Engineering

I
INTRODUCTION
Engineering, term applied to the profession in which a knowledge of the mathematical and the materials and forces of nature. The term engineer properly denotes a person who has natural sciences, gained by study, experience, and practice, is applied to the efficient use of received professional training in pure and applied science, but is often loosely used to describe

the operator of an engine, as in the terms locomotive engineer, marine engineer, or stationary

engineer. In modern terminology these latter occupations are known as crafts or trades.
individuals known as subprofessionals or paraprofessionals, who apply scientific and inspectors, draftsmen, and the like.

Between the professional engineer and the craftsperson or tradesperson, however, are those engineering skills to technical problems; typical of these are engineering aides, technicians,

Before the middle of the 18th century, large-scale construction work was usually placed in the hands of military engineers. Military engineering involved such work as the preparation of topographical maps, the location, design, and construction of roads and bridges; and the

building of forts and docks; see Military Engineering below. In the 18th century, however, the term civil engineering came into use to describe engineering work that was performed by civilians for nonmilitary purposes. With the increasing use of machinery in the 19th century, engineering was similarly recognized.

mechanical engineering was recognized as a separate branch of engineering, and later mining

The technical advances of the 19th century greatly broadened the field of engineering and socioeconomic environment in the 20th century have widened the scope even further.

introduced a large number of engineering specialties, and the rapidly changing demands of the

II

FIELDS OF ENGINEERING

The main branches of engineering are discussed below in alphabetical order. The engineer who works in any of these fields usually requires a basic knowledge of the other engineering fields, because most engineering problems are complex and interrelated. Thus a chemical engineer designing a plant for the electrolytic refining of metal ores must deal with the design of structures, machinery, and electrical devices, as well as with purely chemical problems. Besides the principal branches discussed below, engineering includes many more specialties than can be described here, such as acoustical engineering (see Acoustics), architectural transportation engineering, and textile engineering. engineering (see Architecture: Construction), automotive engineering, ceramic engineering,

A

Aeronautical and Aerospace Engineering

Aeronautics deals with the whole field of design, manufacture, maintenance, testing, and use of aircraft for both civilian and military purposes. It involves the knowledge of aerodynamics, structural design, propulsion engines, navigation, communication, and other related areas.

See Airplane; Aviation.

Aerospace engineering is closely allied to aeronautics, but is concerned with the flight of

vehicles in space, beyond the earth's atmosphere, and includes the study and development of rocket engines, artificial satellites, and spacecraft for the exploration of outer space. See Space Exploration.

B

Chemical Engineering

This branch of engineering is concerned with the design, construction, and management of factories in which the essential processes consist of chemical reactions. Because of the diversity of the materials dealt with, the practice, for more than 50 years, has been to analyze chemical engineering problems in terms of fundamental unit operations or unit processes such as the grinding or pulverizing of solids. It is the task of the chemical engineer to select and appropriate equipment for the new applications. specify the design that will best meet the particular requirements of production and the most

With the advance of technology, the number of unit operations increases, but of continuing

importance are distillation, crystallization, dissolution, filtration, and extraction. In each unit operation, engineers are concerned with four fundamentals: (1) the conservation of matter; (2) the conservation of energy; (3) the principles of chemical equilibrium; (4) the principles of chemical reactivity. In addition, chemical engineers must organize the unit operations in their continuous, or assembly-line, operation is more economical than a batch process, and is frequently amenable to automatic control, chemical engineers were among the first to incorporate automatic controls into their designs. correct sequence, and they must consider the economic cost of the overall process. Because a

C

Civil Engineering

Civil engineering is perhaps the broadest of the engineering fields, for it deals with the

creation, improvement, and protection of the communal environment, providing facilities for living, industry and transportation, including large buildings, roads, bridges, canals, railroad lines, airports, water-supply systems, dams, irrigation, harbors, docks, aqueducts, tunnels,

and other engineered constructions. The civil engineer must have a thorough knowledge of all types of surveying, of the properties and mechanics of construction materials, the mechanics of structures and soils, and of hydraulics and fluid mechanics. Among the important subdivisions of the field are construction engineering, irrigation engineering, transportation and coastal and ocean engineering.

engineering, soils and foundation engineering, geodetic engineering, hydraulic engineering,

D

Electrical and Electronics Engineering

The largest and most diverse field of engineering, it is concerned with the development and design, application, and manufacture of systems and devices that use electric power and signals. Among the most important subjects in the field in the late 1980s are electric power

and machinery, electronic circuits, control systems, computer design, superconductors, solidfiber optics.

state electronics, medical imaging systems, robotics, lasers, radar, consumer electronics, and

Despite its diversity, electrical engineering can be divided into four main branches: electric power and machinery, electronics, communications and control, and computers.

D1

Electric Power and Machinery

The field of electric power is concerned with the design and operation of systems for

generating, transmitting, and distributing electric power. Engineers in this field have brought about several important developments since the late 1970s. One of these is the ability to transmit power at extremely high voltages in both the direct current (DC) and alternating

current (AC) modes, reducing power losses proportionately. Another is the real-time control of power generation, transmission, and distribution, using computers to analyze the data fed system while it is in operation. back from the power system to a central station and thereby optimizing the efficiency of the

A significant advance in the engineering of electric machinery has been the introduction of

electronic controls that enable AC motors to run at variable speeds by adjusting the frequency

and probability theory. linear algebra. passenger-actuated. including computers. and application of circuits and devices used in the transmission and processing of information. from fundamental questions such as “What is information?” to the highly practical. See also Electric Motors and Generators. as in telecommunications. capacitors. complex variables. package. integration. and vacuum tubes—assembled on a chassis and connected by wires to form a bulky devices on a single tiny chip of silicon or some other semiconductive material. and stored electronically on a scale unprecedented in unabated. and there is every indication that the explosive rate of growth in this field will continue Electronic engineers design circuits to perform specific tasks. Much of the research in electronics is directed toward creating even smaller D3 Communications and Control Engineers in this field are concerned with all aspects of electrical communications. Information is now generated. there has been a revolutionary trend toward integrating electronic inductors. and for correcting errors in digital information. Matrix Theory and Linear Algebra. received. faster switching of components. task of manufacturing these chips uses the most advanced technology. DC motors have also been made to run more efficiently this way. of telephone systems. as systems for keeping spacecraft on course. Circuits are also used to generate waveforms useful for synchronization and timing. engineers rely heavily on various Engineers work on control systems ranging from the everyday. signals. circuits consisted of separate electronic devices—resistors. differential equations. Probability. such as Fourier analysis.of the current fed into them. in automated manufacturing. and ultraclean chips. The complex electron-beam lithography. Electric Power Systems. adding binary numbers. such as amplifying electronic they carry. environments. systems are used extensively in aircraft and ships. history. in power Engineers have been working to bring about two revolutionary changes in the field of communications and control: Digital systems are replacing analog ones at the same time that . and demodulating radio signals to recover the information Prior to the 1960s. such as design branches of advanced mathematics. See also Mathematics. transmitted. ion-beam implantation. design. linear systems theory. In designing communication systems. and in robotics. D2 Electronics Electronic engineering deals with the research. as those that run an elevator. Since then. See also Electronics. and three-dimensional integrated circuits. micro-manipulators. in military fire-control systems. Control transmission and distribution. as in television. to the exotic.

processing.fiber optics are superseding copper cables. and raw materials in industrial production. E Geological and Mining Engineering This branch of engineering includes activities related to the discovery and exploration of mineral deposits and the financing. engineers continue to work to squeeze greater and greater numbers of circuit elements onto smaller and smaller chips. and marketing of crude minerals and mineral products. Using VLSI. Foremost among the avenues now being pursued are the design of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) and new computer architectures. of central processing units.). Seismology). The mining engineer is trained in historical geology. purification. who is also responsible for determining whether the geological structure F Industrial or Management Engineering This field pertains to the efficient use of machinery. is generally regarded as One current trend in computer engineering is microminiaturization. The field of computer science is closely related to computer engineering. Another trend is toward increasing the speed of computer operations through use of parallel processors. superconducting materials. operation. however. the task of making computers more “intelligent” (artificial intelligence. and the most advantageous deployment of automatic . development. and of peripheral devices (see Computer). It is particularly important from the viewpoint of costs and economics of machinery. and geophysics. Digital systems offer far greater immunity to carrying capacity. construction. mineralogy. through creation of sophisticated programs or being in the realm of computer science. Fiber optics are likewise immune to interference. and petroleum deposits beneath the surface of the earth (see Petroleum. and are extremely light and inexpensive to manufacture. electrical noise. they also have tremendous D4 Computers Virtually unknown just a few decades ago. recovery. labor. engineering geologist. development of higher level machine languages or other means. computer engineering is now among the most rapidly growing fields. safety of human operators. The electronics of computers involve engineers in design and manufacture of memory systems. production. paleontology. The employs such tools as the seismograph and the magnetometer for the location of ore or surveying and drawing of geological maps and sections is an important part of the work of the of a given location is suitable for the building of such large structures as dams. and the like.

heating. which entails not only the design of the engine that drives the car but also all its attendant accessories such as the steering and braking systems. the lighting system. A mechanical engineer designs not only the machines that make products but the products themselves. therefore. and pneumatics. mechanisms. materials. and air conditioning. must be trained in mechanics. and thermodynamics and must be fully grounded in such subjects as metallurgy and machine design. work and energy. ventilating. and must design for both economy and efficiency. Some mechanical engineers specialize in particular types of machines such as pumps or steam turbines. the controls. the wheels. the gearing by which the engine's power is delivered to of seat upholstery. including such details as the door latches and the type H Military Engineering . and operate machinery of all types. hydraulics. they also work on a variety of manufactured goods and certain kinds of structures. test. hydraulics.G Mechanical Engineering Engineers in this field design. The mechanical engineer. build. and (2) heat as applied to engines. The field is divided into (1) machinery. A typical example of the complexity of modern mechanical engineering is the design of an automobile. and the body.

harbors.S. and the I Naval or Marine Engineering . depots. In the U. which applies electrical engineering to all problems of telegraph. works. telephone. military engineers also construct some public Military engineering has become an increasingly specialized science.. which applies mechanical engineering to the Signal Corps.This branch is concerned with the application of the engineering sciences to military purposes. It is generally divided into permanent land defense (see Fortification and Siege Warfare) and field engineering. national monuments. army engineer battalions have been used to construct ports. and other communication. development of guns and chemical engineering to the development of propellants. radio. and airfields. resulting in separate engineering subdisciplines such as ordnance. and dams (see Army Corps of Engineers). In war.

have a thorough grounding in applied sciences. a naval Regardless of size. that bear directly on Marine engineering is a specialized branch of mechanical engineering devoted to the design and operation of systems. both mechanical and electrical. strong. as well as the projected costs of fuel and maintenance. nuclear engineers develop the special materials necessary to withstand the high . and the manner in which nuclear fission may find practical applications. the naval architect design ships. and must how ships move through water. such as fluid mechanics. that provides enough power to move the ship at the and fuel bunkers will weigh and how much space they will occupy. To accomplish this. and architect must be familiar with the variety of techniques of modern shipbuilding. the engineer must take into consideration how much the engine J Nuclear Engineering This branch of engineering is concerned with the design and construction of nuclear reactors and devices. In helping diesel engine or geared steam turbine.Engineers who have the overall responsibility for designing and supervising construction of ships are called naval architects. The ships they design range in size from ocean-going supertankers as much as 1300 feet long to small tugboats that operate in rivers and bays. fast enough to perform the type of work intended for them. such as the production of commercial power from the energy generated by nuclear reactions and the use of nuclear reactors for propulsion and of nuclear radiation to induce chemical and biological changes. See also Ships and Shipbuilding. needed to propel a ship. the marine engineer must choose a propulsion unit. In doing so. ships must be designed and built so that they are safe. stable. In addition to designing nuclear reactors to yield specified amounts of power. such as a speed required.

