangement of interior ducts in which cold air from the room is warmed and then recirculated through the room. gas. coal. . however. peat. An efficient stove delivers about 75 percent of the energy of the burning fuel. is an improvement over the fireplace because its surfaces are in contact with the air of the room and by convection deliver heat to the air passing over them. products of the fire. with short flues that communicated with the open air. an enclosure of metal or ceramic materials in which fuel is burned. Fireplaces are included in modern houses mainly for aesthetic reasons rather than thermal efficiency. or a pair of metal charcoal. and kerosene. coke. and the circulation of air under the fuel. recessed into the walls of buildings. and andirons are used for wood. raised on legs. To and indirect radiation from the hot sidewalls and back wall. From 85 to 90 percent of the heat improve heating efficiency. The first fireplaces were hearths. Grates are used for such fuels as coal.A Fireplaces The fireplace was developed as a method of heating rooms by means of an open fire. coke. Fireplaces with chimneys sufficiently high above the roof of the building to provide adequate draft for the fire were introduced during the 12th century. On the hearth is either a metal grate. The fuels used include wood. These devices promote combustion by permitting The useful heat given off by a fireplace consists of both direct radiation from the burning fuel from the burning fuel is lost in the combustion gases that go up the chimney. B Stoves The stove. Ordinary fireplaces consist of a hearth enclosed on three sides with brick and surmounted by a completely enclosed chimney or flue that carries away the smoke and other combustion supports called firedogs or andirons.
such as those in shopping malls.or gas-fired furnaces only need the control of burners to regulate heat. The combustion firebox and the associated boiler are customarily enclosed in an insulated casing. was used to a limited extent in Britain about 1816. used warm air. and or a group of buildings. steam. but the first successful central in the U. hotels.C Central Heating Central-heating systems. . large and small. however.S. A type of centralized heating. As air in some residential furnaces. In large systems steam or hot water is usually employed to distribute even groups of buildings. or coal. Furnaces that use solid fuels. as are office buildings. Furnaces for heating systems conventionally are fired with such fuels as oil. it heats metal surfaces that in turn transfer the heat to water. This system subsequently came into extensive use Present-day central-heating systems provide heat from a central furnace for a single building the heat. introduced in 1835. The removal of ashes from the stoker or grates is also essential. or even Most furnaces. Most dwellings are provided with central heat. are automatically responsive to remote thermostats that control their operation. gas. the fuel burns. system. in which one centrally located heating unit is used to warm several rooms or an entire house. were developed in the 1800s. using hot water. require the admission of additional fuel to the system. The term district heating is applied to systems in which a large number of buildings are supplied with steam from central boiler rooms operated by a public utility. Steam heating was developed about 1850. Oil.
slanted upward from the furnace. Steam or hot-water pipes are placed in the walls or floors during construction of the building. The convector enclosures designed to permit air circulation. Radiant heating provides uniform C1 Warm-Air Systems The simplest warm-air heating system consists of a firebox and waste-gas passage set within the warm air. and properly insulated to prevent heat losses. and factories are often equipped with so-called Although heat is provided in part by radiation in all forms of direct heating. If electricity is used for heating. walls.The devices generally employed to transfer heat from the heating system to the area to be warmed are known commonly as radiators and convectors. either from within the house or from outdoors. heat is provided largely by convection. These units are placed in series of cast-iron grids or coils having a comparatively large total surface area. Forced-circulation warm-air systems are popular for through the year. is admitted between the a sheet-metal casing. In a forced-circulation system a fan or blower is placed in the furnace casing. the panels containing heating elements are heat and has a comparatively low cost of operation. humidifying. the system may not heat a house adequately. Cold air. As the air is heated. and ducts leading to the various rooms. Often the furnace is arranged so the warm air passes over a water pan in the furnace for humidification before circulating through the house. thereby providing comfort at a lower room-air temperature than other systems. which tends to rise. baseboard. unit heaters in which an electric fan or blower forces air through heating coils. Ordinary radiators consist of a consists of a network of finned steel or nonferrous-metal tubes. To ensure natural circulation of firebox and the casing and is heated by contact with the hot surfaces of the furnace. Efficiency is high because radiant heat raises the inside-surface temperature. Stores. primarily because the same equipment can provide air conditioning . warehouses. the furnace usually is situated below the first floor of the house. such a system may be included in the system to ensure the cleanliness of the air. or ceilings are used as the radiating units. and dehumidifying units. When combined with cooling. rather than by radiation. The grills or registers can be The chief problem in this type of system lies in obtaining adequate air circulation. ensures the circulation of a large amount of air even under unfavorable conditions. or the ceiling of the room. thus. Dust filters residential installations. forced-circulation systems may be used effectively for heating and cooling. individual grills or registers in each room of the upper floors. Unless the warm-air ducts are comparatively large in diameter. it passes through the ducts to opened or closed to control the temperature of the rooms. the term radiant heating is applied popularly to systems in which floors. mounted on a wall.
and the water from all the radiators flows back to the to control than the one-pipe system. Closed expansion tanks contain about 50 percent air. The vapor system is a two-pipe arrangement in which steam passes into the radiator through an inlet valve. The two-pipe system is thus more efficient and easier compensate for variations in the volume of water in the system.C2 Hot-Water Systems In the first hot-water heating systems the waters of natural hot springs reputedly were used as a source of heat. In the two-pipe system all radiators are supplied with hot water at the same temperature from a single supply pipe. The one-pipe air-vent system is an arrangement in which the force of gravity causes the condensate to flow from the radiator to the boiler in the same pipe through which steam reaches the radiator. In both systems an expansion tank is required to furnace through a common return pipe. In the one-pipe system. Circulation of the hot water can be because it provides flexibility and control. or mechanical-pump. but the pipes must be large to accommodate both the steam and the condensate. The water is then circulated by means of pipes to radiators located in the various rooms. The condensate is returned to the boiler. and flows increasingly cool as it flows away from the furnace. and hence the radiators farthest from the furnace must be larger than those nearer the furnace in order to deliver the same amount of heat. and air and condensate are delivered to the return pipe by means of a steam trap on the radiator. giving up its latent heat (see Heat: Latent Heat). Air vents on each radiator permit air to be forced out of the radiator by the steam during the warm-up period and also during operation. vapor systems. The steam condenses in the radiators. in which water is heated to a temperature of from 60° to 83° C (140° to 180° F). accomplished by pressure and gravity. but forced circulation using a pump is more efficient Either one. C3 Steam Systems Steam-heating systems closely resemble hot-water systems except that steam rather than hot water is circulated through the pipes to the radiators.or two-pipe systems may be used. The disadvantage of this arrangement is that the water becomes each radiator from the supply side of the main pipe. a subatmospheric type is less used. This is the least expensive system to install. water is admitted to back into the same pipe. condensation. systems. circulates through the radiator. Both one-pipe and two-pipe arrangements are employed for circulating the steam and for returning to the boiler the water formed by and vacuum. and the air is discharged either . Modern systems of this type employ a boiler. Three main types of steam systems are used: air-vent systems. which compresses and expands to compensate for volume changes in the water.
valves reverse the flow so that the refrigerant picks up heat from inside and discharges it outside. The refrigerant is cold. having given up much of its heat. The overall cost of electric C5 Heat pump A heat pump is a system designed to provide useful heating and cooling. The heat can be provided from electric coils or strips used in radiation in part or all of a room. The refrigerant. although more expensive to install than the one-pipe system. and its actions are essentially the same for either process. but the convenience. In heating season. the rate at which air reenters the system is so reduced that minimal pressure is required to propel the steam. cleanliness. economical because it can be operated on the low-firing cycle of the furnace and thus requires Vacuum systems resemble vapor systems in that each radiator is equipped with an inlet valve and a steam trap. Electric heating generally costs more than energy obtained from combustion of a fuel. under windows. Heating elements or wires can even be incorporated in heating can be substantially reduced through the use of a heat-pump system. With circulate more readily. through a vent for each zone heated by the system. flows first to a compressor. . in larger installations. the ground. as does a furnace. so radiators can be situated either above or below the boiler. or some other source. A vapor system. then flows so it absorbs heat from the outside air. most heat pumps are controlled by thermostats. If the system is constructed with light joints. but they differ in having a vacuum pump installed in the return piping. the heat pump transfers heat from one place to another. C4 Electric Heating The practice of using electric energy for heating is increasing not only in residences but in public buildings as well. There the warmth is radiated or blown into the room or through a valve where its pressure and temperature are lowered further before it liquefies and is pumped into the outdoor coil to continue the cycle. Instead of creating heat. convectors in or on the walls. well water. air. and condensate condensate is pumped back into the boiler and the air is expelled into the atmosphere. such as Freon. which raises its temperature and pressure so that it becomes other space to be heated. To air condition a space. With a full vacuum system the condensate does not have to be returned by gravity. The condensate and air return to a central point from which the the pump a partial vacuum is maintained in the system so that the steam. It then vapor before it flows to an indoor coil. and reduced space needs of electric heat can often justify its use. varying patterns—for example. is pumped through a coil that is outside the area to be heated. a liquid refrigerant.through one central air vent in the basement or. or as baseboard ceilings or floors to radiate low-temperature heat into a space. is more less fuel. Like furnaces.
particularly in areas where the weather is not severely from fuels or electric power in winter. thus warming glass or quartz in which resistance wires are embedded. C6 Solar heating During each sunlight hour of the day approximately 0. by convection as well as by radiation. The simplest electric heaters are radiant heaters having a resistanceheating unit in front of a reflector. A common method employed uses roof panels with built-in elsewhere in the house. The water. provided enough solar absorbing surface can be installed and enough heat storage is made available to carry the building during periods of darkness and inclement weather. The usual kerosene stove is made of sheet metal and contains one or more wick burners that heat metal flues within the stove. this water becomes a source of heating for the house. clarity of the atmosphere.9 kw per sq m (280 Btu per hour per sq ft) of solar energy reaches the surface of the earth. Known generally as space heaters. Kerosene stoves should be used with adequate outside ventilation because combustion gases can be harmful. A number of such systems are in successful operation. In colder water circuits. and the direction relative to the sun that an absorbing surface faces at any given time. time of year. latitude. The actual energy received varies with time of day. a supplementary heat source for the water is usually provided. then flows into insulated tanks or pools located climates. many of which can be moved from room to room as needed. it is safer to use. This energy can often be more than enough to heat a well-designed building. Because the heater has no incandescent wires. For economical heating performance. which concentrates the radiant heat into a narrow beam. Some radiant heaters include a fan. the Heat-pump systems are now being used extensively not only in residences but also in commercial buildings and schools. which circulates air around the heating unit. The entire plate or tube is warmed by the wires and gives off radiant heat. delivered heat should amount to more than twice the heat purchased from the power source. drawing in cool air through vents in the bottom of the stove and emitting heated air from top vents. Kerosene stoves heat both by radiation and by convection.Most heat pumps use atmospheric air as their heat source. cold. making it difficult to raise the temperature and pressure of the refrigerant. Another type consists of a plate or tube of heat-resistant . This presents a problem in areas where winter temperatures frequently drop below freezing. Proper placement of the glazing in any house can also greatly reduce the heating need D Portable Heating Units Houses lacking central-heating systems are equipped with various types of portable and semiportable heating devices. heated by the sun. The most common types are kerosene stoves and electric heaters. large stoves of this general pattern can provide adequate heat for several rooms.
dilute the amount of air movement or ventilation ordinarily is provided by air leakage through small crevices in the building's walls. or Factory ventilation systems must remove hazardous airborne contaminants from the workplace. . Many systems include efficiency of the system by reducing the amount of energy needed to operate it. concentration of carbon dioxide and water vapor. in particular. and purity at all times. and minimize unpleasant odors. filters. humidity. thereby increasing the IV AIR CONDITIONING Theoretically. natural flow of air. Ventilating systems may be combined with heaters. heat exchangers. but not for public buildings such as offices and theaters. and engineers. A certain ventilation may suffice for homes. In popular usage. an air-conditioning system consists of centralized equipment that provides an atmosphere with controlled temperature. Engineers estimate that for adequate ventilation the air in a room should be changed these must be removed from the workplace environment in a cost-effective manner. or that about 280 to 850 liters (about 10 to 30 cu ft) of outside air per minute should be supplied for each occupant. regardless of weather conditions. Nearly all chemical processes generate hazardous waste gases and vapors. Chemical completely from one and a half to three times each hour. Providing this amount of ventilation usually requires mechanical devices to augment the Simple ventilation devices include fans or blowers that are arranged either to exhaust the stale air from the building or to force fresh air into the building. No pipe connections are outlet. the term air conditioning often is applied improperly to air cooling. especially around windows and doors. miniature steam-heating systems in which an electrical-heating unit generates enough steam necessary. These radiators are to warm a small conventional radiator partially filled with water. filtered air. and the units can be moved from place to place and plugged into any electrical III VENTILATION Buildings in which people live and work must be ventilated to replenish oxygen. Such haphazard for factories. or both.Electric-steam radiators are used to supplement other heating systems. humidity controls. Radiators filled with oil that is heated electrically are also available. however. or cooling devices. Many so-called air-conditioning units consist merely of blowerequipped refrigerating units that provide only a flow of cool. These use outgoing air to heat or cool incoming air. are involved in ventilation design for factories and refineries.
blowers. Air conditioning of this kind usually is based on adjusting the humidity of the circulated air. restaurants. and ventilation. it is usually dehumidified by cooling or by dehydration. in recent years. the air- conditioning system is designed to include some type of filter. such as those used in the production of paper. system is used during the winter. cooling. textiles.A number of manufacturing processes. stores. as is necessary in the manufacture of certain drugs and medical supplies. In older buildings. or an indoor office . When dry air is required. dust is removed Centralized air-conditioning systems. A smaller apparatus for cooling single rooms consists of a The design of an air-conditioning system depends on the type of structure in which the system is to be placed. as required. and printed matter. sprays or. being complex. these systems have increasingly been automated by computer technology for purposes of energy conservation. In the latter process it is passed through chambers containing adsorptive chemicals such as silica gel. and the regular heating refrigerating unit and blower in a compact cabinet that can be mounted in a window. the amount of space to be cooled. and the nature of their activity. generally must be installed when the building is constructed. air ducts. single apartments or suites of offices may be equipped with a refrigerating unit. Air is humidified by circulation through water baths or sprays. in some filters. require air conditioning for the control of conditions during manufacture. and other public buildings. through a labyrinth of oil-covered plates. A room or building with large windows exposed to the sun. When air must be completely free of dust. The air is passed through water electrostatically by means of precipitators (see Electrostatic Precipitator). and a plenum chamber in which air from the interior of the building is mixed with outside air. are employed widely in theaters. the number of occupants. in others. Such systems. Such installations are used for cooling and dehumidifying during the summer months. providing fully controlled heating.
but the term is misleading because under usual summer conditions a motor of one horsepower could support 3. . no air can be recirculated. because a horsepower (or 0.45 kg) of Horsepower ratings were formerly used for small air conditioners. and a Air-conditioning units are rated in terms of effective cooling capacity.000 Btu/hour equal to 3. It came into use Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. the equivalent of a ton of refrigeration. 12. requires a system with a larger cooling capacity than an almost windowless room in which cool fluorescent lighting is used. which properly should be expressed in kilowatt units. equal capacity in which smoking is prohibited. All rights reserved.5 kw—a Btu is the amount of heat removed from 1 lb (0. but in laboratories or constant supply of cooled or heated fresh air must be supplied.5 kw of cooling. The circulation of air must be greater in a space in which the occupants are allowed to smoke than in a space of heated air can be recirculated without discomfort to the occupants. which implies the amount of heat that would have to be absorbed to melt a ton of water-ice in 24 hours.746 kw) represents work power and not cooling. Usage still supports the term ton of refrigeration. or water when its temperature is lowered by 1° F (5/9° C).space with many heat-producing lights. In homes or apartments. most of the cooled or factories employing processes that generate noxious fumes.
historical documents. For Pictures. Photosensitive materials abound in nature. The word photography comes from Greek words and means “drawing with light. they change in some way blooms at night are one example. every year more than 10 billion exposures are This article discusses how photographs are produced using film. The compounds most widely used today are silver halide crystals. For the purpose of producing a photograph. For information on the history of photography and its artistic practice. and chemistry. plants that close their based on the fact that certain chemicals are photosensitive—that is. and lenses. these silver salts are distributed in gelatin to make a mixture called an emulsion. cameras. and records of family life. optics. or iodine). History of Motion II GENERAL PRINCIPLES Light is the most essential ingredient in photography. such as filtration and electronic flash. see History of Photography. Millions of people around the made with still cameras. world own cameras and enjoy taking pictures. conveyers of news. information on motion picture technology and history. method of picture making developed in the early 19th century. see Motion Pictures. based on principles of light. works of art.Photography I INTRODUCTION Photography. and surveys how photographic technologies have evolved since the medium's invention. which is applied to film or another supporting material in a thin . The films used in photography depend on a limited number of chemical compounds that darken when exposed to light. It also outlines techniques of modern photography.” Photographs serve as scientific evidence. chlorine. Nearly all forms of photography are when exposed to light. which are salts consisting of silver and chemicals called halogens (usually bromine.
mechanism built of overlapping metal blades. must adjust the distance between the lens and the film so that the plane of Various types of lenses admit different amounts of light and permit different angles of view. the denser or more opaque that part of the film becomes. camera size. from which a positive final copy can be printed on sensitized paper. project a temporary image of something they wanted to draw. The purpose of the lens is refraction. The area where they re-form an image of the subject bends the light rays reflected from the subject so that these rays cross and reappear upsideinside the camera is called the plane of focus.layer. which in a modern camera contains film. a device that artists once used to and the modern camera. focus. lenses that take in a narrow angle make the subject seem magnified. A device called a shutter controls how long light strikes the film. To take one example. as the choice of subject and the time of day. shutter speed—influences the appearance of the photograph as much stood in the same spot to take photographs of the Grand Canyon over the years. Light passing through the lens casts an image of the camera’s subject—the object. the shutter speed can range from a small fraction of a second (1/1000 or less) to minutes or even hours. lens aperture. In both the camera obscura Cameras work on the basic principle of the camera obscura. the silver halide crystals undergo chemical changes and. the bending of light. The dense (or dark) areas of the negative translate into light areas on the final photograph. person. thousands of people have III PHOTOGRAPHIC FILMS . after further processing. or an automatic mechanism focus falls exactly where the film lies. The camera and lens control how much light strikes the film in what is called an exposure. The stronger the light that strikes the crystals. making the resulting image appear in focus. a or circular opening of the lens. The photographer can switch a modern zoom lens from wide to narrow angles of view by turning a collar or pressing a button. but their photographs look different because the photographers made different choices with these controls. The photographer. light passes through a lens fitted into an otherwise lightproof box. When the emulsion is exposed to light. an image becomes visible. Most types of film produce a negative image. in some cameras. In most cases the camera and its lens determine the appearance of the photographic image. The amount of light that a lens allows to fall on the film is controlled by a lens diaphragm. or scene in front of the camera—onto the inside of the box. Lenses that take in a wide angle of view make the subject seem farther away. The diaphragm controls the size of the aperture. The camera’s glass or plastic lens down on the other side of the lens. The combination of choices that a photographer makes—film type. angle of view. Almost all modern photography relies on this negative-to-positive process.
version of this system. it A French inventor. He achieved this by placing a pewter plate coated with bitumen. 4-by-5 and 8-by-10 inch sheet films. is credited with having made the first successful photograph in 1826. A few years later American inventor George Eastman devised a flexible improved on this by using a type of plastic called celluloid instead of paper. which he called the daguerreotype. The smooth glass negatives could produce paper. usually acetate. which has been coated with one or more light-sensitive emulsions. a long paper strip that could replace the glass plate. pieces of glass coated in advance with an emulsion of gelatin and silver bromide. producing the first . experimenters sought a dry version of the same process. during the 18th century. a type of roll film that incorporates various conveniences for amateur photographers. Daguerreotypes remained popular through the 1850s. transparency) and sensitivity levels. It is available in a variety of shapes and sizes determined by the format of the camera. and the silver salts were suspended in collodion. In the early 19th century English scientists Thomas Wedgwood and Sir Humphry Davy used silver nitrate in an attempt to transfer a was not permanent. painted image onto leather or paper. after Niépce's death. Talbot’s process produced a paper negative. Advanced Photo System (APS). This refinement became known as the wet collodion process. French painter Louis Jacques Mandé improved version of the process. Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. Niépce later switched from pewter to Daguerre continued Niépce’s pioneering work and in 1839. another copper plates and from bitumen to silver chloride. In 1889 he were invented in 1878. light-sensitive material. particularly silver nitrate and silver chloride. a thick liquid. English inventor William Henry Fox Talbot devised this process and perfected it in the 1840s. from which he could produce any number of paper positives.Modern film consists of a transparent material. positive image on a shiny copper plate small enough to be held in the hand. While they succeeded in producing a negative image. He exposed silver- sensitized paper briefly to light and then treated it with other chemicals to produce a visible image. color print. the entire surface blackened after continued exposure to light. Typical formats are 35-millimeter and 6-centimeter roll films. Within each film format there are a range of film types (black and white. because the details were no longer lost in the texture of the Because the wet collodion (or wet plate) process required photographers to coat the glass support just before taking a picture. but were eventually replaced by a negative/positive process. in the back of a camera obscura. called film speeds. Beginning in 1850 glass replaced paper as a support for the negative. Dry plates. announced an The daguerreotype process produced a detailed. or color A A Brief History of Film Scientists recognized the photosensitivity of certain silver compounds. that are appropriate for different lighting conditions. sharper images than paper ones. and most recently.