the safety engineer seeks to cover all moving parts or keep them suggesting alterations and improvements to reduce the likelihood of accident. See Industrial Safety. milk and food sanitation. operation. rural and recreational-site sanitation. radiation produced by nuclear reactions and to ensure safe storage and disposal of fissionable K Safety Engineering This field of engineering has as its object the prevention of accidents. factories. The systems approach is a methodology of decision-making in design. with pure water and for the disposal of sewage and other wastes are described separately. for example. Many large industrial and construction firms. Water Supply and Waterworks. In designing roads the safety engineer seeks to avoid such hazards as sharp turns and blind intersections. disposal of community wastes and reclamation of useful components of such wastes. Modern engineering is characterized by the broad application of what is known as systems engineering principles. See III MODERN ENGINEERING TRENDS Scientific methods of engineering are applied in several fields not connected directly to manufacture and construction. They also assist in designing machinery.temperatures and concentrated bombardment of nuclear particles that accompany nuclear fission and fusion. treatment. The methods used for supplying communities Plumbing. including control of light. housing and institutional sanitation. In recent years safety engineering has become a specialty adopted by individuals trained in other branches of engineering. Safety engineers develop methods and procedures to safeguard workers in hazardous occupations. it has acquired the importance of a specialized field. noise. Nuclear engineers also develop methods to shield people from the harmful materials. and distribution. and to eliminate dangerous projecting parts. machinery. insect and vermin control. known to result in traffic accidents. Water Pollution. today maintain safety engineering departments. and roads. or construction that adopts (1) the formal process . It chiefly deals with problems involving water supply. and insurance companies engaged in the field of National Safety Council. and soils. In the design of from accidental contact with the operator. See Nuclear Energy. and other fields concerned with the control of environmental factors affecting health. Solid Waste Disposal. workers compensation. control of atmospheric pollution. Sewage Disposal. to put cutoff switches within reach of the operator. control of pollution of surface waterways. vibration. industrial hygiene. ships. L Sanitary Engineering This is a branch of civil engineering. groundwaters. especially in dense urban-population areas. and toxic materials in work areas. but because of its great importance for a healthy environment.

encourages new research. Engineers in industry work not only with machines but also with people. or a change in the muscular movements of the operator. among other things. how machines can be operated most efficiently by the workers. principles of operations research. A related field of engineering. Human-factors engineering seeks to establish criteria for the that monitor and govern nuclear reactor operations. The trend in modern engineering offices is overwhelmingly toward computerization. and generating the enormous volume of data modern engineers must work with. (3) a formal sequence of procedure employing the In effect. to of the transportation system and building of its lines and rolling stock. complicated control panels Among various recent trends in the engineering profession. and the interaction of the system with the community and the environment. or team. but also determination determine. social. using specialists from not only the various engineering disciplines. design failures. It is also concerned with setting up efficient and safe schedules. transportation engineering in its broadest sense includes not only design of the traffic requirements of the route followed. The National Academy of Engineering. efficient. the large. but from legal. This type of engineering work is called time-study engineering. and malfunctioning equipment. human-centered design of. Approvals by professionally licensed engineers are required for construction of public and commercial structures. many engineers. therefore. Computers are increasingly used for solving complex problems as well as for handling. sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs. approach. human-factors engineering. received wide attention in the late 1970s and the '80s when the safety of nuclear reactors was questioned following serious accidents that were caused by operator errors. (2) an interdisciplinary. are licensed by the state. and behavioral fields as well. like doctors and lawyers. also known as ergonomics. aesthetic. storing. . founded in 1964 as a private organization.included in what is known as the scientific method. Today. especially installations where public and worker safety is a consideration. for example. licensing and computerization are the most widespread. and is concerned with the relationship of engineering to society. A small change in the location of the controls of a machine or of its position with relation to other machines or equipment. often results in greatly increased production.

provided air friction (air resistance) is discounted. the moon. the motion of which can be described as characteristic of the whole object. If the object is large. the sun. For everyday phenomena. For objects traveling at speeds close to the speed of light. or meters per second. acceleration. stars travel in circles around the earth because it is the nature of heavenly objects to travel in The Italian physicist and astronomer Galileo brought together the ideas of other great thinkers of his time and began to analyze motion in terms of distance traveled from some starting position and the time that it took. The English mathematician and physicist Sir Isaac Newton improved this analysis by defining force and mass and relating these to acceleration. time. branch of physics concerning the motions of objects and their response to forces. Acceleration may be measured in such units as meters per second per second or feet per second per second. Newton’s laws were superseded by quantum theory. however. For atomic and subatomic particles. Acceleration is defined as the time rate of change of velocity: the change of velocity divided by the time interval during the change. and force. following the ideas of Greek philosopher and scientist Aristotle. Newton’s three laws of motion remain the cornerstone of dynamics. Modern descriptions of such behavior begin with a careful definition of such quantities as displacement (distance moved). For example. velocity. . This acceleration is the same for heavy objects as for light ones. causes motion. which is the study of what II KINETICS Kinetics is the description of motion without regard to what causes the motion. He showed that the speed of falling objects increases steadily during the time of their fall. the center of mass. miles per hour. and the perfect circles. however. motion was explained from a very different point of view. no mathematical problems are presented if the object is very small compared with the distances involved. mass. it is frequently convenient to describe its rotation about an axis that goes through the center of mass. Velocity (the time rate of change of position) is defined as the distance traveled divided by the time interval. it contains one point. called If the object is rotating. Until about 400 years ago.Mechanics I INTRODUCTION Mechanics. Newton’s laws were superseded by Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity. Velocity may be measured in such units as kilometers per hour. scientists reasoned that a cannonball falls down because its natural position is in the earth. Regarding the size or weight of the moving object.

the instantaneous velocity at time. or the velocity at a given instant. or “t squared. for example. end of the second second. for example. position would not change during the time interval. Meanwhile the horizontal component of the original velocity remains . a (uninfluenced by air friction) near the surface of the earth undergoes constant acceleration.” is the short way of notating t × t).9 m (16 ft) and would have a speed of 9. traveled at constant d = vt In the second special type of motion. In ball would have fallen 4. The magnitude of velocity is called speed. At the 19. instantaneous velocity. Velocity. With constant velocity. For an object traveling at speed. the ball would have fallen 19.To fully describe the motion of an object.6 m (64 ft) and would have a speed of Circular motion is another simple type of motion. is equal to the product of velocity and time. acceleration is constant. Because of gravitation. in degrees of arc from a reference Several special types of motion are easily described. the centripetal acceleration is acceleration is directed toward the center of the circle and is called centripetal acceleration Another simple type of motion that is frequently observed occurs when a ball is thrown at an angle into the air. the velocity might be zero. For constant acceleration. the direction of the displacement must be given. d. Because the velocity is changing.8 m/sec/sec (32 ft/sec/sec). First. v. for example. is v = at The distance traveled during this time is d = at2 An important feature revealed in this equation is the dependence of distance on the square of the time (t2. the ball undergoes a constant downward acceleration that first slows its original upward speed and then increases its downward speed as it falls back to earth. must be defined. is measured with a clock starting at t = 0. velocity may be constant. A heavy object falling freely this case the acceleration is 9.6 m/sec (64 ft/sec). r.8 m/sec (32 ft/sec). The required (see Centripetal Force). it will travel in a circle. In the simplest case. meters per second) and direction (measured. time. the average velocity is equal to the velocity at any particular time. At the end of the first second. v. in a circle of radius. then the distance. a. t. t. in point). If velocity. has both magnitude (a scalar quantity measured. If an object has constant speed but an acceleration always at right angles to its velocity. starting with zero velocity ( v = 0) at t = 0.

At the intuitive level. the greater the stretch.constant (ignoring air resistance). A force can either distort something. such as a spring. See Ballistics. F. force and mass must be defined. independent. IV VECTORS . The resulting path of the ball is in the III DYNAMICS To understand why and how objects accelerate. or accelerate an object. the stretch is proportional to the force effects. a force is just a push or a pull. For F = kx where k is a constant that depends on the nature of the spring material and its dimensions. which can in turn be used to many springs. over a limited range. The measure the amplitude of a force: the greater the force. x. It can be measured in terms of either of two first effect can be used in the calibration of a spring scale. and they can be analyzed separately. making the ball travel at a constant speed in the horizontal direction until it hits the earth. The vertical and horizontal components of the motion are shape of a parabola.

the object does not necessarily have zero velocity. and the book will fall on be zero. If the door were VI NEWTON’S THREE LAWS OF MOTION Newton’s first law of motion states that if the vector sum of the forces acting on an object is zero.If an object is motionless. For an object to be in equilibrium. if a person stands a book up on a table and pushes on the book equally hard with one hand in one direction and with the other hand in the other direction. If the force were applied parallel to the door (that is. the torque would be zero. repulsion of the tabletop. its side. The net force is zero. When calculating V TORQUE For equilibrium. however. at the greatest distance from the hinges. the force is exerted perpendicularly to the door and shoved with the same force at a point halfway between handle and hinge. a torque is produced. (The net result is that the book is being squeezed). but not sufficient. a maximum torque is created. the book is in equilibrium. the torque would be only half of its previous magnitude. one could prove that if the torques cancel for any particular axis. Without any . the book will remain motionless if the person’s hands are opposite each other. When a force is applied to a heavy door to open it. For equilibrium to exist it is also necessary that the sum of the torques about any axis A torque is the product of a force and the perpendicular distance to a turning axis. Therefore. it is necessary to add the forces as vectors. This condition is necessary for equilibrium. For example. they cancel for all axes. then the object will remain at rest or remain moving at constant velocity. the net force on it must be zero. Thus. one hand is near the top of the book and the other hand near the bottom. edge on). A book lying on a table is being pulled down by the earth’s gravitational attraction and is being pushed up by the molecular the net force. See Vector. If the force exerted on an object is zero. the clockwise torques about any axis must be canceled by the counterclockwise torques about that axis. and all the vertical components must cancel one another as well. all the horizontal components of the force must cancel one another. If.

2248 lb. which is the currently accepted theory of gravitation. The proportionality constant is the mass. is also a measure of the gravitational attraction that the object gravitational property are determined by the same thing. A newton is defined as the force necessary to impart to a mass of 1 kg an acceleration of 1 m/sec/sec. after the initials of Système International). Mass is measured in kilograms. It is surprising and profound that the inertial property and the reluctance to change velocity). force and in the same direction as the force. including friction. m. light object. is that it is impossible to distinguish at a point whether the point is in a gravitational field or in B Friction . change its velocity.forces acting on it. of F = ma In the International System of Units (also known as SI. is measured in meters per second per second. a. an object in motion will continue to travel at constant velocity. Einstein made this one of the cornerstones of his general theory of relativity. A net force on an object will accelerate it—that is. The implication of this phenomenon an accelerated frame of reference. this is equivalent to about 0. A massive object will require a greater force for a given acceleration than a small. A The Second Law Newton’s second law relates net force and acceleration. acceleration. What is remarkable is that mass. The acceleration will be proportional to the magnitude of the the object. in newtons. force. which is a measure of the inertia of an object (inertia is its exerts on other objects. F.

however. The actual contact area—that is. the friction force does not depend on the apparent area of contact between an object and microscopic bumps on the object and sliding surface are actually touching each other—is relatively small. Newton’s second law is expanded to to the horizontal. If the object is pushed at an angle the weight of the object. For dry sliding friction.Friction acts like a force applied in the direction opposite to an object’s velocity. the friction force is almost independent of velocity. the surface upon which it slides. and force is required to move the bumps past each other. (Acceleration will be constant in the direction of the effective force). Frequently this force is just the weight of the sliding object. The actual contact area depends on the perpendicular force between the object and sliding surface. in effect. the resulting friction is proportional to the square of the . add to The left side of the equation is simply the net effective force. the area where the Also. however. For most human-size objects moving in speed. the tiny bumps on the object and sliding surface collide. Where friction is present. where no lubrication is present. When an object moves through a liquid. Newton’s second law then becomes water or air (at subsonic speeds). The friction force is proportional to the total perpendicular force. As the object moves across the sliding surface. the downward vertical component of the force will. the magnitude of the friction depends on the velocity.

and the distance of the mass from the axis. with no external forces acting on it. The force that object 1 exerts on object 2 must be of the same magnitude but in the opposite direction as the force that object 2 exerts on object 1. the child imparts an equal but oppositely directed force on the adult. Another conserved quantity of great importance is angular (rotational) momentum. thus adding to zero. During the interaction. but net external forces equal zero. Newton’s third law also requires the conservation of momentum. The momenta are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. If. its mass. a large adult gently shoves away a child on a skating rink. the product of the large mass and small velocity of the adult must equal the product of the small mass and large velocity of the child. For an isolated system. internal forces are at work between adult and child. their initial velocities are zero. the momentum of the system must remain zero. After the adult pushes the child away. At the start of the skater’s arms are lowered.The proportionality constant. the momentum must remain constant. the skater’s arms are outstretched. is characteristic of the two materials that are sliding past each other. the rotational speed must increase in order to maintain constant angular momentum. or the product of mass and velocity. Because the mass of the adult is larger. for example. in addition to the force the adult imparts on the child. thus decreasing their distance from the axis of rotation. Part of the mass is therefore at a large radius. As the . however. k. The angular momentum of a rotating object depends on its speed of rotation. the acceleration of the adult will be smaller. spin. In the example of the adult and child on the skating rink. and thus the initial momentum of the system is zero. angular momentum is conserved despite the increasing speed. C The Third Law Newton’s third law of motion states that an object experiences a force because it is interacting with some other object. Therefore. When a skater standing on a friction-free point spins faster and faster. and depends on the area of contact between the two surfaces and the degree of streamlining of the moving object.

In the field of mechanics. work is defined as the product of force and the distance an object moves in the direction of the force. kinetic energy. or foot-pounds. Energy and work are both measured in the same units—ergs. If work is done lifting an object to a greater height. or molecular bonds. energy stored in stretched springs. no work is done. it becomes distorted and thereby creates friction between the molecules of the ball material. energy must be provided to do work. joules. if work is done on a rubber ball gravitational potential energy is transformed to kinetic energy. for example. thermal energy. This friction is transformed into heat. compressed gases.VII ENERGY The quantity called energy ties together all branches of physics. If the ball is then dropped. For instance. Many other forms of energy exist: electric and magnetic potential energy. and mass itself. . In all transformations from one kind of to raise it. When the ball hits the ground. or thermal energy. the total energy is conserved. the energy to another. its gravitational potential energy is increased. energy has been stored in the form of gravitational potential energy. When a force is exerted on an object but the force does not cause the object to move.

or other fluid. On a slick surface. object or objects. In other cases. reducing the engine’s efficiency. shoes slip and slide instead of gripping because of the lack of friction. It can hinder the motion of an object or prevent an object from moving at all. Friction results from two surfaces rubbing against each other or moving relative to one another. along the ground. Friction allows car tires to grip and roll . such as ice. In many cases. making walking difficult. Friction between people’s shoes and the ground allows people to walk by pushing off the ground without slipping. such as a refrigerator or bookcase. the force depends upon the shape and speed Friction occurs to some degree in almost all situations involving physical objects. This force is usually related to the weight of the of an object as it moves through air.Friction I INTRODUCTION Friction. For example. friction between the moving parts of an engine resists the engine’s motion and turns energy into heat. friction is helpful. such as in a running automobile engine. The strength of frictional force depends on the nature of the surfaces that are in contact and the force pushing them together. In cases involving fluid friction. force that opposes the motion of an object when the object is in contact with another object or surface. it hinders a process. Friction also makes it difficult to slide a heavy object. water.

along the road without skidding. Friction between nails and beams prevents the nails from Sliding out and keeps buildings standing.

When friction affects a moving object, it turns the object’s kinetic energy, or energy of motion, into heat. People welcome the heat caused by friction when rubbing their hands together to stay warm. Frictional heat is not so welcome when it damages machine parts, such as car brakes.

II

CAUSES OF FRICTION

Friction occurs in part because rough surfaces tend to catch on one another as they slide past each other. Even surfaces that are apparently smooth can be rough at the microscopic level. of the other, effectively creating a type of mechanical bond, or glue, between the surfaces. Two surfaces in contact also tend to attract one another at the molecular level, forming They have many ridges and grooves. The ridges of each surface can get stuck in the grooves

chemical bonds (see Chemistry). These bonds can prevent an object from moving, even when it is pushed. If an object is in motion, these bonds form and release. Making and breaking the bonds takes energy away from the motion of the object.

Scientists do not yet fully understand the details of how friction works, but through

experiments they have found a way to describe frictional forces in a wide variety of situations. The force of friction between an object and a surface is equal to a constant number times the force the object exerts directly on the surface. The constant number is called the coefficient of

friction for the two materials and is abbreviated µ. The force the object exerts directly on the
increasing the amount of force increases the amount of contact that the object has with the calculated from the following formula:

surface is called the normal force and is abbreviated N. Friction depends on this force because surface at the microscopic level. The force of friction between an object and a surface can be

F=µ×N

In this equation, F is the force of friction, µ is the coefficient of friction between the object and the surface, and N is the normal force.

Scientists have measured the coefficient of friction for many combinations of materials.

Coefficients of friction depend on whether the objects are initially moving or stationary and on the types of material involved. The coefficient of friction for rubber sliding on concrete is 0.8 (relatively high), while the coefficient for Teflon sliding on steel is 0.04 (relatively low).

The normal force is the force the object exerts perpendicular to the surface. In the case of a level surface, the normal force is equal to the weight of the object. If the surface is inclined, only a fraction of the object’s weight pushes directly into the surface, so the normal force is less than the object’s weight.

III

KINDS OF FRICTION

Different kinds of motion give rise to different types of friction between objects. Static friction occurs between stationary objects, while sliding friction occurs between objects as they slide against each other. Other types of friction include rolling friction and fluid friction. The coefficient of friction for two materials may differ depending on the type of friction involved. Static friction prevents an object from moving against a surface. It is the force that keeps a up an object without the object slipping through your fingers. In order to move something, you must first overcome the force of static friction between the object and the surface on

book from sliding off a desk, even when the desk is slightly tilted, and that allows you to pick

which it is resting. This force depends on the coefficient of static friction (µs) between the object and the surface and the normal force (N) of the object.

A book sliding off a desk or brakes slowing down a wheel are both examples of sliding friction, It prevents the book or wheel from moving as fast as it would without friction. When sliding friction is acting, another force must be present to keep an object moving. In the case of a book sliding off a desk, this force is gravity. The force of kinetic friction depends on the

also called kinetic friction. Sliding friction acts in the direction opposite the direction of motion.

coefficient of kinetic friction between the object and the surface on which it is moving (µk) and the normal force (N) of the object. For any pair of objects, the coefficient of kinetic friction is book sliding than it does to keep the book sliding. usually less than the coefficient of static friction. This means that it takes more force to start a

Rolling friction hinders the motion of an object rolling along a surface. Rolling friction slows rolling along the ground. Another force must be present to keep an object rolling. For

down a ball rolling on a basketball court or softball field, and it slows down the motion of a tire example, a pedaling bicyclist provides the force necessary to the keep a bike in motion. Rolling friction depends on the coefficient of rolling friction between the two materials (µr) and the normal force (N) of the object. The coefficient of rolling friction is usually about  that of than they will slide along it.

sliding friction. Wheels and other round objects will roll along the ground much more easily

Metals
I

INTRODUCTION

Metals, group of chemical elements that exhibit all or most of the following physical qualities: they are solid at ordinary temperatures; opaque, except in extremely thin films; good electrical and thermal conductors (see Conductor, Electrical); lustrous when polished; and

have a crystalline structure when in the solid state. Metals and nonmetals are separated in the periodic table by a diagonal line of elements. Elements to the left of this diagonal are metals, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, polonium, and astatine—have both metallic and nonmetallic properties (see Periodic Law). The common metallic elements include the cobalt, copper, gold, iridium, iron, lead, lithium, magnesium, manganese, mercury, following: aluminum, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, chromium, molybdenum, nickel, osmium, palladium, platinum, potassium, radium, rhodium, silver, and elements to the right are nonmetals. Elements that make up this diagonal—boron, silicon,

sodium, tantalum, thallium, thorium, tin, titanium, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. Metallic elements can combine with one another and with certain other elements, either as compounds, as solutions, or as intimate mixtures. A substance composed of two or more alloys. Alloys of mercury with other metallic elements are known as amalgams.

metals, or a substance composed of a metal and certain nonmetals such as carbon are called

Within the general limits of the definition of a metal, the properties of metals vary widely. Most metals are grayish in color, but bismuth is pinkish, copper is red, and gold is yellow. Some metals display more than one color, a phenomenon called pleochroism. The melting

points of metals range from about -39° C (about -38° F) for mercury to 3410° C (6170° F) for tungsten. Osmium and iridium (specific gravity 22.6) are the most dense metals, and lithium (specific gravity 0.53) is the least dense. The majority of metals crystallize in the cubic system, but some crystallize in the hexagonal and tetragonal systems (see Crystal). Bismuth has the lowest electrical conductivity of the metallic elements, and silver the highest at ordinary temperatures. (For conductivity at low temperatures, see Cryogenics;

Superconductivity.) The conductivity of most metals can be lowered by alloying. All metals expand when heated and contract when cooled, but certain alloys, such as platinum and iridium alloys, have extremely low coefficients of expansion.

II

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Metals are generally very strong and resistant to different types of stresses. Though there is considerable variation from one metal to the next, in general metals are marked by such the resistance to breakage; elasticity, the ability to return to the original shape after properties as hardness, the resistance to surface deformation or abrasion; tensile strength, deformation; malleability, the ability to be shaped by hammering; fatigue resistance, the breaking. See Materials Science and Technology.

ability to resist repeated stresses; and ductility, the ability to undergo deformation without

III

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Metals typically have positive valences in most of their compounds, which means they tend to donate electrons to the atoms to which they bond. Also, metals tend to form basic oxides. Typical nonmetallic elements, such as nitrogen, sulfur, and chlorine, have negative valences in most of their compounds—meaning they tend to accept electrons—and form acidic oxides (see Acids and Bases; Chemical Reaction).