Both of these films produced positive negatives in 1942. and magenta (a purplish red). films are sensitive to all colors of the visible spectrum. which also includes invisible energy in the form of radio waves. Even black-and-white films record colors as different shades of gray.) wavelengths as red. flowers.photographic film. and blue in between. B1 Dyes and Emulsions Photographic films vary in the way they react to different wavelengths of visible light. Today. These films are also known as reversal . yellow. Most color films are coated with three emulsions. or slides. with a few specialized exceptions. The Kodak company introduced Kodacolor film for color enjoyed in black and white. and infrared and ultraviolet radiation. the blue flowers would appear too light. which gave amateurs the same negative/positive process they had long B How Film Works To understand how film works. Each emulsion responds to only one color of light and is coupled with a dye layer. specialized compounds called dye sensitizers were incorporated into the emulsion. which produces the actual color that resembles what the eye sees. Other layers act as the film. But the era of color photography did not really begin until the advent of color transparencies. The first commercially successful material for making color photographs. whereas the red and orange flowers would look unrealistically dark. became available in 1907 and was based on a process devised by French inventors Auguste and Louis Lumière. in a picture of blue. Eastman's invention paved the way for all modern films. Light is the visible portion of a broad range of energy called electromagnetic radiation. filters to screen the light these emulsions receive. plastics that are less flammable than celluloid. typically cyan (a greenish blue). Kodachrome color film in 1935 and Agfacolor in 1936. To correct this. color films were not invented until the 20th century. and to prevent light from scattering within Color transparency films produce a positive color image for viewing with the help of a slide projector or an illuminated surface called a light table. with orange. Early primarily to light perceived as blue. the shortest as violet. green. which are made of acetate or polyester. red. and orange black-and-white films were sensitive to only the shorter wavelengths of the visible spectrum. for example. gamma rays. Our eyes perceive the longest (A rainbow or a prism shows all the colors of the visible spectrum. So. it is first necessary to understand a few things about light. The narrow band of electromagnetic waves that the human eye can detect is called the visible spectrum. Except for some isolated experiments. X rays. yellow. called Autochrome. which we see as colors.
the chemical action of the developer creates initial images in metallic silver. and areas that were bright appear dark. which is red. and the print shows a flag properly striped with red. yellow. But in color processing the developer also stimulates dye couplers (chemicals that react to a specific color of light and cause corresponding dyes to be released) to form cyan. The colors on the processed negative are the complements of the colors in the and blue. complement of red). B2 Positive/Negative Development When film is processed in a chemical agent called a developer. while exposure to dim light or exposure for a very short time causes just a few particles to form. they are built into the film itself.films because the initial developed image is chemically reversed during processing. The dyes in some brands of transparency film are added during development. they . and yellow (the complement of blue). positive form. unexposed silver halide crystals that are not converted during a second development. The tonal values of the during the development of the film—creating a positive image. leaving a negative image in the three colors. The resulting image produced on the film is called a negative because the tonal values of the subject photographed are reversed. if you took a picture of the Ecuadorian flag. and blue. the colored dyes on the negative would be a blue-green color called cyan (the original scene. magenta. turning what would otherwise be a negative image into a positive one. dyes built into the emulsion chemically react with the silver salts that form the image. final print. When light shines through this negative onto color-sensitive print paper. Color negative films. in which the dye is built in. negative are reversed again in the printing process—or in the case of transparencies (slides). For instance. although silver is also essential to the process. blue (the complement of yellow). called chromogenic film. in others. large particles of metallic silver form in areas of the film that were exposed to light. Chromogenic color films. areas in the subject that were dark appear light on the negative. As with some transparency films. makes use of color-film technology to produce a negative that has just a single dye layer. As these remaining silver halides are converted to metal. just as in black-and-white processing. exhibit dye images rather than silver images. During processing. and yellow dye images. also known as print films. the colors return to One type of black-and-white film. But when exposed to paper for printing color photographs it produces an image composed of different shades of a single color. When exposed to conventional blackand-white photo paper. before the second layer of metallic silver is also washed away. the negative provides an image nearly identical to that of conventional black-and-white film. Exposure to lots of light causes many particles to form. produce positive prints. yellow. In color transparency films. Different combinations of those colors create the more complex colors visible on the to metallic silver and washed away during the initial development remain to be converted again combine with dye couplers to form the final color image. The silver is then removed.
electronic flash. meaning that they respond to all colors of light and can record each color’s relative strength with a fair degree of accuracy. Tungsten films are designed to be used indoors without flash.Photographic print papers are constructed much like films. incandescent lamps. pictures from them often have an orange cast when taken indoors without flash. Film exposed to light for a longer than optimal time is said to be overexposed and produces prints that look bleached out and blurred. When these papers are exposed to light shone through C Film Characteristics Certain characteristics help people determine which film will work best in a particular situation. but generally require fewer layers. be designed to respond to the specific quality or energy of light illuminating the scene. The color in print films. C1 Sensitivity and Color Balance Most films now in use are panchromatic. as C2 Exposure Latitude In any lighting situation there is an optimal exposure that will produce a perfect image on film. pictures with unpleasant green or purple casts when taken indoors under fluorescent light. just as films are. Nonetheless. specifically with Distinguishing between daylight and tungsten film types is important mainly with transparency or slide films. because print films are balanced for daylight. All color films will produce in an office. or electronic flash. see the Filtration section of this article. . which shows most visibly as insufficient contrast between dark and light. can be adjusted during printing to compensate for different lighting conditions. which produce negatives. Films may vary in their sensitivity to different kinds of light and in their ability to record fine details or quickly moving subjects. The so-called paper support (today. Too short an exposure and the image is underexposed. sensitive emulsion. the end result is a positive. Black-and-white papers have a single layer of emulsion. For more information about eliminating color casts. are designed for both outdoor photography and pictures taken indoors with certain types of bulbs manufactured for such situations called photofloods. the practical concept is simple: color films are balanced to perform best in specific lighting conditions. Color films also must may be outdoor sunlight. which produce direct positive images that cannot be altered. the most widely used. So-called daylight films. which Each of these kinds of light has a distinct characteristic referred to as color temperature. a negative. While the theory of color temperature is complicated. commonly made of plastic or paper) is coated with a lightcolor papers have at least three layers.
High ISO numbers correspond to highly light-sensitive. with other adjustment for you. subject under a given lighting condition. fast films. while films above ISO 200 are considered fast. Despite these advantages. a rating that provides a measure of the film’s sensitivity to light. including full detail throughout the picture. Staying within a given film’s exposure latitude can ensure an acceptable range of tones in the picture. and low Today. halide grains. With films that have a narrow exposure latitude. all films exhibit a pattern called grain. For this reason. it renders fine details intense colors than fast film. the margin for error is small. slow films are not as desirable as fast C4 DX Coding . the greater its ability to provide satisfactory prints or slides Films that produce negatives generally offer much greater latitude than transparency films. Slow-speed film also produces a smoother range of tones and more films in certain situations. such as when photographing a rapidly moving subject. slow-speed film generally has a higher resolution—that is. especially when enlarged. Films in the ISO 125 to ISO 200 range are considered medium speed. cameras. With some cameras the photographer will need to manually adjust the ISO number. The individual grains of silver are generally larger and more obvious in faster film than in slower film. The wider a film's latitude. slow films. an exposure adjusted for a shady area is likely to result in overexposure of adjacent sunny in a range of lighting conditions. The manufacturer of the film assigns it a standardized Organization). the C3 Speed and Grain Film is also classified by speed. In addition. this rating determines the amount of exposure required to photograph a numerical rating known as the ISO number (ISO stands for the International Standards numbers to less sensitive. The photographer must then make sure that the development time is Whether fast or slow. areas. But to achieve the best-possible image quality. many high-speed films have a greater exposure latitude than slower films. setting an exposure compensation dial will trick the camera into making this lengthened to compensate for the underexposure. A photographer can push the limits of a film by overriding the recommended exposure for that film speed and shortening the exposure time. photographs taken with slowspeed film appear less grainy. Film grain is the visible trace of the metallic silver that forms the image. exposure time and aperture size need to be precisely set to fit the lighting conditions.Every film has a characteristic exposure latitude. a range of settings within which it can accurately render the color and tonal values (contrasts of light and dark) of the subject photographed. Because of the small size of its silver with greater sharpness. For each film. slow-speed films typically have a rating between ISO 25 and ISO 100. but films that are even slower exist.
200. Fujicolor. Films are available in several sizes. including the popular 35-millimeter format (in which a single frame of the film is 35 millimeters wide). On cartridges of 35-millimeter code tells the camera’s computer the ISO rating of the film as well as the number of frames on the roll. D2 Slide Films Kodachrome. Manufacturers also offer premium films in most formats. This the film speed by hand in the camera's built-in exposure meter. Fujichrome. and Agfacolor. or formats. Ideal for amateur use. Although the process are available in both black-and-white and color. they are designed to provide excellent color rendition out of doors and with electronic flash. a type of photography that produces prints almost immediately after exposure. Each manufacturer supplies its brand in several speeds: ISO 100. Both daylight and tungsten versions of these films are generally available. develop into prints without additional processing. and 400 are the most common. and a number of specialty films such as X- D1 Print Films Color print films. which ray and infrared. manufacturers print a checkerboard pattern that corresponds to an electronic code. Polaroid films. The DX code is also placed on the film itself to inform the developing laboratory of this information. These types include color print films. which produce prints through the classic negative-to-positive process. Most cameras with electronic controls are equipped with DX sensors that can read this information and automatically adjust exposures accordingly. for both special Polaroid cameras and for standard-format cameras (see Polaroid Corporation). Ektachrome. which provide better color and smaller grain size. reversal films. used to make color slides and larger transparencies. and Agfachrome are examples of films that produce 35-millimeter slides and larger transparencies. D Color Films in Use Today A range of color film types is available to photographers. takes one or more minutes. include such brand names as Kodacolor.DX coding is a recent innovation in film and camera technology that eliminates the need to set film. Today Polaroid films . Manufacturers also design films for such specific tasks as slide ISO 3200. it was quickly dubbed instant photography. duplication. Film speeds of slide films commonly range from a very slow ISO 25 to a very fast D3 Polaroid In 1947 American physicist Edwin Herbert Land invented the Polaroid process.
Improvements in camera photographs. a camera is a lighttight box with a lens on one side and light-sensitive film on the other. light. The mirror reflected an image onto a this device to help them draw more accurately. They placed thin paper onto the viewing screen and could easily trace the reflected image. infrared portion of the spectrum in addition to visible respond to X rays and other forms of electromagnetic radiation. D4 Infrared. Infrared film responds to the invisible. Basically. Over the course of three centuries the camera obscura evolved into a handheld box with a lens device was a darkened room with a tiny hole in one wall. on the other hand. The earliest form of this hole and projected an upside-down image of the subject onto the opposite wall. This kind of camera. Professional photographers still use a similar camera In the 1880s the invention of more sensitive emulsions and better lenses led to the development of lens shutters. technology over the years have given photographers more control over the quality of their A A Brief History of Cameras Today’s cameras all derive from the 16th-century camera obscura. with some pleated leather sides called bellows. Older Polaroid films use a system in which the negative peels away from the final print. One notable enhancement for the box. Long before film was invented artists used The inventors of photography in the early 19th century adapted the camera obscura by adding a device for holding sensitized plates in the back of the box. producing a print. has no separate negative. improvements.The processing chemicals and conventional silver halide emulsions in instant film are combined in a self-contained paper envelope or within the print itself. Light entered the room through this replacing the pinhole and an angled mirror at the back. devices that could limit the time of exposure to a fraction of a second. A chemical diffusing agent transfers the negative image to the paper. and Special Films Some special-purpose films are sensitive to wavelengths beyond the visible spectrum of light. and users can watch the image develop before their eyes. Film manufacturers also design specialized emulsions for medical and scientific films that IV CAMERAS The most important tool of photography is the camera itself. ground-glass viewing screen on the top of the box. allowed the photographer to easily adjust the distance today. Polaroid SX-70 film. X-ray. between the lens and the plane of focus. a large-format camera known as the view camera. was used throughout the 19th century. At first the shutter was simply a blind dropped in front of the lens by the force of .
simple lens.gravity. Because of its compactness and economy. plastic cameras come loaded with 35-millimeter color print film. Single-use cameras are also available in several advanced extra-wide prints. or the ability to show panoramic views in B2 View Cameras . B Modern Camera Types Cameras come in a variety of forms. models—offering built-in flash. the Leica and other 35-millimeter cameras became popular with both amateur and professional photographers. through which the simplicity of this easy-to-use design has assured its popularity ever since. the lens is set to an aperture and focus that produce reasonably sharp pictures of a subject at least 2 m (about 6 ft) away. B1 Box Cameras The Eastman Kodak Company introduced one of the first box cameras in 1888. In 1925 the Leitz Company in Germany introduced the Leica. These cardboard-covered. the photographer can do little to control the results. most of today’s cameras offer a range of automated features that greatly simplify picture taking and reduce the likelihood of error. and a shutter with one or possibly two speeds. Manufacturers now reuse or recycle many of the parts inside these cameras. The Kodak was one of the earliest handheld cameras. Because it blocks light from the film even when the lens is removed. Box cameras consist photographer looks to frame the scene. located just in front of the film. which used a cylindrical shutter that the photographer turned by pulling a string on the front of the camera. one of the first cameras to use 35-millimeter film. a waterproof body. the focal-plane shutter allows photographers to switch lenses safely in the middle of a film roll. or by a spring. a viewfinder window. the user turns over the entire camera to a processing lab for development. After taking a roll of pictures. But because these settings are not adjustable. The modern-day equivalents of the old Kodak box cameras are the disposable cameras now sold at drugstores and tourist shops. It made photography available to amateurs for the first time and created a snapshot craze at the turn of the 20th century. Later designs featured a set of blades just behind the optical lens. Whereas cameras once required many decisions on the part of photographers. On most box cameras. a fixed. and the of a rigid box or body. a small-sized film initially designed for motion pictures. when the camera is used outdoors in the sun. In 1888 George Eastman introduced the first Kodak camera. All but the earliest Leicas used a focal-plane shutter.
but it is ideal for carefully arranged studio shots. The photographer frames and focuses the scene that appears in the glass panel at the back. raise. and framing. landscapes. or swing the front and rear elements separately. and the space in between is enclosed in an expandable leather bellows. aperture. Point-and-shoot cameras feature battery-operated electronic systems that may are available with a fixed single-focal-length lens or a zoom lens. modern rangefinders feature lenses that can be removed from the camera body so that photographers can choose a lens specifically suited to the subject. is extremely adjustable. The viewfinder adjusts a ring or collar until the two views appear as one. see the Recent Developments: APS section of this article. The cameras work with all types of 35-millimeter film. at which point the camera has set show the scene through the lens. which are able to unlike that of most general-purpose cameras. rangefinder cameras can be inaccurate for framing close-up shots. It has two capture far greater detail than 35-millimeter films. a separate.) . Since the viewfinder window does not Rangefinder cameras were once very popular with amateur photographers. window-like lens through which the photographer sees and frames the subject. focusing. The body configuration of the view camera. Unlike point-and-shoot cameras. film winding. tilt. The gap in time between framing and exposure makes the view camera useless for action shots. then inserts a film holder in front of the glass. the rear holds a ground-glass panel. and some professionals still use it. They use large-format films. They removed from the body. B3 Rangefinder Cameras Rangefinder cameras were the first cameras to have an optical viewfinder—that is. flash. Rangefinders are available in two formats. The photographer can shift. the photographer the focus to precisely match the distance of the subject. is paired with an adjacent window called a rangefinder. or architectural photography. for use with either 35-millimeter film or the larger format 6- and-shoot cameras have largely replaced them. allowing for great variation in perspective and focus. B4 Point-and-Shoot Cameras The most popular camera type today is the point-and-shoot camera.View cameras are larger and heavier than most amateur cameras but allow for maximum precision in focus. and film rewinding. the modern rangefinder camera centimeter film. the lenses cannot be include automatic controls for exposure. but today’s pointworks well under certain circumstances. independently moveable elements that ride on a track: The front element holds the lens and shutter. but only one that closely approximates it. (For more information. It has a number of automatic features that make it practically foolproof to operate while producing pictures of high quality. Nevertheless. To focus the camera. some also use a newer film type called Advanced Photo System (APS). and takes the picture.
C2 Shutters The shutter. C Modern Camera Features Modern cameras feature several components to help photographers control their results under widely varying conditions. the shade moves quickly across the film. at the moment of exposure. Light comes through the lens onto a mirror. a great advantage in many picture- Most SLRs are precision electronic instruments equipped with fast focal-plane shutters. In today’s cameras many of these features are automated.B5 Single-Lens-Reflex Cameras With the single-lens-reflex (SLR) camera. exposing it progressively as C3 Built-in Meters and Automatic Exposure . a cluster of meshed blades springs apart to uncover the full lens aperture and then springs shut. precise automatic exposure systems. a spring automatically pulls the mirror out of the path between lens and film. at the moment the photographer snaps the picture. the photographer uses a single lens for both viewing the scene and taking the picture. camera manufacturers are producing SLRs with automatic focusing. Because of this system. keeps light from entering the camera except during the interval of exposure. which then reflects it through a five-sided prism into the viewfinder. Some viewfinders consist of a simple window on top of the camera that only approximates the view through the lens. Increasingly. The focal-plane shutter consists of a black shade with a variable-size slit across its the slit moves. exactly what the photographer sees in the viewfinder. C1 Viewfinders A viewfinder enables photographers to frame their subject the way they would like it to appear in the finished photograph. In the leaf shutter. and built-in flash controls. The mirror is hinged. A more complex and more accurate viewfinding system is the single-lens-reflex system. width. described above. an innovation originally reserved for less sophisticated cameras. When released. Most modern cameras have focal-plane or leaf shutters. the image recorded on the film is almost taking situations. a spring-activated mechanical device.
the user must use a crank to rewind the film. from the cartridge to a spool at one side of the camera. With 35-millimeter film. With older . In the 1980s this process became automated: With builtthe most inexpensive cameras feature such a system of automatic exposure. then drops the cartridge into a slot on rewind the exposed film into the cartridge when all exposures have been taken.For early photographers. setting the correct aperture and shutter speed for an exposure was meters in the 1930s. only professional photographers using sheet films still need to load their cameras in the dark. for example. the user attaches a leader extending the other side. The point of maximum contrast corresponds to the point of greatest sharpness. When the light or sound waves bounce off the subject and return to the camera. But with the development of handheld photoelectric exposure adjust the exposure accordingly. automatically adjust the Neither method is foolproof. for a photograph in which the plain white sails of a boat took up the center of the frame. they give an accurate reading of the distance focus of the lens until sensors detect that maximum contrast has been reached inside a rectangular target at the center of the focusing screen. There are two widely used methods for determining the focus automatically. A passive system would have trouble setting the correct focus. the camera could adjust itself to produce an appropriate exposure. called active and passive. photographers were able to take precise readings of the light level and essentially an educated guess. the distance between camera and subject and from this determine the exact plane of focus. used in more sophisticated cameras. emits either an infrared light beam or high-energy (ultrasonic) sound waves. be discernable lines present in the target zone for this system to determine maximum contrast C5 Film Loading and Transport Most people today buy film in the form of lighttight cartridges or cassettes that they can insert into the camera in daylight. such systems typically required the user to center a needle over a pointer inside the viewfinder. Passive systems. used in most point-and-shoot cameras. most autofocusing systems will ignore it. Passive systems require a certain amount of detail—usually there must in the subject. Active systems can be fooled by window glass. in electronics. Automatic cameras wind the film into position when the back is closed and cameras. An active autofocus system. By the 1960s camera companies had begun to build exposure meters right into the camera body. which interrupts their beams. If the primary subject is off to one side of the frame. for instance. Today all but C4 Autofocusing Autofocus cameras use electronics and a small computer processor to automatically sample The computer then signals a small mechanism that turns the lens barrel to this point. to that subject.
the need for camera-specific lenses increased. such lens came from a pair of eyeglasses. or elements. focal length ratings are defined by measuring the longer the focal length. Focal length is the distance from the optical center of the lens to the image formed inside the camera.Most cameras now automatically advance the film to the next frame after an exposure has been made. the lens controls the amount of light that enters the camera. the photographer adjusts the opening of the lens diaphragm. which determines how much light reaches the film. The the aperture. B Focal Lengths Camera lenses are categorized according to their focal lengths and maximum apertures. to control optical distortion. each group is then assembled in what is called a lens barrel. and the second was the discovery of ways to combine several pieces of glass. Motor drives allow the photographer to snap a sequence of exposures in rapid succession while V LENSES The lens is the eye of the camera. The focusing ring is used to focus the image on the film plane by changing the distance between the element groups. holding a finger on the shutter-release button. the more light the lens will admit. The first microscopes led to the development of better and brighter lenses. In the 17th century people discovered they could produce a brighter. These elements. Some cameras come with a motor drive. the lens barrel incorporates an aperture ring and a focusing ring. The greater the size of . consisted of a simple pinhole in the side of a room or box. a more rapid way of advancing the film. A A Brief History of Lenses The modern camera’s predecessor. These developments took place along two fronts: The first was the invention of new types of glass that refracted light more effectively. sharper image by fitting a camera obscura with a convex (outward-curving) lens. the larger the image inside the camera will be. Together with the shutter. A camera can have a single lens or a complex set of lenses. leading to rapid developments in the field of lens making. Over the next 300 years. Quality modern lenses are made of many individual elements of ground and polished glass (6 to 14 elements is common). as many as three to five pictures per second can be taken this way. Its function is to bring light from the subject into focus on the film. each of a different shape and purpose. On a manually controlled camera. interest in telescopes and With the invention of photography in the 19th century. the camera obscura. Because this distance varies depending on how the camera is focused. By turning the aperture ring. are cemented into groups.
Typical f-stops . with a long focal length. macro lenses were developed for single-lens-reflex cameras. On a traditional. To cope with these small subjects. Lenses that approximate the angle of view of the human eye are called normal lenses. for subjects ranging from flowers to coins. such as a microscope. or lens opening. these are no substitute for a true macro lens because. Magnification of a subject to greater than its actual size calls for more specialized equipment. Many modern zoom lenses come with a macro setting that allows a limited range of close-up focusing. a fixed position. with the addition of an extension ring. reproduce an object on film at one-half its actual size. objects photographed with a wide-angle lens will seem farther away than with together). However. before framing the picture at a different focal length. the varifocal C Macro Lenses Some photographic subjects require task-specific optics.distance when the focusing ring is set for photographing a distant subject (indicated on the focusing ring with the symbol ∞. manually controlled camera the f-stops are inscribed on an adjustable ring that fits around the lens. reproduce an object at one-fifth its actual size. The most common specialized task is close-up photography. seen through a telephoto lens. and is one of the most popular types of lenses today. A lens with a short focal length is commonly called a wide-angle lens. while the The zoom lens offers a range of focal lengths. and thus the amount of light that passes through the lens. The wide-angle can take in a broader angle of view than the eye can see. called infinity). a telephoto lens. Focal length determines the magnification and angle of view of the image. at best. Macro lenses for 35millimeter cameras extend the focusing range to a matter of inches. they only can attach to a normal lens to allow close-ups. Extension rings or simple close-up lenses also D Aperture The lens diaphragm controls the size of the aperture. On their own they can the camera can picture an object at life size. this allows photographers with single-lens-reflex cameras to focus precisely at high magnification lens. The aperture size is measured by numerical settings called f-stops. Another type of zoom lens. So-called true zooms maintain focus while changing the focal length. the same objects will seem closer (and closer telephoto narrows this view. and is called photomicrography. must refocus as the focal length changes—a disadvantage only if the camera does not offer automatic focusing. With the camera in a normal lens. The user can change the focal length by simply pushing a button or turning a ring on the lens barrel. It operates in conjunction with the shutter.