Metals typically have low ionization potentials. This means that metals react easily by loss of carbonates, for example) by serving as reducing agents (electron donors).

electrons to form positive ions, or cations. Thus, metals can form salts (chlorides, sulfides, and

IV

ELECTRON STRUCTURE

In early attempts to explain the electronic configurations of the metals, scientists cited the consist of ionized atoms in which the free electrons form a homogeneous sea of negative

characteristics of high thermal and electrical conductivity in support of a theory that metals charge. The electrostatic attraction between the positive metal ions and the free-moving and atoms. Free movement of the electrons was then held to be responsible for the high thermal then have higher specific heats than they do.

homogeneous sea of electrons was thought to be responsible for the bonds between the metal and electrical conductivities. The principal objection to this theory was that the metals should

In 1928 the German physicist Arnold Sommerfeld proposed that the electrons in metals exist in a quantized arrangement in which low energy levels available to the electrons are almost fully occupied (see Atom; Quantum Theory). In the same year the Swiss-American physicist Felix Bloch and later the French physicist Louis Brillouin used this idea of quantization in the currently accepted “band” theory of bonding in metallic solids.

According to the band theory, any given metal atom has only a limited number of valence among individual atoms is therefore required. This sharing of electrons is accomplished

electrons with which to bond to all of its nearest neighbors. Extensive sharing of electrons through overlap of equivalent-energy atomic orbitals on the metal atoms that are immediately adjacent to one another. This overlap is delocalized throughout the entire metal sample to form extensive orbitals that span the entire solid rather than being part of individual atoms. Each of these orbitals lies at different energies because the atomic orbitals from which they were constructed were at different energies to begin with. The orbitals, equal in number to the number of individual atomic orbitals that have been combined, each hold two electrons, and are filled in order from lowest to highest energy until the number of available electrons has

been used up. Groups of electrons are then said to reside in bands, which are collections of that band; in some metals, there are energy gaps between bands, meaning that there are

orbitals. Each band has a range of energy values that the electrons must possess to be part of certain energies that the electrons cannot possess. The highest energy band in a metal is not filled with electrons because metals characteristically possess too few electrons to fill it. The may be promoted by absorption of thermal energy into these unfilled energy levels of the band. high thermal electrical conductivities of metals is then explained by the notion that electrons

Objects moving through a fluid experience fluid friction, or drag. Drag acts between the object and the fluid and hinders the motion of the object. The force of drag depends upon the object’s shape, material, and speed, as well as the fluid’s viscosity. Viscosity is a measure of a fluid’s resistance to flow. It results from the friction that occurs between the fluid’s molecules, and it differs depending on the type of fluid. Drag slows down airplanes flying through the air and fish swimming through water. An airplane’s engines help it overcome drag and travel forward, while a fish uses its muscles to overcome drag and swim. Calculating the force of

drag is much more complicated than calculating other types of friction. (see Aerodynamics)

IV

EFFECTS OF FRICTION

Friction helps people convert one form of motion into another. For example, when people

walk, friction allows them to convert a push backward along the ground into forward motion. Similarly, when car or bicycle tires push backward along the ground, friction with the ground makes the tires roll forward. Friction allows us to push and slide objects along the ground without our shoes slipping along the ground in the opposite direction.

While friction allows us to convert one form of motion to another, it also converts some energy into heat, noise, and wear and tear on material. Losing energy to these effects often reduces the efficiency of a machine. For example, a cyclist uses friction between shoes and pedals, the

chain and gears, and the bicycle’s tires and the road to make the bicycle move forward. At the the cyclist and the air all resist the cyclist’s motion. As the cyclist pedals, friction converts

same time, friction between the chain and gears, between the tires and the road, and between some of the cyclist’s energy into heat, noise, and wear and tear on the bicycle. This energy of the energy in the fuel into heat, noise, and wear and tear on the engine’s parts. Excess engines makes it necessary to periodically replace some parts.

loss reduces the efficiency of the bicycle. In automobiles and airplanes, friction converts some frictional heat can damage an engine and braking system. The wearing away of material in

Sometimes the heat that friction produces is useful. When a person strikes a match against a

rough surface, friction produces a large amount of heat on the head of the match and triggers the chemical process of burning. Static friction, which prevents motion, does not create heat.

V

REDUCING FRICTION

Reducing the amount of friction in a machine increases the machine’s efficiency. Less friction methods to reduce friction. The first method involves reducing the roughness of the surfaces

means less energy lost to heat, noise, and wearing down of material. People normally use two in contact. For example, sanding two pieces of wood lessens the amount of friction that occurs between them when they slide against one another. Teflon creates very little friction because it is so smooth.

Applying a lubricant to a surface can also reduce friction. Common examples of lubricants are oil and grease. They reduce friction by minimizing the contact between rough surfaces. The between the surfaces. Lubricants such as machine oil reduce the amount of energy lost to lubricant’s particles slide easily against each other and cause far less friction than would occur frictional heating and reduce the wear damage to the machine surfaces caused by friction.

in physics. which allows people to move within a building from one floor to another with cars use threaded screws. and the pulley). with or without the inclined plane. One of the most common examples of an inclined plane is a staircase. and the distance corresponds to the distance the object is lifted. such as the effort of pushing or pulling something. Two other simple machines. Mathematically. simple machine. work is the result of a force. that moves an object over a distance. Work. that makes doing a given amount of work easier. A sharp knife is an everyday example of a wedge. Rather than lifting an object straight up. the force needed is the effort required to lift the object. . An inclined plane makes it easier to lift heavy objects by enabling a person to apply the necessary force over a greater distance. an inclined plane allows a person to lift an object gradually (at an angle) applied to an object multiplied by the distance over which the force is applied. In physical terms. the work requires less force. Some jacks that are used to lift II WORK AND MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE An inclined plane makes doing work easier by changing both the direction and the amount of effort that are used to lift an object. are really alternate forms of the inclined plane. the wheel and axle. is defined as the amount of force this can be expressed by the following equation: Work = Force x Distance When lifting an object is the work being done. The same amount of work is accomplished in lifting the object which the force is applied.Inclined Plane I INTRODUCTION Inclined Plane. the screw and the wedge. but because the inclined plane increases the distance over The inclined plane is one of the four simple machines (along with the lever. consisting of a ramp or a similar wedge-shaped device. less effort than climbing straight up a ladder would require.

and raises the automobile. Friction makes the process of moving objects. like Friction is a phenomenon that reduces the efficiency of all machines. Theoretical MA is the MA a machine would have if it were perfect. or pole. A ramp that is twice as long as it is high has a mechanical advantage of 2. This means that the ramp doubles the effort applied by the user. which equates with effort applied over a long distance. A jack has a large screw attached to a small platform. which is placed under a vehicle. the inclined plane decreases the amount of force needed to do the same amount of work without the plane. and therefore doing work. The actual MA of a machine is less than the theoretical MA because of friction. Increasing the ratio of the length of the ramp to the height of the ramp decreases the effort needed to lift an object. There are two kinds of MA: theoretical and actual. The edge of the inclined plane forms a helix. the ramp would simply run straight up. However. The mechanical advantage (MA) of an inclined plane measures how much the plane magnifies the effort applied to the machine. or spiral. Since the pitch is generally small compared to the circumference. more gradual path to the same height as that of the steep hill. and some jacks used to lift automobiles rely on screws. This idea explains why climbing up a steep hill takes more effort (and seems more difficult) than walking up a longer. A screw is an inclined plane wrapped around an axis. The MA of an inclined plane without any friction is equal to the length of the plane divided by the height of the plane. The mechanical advantage of a screw is related to the circumference of the screw divided by the pitch of the threads. Screws are also .over a greater distance. Turning the screw many times produces a small amount of vertical lift on the platform. Wheels can be added to the load to decrease friction. People also frequently build inclined planes with small rollers or casters built into the plane to reduce friction. or that the user needs to apply only half as much effort to lift an object to a desired height as he or she would without the ramp. this allows heavy loads to be lifted with a small amount of effort. large mechanical advantages can be achieved by using screws. more difficult. All machines. If the length of a ramp was equal to its height. the larger the MA will a vertical ladder. The pitch of a thread is the distance along the axis of the screw from one thread to the next. which means the ramp did not magnify the user’s effort. Walking up an inclined plane or rolling a load (such as a barrel) up a plane creates little friction. III MODIFIED INCLINED PLANES The screw and the wedge are common adaptations of the inclined plane. a resistance created between objects when they move against each other. Screws are often used to raise objects. the mechanical advantage would be 1. be. lose some of their MA to friction. The longer the inclined plane. By increasing distance. In this case. around the axis. The screw requires a lot of turning. however. sliding a load (especially a flat load such as a crate) up a plane creates friction and causes the plane to lose much of its MA. and the actual MA is close to the theoretical MA.

There are indications that the Egyptians created earthen ramps to raise huge blocks of stone during the construction of the pyramids. The wedge shape of the knife edge helps the user cut through material. threaded nuts and bolts take advantage of the friction that results from the contact between A wedge is another form of inclined plane. Evidence from drawings of that time indicates People used wedges in ancient times to split wood. the mechanical advantage of a wedge is difficult to determine. Effort is applied directly to the wedge. The bottom end of the cylinder is set in water. where the effort travels along the plane. A person walking up a gradual path to the top of a mountain rather than climbing straight up a steep face is taking advantage of the principle of the inclined plane. Since there is much friction involved. Historians believe that Greek inventor Archimedes (287-212 BC) invented a screw-type device (known as Archimedes’ screw) for raising water. which differs from an inclined plane. from about 2700 that the Egyptians used a lubricant. as well as the inclined plane and other objects. transferring the force they applied to the blunt edge out to the sides of the wedge.useful as fastening devices. Screws were used in ancient times as lifting devices. and turning the screw lifts water up the cylinder to a higher level. It consists of a cylinder with a wide-threaded screw inside. This principle is still used in some pumps today. to reduce the sliding friction and thus increase the efficiency of the inclined planes. The main benefit of the wedge is changing the direction of effort to help split or cut through an object. IV HISTORY The inclined plane is undoubtedly one of the first of the simple machines people ever used. A wedge is essentially a double inclined plane. These devices use friction to hold things together. Wedges are often used to split materials such as wood or stone. Wedges transfer downward effort applied to the blunt edge of the where two planes are joined at their bases. People also used wooden wedges in prehistoric times to split rocks. Screws driven straight into wood or other materials. . probably milk. The joined inclined planes form a blunt end that wedge out to the sides of the wedge to help it cut through an object. narrows down to a tip. They placed dry wooden wedges into cracks in rocks and then allowed the wedges to swell by absorbing water. The resulting pressure in the cracks caused the rocks to split. BC to 1000 BC. A knife is also a form of wedge.

Engineers use CAD and CAM together to create the design in CAD on one computer.Computer-Aided Design/ComputerAided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) I INTRODUCTION Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM). The CAD possible to perform the six-step "art-to-part" process with a computer. Today. it is this process are the use of sketching software to capture the initial design ideas and to they incorporate the best balance of features. floor plans. then transmit the design to a second computer that creates the part using CAM. such as those for automobile and airplane parts. II COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN Engineers use CAD to create two. and maps. including ease of production and cost. drafting and computer graphics techniques are combined to produce models of objects. In the design stage. CAM adds a computer to a machine tool. including the testing and handling of finished products. the application of computers in the design and manufacture of components used in the production of items such as automobiles and jet engines. Designers manipulate and test these models on video display screens until information is then combined with CAM procedures through shared databases. CAD is software for creating precise engineering drawings.and three-dimensional drawings. CAM engineers similarly use computer modeling to determine the best overall manufacturing procedures for use in an industrial plant. such as a drill or a lathe. The first two steps in . it is much more efficient to change and distribute drawings by computer. While it may be faster for an engineer to create an initial drawing by hand.

and the surface finish cut. produces a smooth finish. The manufacturing operations may include milling. III COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING CAM uses a computer to control the manufacture of objects such as parts. The tool's path has three stages: the containment area. IV HISTORY American Ivan Sutherland invented CAD in 1961 when he described a computerized sketchpad in a doctoral thesis while attending the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge. Next. engineers can run CAD software on personal computers or UNIX workstations. other tools drafters used. expensive computers. called a toolpath display. In the final step the CAM software controls the machine that produces the part. such as the ink pen. Massachusetts. beyond which the tool may not cut. that shows how the tool will cut the material. The third step is rendering an accurate image of what the part will look like. lathing. as some CAM software operates within . The software generates an image. Since the the CAD software programs instead of through shared databases mid-1980s CAD and CAM have come closer together. which are most often made of metal. or wood. plastic. engineers use analysis software to ensure that the part is strong enough. which removes gouges. CAM software selects the best cutting tools for the material and sets the most effective cutting speed. and electric eraser. He designed CAD to replace the traditional drafting board and software ran on large. the rough cut. Today. and polishing. drilling. which removes large areas of material. Step five is the production of a prototype. plastic stencil. or model. and cleans up the part. Early CAD The earliest CAM software was a simple computer attached to a milling machine. much as print preview in a word- processing program displays a page before it is printed. Punching buttons on the computer’s front panel programmed the software for the machine.produce accurate engineering drawings.

the float drops. The term robot originates from the robot has been used since to refer to a machine that performs work to assist people or work II HISTORY The concept of automated machines dates to antiquity with myths of mechanical beings brought to life. invented in 1788 by the Scottish steam engine and also coupled to a valve that regulated the flow of steam. and accurately than humans. manipulate objects. the valve is closed and the water is shut off. (Rossum's Universal Robots) by the Czech novelist and playwright Karel Capek. they could . This device featured two metal balls connected to the drive shaft of a speed increased. cheaply. specialized machines were developed for tasks such as placing caps on bottles or pouring liquid rubber into tire not reach for objects and place them in a desired location. meaning “compulsory labor. and the division of work into smaller automation of factories in the 18th century. The first true feedback controller was the Watt governor. the development of specialized tools. An example of feedback control is a watering trough that uses a float to sense the water level. tasks that could be performed by either workers or machines were essential ingredients in the molds. and releases more water into the trough. Automata. As the water rises. The word that humans find difficult or undesirable. opens a valve. Robots are able to perform repetitive Czech word robota. As technology improved.Robot I INTRODUCTION Robot. When the float reaches a certain height.R. These machines.” It was first used in the 1921 play R. As the engine steam to the engine was decreased. and accomplish work while interacting with its environment. tasks more quickly. also appeared in the clockwork figures of creatures. engineer James Watt. or manlike machines. thus regulating the speed. and 18th-century watchmakers were famous for their clever mechanical Feedback (self-correcting) control mechanisms were used in some of the earliest robots and are still in use today. however. The flow of Feedback control. closing the valve. medieval churches. computer-controlled machine that is programmed to move. had none of the versatility of the human arm. so does the float.U. the balls swung out due to centrifugal force. When the water falls past a certain level.

led to the modern robot. are designed to mimic the grippers to grasp particular devices such as a rack of test tubes or an arc-welder. in 1954. The basic multijointed concept of the PUMA is the template III HOW ROBOTS WORK The inspiration for the design of a robot manipulator is the human arm. while a graduate student at Stanford University in California. developed a truly flexible multipurpose manipulator known as the Programmable Universal Manipulation Arm (PUMA). function and structure of the human hand. Robot arms also can be constructed so that they bend like an elephant trunk. Many robots are equipped with special purpose The joints of a robotic arm are usually driven by electric motors. A primitive arm that could be programmed to perform specific tasks was developed by the American inventor George Devol. the gripper is moved from one position to another. In most robots. PUMA was capable of moving an object and placing it with any orientation in a for most contemporary robots. but with some differences. In 1975 the American mechanical engineer Victor Scheinman. For example. changing its orientation. or manipulator. by sliding cylindrical sections one over another to lengthen the arm.The development of the multijointed artificial arm. a robot arm can extend by telescoping—that is. or end effectors. A computer calculates the joint angles needed to move the gripper to the desired position in a process known as inverse kinematics. Grippers.. Jr. desired location within its reach. .

Over 500.000 were used in Japan. and about 60. robots are used in repetitive.000 in the United States. high- . such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) planetary rovers. the servo controller moves the joint until the arm's angle matches the from a computer. robots handle potentially hazardous materials.000 robots were operating in the industrialized world. Controllers and associated computers also must process sensor information collected from cameras that locate objects to be grasped. Many robot applications are for tasks that are either dangerous or unpleasant for human beings. Robots can perform these repetitive. Each joint in the arm has a device to measure its angle and send that value computed angle. such as blood or urine samples. to avoid obstacles. require a multitude of sensors and powerful onboard computers to process the complex information that allows them mobility. about 120. In other cases. Any robot designed to move in an unstructured or unknown environment will require multiple sensors and controls. In medical laboratories.000 in Western Europe. or feedback. controllers that receive input to the controller.Some multijointed arms are equipped with servo. If the actual angle of the arm does not equal the computed angle for the desired position. or they must touch sensors on grippers that regulate the grasping force. Robots. Safety must be integral to the design of human service robots. such as ultrasonic or infrared sensors. This is particularly true for robots designed to work in close proximity meals in a hospital. monotonous tasks in which human performance might degrade over time. with human beings. such as robots that assist persons with disabilities and robots that deliver IV USES FOR ROBOTS In 1995 about 700.

and assembly.precision operations 24 hours a day without fatigue. Similarly. Robots are used in electronic assembly where they mount microchips on circuit boards. Research in telesurgery V IMPACT OF ROBOTS Robotic manipulators create manufactured products that are of higher quality and lower cost. industry. machine loading. A major user of robots is the automobile welding. These new jobs. Robots are being used to assist surgeons in installing artificial hips. prospecting for underwater mineral deposits. under the remote control of expert surgeons that may one day perform operations in distant battlefields.000 robots for tasks such as spot fastest growing industrial applications of robotics. NASA's Galileo. But robots can cause the loss of unskilled jobs. such as locating sunken ships. . however. It requires higher precision than welding or Activities in environments that pose great danger to humans. New and in the conversion of old factories and the design of new ones. and active volcano exploration. and very high-precision uses robots. an unpiloted space probe. robots can explore distant planets. particularly on assembly lines in factories. parts transfer. in robot installation and maintenance. cleanup of nuclear waste. painting. robots can assist surgeons with delicate operations on the human eye. traveled to Jupiter in 1996 and performed tasks such as determining the chemical content of the Jovian atmosphere. Assembly is one of the painting and depends on low-cost sensor systems and powerful inexpensive computers. General Motors Corporation uses approximately 16. jobs are created in software and sensor development. are ideally suited to robots.

the management of a battlefield. of retraining workers who lose jobs to automation. clean underground pipelines. construct steel frameworks of buildings. Robots will be able to make new highways. One important trend is the development of microelectromechanical systems. vessels to deliver medicine or clean arterial blockages.require higher levels of skill and training. the maintenance of the world's infrastructure. and the care of homes and businesses. and mow lawns. diagnosis of failures in aircraft or satellites. ranging in size from centimeters to millimeters. Increasingly. The field of artificial intelligence is moving rapidly from university laboratories to practical application in industry. or the control of a large factory will be performed by intelligent computers. They also may work inside large Perhaps the most dramatic changes in future robots will arise from their increasing ability to reason. Technologically oriented societies must face the task can be employable in the industries of the 21st century. such as strategic planning and learning from experience. providing them with new skills so that they VI FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES Automated machines will increasingly assist humans in the manufacture of new products. Prototypes of systems to perform all of these tasks already exist. and machines are being developed that can perform cognitive tasks. . These tiny robots may be used to move through blood machines to diagnose impending mechanical problems.

and servicing of automobiles have become key elements of industrial economies. and passenger car. Those used to carry cargo are called pickups . or buses. But for better or worse. From the growth of suburbs to the development of modern landscape. But along with greater mobility and job creation. the 1900s and economy well into the 21st century. Automobiles changed the world during the 20th century. particularly in the United States and other industrialized nations. The typical automobile. minivans. can be called the Age of the Automobile. number of doors. motorcar. style. and cars will no doubt continue to shape our culture Automobiles are classified by size. The manufacture. also called a car. including a driver. and automobile accidents rank among the elaborate road and highway systems. the so-called horseless carriage has forever altered the leading causes of death and injury throughout the world. the automobile has brought noise and air pollution. auto.Automobile I INTRODUCTION Automobile. omnibuses. has four wheels and can carry up to six people. sale. self-propelled vehicle used primarily on public roads but adaptable to other surfaces. and intended use. Larger vehicles designed to carry more passengers are called vans.

cushion the ride and Wheels and tires support the vehicle on the roadway and. but some engines use diesel ethanol (grain alcohol). Steering and braking systems provide control over controls many aspects of the vehicle’s operation. when rotated by powered axles. which includes a transmission. see Automobile Industry. Sport-utility vehicles. electricity. In 2001 manufacturing plants in more than 35 countries produced 39.or trucks. direction and speed. depending on their size and design. also known as SUVs. Suspension systems. heavy loads. solar energy. and other stresses. which include springs and shock absorbers. a differential gear. one or more driveshafts. The engine drivetrain. II POWER SYSTEM Gasoline internal-combustion engines power most automobiles. axles. monitors and propel the vehicle forward or backward. natural gas.5 million passenger cars. The automobile is built around an engine. Minivans are van-style vehicles built on a passenger car frame that can usually carry up to eight passengers. About 7. lubricate its moving parts. or fuels derived from methanol (wood alcohol) and . An electrical system starts and operates the engine. air bags. cool it produces mechanical power that is transmitted to the automobile’s wheels through a during operation. and seat belts help protect occupants in an accident. For information on the business of making cars. and powers such components as headlights and radios.3 million passenger vehicles were produced in North America in 2001. and help protect the vehicle from being damaged by bumps. Various systems supply the engine with fuel. Safety features such as bumpers. are more rugged than passenger cars and are designed for driving in mud or snow. and remove exhaust gases it creates. fuel.

and camshaft.Most gasoline engines work in the following way: Turning the ignition key operates a switch that sends electricity from a battery to a starter motor. cylinders. A rod connects the bottom of pivot. An electric current flows through a spark plug to ignite the vapor. permitting the starter A Engine The basic components of an internal-combustion engine are the engine block. pistons. which in turn causes the engine’s crankshaft to revolve. The lower part of the engine. or combusts. houses the cylinders. creating hot expanding gases that push the pistons down the cylinders and cause the crankshaft to rotate. or torque. The typical engine valve is a metal shaft with a disk at one . Fuel-injection systems or. engine block. it seals the tops of the cylinders. to The pistons compress the vapor inside the cylinders. the piston to the crankshaft. Pistons compress air and fuel against the cylinder head prior to ignition. Bolted to the top of the block. cylinder head. crankshaft is now rotating via the up-and-down motion of the pistons. valves. The fuel mixture explodes. The motor to disengage from the flywheel. The rotating crankshaft move up and down. Fuel vapor enters and exhaust gases leave the combustion chamber through openings in the cylinder head controlled by valves. The block is manufactured with internal and formed with a set of round cylinders. causes pistons. Engine blocks are made of cast iron or aluminum alloy The upper part of the engine is the cylinder head. crankshaft. called the systems bolt or attach to the engine block. and crankshaft. in older cars. transferring the piston’s vertical motion into the crankshaft’s rotational force. The starter motor turns a disk known as a flywheel. The components of other engine passageways for lubricants and coolant. depending on how much fuel is delivered to the cylinders. pistons. a carburetor deliver fuel vapor from the gas tank to the engine cylinders. Lubricated bearings enable both ends of the connecting rod to The top of the piston forms the floor of the combustion chamber. which are solid cylinders that fit snugly inside the engine’s hollow cylinders. The pistons’ motion rotates the crankshaft at speeds ranging from about 600 to thousands of revolutions per minute (rpm).