Most lenses will focus from a few feet in front of the camera to a point in the far F Depth of Field To help determine what will appear in focus in a picture. indicating how much light can reach the film when the lens diaphragm is wide open. However. with a wide aperture. f/8. called infinity. in practice we call a picture “in focus” when it appears reasonably sharp at a given magnification and viewing distance. many manufacturers now design zoom lenses with a variable maximum aperture: The size of the with a smaller aperture. The factors that determine depth of field are lens aperture. and a small aperture. a lens with a large maximum aperture will have a larger diameter and weigh more than a lens let in the same amount of light as a normal or wide-angle lens. depth of field will be most shallow when photographing a subject at close range. f/2. To reduce their bulkiness and complexity. zoom lenses are also physically large. thus the aperture ring has disappeared from many of today's lenses. photographers make use of a concept called depth of field. f/16 a small aperture. Lenses come with a rating for their maximum aperture. in which objects in the background are purposely blurred. Conversely. a computer sets the aperture size. f/11. film captures only one plane of a picture in perfect focus. With simple automatic-exposure cameras. A picture with a shallow depth of field might be a close-up portrait. A telephoto lens requires a larger lens diameter and greater length to aperture changes as the focal length of the lens goes from wide-angle to telephoto settings. Within lens types.8.6. E Focusing Technically. focusing distance. f/4. the area between the closest and farthest objects that will appear sharply focused in the photograph. adjustment. Cameras with interchangeable lenses still have focusing collars to allow for manual distance. through use of a mechanism connected to an autofocusing sensor. f/5. using a long focal length (telephoto) lens. the maximum aperture also influences how bright the image appears in the viewfinder. depth of field will be greatest when photographing a distant subject. But most of today's cameras with built-in lenses will adjust the lens automatically. The setting f/2 represents a large aperture. . All other factors being equal. and f/16. and focal length. using a short focal length (wide-angle) lens. by turning a ring or a focusing collar on the camera lens. Until recently photographers had to bring an image into focus manually.are f/2. This term refers to a zone of focus—that is. Like telephoto lenses. A picture with a deeper zone of focus might be a landscape in which both the trees in the foreground and the mountains in the background appear in sharp focus. With single-lens-reflex cameras.
certain cameras with motor Focusing precisely on a central subject. In cameras with removable. is the technical key to excellent photographs. finest results when given the optimum exposure. button part way. Flare is especially obvious when of flare. For capturing the image of a moving subject. photographers can obtain the maximum depth of field by turning the focusing collar until the infinity sign aligns with the outside depth-of-field mark for the f/stop they have chosen. coupled with consistent A photographer can change the amount of exposure the film receives by adjusting either the shutter speed or the aperture setting. unwanted light that enters the lens and causes strange reflections and a loss of contrast on the film. however. These purple hues visible when one looks into the front of a modern lens. because they must angle away from the lens enough to accommodate the lens's widest angle Lens makers also combat the more subtle effects of flare by coating the exterior and interior surfaces of the lens’s glass elements with thin layers of reflection-absorbing material. With manual focusing. A variant of this manual-focusing technique is called zone focusing: The photographer chooses an aperture and a focusing distance that together cover the range of distances at which the subject is likely to appear. in more sophisticated designs. Automatic cameras are designed to focus precisely on a single subject at the center of the frame or. A one-stop change in shutter speed is equivalent to an . photographers can shade the front of the lens with a collar called a lens hood that photographing with the sun in front of or just to the side of the lens. the photographer locks in the focus by pressing the shutter drives will adjust the focus continuously while the photographer tracks the subject. To decrease the incidence prevents sunlight from striking the glass surfaces. coatings enhance the contrast of the film image and account for the characteristic green and VI EXPOSURE All light-sensitive photographic materials—film or photographic print paper—produce their development. Precise exposure. a depth-of-field scale shows the approximate sharp-focus zone for the different aperture settings. manually adjusted lenses. Zone focusing is especially useful for candid photography.A photographer using a single-lens-reflex camera or view camera can judge the approximate depth of field by looking directly through the lens with the aperture set to the desired f-stop. Hoods for zoom lenses are less effective of view. In most cases. G Lens Hoods and Coatings One of the worst enemies of photographers is flare. to focus on a band of details across the central picture area. does not necessarily provide the greatest depth of field.
the first option may be preferable because the smaller aperture When film is developed according to the manufacturer's specifications. manufacturers introduced photoelectric exposure meters in the 1930s.6 for 1/15 second produces twice the density and very great amounts of exposure. The exposures are thus comparable. but the pictorial results. and vice versa. The meters built into modern cameras are called reflected light meters: They measure the measures the light that is falling on the scene or subject. every stop of increase in the exposure (one step up in either f-stop or shutter speed) effectively doubles the density of an exposure at the same f-stop for 1/30 second.) Most of these devices are also amount of light reflected into the lens by the subject. However. later they were incorporated into the camera itself. Thus. At first these meters were independent. If the photographer is holding the camera by hand the second option is speed is two stops faster. camera uses data from its built-in exposure meter to automatically adjust the shutter speed All metering systems share one principle: They respond to the world as if it were a uniform shade of gray. handheld devices. and to help them avoid the problems associated with extremely high or extremely low exposure levels. basing the exposure on this average reading produces ideal results: the negative receives just the right amount of light.aperture change of one f-stop. (Another type. movement of the camera or of the subject is likely to blur the image. called reciprocity. This shade (called 18 percent gray for its ratio of reflection) represents the average amount of light reflected by an average outdoor subject.8 at 1/60 second—the aperture is two stops larger. an exposure of f/5. but they produce different preferable. there are limits to this relationship. different combinations of f-stop and shutter speed result in the same amount of light hitting For example. The final development was automatic exposure.6 at 1/15 second allows the same amount of light to strike the film as an exposure of f/2. this rule is less consistent and the resulting images will A Light Metering To help photographers determine the ideal exposure. between exposure and density. called averaging meters because they read a broad angle of the scene. For example. an exposure at f/5. with a sensor measuring the light as it came through the lens. At the extremes of very little be noticeably underexposed. If the photographer is using a tripod to hold the camera still and provides greater depth of field. because at speeds below 1/60 second. the incident-light meter. In most situations. of the negative. in which the and lens aperture. unless the print exposure time is doubled. photographing a still subject. and therefore a print made from it will be twice as light. for a given lighting situation several the film. those that read a .
a roll of ISO 100 slide film exposed by mistake at a rating of ISO 200 can be same token. view camera photography and is the foundation C Long and Short Exposure Times Most films are intended for use at shutter speeds between 1/2 and 1/1000 second. This technique is often used in large-format. the colors may also shift. exposure and image density. Averaging meters provide somewhat less accuracy than spot meters but are easy to use. At significantly slower or faster speeds the reciprocity. In black-and-white photography. have its development time extended during processing to produce reasonable results. Lengthening development time lightens the resulting images. these meters try to guess the kind of picturetaking situation at hand and compensate for some problems. so portrait photographers have to adjust their exposures to compensate. meter readings are not foolproof. resulting in high contrast between light and dark areas.narrow angle are called spot meters. Spot meters give very precise readings. In backlit conditions. Despite all the advances in exposure technology. automatic exposure systems will assume that the snow is an average shade of gray and underexpose it. It then compares the results to a computerized formula to determine the best overall exposure. it is common to adjust the exposure and development of each picture individually to compensate for varying contrast conditions. If the lighting is harsh. Likewise. This type of system measures the light coming through the lens from several different areas within the picture frame. fails. With color films. which otherwise would appear too dark. a sophisticated photographer might overexpose the negative and then shorten its development time to subdue the harsh light. pushed—that is. of the method used by American wilderness photographer Ansel Adams. but the photographer must know how to correctly interpret these readings. Based on the data gathered. such as an overly bright sky. For example. By the For example. or one-to-one relationship between to result in underexposed images. Pictures taken at either very fast or very slow speeds tend . neither very dark nor very light skin tones reflect 18 percent of the light. development can be adjusted to compensate for certain variations in exposure. most meters will recommend too little exposure. more sophisticated single-lens-reflex cameras try to increase the accuracy of their automatic-exposure systems with what is called a multipattern metering system. when a person is surrounded by a bright background. B Development and Exposure Perfectly exposed film will produce imperfect pictures if it is not developed properly. Newer. if the main subject is a snowman in a field of snow.
the maximum speed at which synchronization is possible is usually 1/125 second. the larger the unit. both indoors and outdoors. a powerful studio unit is needed. Most flash exposures last from 1/1000 to 1/5000 second. For some fast-moving subjects—such as the wings of a hummingbird in flight or a golf club as a golfer swings it—even a shutter-speed setting of 1/1000 second is not sufficient to capture the image in focus. In 1931 the inventor of the electronic flash. developed an electronic strobe light (see Stroboscope) with which he now readily available. Special electronic flash units are able to limit the duration of their light output to as little as 1/100. although a duration of 1/100. the photographer must compensate by manually adjusting the exposure according to charts supplied by the film manufacturer. battery-powered. has gone the way of the dinosaur. the flashbulb. Some designs. Another once-popular alloy wire. light source. development times must also be increased. the gas produces an intense burst of light of very short duration. Setting the shutter speed is important because the shutter and the flash need to be synchronized—that is. called dedicated flash units. but to illuminate a large scene evenly and with a single burst of light. American engineer Harold produced flashes of 1/500. the greater the intensity of light produced. Camera-mounted flashes are adequate for snapshots of family and friends.Exposure meters do not compensate for reciprocity effects. a disposable bulb filled with oxygen and a mass of fine magnesium Flash units vary in size from small. enabling him to capture the image of a bullet in flight. and quartz lamps. instead. The process can be repeated thousands of times. camera-mounted units to large studio units that plug into an electric wall socket. the shutter must be open for the duration of the flash. D Flash Photography In the absence of adequate daylight. Generally speaking. sometimes in rapid succession. Flash units are designed either as part of the camera mechanism or as accessories. . An electronic flash unit consists of a glass quartz tube filled with an inert gas—usually xenon. Flash photography can produce an effect equivalent to shorter exposure times.000 second is Eugene Edgerton. photographers use artificial light to illuminate scenes. The most commonly used sources of artificial illumination are electronic flash. When a brief jolt of electricity is applied to the electrodes sealed at the ends of the tube. In cameras with a focal-plane shutter (this includes most commonly used cameras).000 second. are made for use with a particular camera model and have circuitry that sets the shutter speed and illuminates a light in the viewfinder when the tube is ready to fire again. without wearing out the tube. With black-and-white film. tungsten lamps called photofloods.000 second.
Photographers also use CC filters to make small changes in color rendition on . medium-yellow filter is often used for outdoor black-and-white photography because it renders Another type of filter.Modern dedicated flash units. flat lighting. change photography. Daylight film. camera. which is balanced for sunlight at noon. This sensor is commonly located inside the invented. as well as built-in camera units. In black-and-white reaches the film. to conversion filters are light-balancing filters. Exposed in daylight. much of the blue light of the sky is blocked. for example. depending on the aperture set on the lens. which can adjust tungsten film designed for one Color-compensating (CC) filters help balance fluorescent light for daylight film or indoor (tungsten) film. Tungsten films. it was not possible to adjust the flash output. color filters transmit light of one color while blocking light of a contrasting color. As light bounces from ceiling to subject. changes the color balance of light when it is radically different from that of the film. This technique. For this type of picture. more even light and eliminates red eye. causing the sky to appear darker and thereby emphasizing clouds. they produce pictures with a bluish cast. A yellow filter produces a less extreme effect because more blue light is transmitted to the film. are balanced for use indoors with light from photofloods or incandescent lightbulbs. contain automatic flash systems. where it can gauge the amount of light at the film plane. A series 85 conversion filter can correct this. the exposure generally should be set to half of what would be overriding the main source of light. Flash can also be used in daylight to fill in foreground areas where shadows may be too required for the existing light. filters may alter the color balance of light. When photographing people or animals in very dim conditions. photographers could control the exposure only by adjusting the aperture. or create special effects. it produces a softer. minimize haze. Made of gelatin or glass. With some flash units it is possible to achieve more pleasant results indoors by aiming the flash at the ceiling. called a conversion filter. In a landscape photograph taken with a red filter. using flash also causes a condition known as red eye. lightens shadows without same as daylight so the two light sources do not produce noticeable color differences. They have a sensor that determines the appropriate amount of light from the flash tube. Similar type of artificial light to work with a second type of artificial light. Before automatic flash was Flash aimed directly at the subject usually produces harsh. The color temperature of electronic flash is practically the E Filters Filters added to the front of a camera lens change the quantity or quality of the light that contrast or brightness. for example. has a yellow-amber cast when exposed indoors under incandescent light or photofloods. called fill-flash. strong. making the centers of the subject’s eyes appear red. The the tone of a blue sky in much the same way as the human eye does. A series 80 conversion filter corrects this problem.
and the photographer should always wear latex gloves when handling wet materials and a dust mask when mixing powdered chemicals with water. All such reductions. film is customarily developed in a lighttight tank. Skylight. polarizing filters also produce more intense colors. but they still require slower shutter speeds or larger apertures. the darkroom must be totally dark. or closet. It must completely seal out light from outside the room. filters are familiar amateur accessories. In the early days of the medium. they are sensitive to all types of light. because these materials are panchromatic—that is. color films. Today enlarging. many photographers traveled with many people have a home darkroom built in their basement. and preparation. In color photography. a UV filter eliminates most of the excess blue that appears in distant landscape photographs and secondarily provides a transparent protective cap for the lens. Some professional transparency films require CC filtration as a matter of course. and is used for the chemical processing of films and prints. In the home darkroom. portable darkrooms. The enlarger light shines through the negative. must be calculated into manual exposures. filter factors are less relevant. which were housed in horse-drawn wagons or carried by servants. With automatic exposure. A darkroom is divided into a dry side and a wet side. But during the processing of black-and-white films. called filter the light after it has come through the lens. The dry side is used for loading. the wet side contains a sink with temperature-controlled running water. chemicals are toxic. which measures VII DARKROOM PROCESSING A darkroom is a room for processing photography materials. laundry room. Screwed into the end A polarizing filter reduces reflections from the surfaces of shiny subjects such as windows. a special orange-colored light bulb called a safelight can provide some illumination. factors.the film or when printing in the darkroom. or ultraviolet (UV). which holds metal reels onto which the exposed film has been wound. They filter ultraviolet of a lens. certain precautions are necessary: the darkroom should have an exhaust During the process of exposing and developing black-and-white printing paper. Photographers make prints with an enlarger. the enlarger lens focuses this . light. Because many processing fan to expel fumes and dust. an upright device that functions much like a camera except that it contains its own light source. All filters reduce the amount of light reaching the lens to some degree—with a polarizing filter the reduction can amount to two stops or more of exposure. which is invisible to humans but which can register on film as blue. and color printing papers.
This solution reactivates the process begun by the action of light when the film was exposed. As large particles of silver begin to form. A Developing the Film Photographers develop film by treating it with an alkaline chemical solution called a developer. photographers first place the negative in the enlarger and place a piece of sensitized printing material on the flat easel at its base. which sits on a flat easel at the base of the enlarger. The solution used for this process is commonly referred to as hypo. to remove After a short rinse. bathing the processed film in a washing aid promotes uniform drying and prevents formation of water spots or streaks. use this method to print what is called a contact sheet. The film must then be thoroughly washed in water. thus lightening or darkening those areas in the final print.light. Using this method. This technique is known as dodging when used to lighten an area and as burning when making . as residual fixer tends to destroy negatives over time. or hypo-clearing agent. The exposure commonly lasts from ten seconds to a minute. or fixer. a fixer remover. film. Photographers with 35-millimeter cameras commonly single roll of film in small size. it darker. and a large image of the negative projects onto the printing paper. The density of silver deposited in each area depends on the amount of light the area received during exposure. After rinsing the residual silver halide crystals unexposed to light. Finally. is applied to clear any remaining fixer from the film. Switching on the enlarger light source projects an enlarged image of the negative onto the paper. they place the emulsion side of the negative in contact with the printing material and expose the two together to a source of light. B Printing the Photos Photographers produce prints by either of two methods: contact or projection. An aperture on the enlarging lens controls the exposure. a visible image develops on the film. which chemically neutralizes the developer. which shows all the exposures from a For projection printing. photographers transfer the film to a solution called the stop bath. along with a timer connected to the enlarger light. The contact method works for making prints of exactly the same size as the negative. they apply another chemical solution to the negative image to fix it—that is. It encourages large grains of silver to form around the minute particles of metal that already make up the latent (not yet visible) image. By blocking part of the light source with hands or small tools. the photographer can reduce or increase the amount of light falling on selected portions of the image. In order to arrest the action of the developer.
In comparison to 35-millimeter point-and-shoot models. Called the Advanced Photo System (APS). since the APS film cartridge has no leader to thread into a take-up spool.For either printing process. but are changing photography in such image-making systems. a machine called a scanner records visual information and converts . One of the biggest differences between APS and conventional photography is that photographers can have their pictures processed conventionally or have them scanned onto a compact disc (CD) for use with a computer. digital systems. it is capable of results that nearly match the precision and sharpness of the older format. this results in a higher percentage of format than 35-millimeter film. However. APS film is APS cameras magnetically encode information onto the exposed film that automated easier to load. including several single-lens-reflex models. a drum VIII RECENT DEVELOPMENTS The technology of photography continues to develop rapidly. APS is not a digital photography system. for color prints. such as computers and the graphic arts. unlike film technology. which are explained in the next section. this technology challenges conventional 35-millimeter photography on several fronts. the paper is usually placed in a series of open trays. the photographer can then develop and fix the and-white prints. And although APS film is of a smaller Soon after Kodak’s introduction of APS. According to Kodak. well-exposed prints than with 35-millimeter processing. the target market for APS remains the point-and-shoot camera user. APS cameras are slightly smaller and lighter. including silver halides and dye couplers. To process blackor automatic roller processor is preferred. other film and camera makers also adopted the system. fundamental ways that the distinction has begun to blur between photography and other A APS In the early 1990s the Eastman Kodak Company introduced a new line of cameras and film designed for amateur photographers. less sensitive to light. APS employs well-established color B Digital Photography Digital photography is a method of making images without the use of conventional photographic film. After exposing the print. And photofinishing machines can read. Electronic technologies have not only changed the way that most cameras work. prints are made on sheets of paper or plastic that have been coated with a light-sensitive emulsion. This coating is similar to that used for film but is much positive image by a process very similar to that used for developing film. dozens of APS cameras are now available. Instead.
Some digital cameras are able to transfer their large picture files directly into a computer for storage. Pictures from these cameras contain fewer pixels than those from a more expensive camera and are therefore not as sharp. and built-in electronic flash. Photographs in digital form can be manipulated by means of various computer programs. stored on disks. There can be several million pixels in a high-resolution. Digital photography was widely used in advertising and graphic design in the late 1990s. for example) or as a conventional silver halide print Digital cameras aimed at the amateur photography market function much as point-and-shoot cameras do. automatic exposure. with automatic focus. the user can connect the camera directly to a television set or video cassette recorder. The more expensive professional cameras function as sophisticated 35-millimeter cameras but record the picture information as pixels. After taking pictures. or digital dots of color (see Computer Graphics). and was quickly replacing conventional photographic technology in areas such as photojournalism. Others accept a disc or similar portable storage unit to achieve the same purpose. Digital cameras are now available for both professional photographers and amateur enthusiasts. or sent to friends via electronic mail. The original high-resolution image can later be reproduced in ink (in a magazine. Alternatively. so the whole family can look at snapshots together. . full-color digital photograph.it into a code of ones and zeroes that a computer can read. image files can be transferred to a home computer.
and other particles. as Electricity is an extremely versatile form of energy. If Electricity occurs in two forms: static electricity and electric current.Electricity I INTRODUCTION Electricity. particles that make up the atoms of all ordinary matter. a property of certain elementary particles such as electrons and protons. The nervous systems of animals work by means of weak electric signals converted into heat. and other forms of energy through natural processes. motion. but the positive charge of the proton is exactly opposite the negative charge of the electron. protons. Electricity is associated with electric charge. as Electrical activity takes place constantly everywhere in the universe. Electrical forces hold transmitted between neurons (nerve cells). II ELECTRIC CHARGE Electricity consists of charges carried by electrons. or electrically neutral. Electricity can also be converted efficiently into other forms of energy. If an object has more protons than electrons. electricity plays a part in nearly every aspect of modern computers. and mechanical power. and countless other necessities and luxuries possible. It makes telephones. Electric charge comes in two forms: positive and negative. Because of this versatility. or moving. light. Electrons and protons both carry exactly the same amount of electric charge. It can be generated in many ways and from many different sources. transmitted. . Electricity is generated. molecules together. An electric current is a flow of electric charges between objects or locations. Static electricity consists of electric charges that stay in one place. positively charged. if it has more electrons than protons. and well as by devices built by people. televisions. as in an electric current. it is said to be negatively charged. one of the basic forms of energy. Electricity provides light. and it can be stored. two of the basic in static electricity. the charges will cancel each other and the object is said to be uncharged. It can be sent almost instantaneously over long distances. it is said to be an object contains as many protons as electrons. Electric charges can be stationary. heat. technology.
When the charged comb touches the ball. Electrons move from the surface of one object to the surface of the other if the second material holds onto its electrons more strongly than the first does. since it now has more electrons than protons. The object that gives up electrons becomes positively charged. some of the electrons on the hair are transferred to the comb. the material materials should be clean and dry. The ability to store charge is called capacitance and is measured in units called farads. if a nylon comb is run through clean. which the leaves remain apart because they retain their charges. When this happens. and the material later in the list becomes positive. The comb becomes negatively charged and the hair becomes positively charged. earlier in the list becomes negative. The following flannel. An electroscope is a device that contains two strips of metal foil. The electroscope has thus been charged by contact with the comb. If the comb is removed. materials are named in decreasing order of their ability to hold electrons: rubber. some of the charges on the comb flow to the leaves.III STATIC ELECTRICITY Static electricity can be produced by rubbing together two objects made of different materials. . the amount of charge that an object receives depends on its ability to store charge. For example. glass. called leaves. and fur (or hair). A metal ball is at the other end of the rod. dry hair. that hang from one end of a metal rod. The object that gains electrons becomes negatively charged. If any two of these materials are rubbed together. silk. The A Charging by Contact Objects become electrically charged in either of two ways: by contact or by induction. Charging by contact can be demonstrated by touching an uncharged electroscope with a charged comb. Charges in motion form an electric current. separate because they now hold like charges and repel each other. A charged object transfers electric charge to an object with lesser charge if the two touch. When charge flows between objects in contact. a charge flows from the first to the second object for a brief time.
quantifies the strength of the attraction or repulsion. Suppose. the lesser the force between them. This law states that and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. B Coulomb’s Law Objects with opposite charges attract each other. part of the charge may jump. called conductors. called insulators. When they touch. for example. or discharge. When the charge is large enough. allow an electric current to flow through them easily. also named after Coulomb. air is an insulator. Other Under normal conditions. if an object gains a large enough charge of static electricity. formulated by French physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb during the the force between two charged objects is directly proportional to the product of their charges charges on the objects. However. through the air to another object without touching it directly. charge will flow from the 8-coulomb object to the 4-coulomb . materials.24 × 1018 protons (or electrons). that one object has a charge of +4 coulombs and the other a charge of +8 coulombs. Some materials. it requires a pathway for the electric charge to move along. the air becomes a conductor. If two charged objects in contact have the same capacitance. The unit of electric charge. the larger the force between them. is equal to the combined charges of 6. they divide the charge evenly. the greater the distance between the objects. and objects with similar charges repel each late 18th century. Coulomb’s law.This flow of charge between objects with different amounts of charge will occur whenever possible. However. The greater the other. Lightning is an example of a discharge. strongly resist the passage of an electric current.
Some of these electrons flow to the side of accumulates electrons and becomes negatively charged. no charge would flow between them. the 10-farad object will have a charge of +8 coulombs and the 5- C Charging by Induction A charged object may induce a charge in a nearby neutral object without touching it.object until each has a charge of +6 coulombs. coulombs. After they touch. the electrons in the the neutral object that is nearest to the positive object. This side of the neutral object neutral object are attracted to the positive object. If an object with a capacitance of 10 farads touches an object with a capacitance of 5 farads. Because electrons leave the far side of the neutral object while its protons remain stationary. Their total charge is therefore +12 farad object will have +4 coulombs. . that side becomes positively charged. if a positively charged object is brought near a neutral object. Suppose that the objects are oppositely charged and that one has a charge of +20 coulombs and the other a charge of -8 coulombs. they divide the charge in proportion to their capacitances. the 10-farad object will end up with twice the amount of charge of the 5-farad object. If each object originally had a charge of +6 coulombs. For example. If two objects have different capacitances.
As before. Thus B has been permanently charged by induction. B has a positive charge. As soon as the charged object is again becomes neutral. B. remains positive because the wire has been disconnected and B cannot regain electrons from IV ELECTRIC CURRENT . The net effect is an attraction between the objects. the electrons on the other object redistribute themselves evenly over it. when a negatively charged object is brought near a neutral object. such as a metal wire. so that it An object can also be charged permanently by induction. B still Earth to neutralize its positive charge. A. attraction between this side and the positive object is greater than the repulsion between the negative object induces a positive charge on the near side of the neutral object and a negative The induced charges described above are not permanent. Even if A is subsequently removed. the positively charged side and the positive object. since it has lost electrons to Earth. The ground can receive almost any amount of charge because Earth. If that side of B is then connected to the ground by a good brought near a neutral object. the charge on the far side. is flow to the other side of B. the electrons on B are repelled as far as possible from A and conductor.Since the negatively charged side of the neutral object is closest to the positive object. Similarly. If this wire is then removed. If a negatively charged object. the electrons flow out through the wire into the ground. Object B is said to be grounded by the wire connecting it to Earth. the net effect is an attraction between the objects. has an enormous capacitance. being neutral. taken away.
and resistance in any circuit are all A Conductors and Insulators Conductors are materials that allow an electric current to flow through them easily. then an electric current flows from one object to the other through the wire. For example. Other properties that are used to quantify and compare electric currents are the voltage (also called electromotive force) driving the current and the resistance of the conductor to the related through an equation called Ohm’s law. the passage of the current through the air is visible as a tiny spark. which is used in most devices that are “plugged in” to electrical outlets in buildings. voltage. the charge can arc. B Measuring Electric Current Electric current is measured in units called amperes (amp). Current that flows back and forth. is called direct current. glass. Most of the following discussion focuses on direct current. current will arc through the air from your finger to the doorknob or radiator. Electric current can be demonstrated by connecting a small light bulb to an electric battery by two copper wires. reversing direction again and again. Electricians wear rubber gloves so that electric current will not pass from electrical equipment to their bodies. such as a copper wire. is called alternating current. the wire is carrying a current of 1 amp. current flows through the wires and the bulb. Substances that do not allow electric current to flow through them are called insulators. If two objects are connected by a material that lets charge flow easily. Most metals are good conductors. even though air is an insulator. but not in contact with. if you shuffle across a wool rug and then hold your finger very close to. Direct current.An electric current is a movement of charge. and air are common insulators. However. When two objects with different charges touch and redistribute their charges. See also Electric Meters. causing the bulb to glow. In the dark. Alternating current. Rubber. The amount of current. such as the current in a battery-powered flashlight. or dielectrics. If 2 coulombs flow C Voltage . is easier to understand than alternating current. the current is 2 amp. will be discussed in the Alternating Current section of this article. passage of the current. an electric current flows from one object to the other until the charge is distributed according to the capacitances of the objects. When the connections are properly made. If 1 coulomb of charge flows past past each point in a second. a metal doorknob or radiator. nonconductors. each point of a wire every second. Current that flows in one direction only. or jump. if an object contains a sufficient amount of charge. which is used in most battery-powered devices. through an insulator to another object.