When the crankshaft forces the camshaft to turn. but they have a different ignition system. The V design allows the same number of cylinders to spaces is a horizontally opposed. rotate. Some cars have rotary engines. belt. as the size and number of cylinders engines have been designed with 1. The other end of the shaft is mechanically linked to a camshaft.end fitted to block the opening. Electric power supplied by batteries runs the motor. also known as Wankel engines. which have one or more elliptical chambers in which triangular-shaped rotors. the intake and outlet valves close B Engine Types The blocks in most internal-combustion engines are in-line designs or V designs. producing temperatures hot enough to ignite Electric motors have been used to power automobiles since the late 1800s. increase. 12. the shaft that transmits engine power to the axles. Another engine design that fits into shorter. In-line designs are arranged so that the cylinders stand upright in a single line over the crankshaft. Outlet valves open to let exhaust gases out. Diesels compress air inside the cylinders the diesel fuel on contact. or 8-cylinder engines. A typical hybrid is an electric motor with batteries that are recharged by a generator run by a small gas. Commercial electric car models for specialized purposes were car in the mid-1990s. arrangement in which the crankshaft lies between two rows of cylinders. are similar to gasoline internal-combustion engines. moments in the engine’s cycle. shallower Engines become more powerful. or chain links the camshaft to the crankshaft. instead of pistons. and use more fuel. but car Diesel engines. General Motors Corporation introduced a mass-production all-electric Automobiles that combine two or more types of engines are called hybrids. with greater force than a gasoline engine does. space. and more cylinders. common in large trucks or buses. These hybrids are known as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). a round rod with odd-shaped lobes located inside the engine block or in the cylinder head. fit into a shorter. A gear wheel. In a V design. In-line configurations of six or eight cylinders require long engine compartments found more often in trucks than in cars. 5. At the bottom of the V is the crankshaft. 6-. 2. although wider. When fuel vapor ignites. Most modern vehicles in the United States have 4-. two rows of cylinders are set at an angle to form a V. By relying more on electricity and less on fuel combustion. 3. Inlet valves open to allow fuel to enter the combustion chambers. HEVs have higher fuel efficiency and emit . lobes on the camshaft cause valves to open and close at precise tightly to direct the force of the explosion downward on the piston. available in the 1980s. or flat. which rotates a driveshaft.or diesel-powered engine.

All new cars produced today are equipped with fuel injection systems instead of carburetors. Corporation became the first to mass-produce a hybrid vehicle. the Honda Insight. or vapor. Since the exact quantity of gas needed is injected into carburetor. and more consistent than a openings to the combustion chambers. was offered by Honda Motor Co. leading to the cylinders. called the intake manifold. Fuel-injection systems vary widely. to a fuel-injection system. The carburetor controls the mixture of gas and air that travels to the engine. easier to adjust. . and pollution control. fuel and air in the cylinders’ combustion chambers. but most are operated or managed electronically. the Prius. fuel injection is more precise. The first hybrid available for sale in North America.. the airflow transforms drops of fuel into a fine mist.fewer pollutants. Fuel is stored in a tank until it is needed. in newer cars. In 1997 Toyota Motor in Japan in 1997 and in North America in 2000. manifold. It became available C Fuel Supply The internal-combustion engine is powered by the burning of a precise mixture of liquefied then pumped to a carburetor or. Inside the carburetor. A vacuum created by the downward strokes of pistons draws air through the carburetor and intake The intake manifold delivers the fuel vapor to the cylinders. where it is ignited.. gas mileage. in 1999. It mixes fuel with air at the head of a pipe. Several automakers have experimented with hybrids. Fuel injectors spray carefully calibrated bursts of fuel mist into cylinders either at or near the cylinders. delivering better efficiency. Ltd. engine responsiveness.

The sound wave data are sent to a computer of phase with the engine noise. the coolant is a chemical solution effective in temperature extremes. In most automobiles today. engine noise. or muffles. A cooling system conducts this heat away from the engine’s cylinders and radiates it into the air. By increasing the air and fuel flow to the engine. leaving only low-level heat to emerge from the tailpipe. that controls speakers near the tailpipe. A pump sends the coolant from the engine to a radiator. D Exhaust System The exhaust system carries exhaust gases from the engine’s combustion chamber to the traveling through a catalytic converter and a muffler before exiting through the tailpipe.High-performance automobiles are often fitted with air-compressing equipment that increases an engine’s output. atmosphere and reduces. Exhaust gases leave the engine in a pipe. Superchargers are compressors powered by the crankshaft. Most conventional mufflers are round or oval-shaped with an inlet and outlet pipe at either end. the coolant was water. The system generates sound waves 180 degrees out E Cooling and Heating System Combustion inside an engine produces temperatures high enough to melt cast iron. that is. The conventional muffler is an enclosed metal tube packed with sound-deadening material. Some contain partitions to help reduce engine noise. they are designed so a flow of air can reach metal fins that conduct heat away from the cylinders. This unit uses engine heat to warm the interior of the passenger compartment and supply heat to the windshield defroster. In most automobiles. these features produce greater horsepower. called antifreeze that has a higher boiling point and lower freezing point than water. In early engines. The sound waves from the electronic muffler collide with the exhaust sound waves and they cancel each other out. Chemical reactions inside the catalytic converter change most of the hazardous hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide produced by the engine into water vapor and carbon dioxide. smaller radiator is fitted to all modern cars. which transfers heat from the coolant to the air. Turbochargers are turbine-powered compressors run by pressurized exhaust gas. III DRIVETRAIN . a liquid coolant circulates through the engine. which uses sensors to monitor the sound waves of the exhaust noise. Some engines are air cooled. making it A second. Car manufacturers are experimenting with an electronic muffler.

transfers power from the engine to the driveshaft. although some automobiles were designed with a transmission mounted on the rear axle. The various components that link the crankshaft to the drive or more driveshafts. The major parts of the drivetrain include the transmission. As the engine’s crankshaft rotates. a transmission alters the rotational speed and torque of the gears provide more power for starting a car from engine passed along to the driveshaft. also known as the gearbox. standstill The transmission usually is located just behind the engine. A manual transmission has a gearbox from which the driver selects specific gears depending on road speed and engine load. Higher gears permit the car to travel faster. while low a and for climbing hills. By using gears of different sizes. one A Transmission The transmission.The rotational force of the engine’s crankshaft turns other shafts and gears that eventually cause the drive wheels to rotate. combinations of transmission gears pass the energy along to a driveshaft. wheels make up the drivetrain. and axles. and continuously variable. The driveshaft causes axles to rotate and turn the wheels. automatic. differential gears. There are three basic transmission types: manual. Gears are selected with a shift lever located on the floor next .

and Rear-Wheel Drive Depending on the vehicle’s design. Most automobiles either are frontwheel or rear-wheel drive. The clutch disk attaches to the transmission’s input shaft. Instead of making distinct changes from one gear to the next. transferring torque from the engine to the transmission. Instead of a manual clutch. four-wheel drive is an option the driver selects for certain road conditions. Releasing the clutch pedal presses the two disks together. the rear wheels. The transmission keeps the engine running at its most B Front. or to all four wheels. engine power is transmitted by the transmission to the front wheels. a continuously variable transmission uses belts and pulleys to smoothly slide the gear ratio up or down. When the driver presses down on the clutch pedal to shift gears. Continuously variable transmissions appeared on machinery during the 19th century and on a few smallefficient speed by more precisely matching the gear ratio to the situation. a mechanical lever called a clutch fork and a device called a throwout bearing separate the two disks. . automatic transmissions use a hydraulic torque converter to transfer engine power to the transmission.to the driver or on the steering column. Commercial applications have been limited to small engines. others feature full-time. An automatic transmission selects gears itself according to road conditions and the amount of load on the engine. The wheels receiving power are called drive wheels: They propel the vehicle forward or backward. The driver presses on the clutch to disengage the transmission from the engine to permit a change of gears. It presses against a circular plate attached to the engine’s flywheel. engine automobiles as early as 1900. all-wh eel drive. In some vehicles.

In one type of suspension system. so the shock of one wheel hitting a bump is suspensions for automobiles and heavier vehicles use rigid axles with coil or leaf springs. dampen. much like the arrangement on horse-drawn buggies. and sports cars feature independent rear- Active suspensions are computer-controlled adjustments of the downward force of each wheel as the vehicle corners or rides over uneven terrain. Modern shock absorbers have a telescoping design and use oil. or strut. the sudden loading and unloading of suspension springs to reduce wheel bounce and each wheel. In front-wheel drive. and air. without a system of severe bumps and bounces. Universal joints at both ends of the driveshaft In rear-wheel drive. One shock absorber is installed at combination to absorb energy. shock absorbers and other devices to protect the auto body and passenger compartment from A Suspension System The suspension system. IV SUPPORT SYSTEMS Automobiles would deliver jolting rides. contains springs that move up and down to absorb bumps and vibrations. the differential is on the front axle and the connections to the transmission are much shorter. Many rear-axle However. output shaft to a differential gear in the axle. Sensors. modern cars roll independently of each other on half-shafts instead of on a common axle. Front wheels on wheel has its own axle and suspension supports. advanced passenger cars. luxury sedans. the driveshaft runs under the car to a differential gear at the rear axle. gas. or a Luxury sedans generally have a soft suspension for comfortable riding. has a shock absorber built into its center section. and hydraulic cylinders. a pump.The differential is a gear assembly in an axle that enables each powered wheel to turn at different speeds when the vehicle makes a turn. a long tube. Each not transferred across a common axle to the other wheel or the rest of the car. part of the undercarriage of an automobile. Older automobiles were equipped with one-piece front axles attached to the frame with semielliptic leaf springs. . Four-wheel-drive vehicles have drive shafts and differentials for both axles. wheel suspension systems. Shock absorbers control. especially on unpaved roads. or the shock transferred from the road wheels to the body. Sports cars and sportutility vehicles have firmer suspensions to improve cornering ability and control over rough terrain. The driveshaft connects the transmission’s allow it to rotate as the axles move up and down over the road surface.

first patented in 1845. and more expensive. Aluminum wheels are lighter. enable the vehicle to lean into corners and compensate for the dips and dives that accompany emergency stops and rapid acceleration. more impact absorbent. These controls are made possible by the steering and braking systems. B Wheels and Tires Wheels support the vehicle’s weight and transfer torque to the tires from the drivetrain and braking systems. and by stopping or slowing the speed at which the wheels rotate. In addition. vehicle’s speed with the transmission and the gas pedal.all monitored and controlled by computer. so driving conditions. traction and strength are primary requirements. Pneumatic (air-filled) rubber tires. Tires help smooth out the ride and provide the automobile’s only contact with the road. Tire treads come in several varieties to match V CONTROL SYSTEMS A driver controls the automobile’s motion by keeping the wheels pointed in the desired direction. Automobile wheels generally are made of steel or aluminum. fit on the outside rims of the wheels. the driver controls the to the engine. which adjusts the amount of fuel fed .

appeared in 1903. An antilock braking system (ABS) uses a computer. and a hydraulic pump to stop the automobile’s forward motion without locking the wheels and putting the vehicle into a skid. all-wheel steering. Depending on the steering mechanism. The first automobile brakes were much like those on horse-drawn wagons. or metal. Most steering systems link the front wheels together by means of a tie-rod. especially on uneven terrain. in which friction pads clamp down on both sides of a disk attached to the axle. Cotton and leather shoe coverings. called drum brakes. augment that force. When a driver turns the steering wheel. to motor instead of hydraulic pressure. Manual steering relies only on the force exerted by the driver to turn the wheels. requiring less effort by the driver. Pulling on a lever or pushing down on a . the mechanical action rotates a steering shaft inside the steering column. gears or other devices convert the rotating motion of the steering wheel into a horizontal force that turns the wheels. Disk brakes. operated by the pressure or movement of a liquid. were in use by the 1950s. the driver pressed a block of friction between the wheel and the brake shoe caused the vehicle to slow down or stop. ABS helps the driver maintain better control over the car during emergency stops and while braking on slippery surfaces. leather. wood. By pulling a lever. friction applied by linings.A Steering Automobiles are steered by turning the front wheels. Automobiles are also equipped with a hand-operated brake used for emergencies and to foot pedal sets the brake. were replaced by asbestos after 1908. against the wheel rims. although a few automobile types have The tie-rod insures that the turning of one wheel is matched by a corresponding turn in the other. Another method was to use a lever to clamp a strap or brake shoes tightly around the driveshaft. With sufficient pressure. Hydraulically assisted braking was introduced in the 1920s. sensors. Electric power steering uses an electric B Brakes Brakes enable the driver to slow or stop the moving vehicle. securely park the car. Since the drum and wheel rotate together. or mechanism. A brake system with shoes that pressed against the inside of a drum fitted to the wheel. greatly extending the life of the brake the shoes inside the drum slowed or stopped the wheel. Conventional power steering uses hydraulic pressure. Introduced in the 1980s. known as the shoe.

The alternator generates electric current while the engine is running. significantly increase the current’s voltage. windshield wipers. but 12 volts became standard after World War II (1939-1945) to operate the growing number of electrical accessories. In older vehicles. radio. headlights. battery stores electricity for starting the car. The Early automotive electrical systems ran on 6 volts. There are many variations. turn signals. or 48-volt systems may become the standard as more computers and electronics are built into A Ignition System The ignition system supplies high-voltage current to spark plugs to ignite fuel vapor in the cylinders.VI ELECTRICAL SYSTEM The automobile depends on electricity for fuel ignition. a distributor. horn. 24automobiles. which is an electrical switching device. routes high-voltage current to the spark plugs. Eventually. then deliver it to spark plugs that project into the combustion chambers. recharging the battery and powering the rest of the car’s electrical needs. The distributor’s housing contains a switch called the breaker . but all gasoline-engine ignition systems draw electric current from the battery. and other accessories. An electric arc between two electrodes at the bottom of the spark plug ignites the fuel vapor. A battery and an alternator supply electricity.

not strong enough to survive minor collisions without expensive repairs. 1970s. located in doors cushion between the occupant and the vehicle’s interior. government regulations required bumpers designed to withstand low-speed collisions with less damage. withstand 8-km/h (5-mph) collisions with no damage. points. points from damage by the high-voltage surge. portions of the automobile designed to absorb forces on many vehicles also have reinforced roll bar structures in the roof. the distributor. which mechanically routes it through wires to spark plugs. Eventually. producing a spark that ignites the gas vapor in the cylinders. and protective beams in the doors to help protect passengers from side impacts. This high-voltage current passes back to the distributor. The inflated bag creates a dash on the passenger’s side. Over the years. the bag inflates almost instantaneously. A computer controls the ignition system and adjusts it to provide maximum efficiency in a variety of driving conditions. and condenser have been replaced by solid-state electronics controlled by a computer. Passenger compartments overturns. A rotating shaft in the distributor causes the switch to open and close.000 volts or more. while others can Modern vehicles feature crumple zones. At impact.points. interrupting the supply of low-voltage current to a transformer called a coil. Air bags first appeared in the midsold in the United States. VII SAFETY FEATURES Manufacturers continue to build lighter vehicles with improved structural rigidity and ability to protect the driver and passengers during collisions. Seat belt and upper-body restraints that relax to permit comfort but tighten automatically belts that slide into position automatically when the car’s doors close. during an impact are now common. available as an optional accessory. A condenser absorbs excess current and protects the breaker timing of the spark-plug discharges. Some car models are equipped with shoulder-restraint An air bag is a high-speed inflation device hidden in the hub of the steering wheel or in the or seats. Bumpers evolved as rails or bars to protect the front and rear of the car’s body from damage in minor collisions. The distributor and other devices control the In modern ignition systems. Some automobiles have side-impact air bags. The coil uses electromagnetic induction (see Electricity: Electromagnetism) to convert interruptions of the 12-volt current into surges of 20. in case the vehicle that otherwise would be transmitted to the passenger compartment. in some cases. coil. bumpers became stylish and. Today they are installed on all new passenger cars . Some bumpers can withstand 4-km/h (2.5-mph) collisions with no damage.

companies pressured the British Parliament to approve heavy tolls on steam-powered road During the early 20th century steam cars were popular in the United States.573 mph). Automakers continue to effective in collisions. it had a top speed of a little more than 3. Stanley. French engineer Onésiphore Pecqueur built one in 1828. built by American twin brothers Freelan and Francis Stanley. Illinois. yet VIII HISTORY The history of the automobile actually began about 4. By the 1600s small steam-powered engine vehicle was created. Manufacturers produced about 125 models of steam-powered automobiles. including the A Internal-Combustion Engine .2 km/h (2 mph) and had to stop every 20 minutes to build up a fresh head of steam. models had been developed. Horse-drawn stagecoach companies and the new railroad vehicles. but it was another century before a full-sized engine-powered used for transportation in India. As early as 1801 successful but very heavy steam automobiles were introduced in England. including the creation of a wheel that turned under its own power. Some newer automobile models are equipped with switches to disable the passenger-side air research ways to make air-bag systems less dangerous for frail and small passengers. until 1932. British inventor Walter Handcock built a series of steam carriages in the mid-1830s that were used for the first omnibus service in London. In the early 15th century the Portuguese arrived in China and In 1769 French Army officer Captain Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built what has been called the first automobile. Cugnot’s three-wheeled. Steam power caught the attention of other vehicle builders. steam-powered vehicle carried four persons. In 1804 American inventor Oliver Evans built a steampowered vehicle in Chicago. In 1802 a steam-powered coach designed by British engineer Richard Trevithick Laws barred them from public roads and forced their owners to run them like trains on private journeyed more than 160 km (100 mi) from Cornwall to London.44 km/h (121. Designed to move artillery pieces. By the mid-1800s England had an extensive network of steam coach lines. The tolls quickly drove the steam coach operators out of business.Air bags inflate with great force. Most famous was the Stanley Steamer. A Stanley Steamer established a world land speed record in 1906 of 205. tracks.000 years ago when the first wheel was the interaction of the two cultures led to a variety of new technologies. which occasionally endangers a child or infant passenger. bags when a child or infant is traveling in the passenger seat.

which eventually merged with Benz’s manufacturing firm in 1926 to create Daimler-Benz. The joint company makes cars today under the Mercedes-Benz nameplate (see DaimlerChrysler AG). In 1887 they manufactured their first car. French bicycle manufacturer Armand Peugeot saw the Panhard-Levassor car and designed an automobile using a similar Daimler engine. Pennsylvania. Panhard-Levassor also introduced a clutch and gears.4 km/h (about 4 mph). and the car body. a vehicle powered by Lenoir’s engine reached a top speed of about 6. Instead of installing the engine under the seats. they were called internal-combustion engines. In Italy. In a four-stroke engine the pistons move down to draw fuel vapor into the cylinder during stroke one. In 1890 Daimler and Maybach started a Gottlieb Daimler and German inventor Wilhelm Maybach mounted a gasoline-powered engine which included a steering tiller and a four-speed gearbox. In 1864 Austrian inventor Siegfried Marcus built and drove internal-combustion engine that was displayed at the 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia. in 1885. Two-stroke engines accomplish the same Automobile manufacturing began in earnest in Europe by the late 1880s. and in stroke four the pistons move up to push exhaust gases out of the cylinder after the other instead of in all at once.Development of lighter steam cars during the 19th century coincided with major developments in engines that ran on gasoline or other fuels. Two years later. automobile manufacturers opened shop in the late 1800s. Karl successful car manufacturing company. In 1860 French inventor Jean-Joseph-Étienne Lenoir patented a one-cylinder engine that used kerosene for fuel. a carriage propelled by a two-cylinder gasoline engine. the company introduced the design of a front-mounted engine under the hood. In France. or underlying structure of the car. Another German engineer. as other car designers had done. The company’s first model was a gasoline-powered buggy steered by a tiller. German engineer onto a bicycle. but less efficiently and with more exhaust emissions. Engines with two or more cylinders are designed so combustion occurs in one steps. and separate construction of the chassis. in stroke three the vapor explodes and the hot gases push the pistons cylinders. In 1891 this first Peugeot automobile paced a 1. Other French (Fabbrica Italiana Automobili di Torino) began building cars in 1899. the pistons move up to compress the vapor. a company called Panhard-Levassor began making cars in 1894 using Daimler’s patents. including Renault. produced his first gasoline car in 1886. Fiat . down the cylinders. creating a motorcycle. the most direct ancestor to today’s automobile engines. The Daimler Motor Company.046-km (650-mi) professional bicycle race between Paris and Brest. Benz. American George Brayton patented an In 1876 German engineer Nikolaus August Otto built a four-stroke gas engine. Because the newer engines burned fuel in cylinders inside the engine. in stroke two.

After eight years of court battles. Heavy cables top speeds of 48 km/h (30 mph). In 1893 magazine. gasoline engines. but could go only 80 km (50 mi) before their batteries until 1930. a American industrialist Henry Ford built an internal-combustion engine from plans he saw in a B Early Electric Cars For a few decades in the 1800s. electric car designed and driven by Belgian inventor Camille Jenatzy set a record of 105. But development of gasoline cars in the early 1900s was hindered in the United States by legal battles over a patent obtained by New York lawyer George B. and electric motors.300 automobiles were registered in New York City.8810 Early electric cars featured a large bank of storage batteries under the hood. Of these. and only 400 were gasoline cars. Boston. Although Selden did not manufacture engines or automobiles. electric engines enjoyed great popularity because they were quiet and ran at slow speeds that were less likely to scare horses and people. In 1900 more than 2. In 1896 he used an engine to power a vehicle mounted on bicycle wheels and steered by a tiller. Electric automobiles were manufactured in quantity in the United States IX AUTOMOBILES IN THE 20TH CENTURY For many years after the introduction of automobiles.American automobile builders were not far behind. Ford and most other royalties for Ford-manufactured engines. By 1899 an km/h (65. he collected royalties from those who did. three kinds of power sources were in common use: steam engines. Gasoline-powered engines eventually became the nearly universal choice for automobiles because they allowed longer trips and faster speeds than engines powered by steam or electricity. 800 were electric cars. so Selden could not charge them royalties. Frank Duryea built several gas-powered vehicles between 1893 and 1895. . Massachusetts. and Chicago. The first Duryea. Selden saw a gasoline engine at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition in 1876.170 were steam cars.79 mph). four-horsepower model. Most electric cars had needed recharging. connected the batteries to a motor between the front and rear axles. Illinois. Henry Ford believed Selden’s patent was invalid. He then designed a similar one and obtained a broad patent that for many years was interpreted to apply to all gasoline engines for automobiles. the courts ruled in manufacturers were using four-stroke engines. 1. Brothers Charles Edgar Duryea and James one-cylinder. Selden sued when Ford refused to pay 1911 that Selden’s patent applied only to two-stroke engines. Selden. looked much like a Panhard-Levassor model.