The more willing the terminals are to give up and receive electrons. A wire whose cross- wire of identical diameter and material. the greater its resistance. the longer wire offers twice as much resistance as the sectional area is twice that of another wire of equal length and similar material has only half the resistance of the thinner wire. silver is the best conductor and copper is the second The resistance of a piece of wire depends on its length. This law states that the amount of current passing through a conductor is directly proportional to the voltage across the conductor and inversely proportional to the resistance of the conductor. best. but it does not permit the current to flow with perfect freedom. If one wire is twice as long as a shorter one. length. A good insulator has a very high resistance. and R is the resistance in ohms of the conductor between the two locations of interest. At commonly encountered temperatures. D Resistance A conductor allows an electric current to flow through it. I is the amount of current in amperes that is flowing between these two points. the greater its resistance. and its cross-sectional area. V = IR. E Ohm’s Law The relationship between current. This phenomenon is known as superconductivity. however. Scientists describe this relationship between resistance. One terminal continuously sends electrons into the conductor. V = IR can also be written R = V/I and I = V/R. because a thick wire offers more room for an electric current to pass through than a thin wire does. Another name for a voltage produced by a source of electric current is electromotive force. Ohm’s law can be expressed as an equation. Electric wires are usually made of copper. Voltage is measured in units called volts. This phenomenon is known as resistance.When the two terminals of a battery are connected by a conductor. The symbol for ohms is the Greek letter omega. Ù. the higher the voltage. Collisions between the electrons and the atoms of the conductor interfere with the flow of electrons. and resistance is given by Ohm’s law. which is less expensive than silver. or potential difference. A thicker wire. Resistance is measured in units called ohms. If any . The resistance of some materials drops to zero at very low temperatures. The longer the wire is. The current flow is caused by the voltage. or thickness. while the other continuously receives electrons from it. voltage. to cross-sectional area. between the terminals. an electric current flows through the conductor. where V is the difference in volts between two locations (called the potential difference). and area by saying that resistance is proportional to length and inversely proportional Usually. A good conductor is one that has low resistance. the higher the temperature of a wire. has less resistance.
are tightly bound to individual copper atoms. V HOW ELECTRIC CURRENT IS CONDUCTED All electric currents consist of charges in motion. if a voltage is applied to the two ends of a copper bar by means of a battery. resistance is constant in conductors made of metal. A current of I amp passing through a resistance of R ohms for t seconds generates an amount of heat equal to I2Rt joules (a joule is a unit of energy equal to 0. This energy is supplied by is supplied to a device is called power. Ordinarily the motion of the free electrons is random. electric current is conducted differently in solids. This end is said to be at a higher potential and is called the positive end. However. the greater the resistance. Also. such as a battery or an electric generator. the greater the heat. gases. that is. then the resistance of the conductor is R = V/I = 110/10 = 11 ohms. When an electric current flows in a solid conductor. A Conduction in Solids The conduction of electric currents in solid substances is made possible by the presence of free electrons (electrons that are free to move about). and it is often measured in units called watts. The other end is said to be at a lower potential . then R is still 11. the greater the heat. because the current is carried entirely by electrons. For example. F Heat and Power A conductor’s resistance to electric current produces heat.239 calorie). however. and liquids. then I = V/R = 110/11 = 10 amp. a two-directional flow is made possible by the process of ionization (see Electrochemistry). The current I will be doubled. the free electrons tend to drift toward one end. If V = 110 and R = 11. Under normal conditions. In liquids and gases. some are free to move from atom to atom. The greater the current passing through the conductor. as many of them are moving in one direction as in another.two of the quantities are known. If the voltage is raised to 220 in the example above. the flow is in one direction only. if a potential difference of 110 volts sends a 10-amp current through a conductor. enabling current to flow. the third can be calculated. since I = V/R = 220/11 = 20 amp. However. Energy is required to drive an electric current through a resistance. However. Most of the electrons in a bar of copper. for example. however. The rate at which energy power P supplied by a current of I amp passing through a resistance of R ohms is given by P = I2R. The the source of the current.
the substance is gradually separated into two parts. As in gases. Such the flow of current than does a conductor. C Conduction in Liquid Solutions Many substances become ionized when they dissolve in water or in some other liquid. This separation is called electrolysis. it separates into positive sodium ions. the electric current is composed of these flows of opposite charges. An example is ordinary table salt. sodium chloride (NaCl). while the positive ions drift toward the negative point. The best insulators offer high but not infinite resistance at room temperature. The gas atoms become positively charged ions and the gas is free electrons are accelerated by the potential difference and collide with the atoms of the gas. When a strong potential difference is applied between two points inside a container filled with a gas. When sodium chloride dissolves in water. A perfect insulator would allow no charge to be forced through it. substances are called semiconductors. A battery does this by supplying electrons to the negative end of the bar to replace those that drift to the positive end and also by absorbing electrons at the positive end. Na+. but a lower resistance than an insulator. Semiconductors generally have a higher resistance to B Conduction in Gases Gases normally contain few free electrons and are generally insulators. such as silicon and germanium. and negative chlorine ions. the few knocking free more electrons. such as glass. Thus. The function of a battery or other source of electric current is to maintain potential difference. An electric current in a gas is composed of these opposite flows of charges. Since the positive and negative ions of a dissolved substance migrate to different points when an electric current flows. while water that is absolutely pure is an insulator.and is called the negative end. Insulators cannot conduct electric currents because all their electrons are tightly bound to substance is known at room temperature. but no such Some substances that ordinarily have no free electrons. can conduct electric currents when small amounts of certain impurities are added to them. If two points in the solution are at different potentials. VI SOURCES OF ELECTRIC CURRENT . their atoms. water that contains even a slight impurity of an ionized substance is a conductor. while the ions move toward the low-potential (more negative) point. the negative ions drift toward the positive point. The electrons move toward the high-potential (more positive) point. Cl-. such as copper. said to be ionized.
Platinum. such as water pouring through a dam or the motion of a turbine driven by steam. If a strip of platinum and a strip of aluminum are pressed together under the proper conditions. Unlike electrolytic cells. The into the outlet. Fuel cells. electrons more strongly than other metals do. Certain sources of electric current operate on the principle that some metals hold onto their strongly than aluminum does. the platinum loses electrons and becomes positive. electrolytic cell produce a potential difference between the cell’s terminals. fuel cells do not store chemicals and therefore must be constantly refilled. to produce electricity. The two most common sources are generators and electrolytic cells. produce electricity through chemical reactions. holds its electrons less . are connected voltage between the terminals drives an electric current through the appliance that is plugged B Electrolytic Cells Electrolytic cells use chemical energy to produce electricity. however. some electrons will flow from the platinum to the aluminum.There are several different devices that can supply the voltage necessary to generate an electric current. A Generators Generators use mechanical energy. An electric battery C Other Sources There are many sources of electric current other than generators and electrolytic cells. from which electricity to operate lights and appliances is drawn. Each outlet contains two terminals. for example. other buildings. The electric outlets on the walls of homes and to giant generators located in electric power stations. As the aluminum gains electrons and becomes negative. Chemical reactions within an consists of a cell or group of cells connected together. See Electric Power Systems. for example.
the connection is broken. Some substances emit electrons when they are struck by light. a battery. When the electric current flows through the filament. the filament heats up and the bulb lights. through the other piece of connecting wire. In a simple circuit consisting of a small light bulb. Some microphones VII ELECTRIC CIRCUITS An electric circuit is an arrangement of electric current sources and conducting paths through which a current can continuously flow. and two pieces of wire. a potential difference work on this principle. Electricity produced directly by heating is called thermoelectricity. Electricity produced in this way is called photoelectricity. Electricity thus produced is called piezoelectricity. and back to the positive terminal of the battery. A flashlight is an example of such a circuit. through one piece of connecting wire. If two strips of different metals are joined and the joint heated. electrons will pass from one strip to the other. current flows and the bulb lights. develops across them. A switch can be placed in one of the connecting wires. and the bulb does not light. . the electric current flows from the negative terminal of the battery. electric current cannot flow through the circuit. When pressure is applied to certain crystals. When the switch is open.The strength with which a metal holds its electrons varies with temperature. When the switch is closed. through the bulb filament (also a type of wire).
a fuse (circuit breaker) may be placed in the circuit. When objects are connected in series. stopping the flow of current. The load forms a continuous conducting path between the terminals of the current source. The wire in the fuse is designed to melt before the filament would The part of an electric circuit other than the source of electric current is called the load. a wire in the fuse heats up and melts. When too much current flows through the fuse. and toasters.The bulb filament may burn out if too much electric current flows through it. as well as switches. A Series Circuits If various objects are arranged to form a single conducting path between the terminals of a source of electric current. and other devices. The electron current first passes from the negative terminal of the source into the first object. the objects are said to be connected in series. To prevent this from happening. bulb. such as lights. There are two basic ways in which the parts of a circuit are arranged. then flows through The current is the same throughout the circuit. and fuse are connected in series. the wires. In the example of the light bulb. and the other is called a parallel circuit. switch. It also includes the connecting wires. and so on. fans. . the electric current flows through them against the resistance of the first object. buzzers. One arrangement is called a series circuit. the other objects one after another. then against the resistance of the next object. radios. The load includes all appliances placed in the circuit. fuses. thereby breaking the circuit and melt. and finally returns to the positive terminal of the source.
are the resistances of the branches. the voltage drop in the motor is 2 × 48 = 96 volts. each with a resistance of 1 ohm. be determined from the equation I = V/R. R2.Therefore the total resistance to the current is equal to the sum of the individual resistances. Each separate path is called a flowing through the separate branches. I is the amount of In the example of the motor.. whereas a series circuit has only one path for all the current. and R is the resistance of the object. and R is the resistance of the branch. If three objects with resistances R1. where V is the voltage drop across the object. 15. then the current in each will be equal. then . their total resistance is R1 + R2 + R3.. The voltage that each object uses up is called the voltage drop across that object. the current merges again before reentering the current source. the current in each branch can the voltage. If the branches have different resistances. If each branch has the same resistance. where I is the amount of current in the branch. the voltage drop in each wire is V = IR = 2 × 1 = 2 volts. and R3 are connected in series. The electric current through a parallel circuit is distributed among the branches according to the resistances of the branches. a Voltage can be thought of as being used up by the objects in a circuit. Adding up the voltage drops (2 + 2 + 96) B Parallel Circuits If various objects are connected to form separate paths between the terminals of a source of electric current. they are said to be connected in parallel. Voltage drop can be calculated current. the total current of 100/50 = 2 amp will flow through the circuit. and gives a total drop of 100 volts. branch of the circuit. . For example. resistance of the motor and wires is 48 + 1 + 1 = 50 ohms. This is because a parallel circuit offers more than one branch (path) for the electric current. In a series circuit the sum of the voltage drops across the objects always equals the total voltage supplied by the source. V is The total resistance of a parallel circuit can be calculated from the equation where R is the total resistance and R1. and 30 ohms. if a motor with a resistance of 48 ohms is connected to the terminals of a current source by two wires. from the equation V = IR. if a parallel circuit consists of three branches with resistances of 10. Current from the source splits up and enters the various branches. For example. R2. After The total resistance of objects connected in parallel is less than that of any of the individual resistances. If the voltage is 100 volts.
. In other circuit. with resistances of 10. a voltage of 150 volts would produce an electric current of I = V/R = 150/5 = 30 amp. would receive a current of V/R = 150/10 = 15 amp. B. For example. On the other hand. then batteries A. Sources can be arranged in series by connecting a terminal of one source to the opposite terminal of the next source. The branches are parallel and must be treated by the rules for parallel circuits. The greater the resistance of a given branch. a series circuit may Complicated series-parallel circuits may be analyzed by means of two rules called Kirchhoff’s part of any circuit. amp. 15. the smaller the portion of the electric current and 30 ohms. and the positive terminal of battery B to the negative terminal of battery C. but also to any given section of a D Series and Parallel Sources Sources of electric current can also be connected in various ways. as well as the voltage across it. These rules make it possible to find the amount of electric current flowing through each second law states that. The laws. These branch currents add up to a total current C Series-Parallel Circuits Many circuits combine series and parallel arrangements. In this circuit. The first of Kirchhoff’s laws states that at any junction in a circuit through which a steady current is flowing.Therefore. is connected to a 150-volt source. Ohm’s law applies not only to a circuit as a whole. and C are in series. if the positive terminal of battery A is connected to the negative terminal of battery B. the 15-ohm branch receives 10 of 30 amp. The load is then placed between the positive terminal of battery C and the negative terminal of battery A. The resistances of these objects must at one point divide into two or more branches and then rejoin. the net sum of the voltage encountered will be equal to the net sum of the products of the resistances encountered and the currents flowing through them. may have within it several objects in a series. the branch with a resistance of 10 ohms flowing through that branch. starting at any point in a circuit and following any closed path back to the starting point. which is the value obtained by dividing the voltage by the total resistance. One branch of a parallel circuit. and the 30-ohm branch receives 5 amp. words. If a parallel circuit of three branches. be combined according to the rules for a series circuit. R = 5 ohms. the sum of the currents flowing to the junction is equal to the sum of the currents flowing away from that point. Similarly. for example.
When sources of electric current are connected in series. This region is called the electric field of force of the A Lines of Force . their total voltage is equal to the sum of their individual voltages.5 volts. the total voltage is still 1. If the load is 9 ohms. All charged objects have electric fields around them. and it will demonstrate this ability as soon as another charge is brought near it. For example. The load is then placed between the group of positive Arranging sources in parallel does not increase the voltage.5-volt batteries are parallel unless they have approximately the same voltage.5-volt batteries connected in series furnish a total of 4. The ability to attract or repel can be thought of as being charge. Batteries should not be connected in connected in parallel with a low voltage battery. and all the negative terminals together. If three 1. the high voltage battery will force an electric VIII ELECTRIC FIELDS A single electric charge can attract or repel. the batteries send a current of 4. three 1.5 volts. If a high voltage battery is current through the low voltage battery and damage it.5/9 = 0. stored in the region around the charge. connected in parallel. Current sources may be arranged in parallel by connecting all the positive terminals together terminals and the group of negative terminals.5 amp through the load.
are placed near each other. . The lines in the field around a positively charged object radiate in all directions away from the object. An object with Field strength is represented graphically by the closeness (density) of the lines of force. Where the lines are close together. point. At greater distances from the charge. or intensity. the lines do not connect. since the object repels positive charges. If a positive and a negative object placed near each other. of a field at any point is defined as the force exerted on a charge of 1 coulomb placed at that point. If two objects with similar charges are Lines of force are only imaginary. B Field Direction When a charge is placed at any given point in an electric field. The field direction can be represented graphically by the lines of force near an electric C Field Strength The strength. and similar magnetic poles repel each other. Where they are far apart. force of 10 newtons. the field is weak. their lines of force connect. the field weakens and the lines are not as close together. it is acted on by a force that tends to push it in a certain direction. Near a charge. since a field can be drawn with as many lines as desired. This direction is called the direction of the field at that charge. Lines of force never cross each other. Nevertheless. the field is strong. the lines in the field around a negatively charged object are directed toward the object. Opposite magnetic poles attract each other. if a point charge of 1 coulomb is subjected to a a charge of 5 coulombs would be subjected to a force of 50 newtons at the same point. Conversely. the field is strong and the lines are close together. The field strength values that the lines represent are relative. For example. the electric field is 10 newtons per coulomb at that point. A magnet has two opposite poles.An electric field can be visualized as consisting of imaginary lines called lines of force. the idea of lines of force helps in visualizing an electric field. referred to as north and south. IX ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM Many similarities exist between electric and magnetic phenomena. Each line corresponds to the path that a positive charge would take if placed in the field on that line. exactly as happens with electric charges.
The field can . The similarities between electric and magnetic phenomena indicate that electricity and magnetism are related. The relationship between electricity and magnetism is called electromagnetism. This relationship is similar to the Coulomb’s inverse square law for electric charges. Electricity produces magnetic effects and magnetism produces electric effects.The force with which magnetic poles attract or repel each other depends on the strength of the poles and the distance between them. See also Magnetism. The magnetic effect of electricity is be detected when a magnet is brought close to the current-carrying conductor. A Magnetic Effects of Electricity It has been noted that an electric field exists around any electric charge. they constitute an electric current. If electric charges are moving. See also Quantum Electrodynamics. demonstrated by the fact that a magnetic field exists around any electric current.
This phenomenon. The end from which the lines exit is the north pole and the end into which the lines reenter is the south pole. The polarity of the coil can be determined by applying the left-hand coil rule. The direction of the fingers then indicates the direction negative. the magnetic fields interact to produce a force that tends to push the wire out of the Motors and Generators. If the wire is placed between the poles. is used in electric motors. behaves in the same way as a of force tend to go through the center of the coil from one end to the other rather than around magnet and is the basis for all electromagnets. To apply this rule. (The right-hand rule assumes that current flows from positive to B Motor Effect As already stated. a magnetic field exists around a wire carrying an electric current. field. Such a coil. known as the motor effect. called a solenoid. and a magnetic field exists between the two poles of a magnet.) of the lines of magnetic force. If the left hand grasps the coil in such a way . The direction of the magnetic field can be determined by a convenient rule called the right-hand rule.The magnetic field around an electric current can be thought of as lines of magnetic force that form closed circular loops around the wire that carries the current. then the magnetic lines the individual loops of wire. the thumb of the right hand is pointed in the direction in which the current is flowing and the fingers are curled around the wire. See also Electric C Solenoids If a wire is bent into many continuous loops to form a long spiral coil.
Two consecutive surges. In the Although direct and alternating currents share some characteristics. builds up to a maximum in that direction. An electric current will flow through the wire if the two ends of the wire are connected by a conductor to form a circuit. and dies down to zero. an induced current generates a magnetic field around it. The number of cycles United States and Canada. and the induction of a current in this manner is called electromagnetic induction. It does not matter whether the wire moves or the magnetic field moves. Most electric power stations supply electricity in the form of alternating currents. Like any electric current. This surging back and forth can occur at a very rapid rate. When a conductor is moved back and forth in a magnetic field. a voltage is created across the wire. The current flows first in one direction. builds up to a maximum in that direction. the flow of current in the conductor will reverse direction as often as the physical motion of the conductor reverses direction. D Electric Effects of Magnetism If a wire is moved through a magnetic field in such a way that it cuts the magnetic lines of force. also produce phenomena that direct currents do not. are called a cycle. provided that the wire cuts through lines of force. transmission. This current is called an induced current. It then and again dies down to zero. most currents have a frequency of 60 cycles per second. completed by an electric current in one second is called the frequency of the current. the lines of magnetic force are cut by the wire and an electric current is induced in the wire. one in each direction. and use. X ALTERNATING CURRENT An alternating current is an electric current that changes direction at regular intervals. If a magnet is moved near a stationary wire. immediately starts flowing in the opposite direction.that the fingers curl around in the direction of the electron current. Then it immediately starts in the first direction again. some properties of alternating current are somewhat different from those of direct current. Alternating currents current make it ideal for power generation. Some of the unique traits of alternating A Amperage and Voltage . Lenz’s law expresses an important fact concerning this magnetic field: The motion of an induced current is always in such a direction that its magnetic field opposes the magnetic field that is causing the current. then the thumb points in the direction of the north pole.
however. both for industrial installations and in the home. Since it is inconvenient to take into account a whole range of amperage values. a coil of wire is placed in the magnetic field of the first coil. the voltage of an alternating current is considered in terms of the effective voltage. various effects produced by the alternating current itself the design of the circuit. If the second coil has more turns than the first. alternating current is hindered by the resistance of the conductor through hinder the alternating current.000 watts of power is supplied to a power line. and impedance is expressed by V = IZ. voltage will be smaller than the primary voltage. The most important of these characteristics is that the voltage or the current may be changed to almost alternating current surges back and forth through a coil of wire. it may be equally well supplied by a potential of 200. electric connection with it. It is equal to the resistance plus the reactance. which it passes. C Advantages of Alternating Current Alternating current has several characteristics that make it more attractive than direct current as a source of electric power. however. and together they are called reactance. 1 effective amp of alternating current through a conductor produces heat at the B Impedance Like direct current. I is the effective current in amperes (amp). or induced. the secondary. an alternating current current is equal to the amperage of a direct current that produces heat at the same rate. other words. These effects depend on the frequency of the current and on an alternating current is called impedance. of an alternating current varies continuously between zero and a maximum. if there are fewer turns in the second coil. produces heat as it passes through a conductor. The effective amperage of an alternating scientists simply deal with the effective amperage. but not in direct in the second coil. the magnetic field about the any value desired by means of a simple electromagnetic device called a transformer.000 volts and a current of 100 amp. where V is the effective voltage in volts. In addition. When an coil expands and collapses and then expands in a field of opposite polarity and again collapses. The power lost in the line through heating. or amperage. because power is equal to the product of voltage and current.000 volts and a current of 1 amp or by a potential of 2. because the field is acting on a greater The action of a transformer makes possible the economical transmission of electric power over long distances. is equal to the square of the current times the . If 200. The movement of the magnetic field induces an alternating current second coil will be larger than the voltage in the first. Conversely. In a transformer. effective voltage. In same rate as 1 amp of direct current flowing through the same conductor. the voltage induced in the number of individual conductors.The strength. Like a direct current. The total hindering effect on The relationship of effective current. and Z is the impedance in ohms. Similarly.
He found that opposite kinds attract each other while similar kinds repel.000-volt line will be 10 watts. when two objects are rubbed together. since it could make The ancient Greeks observed that amber. the loss on the 200. He gave these substances the Latin name electrica. but scientists did not make great progress in understanding electricity until the 1700s. A 600 Early Theories Greek philosopher Thales of Miletus held that amber had a soul. BC For almost 2. Frenchman Charles Dufay observed that electric charges are of two kinds. which is derived from the Greek word elektron (which means “amber”). . power companies tend to favor high voltage lines for long XI HISTORY Humans have known about the existence of static electricity for thousands of years. another Greek philosopher. when rubbed. In a treatise written about three centuries later. light objects. available power.000-volt line will be 100. electric fluid flows from one object to the other. According to Franklin’s theory. Conduction was rediscovered independently by Englishman Stephen others are insulators. American scientist Benjamin Franklin theorized that electricity is a kind of fluid. if the resistance of the line is 10 ohms. Dufay called one kind vitreous and the other kind resinous. stated that other substances also have this power. Gray also noted that some substances are good conductors while Also during the early 1700s. Theophrastus. which Franklin called positive charge. The object that loses electric fluid acquires a resinous charge. Accordingly.000 watts. whereas the loss on the 2. In 1600 English physician William Gilbert published a book in which he noted that many substances besides amber could be charged by rubbing. The fact that electricity can flow through a substance was discovered by 17th-century German physicist Otto von Guericke. The machine consisted of a sulfur sphere turned by a crank. The word electricity was first used by English writer and physician Sir Thomas Browne in 1646. Gray during the early 1700s.000 years after Theophrastus. who observed conduction in a linen thread. When a hand was held against the sphere. attracted small. The object that gains electric fluid acquires a vitreous charge. a charge was induced on the sphere. little progress was made in the study of electricity. Thus. or half the distance transmission.resistance. About other objects move. which Franklin called negative charge. Von Guericke also described the first machine for producing an electric charge in 1672.
a German high school teacher. body. In 1827 Ohm published his results. Alessandro Volta. In 1752 he constructed a kite and flew it during a storm. could be Around 1766 British chemist Joseph Priestley proved experimentally that the force between also demonstrated that an electric charge distributes itself uniformly over the surface of a hollow metal sphere and that no charge and no electric field of force exists within such a sphere. Shortly afterward. a form of electric battery. A spark jumped. Franklin. put his hand near a metal key attached to string to the key and then jumped across an air gap to flow to the ground through Franklin’s charged by touching it to the key when electric current was flowing down the string.Franklin demonstrated that lightning is a form of electricity. which solenoids. Ferdinand von Helmholtz demonstrated that electricity is a form of energy and that electric . Franklin also showed that a Leyden jar. Galvani had found earlier that the muscles in a frog’s B 19th and 20th Centuries In 1800 another Italian scientist. When the string became wet enough to conduct. Ampère also demonstrated the magnetic properties of abilities of various metals. Faraday. a device able to store electric charge. Priestley measure accurately the force exerted by electric charges. investigated the conducting known as Ohm’s law. With this apparatus he confirmed the product of the individual charges. Priestley’s observations and also showed that the force between two charges is proportional to In 1791 Italian biologist Luigi Galvani published the results of experiments that he had leg would contract if he applied an electric current to them. including the relationship now In 1830 American physicist Joseph Henry discovered that a moving magnetic field induces an electric current. André Marie Ampère discovered the relationship known as Ampere’s law. The voltaic pile made the study of electric current much easier by providing a reliable. performed on the muscles of dead frogs. Faraday introduced the concept of lines of force. steady source of current. who stood the string. Electric charge gathered by the kite had flowed down the wet under a shed and held the string by a dry silk cord. French physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb reinvented a torsion balance to electric charges varies inversely with the square of the distance between the charges. announced that he had created the voltaic pile. Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted demonstrated that electric currents are surrounded by magnetic fields in 1819. Georg Simon Ohm. gives the direction of the magnetic field. The same effect was discovered a year later by English scientist Michael useful in the study of electricity. a concept that proved extremely About 1840 British physicist James Prescott Joule and German scientist Hermann Ludwig circuits obey the law of the conservation of energy.
and Charles Proteus Steinmetz during the late 19th Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005. The electron theory. who harnessed these waves in 1895 to produce the first practical radio signaling system. His work paved the way for German physicist Heinrich Rudolf Hertz. accurately measured the charge on the electron in 1909. British physicist James Clerk Maxwell investigated the properties of electromagnetic waves and light and developed the theory that the two are identical. Nikola Tesla. which is the basis of modern electrical theory. and for Italian engineer Guglielmo Marconi. All rights reserved. The widespread use of electricity as a such as Thomas Alva Edison.Also during the 19th century. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. was first advanced by Dutch physicist Hendrik Antoon Lorentz in 1892. . American physicist Robert Andrews Millikan source of power is largely due to the work of pioneering American engineers and inventors and early 20th centuries. who produced and detected electric waves in the atmosphere in 1886. Maxwell summed up almost all the laws of electricity and magnetism in four mathematical equations.
Each time the shaft spins one revolution.WWW. A mechanical odometer is another place that uses a lot of worm gears: . In a worm gear. you have a 40:1 gear ratio in a very small package.COM Worm Gears If you want to create a high gear ratio. nothing beats the worm gear. a threaded shaft engages the teeth on a gear. If the gear has 40 teeth. Here's one example from a windshield wiper. the gear moves one tooth forward.HOWSTUFFWORKS@YAHOO.
However. One specialized gear train is called a planetary gear train. One way to create that ratio is with the following three-gear train: In this train. A common place where this same-axis capability is needed is in an electric screwdriver.There are three worm gears visible in this odometer. imagine that you want the axis of the output gear to be the same as that of the input gear. as shown here: . Planetary Gears There are many other ways to use gears. Let's say you want a gear ratio of 6:1 with the input turning in the same direction as the output. The size of the red gear is not important because it is just there to reverse the direction of rotation so that the blue and yellow gears turn the same way. In that case. you can use a planetary gear system. the blue gear has six times the diameter of the yellow gear (giving a 6:1 ratio). See How Odometers Work for more information. Planetary gears solve the following problem.
it has to spin seven times. You can see a picture of a two-stage planetary gear system on the electric screwdriver page. so instead of the sun gear having to spin six times for the planet carrier to make it around once. and which one you hold still. An automatic transmission uses planetary gearsets to create the different gear ratios. this gear train is extremely rugged. For instance. You could rearrange things again. and this time hold the sun gear stationary. This is because the planet carrier circled the sun gear once in the same direction as it was spinning. This would give you a 1. using clutches and brake bands to hold different parts of the gearset stationary and change the inputs and outputs. and a three-stage plenetary gear system of the sprinkler page. we get a 7:1 reduction.In this gear system.this gives the same 6:1 gear ratio. which gear you use as the output. and they engage the inside of the blue gear (the ring) instead of the outside. subtracting one revolution from the sun gear. gears are often connected together in gear trains. Because there are three red gears instead of one. the yellow gear (the sun) engages all three red gears (the planets) simultaneously. You also find planetary gear systems inside automatic transmissions. In this case.17:1 gear reduction. The output shaft is attached to the blue ring gear. Gear Trains To create large gear ratios. So in this case. and the planet carrier is held stationary -. Another interesting thing about planetary gearsets is that they can produce different gear ratios depending on which gear you use as the input. we get a different gear ratio. the planet carrier and planets orbit the sun gear. take the output from the planet carrier and hook the input up to the ring gear. and we hold the ring gear stationary and attach the output shaft to the planet carrier. All three are attached to a plate (the planet carrier). as shown here: . if the input is the sun gear.
as shown in the next two figures. one on top of the other. .The right-hand (purple) gear in the train is actually made in two parts. Gear trains often consist of multiple gears in the train. as shown above. A small gear and a larger gear are connected together.
In the same way. Because the dials are directly connected . The green gear turns at twice the rate of the purple gear. the smaller gears are one-fifth the size of the larger gears.In the case above.500-rpm motor to the red gear to get 100 rpm on the purple gear. If you can see inside your power meter and it's of the older style with five mechanical dials. you could attach a 2. the green gear will turn at a rate of 500 rpm and the red gear will turn at a rate of 2. That means that if you connect the purple gear to a motor spinning at 100 revolutions per minute (rpm). The red gear turns at twice the rate as the green gear. the purple gear turns at a rate twice that of the blue gear.500 rpm. you will see that the five dials are connected to one another through a gear train like this. with the gears having a ratio of 10:1. The gear train shown below has a higher gear ratio: In this train.
as shown here: . In these cases. the common solution is to use either a chain or a toothed belt. An Example Imagine the following situation: You have two red gears that you want to keep synchronized. in both of these cases the extra gears are likely to be heavy and you need to create axles for them. they spin in opposite directions (you will see that the numbers are reversed on dials next to one another). but they are some distance apart.to one another. You can place a big gear between them if you want them to have the same direction of rotation: Or you can use two equal-sized gears if you want them to have opposite directions of rotation: However.
and the ability to connect many gears together on the same chain or belt. in a car engine. the ability to separate the two gears by some distance. two camshafts and the alternator.The advantages of chains and belts are light weight. check out the links on the next page! . the same toothed belt might engage the crankshaft. For more information on gears and their applications. it would be a lot harder. If you had to use gears in place of the belt. For example.
such as automobiles or power tools. simple device that affects the force. This can be written in mathematical terms: Work = Force × Distance move objects. Although these simple machines have been other common simple machines. the amount of work that results remains the same. are really adaptations of the inclined plane. and the wheelchair ramp (a form of inclined plane). no other simple machines have been discovered. An everyday example of a complex machine is the and a wedge (the sharpened cutting disk). Machines can also increase the speed at which work makes an object travel. in physics. or effort. the screw and the wedge. known and used for thousands of years. which combines a lever (the hinged handle). perform work by lengthening the distance over which the force is applied. Distance refers to the distance a load is moved by the force. II WORK Machines help people do work by changing the amount of force and the distance needed to the distance over which the force is applied. Two Some common examples of simple machines are the shovel (a form of lever). the steering wheel of an automobile (a form of wheel and axle). Although less force There are four types of simple machines: the lever. but increasing speed requires the application of more effort. . can opener. However. no matter how complicated a machine is. Knowing the mechanical advantage of a machine allows a user to predict how much force is needed to lift a given object. Machines lessen the force needed to is subsequently used. it is composed of some combination of the four simple machines. Each machine affects the direction or the amount of effort needed to do work. The advantage that a machine gives its user by affecting the amount of force needed is called the machine’s mechanical advantage. are complex machines wheel and axle. Machines can make a tough job seem easier by enabling a person to apply less force or to apply force in a direction that is easier to manipulate. or MA. such as a hand pushing a book across a table. needed to do a certain amount of work. Work. the inclined plane. the pulley at the top of a flagpole. a wheel and axle (the turning knob). the pulley.Machine I INTRODUCTION Machine. composed of many parts. and the Most mechanical machines. is the amount of force used to move an object multiplied by Force is defined as a push or a pull exerted on one body by another.
An elevator uses large engines. Applying effort over a greater distance takes more time. but the effort needed to reach the top is less. If the distance in the equation defining work (Work = Force × Increasing the speed at which a task is performed requires more force than would otherwise be necessary. Complex machines often use the energy stored in chemical substances. but spreading the necessary effort out over a longer distance makes the task seem easier. such as levers and pulleys. A gentle slope is a form of inclined plane. such as airplane fuel or the energy stored in electricity. A machine decreases the amount of force needed by increasing the distance over which the effort is applied to move the object. but they make the bicycle travel faster on flat terrain. Airplane engines and elevators are not powered by hand. and this slows down the speed of work. usually powered by electricity. In simple machines. or rapid burning. The amount of work needed to overcome gravity and lift a given load always remains the same. then the force must therefore be increased to keep work constant. such as an airplane engine or an elevator. to make manual chores easier. Some gears require more effort. is made up of many simple machines. This is why walking gradually up a gentle slope is easier than walking up a steep slope. to provide the necessary force to do work. Not all machines use muscle power. or ideal. The wheel and axle and certain types of levers are simple machines that can either speed up a task (requiring more effort) or slow down a task (requiring less effort). An airplane engine uses the combustion. The that of the wheel and axle. A complex machine. They do this by reducing the distance Distance) is reduced. or by doing both. of airplane fuel to power the engine that turns the propeller. the main source of imperfection is friction. by changing the direction in which the force must be applied. B Mechanical Advantage and Friction Measuring the mechanical advantage (MA) is a mathematical way to determine how much a machine affects the amount of force needed to do work. The mechanical energy in a person’s muscles makes the machine do work. various gears on a multispeed bicycle (another complex machine) work in a manner similar to People use simple machines. The distance walked on the gentle slope is longer. however. over which the effort is applied.A How Machines Work A machine can make a given task seem easier by reducing the amount of force needed to move an object. Scientists find the mechanical advantage of a machine by dividing the force the machine delivers by the effort put into the machine. Other gears require less effort and are useful for climbing hills. Some machines can actually speed up a task. to pull cables that raise and lower the elevator car. Electricity also powers the levers that help open and shut the elevator doors. Friction results from two bodies moving against each other in different . to do work. The theoretical. mechanical advantage of a machine is the advantage it would produce if the machine were perfect.
A perfect machine would be 100 percent efficient. raising inclined plane. but they all change the direction or the amount of effort put into them. one way to compute theoretical mechanical advantage is to divide a load 5 m (16 ft) off the ground is easier if the load is moved up a gradual slope. Most simple machines are very efficient. but they always lose some efficiency due to friction. or an the distance the effort is applied by the distance the load actually travels. Moving the load along a 10-m (32-ft) inclined plane would provide a mechanical advantage of 10 divided by 5. All four of these machines can be used to decrease the amount of force needed to do work or to change the direction of the force. The efficiency of a machine because much of the energy used to move the crankshaft is lost to friction in the form of heat III TYPES OF SIMPLE MACHINES The four simple machines each function in different ways. but doing so A Inclined Plane Ramps and staircases are simple examples of inclined planes. For example. An automobile engine is much less efficient dissipating from the engine. An inclined plane is an object that decreases the effort needed to lift an object by increasing the distance over which the effort is applied.) The tradeoff is that also changes the direction—from straight up to along the angle of the plane—of the effort height while applying less force than would otherwise be needed. Since friction is theoretical mechanical advantage. This means that the work was twice as easy. the person must move the object a farther distance. the work that results to the amount of work put into the machine. meters above the ground. however. rather than lifted straight up. present in almost every machine. (Without the plane. or the ratio of is usually expressed as a percentage and can vary from 5 percent to 95 percent. and some levers can also be used to increase the speed of performance of a task. the actual mechanical advantage is always less than the Because simple machines increase mechanical advantage by increasing the distance over which the effort is applied. This increase in distance allows a person to move a large object to a certain would need to lift with a force equal to the entire weight of the object. An inclined plane . Because of the inclined plane. or 2. a person with the inclined plane. Friction always opposes motion and makes doing work harder. The wheel and axle always increases the amount of force needed.directions. or that only half as much effort was needed to raise the load. the load needed to be pushed twice as far to end up 5 C Efficiency Another factor that people sometimes compute for machines is their efficiency.
have threads that are matched by the threads on the inside of a nut. Examples of fastening screws are wood or metal screws. toward the wood being split. The amount of work done is the same whether the person lifts the object straight up or along an inclined plane. The MA of an inclined plane equals the length of the plane divided by the height to which the object is raised. than a steep inclined plane. The materials are held together by a combination of friction on the threads and compression of the screw by the materials.applied. Lifting screws are used to lift loads or to exert forces on other bodies. reduce friction. sometimes called machine screws or bolts. Other screws. or pole. but some friction with lifting screws is helpful so that the screw can safely hold B Lever . with a plane on each side. Lifting screws are usually lubricated to the load. The MA of a screw is related to the pitch of the threads (the distance along the axis of the screw from one thread to the next) and the diameter of the axis. Wedges are often used to split wood. Fastening screws are used to join things together. An example of a lifting screw is the screw jack used to change tires on a car. A wedge is a changing the downward direction of the force from a sledgehammer to a sideways force A screw is a form of inclined plane in which the plane is wrapped around an axis. There are two different types of screws: fastening screws and lifting screws. which have threads that dig into the materials being joined. because the effort is applied over a greater distance. A long inclined plane at a small angle has a greater mechanical advantage double inclined plane.
Pulleys are used at the top of flagpoles and in some types of window blinds. a downward pull on a cord is required. a small effort can move a large C Pulley The pulley is a special type of wheel. the fulcrum is again at one end. and this limits the number of pulleys that can be used. as in a wheelbarrow. called a sheave. The force applied by the user is the effort. cable.One of the most commonly used simple machines is the lever. The elbow is the fulcrum. If a single pulley is used. the mechanical advantage is 1. Tweezers are another example of a Class 3 lever. and the effort is applied in the middle. The human forearm is a Class 3 lever. which means that one-third as much effort is required to move the load. to raise window blinds. or chain. The MA of a wheel and axle is equal . because they increase the distance the rope travels. advantage of using the pulley is that the direction of the force needed is changed. For When multiple pulleys are combined (in what is called a block and tackle). This to the load. There are three classes of levers. they can have mechanical advantages greater than 1. The human arm is actually a lever. and the forearm muscles apply the effort between the elbow and hand. the effort is applied at the other end. In a Class 3 lever. and the muscles apply the force needed to lift weight or move objects. which is called the fulcrum. In a Class 2 lever. and the only example. but the load is at the other end. which has a groove cut into the edge to guide a rope. as in a seesaw. which vary in the placement of the effort. One of the limitations of levers is that they only operate through relatively small angles. and the fulcrum along the bar. The MA of a lever is the distance from the fulcrum to the point where the force is applied divided by the distance from the fulcrum to the load. The rope on a pulley causes a good deal of friction. In a Class 1 lever. A seesaw is an example of a lever. the fulcrum lies between the effort and the load. with one major difference: the wheel is fixed to the axle. In this case. The MA is maximized when the load is close to load. D Wheel and Axle The wheel and axle is similar in appearance to a pulley. as is the steering wheel of a car. A lever consists of a bar that rotates around a pivot point. the load. The MA of a block and tackle is equal to the number of strands of rope on the part of the block and tackle that is attached load requires the user to pull the rope three times farther than the load actually moves. and the load is in the middle. Using a combination of pulleys that results in three strands of rope attached to the results in an MA of 3. the fulcrum and the effort is far from the fulcrum. The object being lifted is called the load. A user applies effort to the large outer wheel of the steering wheel to move the load at the axle. thereby increasing the distance over which the effort is applied. the fulcrum lies at one end.
which is a form of wheel. and pulleys. is usually much larger than the radius of the axle. wheels and axles. A computer. has a cooling fan. This placement decreases the distance near the tip of the scissors. have a mechanical advantage of 5 or higher. The engine contains many levers. An automobile is one such machine. A pair of scissors is a pair of pliers with wedges between the load and the fulcrum. the distance over which the effort is applied is much greater than the distance the load. fit together and transfer force and power from one gear shaft to another. Cutting something thick or hard is easier when the scissors are opened wide and the object is placed near the pivot pin. The levers move the bolt and unlatch the door. and therefore its circumference. The transmission uses gears. Therefore. The radius of the wheel. which are a form of inclined plane. Two gears of the gears. The doorknob is a wheel and axle system that transfers the force applied by a person to a system of levers. A pair of pliers is really two Class 1 levers with the same fulcrum (the pivot pin). The disk drive uses a wheel and axle . This fan is a complex machine in which to turn the disk and a system of levers to position the heads that read and write the data on the disk. By choosing the size Even devices that do not seem to be mechanical use simple machines. the motor shaft turns the fan. large mechanical advantage. The whole engine is held together by threaded bolts. Pliers usually as the cutting edge.to the radius of the wheel divided by the radius of the axle. which is placed at the axle. which is thought of as an electronic device. Some common examples of a wheel and axle are a doorknob and IV COMPLEX MACHINES Many everyday objects are really combinations of simple machines. The difference in the sizes of the wheel and axle can result in a a round water faucet handle. which are a form of wheel and axle with specially shaped teeth on the outside of the wheels. moves. giving the scissors a higher MA than if the cutting was done Some complex machines are very complicated. the speed and direction of the rotation of the axles can be controlled. Such combinations are known as complex machines.
developed a screw-type device known as Archimedes’ screw The Greek Machines can transform natural energy. gradual approach up a mountain rather than walking up a steeper. People used a counterbalanced lever called a shadoof in ancient Egypt for lifting irrigation water. However. Some modern water pumps still use this principle. for raising water. Later Industrial Revolutions elsewhere brought about the invention of even more complex machines. People used wooden wedges to swell by absorbing water. People also used such a device for lifting soldiers over battlements. Waterwheels. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. and later adopted by Europeans in the 12th century. Although the date of the first use of simple machines is not known. Jr. used the water falling from a waterfall to turn large wheels (see Waterpower). and the automobile. of force to do work. used spoked wheels. as early as 2000 Chariots in Asia Minor BC. such as the cotton gin (used to separate cotton fibers from seeds).V HISTORY The history of machines dates back thousands of years. The first levers were probably branches or logs used to lift heavy objects. Historians believe the people of ancient Mesopotamia (an early civilization near modern-day Iraq) used wheels as early as 3500 inventor Archimedes (287-212 BC) split rocks by placing dry wooden wedges into cracks in rocks and then allowing the wedges to BC. Grinding wheels connected to waterwheels can grind grain for making The windmill also uses the same wheel and axle principle to magnify and change the direction flour or power large saws for sawing wood. which is used to pump water produce electricity. the mechanical reaper (used to cut grain). such as wind and falling water. Archimedes also used a block and tackle to pull ships onto dry land. first used in ancient Greece and Rome. . which were lighter than solid wheels. Pumps connected to windmills transform the rotary motion of a windmill into reciprocating (back and forth) motion. All rights reserved. shorter path would have been taking advantage of an inclined plane. from the ground. Metal or stone wedges have been used since ancient times for splitting wood. into work. someone choosing a long. Waterwheels and windmills can also be connected to electrical generators to Complicated machines such as the power loom (patented in 1786) helped cultivate the improvements seen in Great Britain during the first Industrial Revolution at the end of the 18th century. the lever is believed to be the first simple machine that was utilized by humans. Contributed By: Odis Hayden Griffin. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005. According to legend.
making the job easier. like all simple machines. except when friction is present. By varying the distances between the force and the fulcrum and between the load and the fulcrum. called a fulcrum. the distance over which the force is applied must be increased. and the inclined plane. the amount of effort needed to move the load can be decreased. The away from the fulcrum. The same amount of work would have been done if the nail had been pulled directly out by hand. lever.) Work is defined in physics as example of a lever is the seesaw. the wheel and axle. the load to be moved must be close to the fulcrum and the force must be applied far from the fulcrum. where the elbow is the fulcrum and the muscles apply the force. or effort. To move an object with a lever. needed to do a certain amount of work. The head of the hammer is the fulcrum. The user’s hand applies force to the handle at one end of the lever. with the fulcrum somewhere between the two. In order to reduce the force needed. Since the hand is farther . This relationship can be written mathematically as: Work = Force × Distance The amount of work needed to move an object a given distance always remains the same by reducing the force needed to move an object. force is applied to one end of the the other end of the lever. the force travels a greater distance than does the load as the nail is pried loose. such as a person lifting. and are used to lift heavy objects. in physics. makes doing work easier To increase this distance. Levers affect the effort. or force. A good example is a claw hammer used to pry nails loose. and the nail at the other end of the lever is the load to be moved. the result of a force. Work. (The other three are the pulley. The lever. and the object to be moved (referred to as the resistance or load) is usually located at Physicists classify the lever as one of the four simple machines used to do work. by using the lever the force was spread out over a greater nail is much closer to the fulcrum than is the hand applying the force. simple machine consisting of a rigid bar that rotates about a fixed point. A common II WORK AND MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE A lever makes work easier by reducing the force needed to move a load.Lever I INTRODUCTION Lever. However. is applied. The human arm is also a lever. that moves an object over a distance. is the product of the force used to lift a load multiplied by the distance the force.
the and each class has different applications. A Class 1 Levers The class 1 lever has the fulcrum between the force and the load. the best wheelbarrow design is one where the wheel is directly under the load. and the force in the middle. The mechanical advantage (MA) of a lever tells how much the lever magnifies effort. the MA may be less than or III TYPES OF LEVERS There are three different classes of levers. distance from the load to the fulcrum almost to zero. The elbow is the fulcrum. It is possible for a class 1 lever to have a significant mechanical advantage. the MA is the distance of the force to the fulcrum divided by the distance of the load to the fulcrum. and the system is balanced. In practical terms. where the wheel is the fulcrum. the load at the other end. they position themselves an equal distance from the usually moves toward the center. and the force is the lift supplied by the user. Each class of lever affects force in a different way. When two fulcrum. The MA of a lever is the ratio of the distance the force travels to the distance the load travels. and so less force was needed. Many wheelbarrows and garden carts are C Class 3 Levers A class 3 lever has the fulcrum at one end. Depending on the class of lever and the location of the fulcrum. A class 2 lever always has a middle. Another example is a seesaw. that person that the system is again in balance. which gives a mechanical advantage to the lighter person so B Class 2 Levers The class 2 lever has the fulcrum at one end. reducing the designed in that manner to make them easy for the user to move. the load rests mechanical advantage of greater than 1. greater than 1. and the muscles of . the less the effort needed to move a load. load. depending on the arrangement of the force. as in a seesaw. people of equal weight use the seesaw. the force at the other end. and the load in the within the box. When a heavier person sits on one end. To reduce the force required by the user even more.distance. A common example is the wheelbarrow. The force of a smaller person can balance and even lift the load of a larger person as the smaller person moves farther away from the fulcrum. and the fulcrum along the lever bar. The greater the MA. The human forearm is a class 3 lever.
These weights are called counterweights. The keys of a piano use levers to transmit force . During the Middle Ages. class 3 levers are useful for increasing the IV HISTORY The first levers were probably branches or logs used to lift heavy objects. waterfalls used the continuous force of moving water to provide the necessary leverage to turn A crowbar and the claw of a hammer used to pry loose nails are both common examples of levers in action. often use a series of levers to transfer force. A baseball bat and a broom are also examples of class 3 levers. Although they boost the amount of effort needed. A counterbalanced lever called a shadoof was used in ancient Egypt for lifting irrigation water from the Nile River up onto land. Complex machines from the keys to the hammers that strike the strings. because the load travels a greater distance than the force travels. speed at which a load is moved. Learning to use those simple tools led to the development of other applications of the lever. The class 3 lever always has a mechanical advantage of less than 1. with which a greater effort results in a smaller load moving at a greater speed. the work requires more effort than would ordinarily be needed. In both of those applications.the forearm apply the force between the elbow and the hand. people added weights so that the force they had to exert was lessened. followed by sticks applied by a human. Balance scales use levers to find the mass of an object. the lever magnifies the force In addition to using human power as the force applied to the lever. and it is still used today. Consequently. attacking armies used a similar device for lifting soldiers over fortress walls. used to till soil for planting crops. Waterwheels installed near large grindstones for grinding grain into flour. The principle of the lever was often utilized through the rotary motion of the wheel and axle.
the inclined plane) used to do work. a person must do some work. Pulleys increase distance by requiring additional rope to be pulled to lift an object. Work is defined in physics as the result of a force. the less the effort needed to lift a given load. There are two types of MA: . the wheel and axle. simple machine used to lift objects. Pulleys are used for lifting by attaching one end of the rope to the A single fixed pulley changes the direction of the force applied to the end of the rope. A pulley consists of a grooved wheel or disk within a housing. or force. and a rope or cable threaded around the disk. A common example of a pulley can be found at the top of a flagpole. that moves an object across a distance. Pulling down on the rope causes the flag to go up because the pulley changes the direction of the force applied to the flag. and pulling on the other end of the rope. Mechanical advantage (MA) is a term that describes how much a machine magnifies effort. force. Multiple pulleys can change both the direction of the applied force and the amount of systems to reduce the amount of force needed to lift heavy equipment. applied to an object multiplied by the distance the force is applied. pulleys make it easier to apply the force because it is more convenient to pull down than to pull up. By changing the direction of a force. such as II WORK AND MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE To lift any object. The disk of the pulley rotates as the object. The relation of work to force and distance can be show as an equation: Work = Force × Distance A pulley makes work easier by increasing the distance over which effort is applied. Combining pulleys increases the amount of rope needed to lift an object.Pulley I INTRODUCTION Pulley. Work is the product of the effort. Pulleys reduce the effort to lift an object by increasing the distance over which the effort is applied. rope or cable moves over it. so heavy loads can be lifted with even less effort. Increasing the distance reduces the amount of force needed for the job. and the effort of pulling on a rope. threading the rope through the pulley (or system of pulleys). Construction cranes use multiple pulley The pulley is one of the four simple machines (along with the lever. so that less force is needed to lift an object. The greater the MA.
which means for each distance of rope the user travels. such as that at the pulls in. Two common types of pulley systems are the block and tackle and the chain hoist. A movable pulley is one that is attached to the load to be lifted and therefore moves with the load as the rope is pulled. In reality. when placed on the object to be moved. For a single movable pulley to work. The rope leads from the anchor down through the pulley (which is attached to the load). in order to raise a load a given distance. Friction is a major problem in pulleys MA is generally determined by dividing the distance the effort travels by the distance the load top of a flagpole. while a block and tackle system is often used with an engine or motor. Effort is not magnified in this case. Even a single pulley. any effort applied is doubled. which is always less than theoretical MA. the actual MA is slightly less than 1 the axle on which it turns. Since both strands of rope coming from the pulley equally support the load. because of the weight on the rope and the movement of the rope on the pulley. much rope. The actual MA. A single fixed pulley. Lubricants and bearings are often used in pulleys to reduce friction. the flag rises the same distance. The main source of imperfection is friction. takes into account imperfections in simple machines. It is the MA a machine would have if it were perfect. Therefore. The load that can be lifted is equal to the force that is applied by the user.theoretical and actual. Chain hoists are usually operated by hand. and is present to some degree in almost every machine. system of pulleys with a movable part) equals the number of strands of rope coming from the A movable pulley can be used to lift a heavy load from the bottom of a cargo ship up to the deck. one end of the rope is tied to a fixed anchor on the and back up to the user. the result of two bodies rubbing against each other. The higher the MA. provides an MA of 2. Friction always opposes motion. because of the friction of the rope against the pulley and the friction between the pulley and Pulleys can offer MAs of greater than 1 if they are movable. Since a pulley system with an MA of 2 increases the force by a factor of 2. III PULLEY SYSTEMS Systems of pulleys have been used for centuries to move loads. the user must pull and take in twice as deck. Theoretical MA is the MA most commonly referred to. A Block and Tackle . the pulley system must also double the distance the effort travels. The primary benefit of a single pulley is to change the direction of the force or to move a load to a point (such as the top of a flagpole) that cannot be reached by the user. has a theoretical MA of 1. the easier it is to do work. meaning that twice the load can be lifted with the same amount of effort. The MA of a movable pulley (or a movable part (the load being lifted).
When early the idea of a single fixed pulley to change the direction of a force.When several movable and fixed pulleys are used together. they used BC Mesopotamia used rope pulleys for hoisting water. much like the sprockets that hold a bicycle chain in place. this use resulted in considerable friction. Tackle is a term traditionally used to refer to a sailing ship’s rigging. Thus the block and tackle consists of a system of pulleys in the number of strands of rope coming from the moveable set of pulleys attached to the load. however. The top has a large pulley and a small pulley bottom section of a chain hoist is a movable pulley attached to the load. On sailing ships. down through the movable pulley. The term block refers to the case that houses the pulleys side by side and holds the axle which was usually made of rope. This is often necessary because of the large friction losses in such systems. the entire system is usually called a block and tackle. IV HISTORY As is the case with all the simple machines. and back up to the large pulley. that pulley pulls in chain from the movable pulley. A chain hoist is made up of two sections. They will. When a user pulls on the chain hanging down from the large pulley. By using these devices. Legend has it that the Greek inventor used a block and tackle system to pull ships onto dry land. have to pull a greater length of rope to accomplish this. and then threads back up around the small pulley. the chain hoist multiplies force. But since there was no wheel to turn. The The chain hangs down from the large pulley on one side. their housings and a rope used to apply the forces. and can increase MA considerably. the origin of the pulley is unknown. The MA of a block and tackle is equal to sails. joined side by side on the same axle. Since the effort travels a greater distance than the load. The chain threading through the movable pulley is fed from the small pulley on top. Block and tackle systems are commonly used on sailing ships to lift heavy of the pulleys in place. The large and small pulleys turn together as a unit. Chain hoists are sometimes used to lift automobile engines out of cars. sailors can exert large forces. the large pulley brings in more chain than the small pulley lets out. It is believed that by 1500 Archimedes (287-212 BC) peoples lifted heavy objects by throwing vines or other crude ropes over tree limbs. When the chain is pulled. The MA of a chain hoist depends on the diameters of the large and small pulleys. and so the load is raised. which are usually made of wood with some metal parts. a block and tackle is used to apply forces to another block and tackle to gain an even greater MA. A block and tackle typically houses several pulleys. The pulleys on a chain hoist have teeth that hold the chain. people in . B Chain Hoist A chain hoist is a pulley system joined together by a closed loop of chain that is pulled by hand.
By using a motor.Modern pulley systems are often combined with motors to create hoists for lifting heavy loads. Construction cranes and cranes used at shipyards move heavy loads using block and tackle systems lower the elevator cars. An elevator in a building uses a pulley system to raise and . connected to powerful motors. the user only has to push a button to lift or lower the load.
Inclined Plane I INTRODUCTION Inclined Plane. The same amount of work is accomplished in lifting the object which the force is applied. Mathematically. with or without the inclined plane. that moves an object over a distance. that makes doing a given amount of work easier. an inclined plane allows a person to lift an object gradually (at an angle) over a greater distance. Friction makes the process of moving objects. consisting of a ramp or a similar wedge-shaped device. the inclined plane decreases the amount of force needed to do the same amount of work without the plane. and the distance corresponds to the distance the object is lifted. such as the effort of pushing or pulling something. Two other simple machines. a resistance created between objects when they move against each other. The actual MA of a machine is less than the theoretical MA because of friction. more difficult. lose some of their MA to friction. work is the result of a force. the wheel and axle. are really alternate forms of the inclined plane. the work requires less force. A sharp knife is an everyday example of a wedge. the force needed is the effort required to lift the object. applied to an object multiplied by the distance over which the force is applied. One of the most common examples of an inclined plane is a staircase. Rather than lifting an object straight up. simple machine. All machines. however. is defined as the amount of force this can be expressed by the following equation: Work = Force x Distance When lifting an object is the work being done. which allows people to move within a building from one floor to another with cars use threaded screws. less effort than climbing straight up a ladder would require. in physics. Theoretical MA is the MA a machine would have if it were perfect. but because the inclined plane increases the distance over The inclined plane is one of the four simple machines (along with the lever. the screw and the wedge. and the pulley). Work. An inclined plane makes it easier to lift heavy objects by enabling a person to apply the necessary force over a greater distance. In physical terms. Some jacks that are used to lift II WORK AND MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE An inclined plane makes doing work easier by changing both the direction and the amount of effort that are used to lift an object. The mechanical advantage (MA) of an inclined plane measures how much the plane magnifies the effort applied to the machine. and therefore doing work. . There are two kinds of MA: theoretical and actual. By increasing distance.
which is placed under a vehicle. Screws are often used to raise objects. narrows down to a tip. People also frequently build inclined planes with small rollers or casters built into the plane to reduce friction. sliding a load (especially a flat load such as a crate) up a plane creates friction and causes the plane to lose much of its MA. Screws are also useful as fastening devices. more gradual path to the same height as that of the steep hill. Increasing the ratio of the length of the ramp to the height of the ramp decreases the effort needed to lift an object. Screws driven straight into wood or other materials.The MA of an inclined plane without any friction is equal to the length of the plane divided by the height of the plane. A ramp that is twice as long as it is high has a mechanical advantage of 2. The edge of the inclined plane forms a helix. Effort is applied directly to the wedge. The mechanical advantage of a screw is related to the circumference of the screw divided by the pitch of the threads. where the effort travels along the plane. Turning the screw many times produces a small amount of vertical lift on the platform. threaded nuts and bolts take advantage of the friction that results from the contact between A wedge is another form of inclined plane. If the length of a ramp was equal to its height. A wedge is essentially a double inclined plane. which differs from an inclined plane. the ramp would simply run straight up. Wedges transfer downward effort applied to the blunt edge of the where two planes are joined at their bases. A jack has a large screw attached to a small platform. Since there is much friction . This means that the ramp doubles the effort applied by the user. or spiral. A screw is an inclined plane wrapped around an axis. as well as the inclined plane and other objects. Walking up an inclined plane or rolling a load (such as a barrel) up a plane creates little friction. The joined inclined planes form a blunt end that wedge out to the sides of the wedge to help it cut through an object. like Friction is a phenomenon that reduces the efficiency of all machines. this allows heavy loads to be lifted with a small amount of effort. or that the user needs to apply only half as much effort to lift an object to a desired height as he or she would without the ramp. large mechanical advantages can be achieved by using screws. The longer the inclined plane. The screw requires a lot of turning. be. around the axis. and the actual MA is close to the theoretical MA. In this case. Wedges are often used to split materials such as wood or stone. The pitch of a thread is the distance along the axis of the screw from one thread to the next. Since the pitch is generally small compared to the circumference. or pole. and some jacks used to lift automobiles rely on screws. which means the ramp did not magnify the user’s effort. and raises the automobile. Wheels can be added to the load to decrease friction. the larger the MA will a vertical ladder. However. This idea explains why climbing up a steep hill takes more effort (and seems more difficult) than walking up a longer. the mechanical advantage would be 1. III MODIFIED INCLINED PLANES The screw and the wedge are common adaptations of the inclined plane. These devices use friction to hold things together. which equates with effort applied over a long distance.
People also used wooden wedges in prehistoric times wedges to swell by absorbing water. A person walking up a gradual path to the top of a mountain rather than climbing straight up a steep face is taking advantage of the principle of the inclined plane. IV HISTORY The inclined plane is undoubtedly one of the first of the simple machines people ever used. They placed dry wooden wedges into cracks in rocks and then allowed the split. probably milk. This principle is still used in some pumps today.involved. A knife is also a form of wedge. from about 2700 that the Egyptians used a lubricant. transferring the force they applied to the to split rocks. The main benefit of the wedge is changing the direction of effort to help split or cut through an object. and turning the screw lifts water up the cylinder to . The a higher level. There are indications that the Egyptians created earthen ramps to raise huge blocks of stone during the construction of the pyramids. It consists of a cylinder with a wide-threaded screw inside. The resulting pressure in the cracks caused the rocks to inventor Archimedes (287-212 BC) invented a screw-type device (known as Archimedes’ screw) for raising water. The wedge shape of the knife edge helps the user cut through material. Evidence from drawings of that time indicates People used wedges in ancient times to split wood. to reduce the sliding friction and thus increase the efficiency of the inclined planes. Historians believe that Greek blunt edge out to the sides of the wedge. bottom end of the cylinder is set in water. BC to 1000 BC. Screws were used in ancient times as lifting devices. the mechanical advantage of a wedge is difficult to determine.
in physics. a greater distance than would be possible if the force were applied directly to the axle. the pulley. and are the basis for all other machines. object over a distance. turn) an object. The wheel enables a user to apply the force over way. or load. In this The wheel and axle is one of the four simple machines (along with the lever. The much larger handle turns a much smaller axle to move a door latch. or open a water valve. where the driver exerts a force on the outer edge of the wheel to II WORK AND MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE A wheel and axle makes work easier by changing the amount of force applied to a load. usually located at the axle. Mathematically. the work to be done is the moving or turning of a load. and steering wheel of a car. located at the axle. and the distance corresponds to how far the wheel is turned as effort is applied. in the case of a faucet. that moves an direction of the force applied to move (or in this case. A wheel and axle makes work easier by changing the amount and axle—running through and attached to the center of the wheel. The mechanical advantage (MA) of a wheel and axle measures how much the machine the wheel is always larger than the circumference of the axle. Because the circumference of will always move a greater distance than the load at the axle. and so less effort is needed to move the load. the formula to compute work can be expressed as: Work = Force × Distance For a wheel and axle.Wheel and Axle I INTRODUCTION Wheel and Axle. in the case of a doorknob. The wheel and axle is used to make doing a given amount of work easier. any effort applied to the wheel multiplies the force applied by the user. The wheel and axle makes the effort move a greater distance than the load. . All simple machines change the amount of effort needed to do work. The object to be moved is a resistance. the inclined plane). Another common example of a wheel and axle is the cause the load at the axle (the front wheels) to turn. A force applied at the outer edge of the wheel moves or turns the load located at the axle. is defined as the amount of force applied to an object multiplied by the distance over which that force is applied. The force needed is the effort required to turn the load. A round doorknob and a round Work is the result of a physical force. simple machine. There are two kinds of MA: theoretical and actual. consisting of a circular object—the wheel—with a shaft—the water faucet are both examples of wheels and axles. such as the effort of pushing or pulling. Work. a wheel and axle reduces the effort needed to move a load.
are often used in automobiles to transmit the rotary power from the engine to fans or other devices. Turning the The mechanical advantage of this type of wheel and axle can be very large. but it takes the power of an the axle. Theoretical MA is the one most commonly referred to. Rolling is easier than pushing or dragging an object. propeller move much faster than the small axle in the middle. the MA is the radius of the axle divided by the radius of the wheel. and therefore doing work. When force is applied at MA less than 1. the other gear turns in the opposite direction. . since the force will always travel a greater distance on the larger wheel than will the load at the smaller axle. The large blades of an airplane engine to turn the axle. Friction is a resistance created between objects when they move against each other. If the gears are the same size. Force can also be applied at the axle to move a load at the wheel. A wheel that drives or is driven by a chain is usually referred to as a sprocket. closed loops of rope or rubber. Belts. larger handle of the screwdriver is much easier than trying to turn the smaller screw by itself. This produces a If a wheel can rotate independently about the axle. In the previous examples. force applied at the wheel moved a heavy load at the axle. then the MA of a wheel and axle equals the radius of the wheel divided by the radius of the axle.Theoretical MA is the MA that would exist if the machine were perfect. the smaller gear turns faster than the larger gear. Wheel and axle combinations also can be used with belts or chains (as on a bicycle) to transmit the forces from one wheel to the other. and means that speed will be gained. This requires more force to move the wheel. since actual MA can be difficult to calculate. if one gear is larger than the other. they turn at the same speed. To find the MA of a simple machine. A screwdriver is a type of wheel and axle. Friction makes the process of moving objects. such as those used in a mechanical clock. freely rotating wheels and axles are used frequently to reduce friction. When one gear turns. Wheels and axles used in this fashion often obtain force generated by fuel-powered engines. This will always produce an MA greater than 1. are actually wheels with teeth around the edge. more difficult. However. However. the distance the effort travels is divided by the distance the load travels. The wheel (the handle) transmits the user’s force to the axle (the screwdriver shaft) to turn a screw. If force is applied to the wheel. but one benefit is that the wheel will move much faster. because it does not change force. then the device is not a true machine. but all machines lose some of their MA to friction. Gears. III WHEEL AND AXLE APPLICATIONS Wheels and axles are used in one form or another in most complex machines.
because it made transportation much easier. Winches can be used to haul heavy buckets of water up from wells. It was invented about the same time as the wheel used in transportation. The pistons in an automobile engine are connected to a process is also used in reverse so rotary motion can be changed to reciprocating motion. The steam locomotive operate in this way. The wrench uses the principle of the wheel and axle to turn screws or tighten . This of a jigsaw blade or a sewing-machine needle. which can be used with a rope to pull heavy objects with less effort. The use of wheels to reduce friction while moving objects was one of the most important inventions in human civilization. usually made of stone and used to make pottery. One of the first uses of the wheel as a tool was the potter’s wheel. The back and forth motion (called reciprocating motion) of a piston in an engine can be changed into rotary motion by connecting the piston to the edge of a wheel. Windmills and waterwheels (both forms of wheel and axle) were combined with gearing to make mills for bolts. a special type of axle that provides the rotary motion to the wheels of a car. grinding grain.Wheels and axles are also used to change the direction of applied force. or move other large objects. A likely early use of the fixed wheel and axle to multiply force was the winch. method is used to convert the rotary motion of an electric motor into the up-and-down motion IV HISTORY Wheels and axles have been used for centuries to magnify force. A small force applied at the outer edge of a winch handle is changed into a large force at the axle. The drive wheels of an old-fashioned crankshaft. Wheels used for transportation are believed to have been used on carts in Mesopotamia as early as 3500 BC. Most mechanical devices make some use of the wheel and axle.
mounted on a high-speed wheel geared to a generator. along the axis of rotation when rotated in a fluid. except gliders. A propeller. gas or liquid. and aircraft propellers are termed airscrews in Britain. The propeller is essentially a screw that. or thrust. Typical propellers consist of two. when turned. or four blades. this corresponds to the pitch. mechanical device that produces a force. acts as a windmill when placed in a wind current. were also propelled in the same way. and until the although a propeller designed for efficient operation in one of these media would be extremely development of jet propulsion. each of which is a section of a helix. of a simple propeller shaft is given one complete rotation. virtually all aircraft. or the distance between adjacent threads. Marine propellers are frequently termed screws. three. The distance that the propeller actually moves through the air or water in one rotation . pulls itself through the air or water in the same way that a bolt pulls itself through a nut. inefficient in the other. is called the geometric screw. if there is no slippage.Propeller (mechanics) I INTRODUCTION Propeller (mechanics). Propellers may operate in either air or water. The distance that a propeller or propeller blade will move forward when the pitch. Virtually all ships are equipped with propellers. which is the geometric form of a screw thread.
however. This simple concept of propeller action has been extensively refined by aerodynamicists momentum of the flow as it passes through the propeller disk. but marine propellers II AIRCRAFT PROPELLERS An aircraft propeller blade is aerodynamically similar to a wing. Aircraft operate at lower efficiencies.is called the effective pitch. The other component in the plane of rotation represents the force that must be overcome by the torque. In general. it is not as comprehensive as the blade-element theory. or the turning force. and the effective pitch is almost equal to the geometric pitch. the criterion of propeller efficiency is not slip. . which. an efficient propeller slips little. The forces created by the motion of the propeller are resolved into a component. in general. The complete motion of a blade element involves a combination of the forward velocity represented by the flight speed. creates lift and drag. perpendicular and parallel to the air velocity relative to a section of the blade (see Aerodynamics. This approach was originally used by the British engineer and naval architect William Froude but. Airplane). and the peripheral velocity due to the rotation of the in recent years. when all the blade elements and the number of blades are accounted for. and the difference between effective and geometric pitch is called slip. when driven through the air. but the ratio of propulsive energy produced to energy consumed in rotating the propeller shaft. propellers are often operated at efficiencies as high as 86 percent. thrust in the direction of the flight. Another method of analysis of propeller action is based on the changes in blade. of the driving engine.
and a 28. III SHIP PROPELLERS A ship propeller operates in much the same way as the airplane propeller. that is. The blades are usually built of copper alloys to resist corrosion. A more effective procedure is to use a variable-pitch propeller with the pitch or blade angle controllable in flight so as to maintain operating conditions very close to the optimum. be in dynamic balance. so as to prevent windmilling that could otherwise occur in the event of an engine the design so as to provide negative thrust and aerodynamic braking action in landing. that it consists of several blades.5-g (1-oz) weight were attached to the tip of the other blade. the top speed never approaches the speed of sound. the blade angle can be set parallel to the flight failure. The propellers are equipped with deicing equipment. in which the blade can be rotated in the hub so as to alter the effective pitch. If. their pitch may be varied. most ship propellers operate at efficiencies . if the blade has a fixed pitch. In order to adapt a given propeller to aircraft with different flight characteristics. each shaped like an airfoil in cross section. the resultant velocity at a blade element increases in magnitude as the forward speed is increased. Clearance is also less of a problem on ship propellers. The rotor of an autogiro or helicopter is essentially similar to an ordinary aircraft propeller in The blades are not twisted. a condition will eventually be reached at which the blade will produce little or no thrust. the angle between the velocity vector and the blade will become so large as to cause the blade to stall. the propeller would be in static balance. Thus. it would not rotate if the propeller shaft were placed on knife edges with the blades in any position. On the other hand. adjustablepitch propellers are sometimes used. Although efficiencies as high as 77 percent of about 56 percent. are usually capable of being feathered. like ordinary aircraft propeller blades. The capability of setting the blade in a negative pitch condition may also be included in Modern propeller blades are usually made either of solid aluminum alloy or of hollow steel. but. Controllable-pitch propellers direction. In the ship propeller. for example. and because of the high frictional resistance of water.For a given rotational speed. that is. each blade is very broad (from leading to trailing edge) and very thin. although the have been achieved with experimental propellers. This operation must be accomplished on the ground with the propeller removed from the aircraft. and produces lift. Propellers of this type are usually operated at a constant rotational speed by means of either a hydraulic or electrical governing mechanism. as the forward speed is decreased. however. The speed of sound in water is much higher than the speed in air. however. both statically and dynamically. with a severe corresponding drop in the blade's efficiency. The propeller must be very precisely balanced. while at the same time the angle of the resultant velocity vector with the plane of rotation is also increased. it would not. a 57-g (2-oz) weight were attached to the middle of one blade of a two-bladed propeller. and would vibrate if rotated at high speed.
diameter and position of the propeller are limited by the loss in efficiency if the propeller blades come anywhere near the surface of the water. The principal problem of ship-propeller design and operation is cavitation. which leads to excessive slip. and pitting of the blades. the formation of a vacuum along parts of the propeller excessive underwater noise. a serious disadvantage on submarines. It also causes . loss of efficiency. blade.
and high-energy particle beams to shape the exotic materials and II HISTORY . especially metals. Machine tools may be classified under three main categories: conventional chip-making machine tools. chemical.Machine Tools I INTRODUCTION Machine Tools. employ a number of different shaping processes. The shaping is accomplished by removing material from a workpiece or by pressing it into the desired shape. electrical. presses. or drawing energy. Conventional chip-making tools shape the workpiece by cutting away the unwanted portion in the form of chips. and sonic alloys that have been developed to meet the needs of modern technology. Presses (elongating). Machine tools form the basis of modern industry and are used either directly or indirectly in the manufacture of machine and tool parts. stationary power-driven machines used to shape or form solid materials. Unconventional machine tools employ light. pressing. including shearing. and unconventional machine tools. superheated gases.
in 1830. planers. shapers. From about 1930 to 1950 more powerful and had become available.S. drilling. and they were not adaptable to a variety of products or to variations in manufacturing standards. The machines lacked flexibility.000 army muskets. His work was of great value because precise methods of measurement were necessary for the subsequent mass production of articles having interchangeable parts. when the English inventor John Wilkinson constructed a horizontal boring machine for producing internal cylindrical surfaces. who in 1798 obtained a contract with the U. with which parts could be hand-filed to substantially identical dimensions. During the early part of the 20th century. Such tools are III CONVENTIONAL MACHINE TOOLS . These specialized machine tools made it possible to manufacture rigid machine tools were built to utilize effectively the greatly improved cutting materials that standardized products very economically. The first true mass- production system was created by the American inventor Eli Whitney. machine tools were enlarged and made even more accurate. all with interchangeable parts. such standard machine tools as lathes. The earliest attempts to manufacture interchangeable parts occurred almost simultaneously in Europe and the United States. grinders. and their use became widespread in the industrializing nations. became more specialized in their applications. government to produce 10. in the past three decades engineers have developed highly versatile and accurate machine tools that have been adapted to computer control. measuring instruments accurate to a millionth of an inch. As a result. now widely used. About 1794 Henry Maudslay developed the first engine lathe. These efforts relied on the use of so-called filing jigs. however. making possible the economical manufacture of products of complex design. After 1920 they and saws and milling.Modern machine tools date from about 1775. Joseph Whitworth speeded the wider use of Wilkinson's and Maudslay's machine tools by developing. During the 19th century. and boring machines reached a fairly high degree of precision. Later. using relatively unskilled labor.
For this reason. the planer. A Lathe A lathe. and then cuts on the next surface composed of straight-line elements. returns to its starting position. In general. or it may drill or bore holes in the workpiece. With special attachments. a lathe may also be used to produce flat surfaces. B Shaper The shaper is used primarily to produce flat surfaces. rooms and for job shops where flexibility is essential and relative slowness is unimportant . the shaper. as a milling machine does. saws. however. valuable for tool and die because few identical pieces are being made. holds and rotates metal or wood while a cutting tool shapes the material.Among the basic machine tools are the lathe. It uses a single-point tool and is relatively slow. It is. The tool slides against the stationary stroke after a slight lateral displacement. grinders. the shaper is seldom found on a production line. Auxiliary to these are drilling and boring machines. The tool may be moved parallel to or across the direction of rotation to form parts that have a cylindrical or conical shape or to cut threads. and various metal-forming machines. and the milling machine. the oldest and most common type of turning machine. the shaper can produce almost any workpiece and cuts on one stroke. because it depends on reciprocating (alternating forward and return) strokes.
horizontal. Unlike the shaper. horizontal. It is D Milling Machine In a milling machine. E Drilling and Boring Machines Hole-making machine tools are used to drill a hole where none previously existed. also possible to mount several tools at one time in any or all tool holders of a planer to execute multiple simultaneous cuts.C Planer The planer is the largest of the reciprocating machine tools. the workpiece is advanced laterally to expose a new section to the tool. cutter. the planer moves the workpiece past a fixed tool. or diagonal cuts. or by tapping . The table conventionally has three possible movements: longitudinal. After each reciprocating cycle. a workpiece is fed against a circular device with a series of cutting edges on its circumference. the planer is intended to produce vertical. Like the shaper. Milling machines are the most versatile of all Angles. and machine tools. hole in accordance with some specification (by boring or reaming to enlarge it. slots. and recess cuts can be made by using various cutters. in some cases it can also rotate. which moves a tool past a fixed workpiece. The workpiece is held on a table that controls the feed against the vertical. Flat or contoured surfaces may be machined with excellent finish and accuracy. gear teeth. or to lap or hone a hole to create an accurate size or a smooth finish. to alter a to cut threads for a screw).
Drilling machines vary in size and function, ranging from portable drills to radial drilling machines, multispindle units, automatic production machines, and deep-hole-drilling machines. See Drill.
Boring is a process that enlarges holes previously drilled, usually with a rotating single-point borers and vertical and horizontal boring mills.
cutter held on a boring bar and fed against a stationary workpiece. Boring machines include jig
Grinding is the removal of metal by a rotating abrasive wheel; the action is similar to that of a each grain acting as a miniature cutting tool. The process produces extremely smooth and accurate finishes. Because only a small amount of material is removed at each pass of the
milling cutter. The wheel is composed of many small grains of abrasive, bonded together, with
wheel, grinding machines require fine wheel regulation. The pressure of the wheel against the workpiece can be made very slight, so that grinding can be carried out on fragile materials that cannot be machined by other conventional devices. See Grinding and Polishing.
Commonly used power-driven saws are classified into three general types, according to the
kind of motion used in the cutting action: reciprocating, circular, and band-sawing machines.
They generally consist of a bed or frame, a vise for clamping the workpiece, a feed mechanism, and the saw blade.
Cutting Tools and Fluids
Because cutting processes involve high local stresses, frictions, and considerable heat
generation, cutting-tool material must combine strength, toughness, hardness, and wear
resistance at elevated temperatures. These requirements are met in varying degrees by such cutting-tool materials as carbon steels (steel containing 1 to 1.2 percent carbon), high-speed steels (iron alloys containing tungsten, chromium, vanadium, and carbon), tungsten carbide, and diamonds and by such recently developed materials as ceramic, carbide ceramic, and aluminum oxide.
In many cutting operations fluids are used to cool and lubricate. Cooling increases tool life and helps to stabilize the size of the finished part. Lubrication reduces friction, thus decreasing the heat generated and the power required for a given cut. Cutting fluids include water-based solutions, chemically inactive oils, and synthetic fluids.
Presses shape workpieces without cutting away material, that is, without making chips. A press consists of a frame supporting a stationary bed, a ram, a power source, and a mechanism that moves the ram in line with or at right angles to the bed. Presses are equipped with dies (see Die) and punches designed for such operations as forming, punching, and for only one stroke of the ram. shearing. Presses are capable of rapid production because the operation time is that needed
UNCONVENTIONAL MACHINE TOOLS
Unconventional machine tools include plasma-arc, laser-beam, electrodischarge,
electrochemical, ultrasonic, and electron-beam machines. These machine tools were
developed primarily to shape the ultrahard alloys used in heavy industry and in aerospace microprocessors.
applications and to shape and etch the ultrathin materials used in such electronic devices as
Plasma-arc machining (PAM) employs a high-velocity jet of high-temperature gas (see
Plasma) to melt and displace material in its path. The materials cut by PAM are generally those that are difficult to cut by any other means, such as stainless steels and aluminum alloys.
Laser-beam machining (LBM) is accomplished by precisely manipulating a beam of coherent light (see Laser) to vaporize unwanted material. LBM is particularly suited to making accurately placed holes. The LBM process can make holes in refractory metals and ceramics and in very thin materials without warping the workpiece. Extremely fine wires can also be welded using LBM equipment.
Electrodischarge machining (EDM), also known as spark erosion, employs electrical energy to remove metal from the workpiece without touching it. A pulsating high- frequency electric and vaporize small areas of the workpiece. Because no cutting forces are involved, light, delicate operations can be performed on thin workpieces. EDM can produce shapes unobtainable by any conventional machining process. current is applied between the tool point and the workpiece, causing sparks to jump the gap
Electrochemical machining (ECM) also uses electrical energy to remove material. An
electrolytic cell is created in an electrolyte medium, with the tool as the cathode and the
workpiece as the anode. A high-amperage, low-voltage current is used to dissolve the metal
and to remove it from the workpiece, which must be electrically conductive. A wide variety of and milling.
operations can be performed by ECM; these operations include etching, marking, hole making,
Ultrasonic machining (USM) employs high-frequency, low-amplitude vibrations to create holes and other cavities. A relatively soft tool is shaped as desired and vibrated against the workpiece while a mixture of fine abrasive and water flows between them. The friction of the abrasive particles gradually cuts the workpiece. Materials such as hardened steel, carbides, rubies, quartz, diamonds, and glass can easily be machined by USM.
In electron-beam machining (EBM), electrons are accelerated to a velocity nearly three-fourths that of light. The process is performed in a vacuum chamber to reduce the scattering of electrons by gas molecules in the atmosphere. The stream of electrons is directed against a precisely limited area of the workpiece; on impact, the kinetic energy of the electrons is converted into thermal energy that melts and vaporizes the material to be removed, forming holes or cuts. EBM equipment is commonly used by the electronics industry to aid in the etching of circuits in microprocessors. See Microprocessor.
Microprocessor, electronic circuit that functions as the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer, providing computational control. Microprocessors are also used in other advanced electronic systems, such as computer printers, automobiles, and jet airliners.
Hand-Held Computer The hand-held computer attests to the remarkable miniaturization of computing hardware. The early computers of the 1940s were so large that they filled entire rooms. Techonological innovations, such as the integrated circuit in 1959 and the microprocessor in 1971, shrank computers’ central processing units to the size of tiny silicon chips.Photo Researchers, Inc. The microprocessor is one type of ultra-large-scale integrated circuit. Integrated circuits, also known as microchips or chips, are complex electronic circuits consisting of extremely tiny components formed on a single, thin, flat piece of material known as a semiconductor. Modern microprocessors incorporate transistors (which act as electronic amplifiers, oscillators, or, most commonly, switches), in addition to other components such as resistors, diodes, capacitors, and wires, all packed into an area about the size of a postage stamp.
Microprocessor Microprocessors, also called silicon chips, are typically embedded in a protective casing. The wires radiating from the silicon chip above connect to short metal legs that are soldered into integrated circuit boards.The Image Bank/Jean-Pierre Horlin A microprocessor consists of several different sections: The arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) performs calculations on numbers and makes logical decisions; the registers are special memory locations for storing temporary information much as a scratch pad does; the control unit deciphers programs; buses carry digital information throughout the chip and computer; and local memory supports on-chip computation. More complex microprocessors often contain other sections—such as sections of specialized memory, called cache memory, to speed up access to external data-storage devices. Modern microprocessors operate with bus widths of 64 bits (binary digits, or units of information represented as 1s and 0s), meaning that 64 bits of data can be transferred at the same time. A crystal oscillator in the computer provides a clock signal to coordinate all activities of the microprocessor. The clock speed of the most advanced microprocessors allows billions of computer instructions to be executed every second. II COMPUTER MEMORY Because the microprocessor alone cannot accommodate the large amount of memory required to store program instructions and data, such as the text in a word-processing program, transistors can be used as memory elements in combination with the microprocessor. Separate integrated circuits, called random-access memory (RAM) chips, which contain large numbers of transistors, are used in conjunction with the microprocessor to provide the needed memory. There are different kinds of randomaccess memory. Static RAM (SRAM) holds information as long as power is turned on
and is usually used as cache memory because it operates very quickly. Another type of memory, dynamic RAM (DRAM), is slower than SRAM and must be periodically refreshed with electricity or the information it holds is lost. DRAM is more economical than SRAM and serves as the main memory element in most computers. III MICROCONTROLLER A microprocessor is not a complete computer. It does not contain large amounts of memory or have the ability to communicate with input devices—such as keyboards, joysticks, and mice—or with output devices, such as monitors and printers. A different kind of integrated circuit, a microcontroller, is a complete computer on a chip, containing all of the elements of the basic microprocessor along with other specialized functions. Microcontrollers are used in video games, videocassette recorders (VCRs), automobiles, and other machines. IV SEMICONDUCTORS sidebar SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES Manufacturing an Integrated Circuit Beginning in the late 20th century, integrated circuits based on silicon chips shrank rapidly in price and size while expanding in capacity. These advances in chip technology contributed to a boom in the computer industry. The creation of a single silicon chip requires hundreds of manufacturing steps. In this Scientific American article, Intel Corporation president and chief operating officer Craig R. Barrett describes the chip manufacturing process from design through completion. open sidebar All integrated circuits are fabricated from semiconductors, substances whose ability to conduct electricity ranks between that of a conductor and that of a nonconductor, or insulator. Silicon is the most common semiconductor material. Because the electrical conductivity of a semiconductor can change according to the voltage applied to it, transistors made from semiconductors act like tiny switches that turn electrical current on and off in just a few nanoseconds (billionths of a second). This capability enables a computer to perform many billions of simple instructions each second and to complete complex tasks quickly. The basic building block of most semiconductor devices is the diode, a junction, or union, of negative-type (n-type) and positive-type (p-type) materials. The terms n-type and p-type refer to semiconducting materials that have been doped—that is, have had their electrical properties altered by the controlled addition of very small quantities of impurities such as boron or phosphorus. In a diode, current flows in only one direction: across the junction from the p- to n-type material, and then only when the p-type material is at a higher voltage than the n-type. The voltage applied to the diode to create this condition is called the forward bias. The opposite voltage, for which current will not flow, is called the reverse bias. An integrated circuit contains millions of p-n junctions,
each serving a specific purpose within the millions of electronic circuit elements. Proper placement and biasing of p- and n-type regions restrict the electrical current to the correct paths and ensure the proper operation of the entire chip. V TRANSISTORS The transistor used most commonly in the microelectronics industry is called a metaloxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). It contains two n-type regions, called the source and the drain, with a p-type region in between them, called the channel. Over the channel is a thin layer of nonconductive silicon dioxide topped by another layer, called the gate. For electrons to flow from the source to the drain, a voltage (forward bias) must be applied to the gate. This causes the gate to act like a control switch, turning the MOSFET on and off and creating a logic gate that transmits digital 1s and 0s throughout the microprocessor. VI CONSTRUCTION OF MICROPROCESSORS Microprocessors are fabricated using techniques similar to those used for other integrated circuits, such as memory chips. Microprocessors generally have a more complex structure than do other chips, and their manufacture requires extremely precise techniques.
Economical manufacturing of microprocessors requires mass production. Several hundred dies, or circuit patterns, are created on the surface of a silicon wafer simultaneously. Microprocessors are constructed by a process of deposition and removal of conducting, insulating, and semiconducting materials one thin layer at a time until, after hundreds of separate steps, a complex sandwich is constructed that contains all the interconnected circuitry of the microprocessor. Only the outer surface of the silicon
The purest of today's clean rooms are referred to as class 1.13 microns in size. called a dielectric. The oxygen combines with the silicon to form a thin layer of oxide about 75 angstroms deep (an angstrom is one ten-billionth of a meter). This is accomplished by ionizing the boron or phosphorus atoms (stripping off one or two electrons) and propelling them at the wafer with an ion implanter at very high energies.wafer—a layer about 10 microns (about 0. The processing steps include substrate creation. Nearly every layer that is deposited on the wafer must be patterned accurately into the shape of the transistors and other electronic elements. or by exposure to a corrosive gas. ion implantation. etching. (For comparison. In each case. Because the shortest wavelength of visible light is about 0. the films are deposited using sputterers in which thin films are grown in a plasma. called the photoresist or resist. the film must be of high purity and its thickness must be controlled within a small fraction of a micron. The most important type of dielectric is silicon dioxide. In the oxidation step. ion implantation. called a plasma. the wafer is etched—that is. making it easy to dissolve in a developing solution. or about one-tenth the thickness of a human hair—is used for the electronic circuit. also called doping. a silicon slice in the shape of a round wafer that is polished to a mirror-like smoothness.) . and film deposition. a typical home is class one million or so. which is “grown” by exposing the silicon wafer to oxygen in a furnace at about 1000°C (about 1800°F). impurities such as boron and phosphorus are introduced into the silicon to alter its conductivity.01 mm/0. or by means of chemical-vapor deposition. by means of evaporation.5 microns. indicating that there is no more than one speck of dust per cubic foot of air. Usually this is done in a process known as photolithography. whereby the material is melted and then evaporated coating the wafer. At present. The ions become embedded in the surface of the wafer. the resist is removed from the wafer either by chemicals. the largest wafers used in industry are 300 mm (12 in) in diameter. In the next step of the process. These patterns are as small as 0. The thin layers used to build up a microprocessor are referred to as films.0004 in) thick. A coating on the surface of the wafer. is placed between each conductive layer on the wafer. The rooms used for microprocessor creation are called clean rooms because the air in them is extremely well filtered and virtually free of dust. lithography. which is analogous to transforming the wafer into a piece of photographic film and projecting a picture of the circuit on it. in a process known as wet etching. short-wavelength ultraviolet light must be used to resolve the tiny details of the patterns. oxidation. whereby the material condenses from a gas at low or atmospheric pressure. an electrically nonconducting layer. After photolithography. In the final step of the process. Microprocessor features are so small and precise that a single speck of dust can destroy an entire die. in a special vacuum chamber. The first step in producing a microprocessor is the creation of an ultrapure silicon substrate. changes when exposed to light.
The most common semiconductor materials used in making computer chips are the elements silicon and germanium. words. the PowerPC620. By 1989. II HOW AN OS WORKS .5X magnification) is manufactured by the Intel Corporation. disks. IBM. containing 5. and performed billions of instructions per second. and the Digital Equipment Corporation's Alpha 21164A. In 1965 Moore predicted that the number of transistors on a computer chip would double every year. 8080). It contains more than three million transistors. Originally developed for a calculator. a computer user can easily execute commands by clicking on pictures. it organizes files on a variety of storage media. Davidson The first microprocessor was the Intel 4004.VII HISTORY OF THE MICROPROCESSOR Pentium Microprocessor The Pentium microprocessor (shown at 2.500 transistors and could execute 200. digital video disc. developed in 1972 to run computer terminals. such as floppy disk. which contained 4. printers. The first 8-bit microprocessor was the Intel 8008.300 transistors on a 4-bit microprocessor that could perform only 60. by Sun Microsystems. containing 9. although nearly all computer chips are made from silicon. The Intel 8008 contained 3. containing 7 million transistors.3 million transistors. hard drive. The first truly general-purpose microprocessor. mouse. Inc. and tape. developed in 1974.2 million transistors and capable of executing 20 million instructions per second had been introduced. The operating system has three major functions: It coordinates and manipulates computer hardware. and Motorola.© Microsoft Corporation. or icons with a pointing device known as a mouse. further reading These sources provide additional information on Microprocessor. developed jointly by Apple. the UltraSparc-II./Michael W.000 operations per second.000 instructions per second. and revolutionary for its time. In the mid-1990s chips included the Intel Pentium Pro. compact disc. With a GUI.4 million transistors. containing 5. All Rights Reserved. was the 8-bit Intel 8080 (see Microprocessor. transferred 64 bits of data at once. and monitor. such as computer memory.Photo Researchers. a prediction that has come to be known as Moore’s Law. and it manages hardware errors and the loss of data. 32-bit microprocessors containing 1.300 transistors. produced in 1971. The rate of change followed an early prediction made by American semiconductor pioneer Gordon Moore. in computer science. In the 1990s the number of transistors on microprocessors continued to double nearly every 18 months.5 million transistors. By the end of the decade microprocessors contained many millions of transistors. Operating System (OS). it contained 2. the basic software that controls a computer. keyboard. An Operating System Interface A screen shot from the Windows XP operating system displays icons and other images typical of the graphical user interface (GUI) that makes computers easy to use.
but many experienced computer users prefer text-oriented command interpreters. space on the hard drive is used to mimic the extra memory needed. enabling the user to communicate with the computer. Inc.). Its popularity is due in large part to the growth of the interconnected computer network known as the Internet. Accessing the hard drive is more time-consuming than accessing main memory. requiring commands to be typed in or to be selected via function keys on a keyboard. The more primitive singletasking operating systems can run only one process at a time. Macintosh OS. when the computer is printing a document. so performance of the computer slows. is a popular operating system among academic computer users. Other command interpreters use graphics and let the user communicate by pointing and clicking on an icon. it is suspended and another process is run. To implement this technique. the computational and control unit of the computer). Variations of UNIX include SunOS (distributed by SUN Microsystems. UNIX and its clones support multitasking and multiple users. The most common mechanism used to create this illusion is time-slice multitasking. there is only one central processing unit (CPU. Xenix (distributed by Microsoft Corporation). whereby each process is run individually for a fixed period of time. The scheduler runs short processes quickly to minimize perceptible delay. developed in 1969 at AT&T Bell Laboratories. Operating systems are either single-tasking or multitasking. that determines which process will be run next. The OS performs the “bookkeeping” that preserves a suspended process. Some command interpreters are text oriented. Beginners generally find graphically oriented interpreters easier to use. UNIX. called a scheduler. The processes appear to run simultaneously because the user's sense of time is much slower than the processing speed of the computer. One important process is interpreting commands. All modern operating systems are multitasking and can run several processes simultaneously. If the process is not completed within the allotted time. Its file system provides a simple means of organizing . so a multitasking OS creates the illusion of several processes running simultaneously on the CPU. such as running a spreadsheet program or accessing information from the computer's memory.). however. and Linux (available for download free of charge and distributed commercially by companies such as Red Hat. III CURRENT OPERATING SYSTEMS Operating systems commonly found on personal computers include UNIX. Software for the Internet was initially designed for computers that ran UNIX. This exchanging of processes is called context switching. Operating systems can use a technique known as virtual memory to run processes that require more main memory than is actually available.Operating systems control different computer processes. it cannot start another process or respond to new commands until the printing is completed. In most computers. and Windows. however. For instance. an on-screen picture that represents a specific command. Inc. It also has a mechanism.
a process can run on any computer in the network (presumably a computer that is idle) to increase that process's performance. are widely used in personal computers (PCs). however. which make computer technology more accessible. The commands in UNIX are not readily apparent. ensuring reasonable behavior. A recently developed type of OS called a distributed operating system is designed for a connected. windowing systems with graphical interfaces. and higher-quality monitors—than do command-oriented operating systems. collection of computers that share resources such as hard drives. and mastering the system is difficult. . Consequently. software has been developed that can be taught to recognize an individual's handwriting. and recovering data in the event of a partial failure— become more complex in distributed systems. more memory. such as Windows and the Macintosh OS. making it difficult for a computer to recognize the same input from different users. However. graphical systems generally have the disadvantage of requiring more hardware—such as faster CPUs. Currently these types of input are imprecise because people pronounce and write words very differently.disk files and lets users control access to their files. although UNIX is popular for professionals. advances in this field have led to systems that can recognize a small number of words spoken by a variety of people. In a distributed OS. it is not the operating system of choice for the general public. IV FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES Operating systems continue to evolve. However. In addition. Research is also being conducted that would replace the keyboard with a means of using voice or handwriting for input. but independent. Instead. All basic OS functions—such as maintaining file systems.
II HISTORY . is used in the manufacture of iron and steel alloys. is known as white-heart Some alloys that are commercially called irons contain more carbon than commercial steels.04 percent to 2. A malleable iron. Cast iron.25 percent of carbon. technology related to the production of iron and its alloys. known as ferroalloys. silicon. Open-hearth iron and wrought iron contain only a few hundredths of 1 percent of carbon.Iron and Steel Manufacture I INTRODUCTION Iron and Steel Manufacture. special form of malleable iron. such as manganese. Steels of various types contain from 0. A special group of iron alloys. or chromium. often with an admixture of other elements. Steel in general is an alloy of iron and carbon. they contain from 20 to 80 percent of an alloying element. The differences between the various types of iron and steel are sometimes confusing because of the nomenclature used. containing virtually no carbon. and pig iron contain amounts of carbon varying from 2 to 4 percent. malleable cast iron. particularly those containing a small percentage of carbon.
an alloy that melts at a lower stubby. ore. in 1855. would be classified today as wrought iron. the iron ore in the upper part of the furnace was first it by the blast. The iron produced under these conditions usually contained about 3 percent of slag particles and 0. The earliest iron implements discovered by archaeologists in Egypt advanced technique of hardening iron weapons by heat treatment was known to the Greeks and iron ornaments were used even earlier. Since the 1960s. Under this treatment the ore was reduced to the sponge of metallic iron filled with a slag composed of metallic impurities and charcoal ash. The process of refining molten iron with blasts of air was accomplished converter. the comparatively The alloys produced by early iron workers. round ingots known as pigs) was then further refined to make steel. Occasionally this technique of ironmaking produced. by accident. usable metal is not known. or by the old ironworkers. and. They were made by heating a incandescent and beaten with heavy sledges to drive out the slag and to weld and consolidate the iron.” the mixture of raw materials. The giant steel mills remain essential for the production of steel from iron III PIG-IRON PRODUCTION . Pig iron (so called because it was usually cast in Modern steelmaking employs blast furnaces that are merely refinements of the furnaces used by the British inventor Sir Henry Bessemer who developed the Bessemer furnace.The exact date at which people discovered the technique of smelting iron ore to produce date from about 3000 about 1000 BC. a true steel rather than wrought iron.S. several so-called minimills have been producing steel from scrap metal in electric furnaces. In these larger furnaces. The product of these furnaces was pig iron. This sponge of iron was removed from the furnace while still AD. indeed. reduced to metallic iron and then took on more carbon as a result of the gases forced through temperature than steel or wrought iron. steel production. BC. all the iron alloys made until about the 14th century mass of iron ore and charcoal in a forge or furnace having a forced draft. Ironworkers learned to make process the iron absorbed enough carbon to become a true steel. Such mills are an important component of total U. steel by heating wrought iron and charcoal in clay boxes for a period of several days.1 percent of other impurities. and increased draft was used to force the combustion gases through the “charge. By this After the 14th century the furnaces used in smelting were increased in size.
coke. and a pair of round hoppers closed with bellshaped valves through which the charge is introduced into the furnace. 0. which is about 27 m (about 90 ft) in height. contains vents for the escaping gases. the coke gives off carbon monoxide. is equipped with several tubular openings or tuyeres through pig iron flows when the furnace is tapped.5 A typical blast furnace consists of a cylindrical steel shell lined with a refractory. The limestone in the furnace charge is used as an additional source of carbon monoxide and as a “flux” to combine with the infusible silica present in the ore to form fusible calcium is the basic chemical reaction in the blast furnace. and above this hole. it has the equation: Fe2O3 + 3CO = 3CO2 + silicate. which combines with the iron oxides in the ore. iron. This 2Fe. brought up to the hoppers in small dump cars or skips that are hauled up an inclined external .The basic materials used for the manufacture of pig iron are iron ore. The materials are skip hoist.5 to 3 percent. is nonmetallic substance such as firebrick. Ordinary pig iron as produced by blast furnaces contains iron. which is any is widest at a point about one-quarter of the distance from the bottom. and limestone. 3 or 4 percent. Near the bottom of the bosh is a hole through which the molten another hole for draining the slag. The shell is tapered at the top and at the bottom and which the air blast is forced. Without the limestone. manganese. The coke is burned as a fuel to heat the furnace. silicon. carbon. percent. and a trace of sulfur. iron silicate would be formed. but below the tuyeres. The top of the furnace. reducing them to metallic iron. with a resulting loss of metallic the bottom of the furnace. 0. as it burns. called the bosh.04 to 2 percent. Calcium silicate plus other impurities form a slag that floats on top of the molten metal at about 92 percent. 0. phosphorus. The lower portion of the furnace.25 to 2.
the pressure within the furnace may be built up to 1. large. other methods of iron refining are possible and have been practiced to a limited extent. have also shown that the output of blast furnaces can be increased by enriching the air blast The process of tapping consists of knocking out a clay plug from the iron hole near the bottom of the bosh and allowing the molten metal to flow into a clay-lined runner and then into a as much as 100 tons of metal. the waste gases from the top of the furnace. The molten metal from several IV OTHER METHODS OF IRON REFINING Although almost all the iron and steel manufactured in the world is made from pig iron produced by the blast-furnace process. The raw material to be fed into the furnace is divided into a number of small charges that are introduced into the furnace at 10.740° F).7 atm or more. By “throttling” the flow of gas from the furnace vents. weight of air used in the operation of a blast furnace exceeds the total weight of the other raw An important development in blast furnace technology. without making pig iron. the pressurizing of furnaces. The container of molten pig iron is then transported to the steelmaking shop. brick-lined metal container. Experimental installations with oxygen. cylinders containing networks of firebrick. Then the flame is turned off and the air for the blast is blown through the stove.000° and 1. The output of many blast furnaces can be increased 25 percent by pressurizing.Blast furnaces operate continuously.600° F).to 15-min intervals. One such method is the so-called direct method of making iron and steel from ore. Carbon monoxide is given off from the heated coke just as in the blast furnace and reduces the oxides . plants the molten pig iron is used to charge the steel furnaces. off or tapped about five times a day. and the iron itself is drawn The air used to supply the blast in a blast furnace is preheated to temperatures between approximately 540° and 870° C (approximately 1. The bricks in the stoves are heated for several hours by burning blast-furnace gas. The pressurizing technique makes possible better combustion of the coke and higher output of pig iron. In such blast furnaces may be mixed in a large ladle before it is converted to steel. Any slag that may flow from the furnace with the metal is skimmed off before it reaches the container. The materials employed. Slag is drawn off from the top of the melt about once every 2 hr. was introduced after World War II. to minimize any irregularities in the composition of the individual melts. The heating is performed in stoves. In this process iron ore and coke are mixed in a revolving kiln and heated to a temperature of about 950° C (about 1. which may be either a ladle or a rail car capable of holding Modern-day blast furnaces are operated in conjunction with basic oxygen furnaces and sometimes the older open-hearth furnaces as part of a single steel-producing plant.
which prevents the use of ordinary fuels and furnaces. Neither the direct nor the electrolytic processes has yet achieved any great commercial significance.000° F). this furnace can be operated at a high temperature by regenerative preheating of the fuel gas and air used for combustion in the furnace. about 1.370° C (about 2. In front of the hearth a series of doors opens out onto a working floor in front of the hearth. the exhaust gases from the furnace are drawn through one of a series of chambers containing a mass of brickwork and give up most of their heat to the bricks.5 m (about 8 ft). To overcome this difficulty the open-hearth furnace was excess carbon and other impurities present in the iron. V OPEN-HEARTH PROCESS Essentially the production of steel from pig iron by any process consists of burning out the steel is its high melting point. One difficulty in the manufacture of developed. In regenerative preheating. rectangular brick hearth about 6 m by 10 m (about 20 ft by 33 ft).500° F). which is roofed over at a height of about 2.650° C (approximately 3. Virtually pure iron is also produced by means of electrolysis (see Electrochemistry). by passing an electric current through a solution of ferrous chloride. furnace is reversed and the fuel and air pass through the heated chambers and are warmed by The furnace itself consists typically of a flat. however. The secondary reactions that occur in a blast furnace. and the kiln produces so-called sponge iron of much higher purity than pig iron. do not occur. The entire . Then the flow through the the bricks.of the ore to metallic iron. Through this method open-hearth furnaces can reach temperatures as high as 1.
After the furnace has been charged. its oxygen In the basic oxygen process. After the furnace has been charged and turned upright. the raw material for all forms of fabricated steel. but the melt is usually tested by withdrawing a small amount of metal from the carbon content of the melt reaches the desired level. scrap steel. lb) of iron ore. Experienced open-hearth operators can often judge the carbon content of the metal the furnace.650° C (2. 11. charging and pouring.000° F) for many hours until the molten metal has the desired carbon content. steel is also refined in a pear-shaped furnace that tilts sideways pure oxygen. The proportions of the charge vary within wide limits. A furnace of this size produces about 100 metric tons of steel every 11 hr. When by its appearance.540° and 1.800° and 3. and iron ore that provides additional oxygen. made use of a tall. From the ladle the steel is poured into cast-iron molds that form ingots usually about 1. The furnace is charged with a mixture of pig iron (either molten or cold). and sulfur. but a typical charge might consist of 56. weigh approximately 2. The molten steel then flows through a short trough to a large ladle set below the furnace at ground level.400 kg (100. cooling it. the reversed by the operator to provide heat regeneration.000 lb) of cold pig iron. The water-cooled tip of the lance is usually about 2 m (about 6 ft) above the charge although this distance can be varied according to requirements. These reactions take place while the metal in the furnace is at melting heat. and 230 kg (500 lb) of fluorspar.750 kg (125. Thousands of cubic meters of oxygen are blown into the furnace at supersonic speed.5 m (about 5 ft) long and 48 cm (19 in) square. methods have been put into practice for the continuous processing of steel without VI BASIC OXYGEN PROCESS The oldest process for making steel in large quantities. phosphorus. that could be tilted sideways for united chemically with the impurities and carried them off. the Bessemer process. 900 kg (2. called a Bessemer converter. the furnace is tapped through a hole at the rear. has been replaced by a high-pressure stream of nearly lowered into it. which combine with the limestone to form slag. however. and subjecting it to physical examination or chemical analysis. pear-shaped furnace.000 furnace is lighted and the flames play back and forth over the hearth as their direction is Chemically the action of the open-hearth furnace consists of lowering the carbon content of the charge by oxidization and of removing such impurities as silicon. Recently. Great quantities of air were blown through the molten metal. Air. first having to go through the process of casting ingots. The oxygen combines with .000 lb) of limestone. 11. 45. These ingots.25 metric tons in this size. Limestone is added for flux and fluorspar to make the slag more fluid.hearth and working floor are one story above ground level. manganese.000 lb) of scrap steel. and the space under the hearth is taken up by the heat-regenerating chambers of the furnace. and the furnace is held between 1.000 lb) of molten pig iron.800 kg (26.350 kg (25. an oxygen lance is for charging and pouring.
where temperatures and other conditions are kept under rigid control by automatic devices. pipes. into the refined steel as it is poured into the ladle. together with that coming from the intensely hot arc itself. In another type of electric furnace. Most often the charge consists almost entirely of scrap. the scrap must first be analyzed and sorted.carbon and other unwanted elements and starts a high-temperature churning reaction that takes 50 min or less. and then arcs back to the next electrode. electric furnaces are particularly valuable for producing stainless steels and other highly alloyed steels that must be made to exacting specifications. This heat. See Electric Furnace. Refining takes place in a tightly closed chamber. heat is generated in a coil. The metal. quickly melts the metal. These shapes are produced at steel mills by rolling and otherwise forming heated ingots to the required shape. such as small quantities of iron ore and dry lime. VIII FINISHING PROCESSES Steel is marketed in a wide variety of sizes and shapes. rapidly burns out impurities from the pig iron and converts it into steel. high-purity oxygen is injected through a lance. Other materials. flows through the resistance to the flow of current through the charge. Because refining conditions in such a furnace can be regulated more strictly than in open-hearth or basic oxygen furnaces. channels. Before it is ready to be used. After the furnace is charged. thus keeping down undesirable oxidizing reactions. railroad rails. and I-beams. later. approximately 275 metric tons of steel can be made in an hour. The quantity of oxygen entering the furnace can always be closely controlled. The additional alloying refined metal. The working of steel also improves the quality of the steel by refining its crystalline structure and making the metal tougher. tees. Heat is generated by the overcoming of current enters through one of the electrodes. because its alloy content will affect the composition of the order to help remove carbon and other impurities that are present. electricity instead of fire supplies the heat for the melting and refining of steel. electrodes are lowered close to the surface of the metal. such as rods. The refining process VII ELECTRIC-FURNACE STEEL In some furnaces. raising the temperature of the furnace and decreasing the time needed to produce the finished steel. are added in elements go either into the charge or. . During the early stages of this refining process. arcs to the metallic charge.
From the blooming mill. and angles are grooved to give the required shape. The distance between the rollers diminishes for each successive pair as the steel is elongated and reduced in thickness. . In hot rolling the cast ingot is first of pairs of metal rollers that squeeze it to the desired size and shape. the steel is passed on to roughing mills and finally to finishing mills that reduce it to the correct cross section.The basic process of working steel is known as hot rolling. and the square billets of steel that the ingot produces are known as blooms. H-beams. heated to bright-red heat in a furnace called a soaking pit and is then passed between a series The first pair of rollers through which the ingot passes is commonly called the blooming mill. The rollers of mills used to produce railroad rails and such structural shapes as I-beams.
In 1989. Using conventional thin enough to enter a continuous mill. Such mills process thin sheet steel rapidly. Seamless pipe or tubing is made from solid rods by passing them between a way that it pierces the rods and forms the inside diameter of the pipe at the same time that the rollers are forming the outside diameter. or bending the conveyor and carried away to be annealed and cut into individual sheets. descaling devices. German engineers have eliminated any need for blooming and roughing mills. Continuous mills roll steel strips and sheets in widths of up to 2. a current of electricity is passing through a piece of pure tin into the same solution.05 in) with a number of accessory devices including edging rollers. causing the tin to dissolve slowly and to be deposited on the steel. In some mills steel sheets that have been hot-rolled and then cold-rolled are coated by passing them through a bath of slowly unrolled from its coil and passed through a chemical solution. In electrolytic processing.5 in) thick is and increase its length from 4 m (13 ft) to 370 m (1. Descaling apparatus removes the scale that forms on the surface of sheet sharply at some point in its travel.210 ft).6 sq m (more than 200 sq ft) of steel. Meanwhile. set between them in such a X TIN PLATE By far the most important coated product of the steel mill is tin plate for the manufacture of containers. less than half a molten tin. The most common method of coating is by the electrolytic process. a steel mill in Indiana became the first outside Europe to adopt this new system. Sheet steel is kilogram of tin will coat more than 18. A slab of hot steel over 11 cm (about 4. IX PIPE Cheaper grades of pipe are shaped by bending a flat strip. before it cools and becomes unworkable. Continuous mills are equipped fed through a series of rollers which reduce it progressively in thickness to 0. or mandrel. and devices for coiling the sheet automatically when it reaches the end of the mill. or skelp.127 cm (0. pair of inclined rollers that have a pointed metal bar. For the smaller sizes of pipe. The completed coils of sheet are dropped on a the sheet by knocking it off mechanically. A more efficient way to produce thin sheet steel is to feed thinner slabs through the rollers. the edges of the skelp are usually overlapped and passed between a pair of rollers curved to correspond with the outside diameter of the pipe. casting methods. The “tin” can is actually more than 99 percent steel.4 m (8 ft). ingots must still be passed through a blooming mill in order to produce slabs By devising a continuous casting system that produces an endless steel slab less than 5 cm (2 in) thick. The pressure on the rollers is great enough to weld the edges together. loosening it by means of an air blast.Modern manufacturing requires a large amount of thin sheet steel. For the product . The edging rollers are sets of vertical rolls set opposite each other at either side of the sheet to ensure that the width of the sheet is maintained. of hot steel into cylindrical form and welding the edges to complete the pipe.
replaced in nearly all applications by low-carbon steel. usually hematite ore. which is less expensive to produce and The puddling furnace used in the older process has a low. After the furnace is lit the hearth and walls with a paste of iron oxide. The furnace is then min the iron is melted and the puddler adds more iron oxide or mill scale to the charge. because it can be effectively is typically of more uniform quality than wrought iron. and “reverberates” upon the contents of the hearth. XI WROUGHT IRON The process of making the tough. the puddler stirs the charge with the raddle to ensure uniform composition and proper balls. and the carbon starts to burn out as carbonoxide gases. As the gas is evolved the slag puffs up and the level of the charge rises. with a resultant saving in weight and cost. of about 80 to 90 kg (about 180 to 200 lb) each. yet they contain less steel. and finally the bath drops to its former level. known as puddling. however. The silicon and most of the manganese in the iron are oxidized and some sulfur and phosphorus are eliminated. Other processes of steel fabrication include forging. As the more and more pasty. After about 30 working the oxide into the iron with a bent iron bar called a raddle. As the iron increases in carbon is burned away the melting temperature of the alloy increases and the charge becomes purity. separated by a wall from the combustion chamber in which bituminous coal is burned. called furnace with tongs and are placed directly in a squeezer. Cans made of thin tin are about as strong as ordinary tin cans. malleable alloy known as wrought iron differs markedly from hand labor. spongelike mass is separated into lumps. The iron is then cut into flat pieces that are piled on one another. a treatment that makes the steel plate extra tough as well as extra thin. The resulting pasty. “fettles” it by plastering charged with about 270 kg (about 600 lb) of pig iron and the door is closed. The balls are withdrawn from the cohesion of the particles. founding. The flame in the combustion chamber surmounts the wall. or furnace operator. sheet and strip are given a second cold rolling before being coated with tin. other forms of steel making.known as thin tin. the puddler. required a great deal of Wrought iron is no longer produced commercially. a machine in which the greater part of the intermingled siliceous slag is expelled from the ball and the grains of pure iron are thoroughly welded together. and has become moderately heated. production of wrought iron in tonnage quantities was impossible. The temperature of the furnace is then raised slightly. Lightweight packaging containers are also being made of tin-plated steel foil that has been laminated to paper or cardboard. . arched roof and a depressed hearth on which the crude metal lies. Because this process. strikes the arched roof. The development of new processes using Bessemer converters and open-hearth furnaces allowed the production of larger quantities of wrought iron. and drawing the steel through dies (see Die).
most structural steel for buildings. roller skates. and sand in an open-hearth furnace. This rolling process is sometimes repeated to improve the quality of the product. The force exerted by the gas shatters the metal into minute particles that are heavier than the slag and that accumulate in the bottom of the ladle. containing certain percentages of vanadium. The modern technique of making wrought iron uses molten iron from a Bessemer converter and molten slag. which carries a large amount of gas in solution. freight cars made of HSLA steels can carry larger loads because their walls are thinner than would be necessary with carbon steel of equal strength. For example.60 percent copper. C High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels Called HSLA steels. which is usually prepared by melting iron ore. automobile bodies. agglomerating into a spongy mass similar to the balls produced in a puddling furnace. and then rolled into a single piece.65 percent manganese. to have much more strength than carbon steels of the same weight. Carbon Steels More than 90 percent of all steels are carbon steels.60 percent silicon. bobby pins are among the products made of carbon steels. mill scale. the metal solidifies almost instantly. ship hulls. They cost less than the regular alloy steels because they contain only small amounts of the expensive alloying elements. The molten slag is maintained in a ladle at a temperature several hundred degrees below the temperature of the molten iron. and copper than do the regular carbon steels. releasing the dissolved gas. After the slag has been poured off the top of the ladle. or other elements. molybdenum. and B Alloy Steels These steels have a specified composition. XII A CLASSIFICATIONS OF STEEL Steels are grouped into five main classifications. is poured into the ladle containing the molten slag. They contain varying amounts of carbon and not more than 1.heated to welding temperature. the ball of iron is removed and squeezed and rolled like the product of the puddling furnace. also. and carving knives are some of the many things that are made of alloy steels. bedsprings. When the molten iron. because an HSLA freight car is lighter in weight than the ordinary car. they are the newest of the five chief families of steels. They have been specially processed. Machines. it is less . however. 0. silicon. Automobile gears and axles. and 0. as well as larger amounts of manganese.
Because of their shining surfaces architects often use them for decorative purposes. and other alloying elements that give them extra strength. and other alloying elements that keep them bright and rust resistant in spite of moisture or the action of corrosive acids and gases. hardness. They contain tungsten. Girders can be made thinner without sacrificing their strength. As the carbon content of a steel increases. Cementite. kitchens and in plants where food is prepared.8 percent of carbon. Surgical instruments and equipment are made from these steels. Steel with still more carbon is a mixture of pearlite and cementite. when the steel has 0. Pearlite is an intimate mixture of ferrite and cementite having a specific composition and characteristic structure. In steel because it does not taint the food and can be easily cleaned. the amount of ferrite present decreases and the amount of pearlite increases until. The toughness and hardness of a steel that is not heat treated depend on the proportions of these three ingredients. Numerous buildings are now being constructed with additional space is left for offices and apartments. Before heat treatment most steels are a mixture of three substances: ferrite. frameworks of HSLA steels. Some stainless steels are very hard. handling equipment is often made of stainless E Tool Steels These steels are fabricated into many types of tools or into the cutting and shaping parts of power-driven machinery for various manufacturing operations. and physical characteristics intermediate between its two constituents. resistance to wear. cooled slowly the austenite reverts to ferrite and pearlite. Ferrite is iron containing small amounts of carbon and other elements in solution and is soft and ductile. a compound of iron containing about 7 percent carbon. and for space capsules. nickel. but if cooling is sudden. is extremely brittle and hard. and D Stainless Steels Stainless steels contain chromium. temperatures depend primarily on the amount of carbon present and on how it is distributed in pearlite. the which has the property of dissolving all the free carbon present in the metal. for jet planes. some have unusual strength and will retain that strength for long periods at extremely high and low temperatures. and cementite. Raising the temperature of steel changes ferrite and pearlite to an allotropic form of iron-carbon alloy known as austenite.of a load for the locomotive to pull. and XIII STRUCTURE OF STEEL The physical properties of various types of steel and of any given steel alloy at varying the iron. and they are also used to patch or replace broken bones because the steels can withstand the action of body fluids. it is entirely composed of pearlite. Stainless steels are used for the pipes and tanks of petroleum refineries and chemical plants. molybdenum. If the steel is .
or quenching. Three comparatively new processes have been developed to avoid cracking. XIV HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL The basic process of hardening steel by heat treatment consists of heating the metal to a 1. its surface layer. and is then cooled slowly in air. temperature. These compounds react with the steel. which consists of reheating the steel to a lower ductility and toughness. which form martensite. and these are relieved by tempering. and distribution of the cementite particles in the ferrite.austenite is “frozen” or changes to martensite. either raising the carbon content or forming nitrides in . In nitriding. which is an extremely hard allotropic modification that resembles ferrite but contains carbon in solid solution. Other methods of heat treating steel to harden it are used. Many variations of the basic process are practiced. usually about 760° to 870° C (about 1. a finished piece of steel is given an extremely hard surface by heating it with carbon or nitrogen compounds. the piece is heated in charcoal or coke. shape. In a constant-temperature bath until it attains a uniform temperature throughout its cross martempering the steel is withdrawn from the quench at the same point. In time-quenching the steel is withdrawn from the quenching bath when it has reached the temperature at which the martensite begins to form. which in turn determines the physical properties of the steel. In austempering the steel is quenched in a bath of metal or salt maintained at the constant temperature at which the desired structural change occurs and is held in this bath until the change is complete before being subjected to the final cooling. The steel is then allowed to cool in air through the temperature range of martensite formation. Metallurgists have discovered that the change from austenite to martensite occurs during the latter part of the cooling period and that this change is accompanied by a change in volume that may crack the metal if the cooling is too swift. In carburizing. or annealing.600° F) and then cooling. Tempering results in a decrease in hardness and strength and an increase in The primary purpose of the heat-treating process is to control the amount. size. Cyaniding consists of hardening in a bath of molten cyanide salt to form both carbides and nitrides. steels of special composition are hardened by heating them in ammonia gas to form alloy nitrides. and is then placed in section. In case hardening. set up large internal strains in the metal. which for most steels is the range from about 288° C (about 550° F) to room temperature. it rapidly in water or oil. or in carbonaceous gases such as methane or carbon monoxide.400° to treatments. Such hardening temperature at which austenite is formed.
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