which introduced its first automobile. heaters. T’s and offered nine body styles. Major reasons for the surge in automobile ownership were Ford’s Model T. windshield wipers.771 Model the biggest-selling automobiles of all time. appeared in 1933. Ford built 17. vehicle. automobile engines and bodies became large and luxurious. Also introduced during the 1930s were stronger. and higher-compression engines. automotive steering wheels were on the left in the United States. In these new models. the Model T became one of production of the model in 1927. It closely resembled the 1903 Cadillac. and each model was named Ford’s famous Model T debuted in 1908 but was called a 1909 Ford. a hood covered the front-mounted engine. and mechanically operated From 1930 to 1937. Cars had fenders that covered the wheels and step-up platforms called running boards. in that same year. Automobiles on both sides of the . which made the big cars more braking systems. comfortable. and the affordability of cars for the ordinary wage earner. The 1902 Locomobile was the first American car with a four-cylinder.Improvements in the operating and riding qualities of gasoline automobiles developed quickly after 1900. balloon tires. which developed more horsepower. which was hardly surprising since Ford had designed cars the previous year for the Cadillac Motor Car with a letter of the alphabet. improved carburetors. In 1906 gasoline-powered cars were produced that had a style all their own. shatterproof glass. Electric headlights were introduced at about the same time. along with weather resistant tops and side curtains. Two kerosene or acetylene lamps mounted to the front served as headlights. Built-in baggage compartments appeared in 1906. the assembly-line method of building it. Popularly known as the Tin Lizzy. An electric self-starter was introduced in 1911 to replace the hand crank used to start the engine turning. watercooled. four-wheel hydraulic brake systems. more reliable Mercedes introduced the world’s first diesel car in 1936. which helped passengers get in and out of the vehicles usually sat on the right. Company. The passenger compartment was behind the engine. Most automobiles at the turn of the 20th century appeared more or less like horseless carriages. The company’s innovative assembly-line method of building By 1920 more than 8 million Americans owned cars. very similar in design to most cars today. Improvements in engine-powered cars during the 1920s contributed to their popularity: synchromesh transmissions for easier gear shifting. Although drivers of horse-drawn In 1903 Henry Ford incorporated the Ford Motor Company. Ford’s company rolled out new car models each year. when models R and S appeared. Ford sold more than 15 million before stopping the cars was widely adopted in the automobile industry. front-mounted gasoline engine. Independent front suspension. By 1907. Many 12- and 16-cylinder cars were built. Ford’s share of the domestic automobile market had soared to 35 percent. the Model A.

Nash. more power. emerged from the factories of many major manufacturers. More the United States in 1949. The first American car called a compact was the Nash Rambler. smaller in overall size than a standard car but with virtually the same interior body dimensions. and pontoon-shaped fenders. That prompted a downsizing of some American-made vehicles. selling more than 3 million. Some of the first vehicles to fully incorporate the fender into the bodywork came along just after World War II.Atlantic were styled with gracious proportions. and smoother riding capability.500 lb). American cars were built smaller. sealed-beam headlights. but American consumers soon began compacts. Styling sometimes prevailed over practicality—some cars were built in even the least expensive models. but the majority of designs still had separate fenders with pontoon shapes holding headlight assemblies. During the 1940s. it did not attract buyers on a large scale until 1958. European sports cars of that era featured hand-fashioned aluminum bodies over a steel chassis and framework. arrived in buying the Beetle and other small imports by the thousands. Heating and ventilating systems became standard equipment on became widespread. including tailfins and portholes. one on each side of the Atlantic. and the automatic transmission were introduced. Automatic transmissions.800 lb). Two schools of styling emerged in the 1950s. The first Japanese imports. automobile designers borrowed features for their cars that were normally found on aircraft and ships. The Buick Motor Car Company. In the 1950s new automotive features were introduced. Automobiles were produced that had more space. some weighing as much as 2. Only two were sold that year. 16 compact trucks. The 1949 Ford was a landmark in this respect. but with increased engine size and horsepower. and its new styling was so well accepted the car continued in production virtually unchanged for three years. The Europeans continued to produce small. Cadillac Automobile Company. By 1960 sales of foreign and domestic compacts accounted for about one-third of all passenger cars sold in the United States. tubeless tires. aerodynamic automobiles. which gave better engine performance and more reliable operation of the growing number of electrical accessories. arrived in the United States in 1956. Creative artistry merged with industrial design to produce appealing. and power steering . Introduction of power steering and power brakes made bigger cars easier to handle.495 kg (5. and Hudson Motor Car Company. The first import by German manufacturer Volkswagen AG. Three companies.300 kg (2. and Ford all built enormous cars. advertised as the Beetle. Manufacturers changed from the 6-volt to the 12-volt ignition system. power brakes. including air conditioning and electrically operated car windows and seat adjusters. Introduced in 1950. long hoods. offered postwar designs that merged fenders into the bodywork. Ford. In America. light cars weighing less than 1. Olds Motor Vehicle Company (Oldsmobile).

no carbon dioxide. driving up the price of gasoline. in passenger cars.which the engines had to be lifted to allow simple service operations.864 mi) in Australia in six days. while imported imports. board computer to monitor engine performance. The California Air Resources Board required companies with the largest market shares to begin selling vehicles that were pollution free—in other words. However. the auto industry was hurt by the energy crisis. like changing the spark plugs. The allelectric cars introduced so far have been limited by low range. sporty Advances in automobile technology in the 1980s included better engine control and the use of innovative types of fuel. Hydrogen combustion produces only a trace of harmful emissions.000 km (1. A solar-powered vehicle. In 1981 Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW) introduced an on3. cut back on sales to other countries. but Japanese and European compacts continued During this period. Large cars were getting as little as 8 miles per gallon (mpg). Catalytic converters were introduced to help reduce exhaust emissions. Popular in trucks and heavy vehicles. Diesel engines burn fuel more efficiently. A redesigned. . diesel engines are only a small portion of the automobile market. the EV1. electric. created when the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). to California buyers. and weak consumer interest. compacts were getting as much as 35 mpg. 1980s. lighter models in addition to to sell well. more fuel-efficient Digital speedometers and electronic prompts to service parts of the vehicle appeared in the cars and family minivans surged in popularity. quieter diesel engine introduced by Volkswagen in 1996 may pave the way for more diesels. The price of crude oil skyrocketed. In the 1970s American manufacturers continued to offer smaller. At the same time. a cartel of oil-producing countries. and a water-vapor by-product. long recharges. and produce fewer pollutants. Japanese manufacturers opened plants in the United States. Engines that run on hydrogen have been tested. and less pollution. the bigger sedans that led their product lines. Back seats were designed with no legroom. but they are noisy. technical problems related to the gas’s density and flammability remain to be solved. traveled X NEW TECHNOLOGIES Pollution-control laws adopted at the beginning of the 1990s in some of the United States and in Europe called for automobiles that produced better gas mileage with lower emissions. More buyers chose the smaller. SunRaycer. In 1996 General Motors became the first to begin selling an all-electric car.

weather information. known as hybrid electric vehicles Computer control of automobile systems increased dramatically during the 1990s. manufacturers trimmed 450 kg (1. offering alternative routes if needed. became available in the late 1990s. the Toyota Prius and the Honda Insight. the sound system. Microprocessors regulating other systems share data with the CPU. in vehicle size are not practical. map its location. so the emphasis has shifted to using lighter materials. and a display screen showing where the vehicle is relative to the and directs the driver to it. aluminum alloys. doubled the gas mileage obtained by the average new car between 1974 and 1995. digitized maps. enabling a GPS system operator to locate the vehicle. and other data. destination the driver wants to reach. After being told the destination. and the information displayed in the vehicle’s Expanded use of computer technology.While some developers searched for additional alternatives. selling 30. Further reductions plastics. and exhaust-emission levels. Prius hit automobile showrooms in Japan in 1997. over the Internet and manage personal affairs while the vehicle’s owner is driving. In many models. The onboard navigation system uses an electronic satellite-aided global positioning system (GPS). computers also control the air dashboard. ignition timing. and air mixture ratios. Two automobiles with such hybrid engines. The central processing unit (CPU) in modern engines manages overall engine performance. Future built-in computer systems may be used to automatically obtain business information During the 1980s and 1990s. Both vehicles.000 lb) from the weight of the typical car by making cars smaller. and research on pollution control will produce better. the computer locates it Some cars now come equipped with GPS locator beacons. Less weight. by the 1990s it had become Onboard navigation was one of the new automotive technologies in the 1990s. direct repair or emergency workers to the scene. The Honda (HEVs). route directions. The Prius became available for sale in North America in 2000. and carbon composites.000 models in its first two years of production. promised to double the fuel efficiency of conventional gasoline-powered cars while significantly reducing toxic emissions. “smarter” automobiles. Computers manage fuel braking and traction control systems. By using the vehicle’s location within a few meters. and if necessary. such as . a computer in the automobile can pinpoint the compass. Insight debuted in North America in late 1999. notion that a car would “talk” to its driver was science fiction. coupled with more efficient engines. in the engine and the rest of the vehicle. others investigated ways to combine electricity with liquid fuels to produce low-emissions power systems. They adjust the antilock conditioning and heating. In the 1980s the reality. Cars equipped with computers and cellular telephones can link to the Internet to obtain constantly updated traffic reports. development of stronger and lighter materials.

In simple spur gearing. toothed wheel or cylinder used to transmit rotary or reciprocating motion from one part of a machine to another. the car’s brakes automatically slow the warn drivers when another vehicle is in their “blind spot. designed gears and flat-toothed sectors. engineers are devising ways to reduce driver errors and poor driving habits.” vehicle if it is following another vehicle too closely. Two or more gears. transmitting motion from one shaft to another. and vice versa. Engineers are working on ways to keep the converters warm for longer periods between drives. Gearing is chiefly used to transmit rotating motion. or heat the converters more rapidly.Looking ahead. New infrared sensors or radar systems may Catalytic converters work only when they are warm. If . The technology may be expanded to new vehicles. Gear I INTRODUCTION Gear. but can. Now. Spur gears transmit rotating motion between two shafts or other parts with parallel axes. meshing teeth. In some. Systems already exist in some locales to prevent intoxicated drivers from starting their vehicles. so most of the pollution they emit occurs in the first few minutes of operation. Anticollision systems with sensors and warning signals are being developed. with suitably rotating motion. a wheel with teeth cut across its edge parallel to the axis. the word gearing is used only to describe systems of wheels or cylinders with constitute a gear train. however. the driven shaft revolves in the opposite direction to the driving shaft. be employed to transform reciprocating motion into II SIMPLE GEARS The simplest gear is the spur gear. At one time various mechanisms were collectively called gearing.

rotation in the same direction is desired. III HELICAL GEARS These have teeth that are not parallel to the axis of the shaft but are spiraled around the shaft in the form of a helix. or vice versa. driving a gear with 20 teeth will revolve twice as fast as the gear it is driving. Such gears are suitable for heavy loads because the gear teeth come the disadvantage of producing a thrust that tends to move the gears along their respective together at an acute angle rather than at 90° as in spur gearing. This thrust can be avoided by using double helical. and a 20-tooth Internal. Helical gearing used to transmit Another variation of helical gearing is provided by the worm gear. thin cylinder that has one or more continuous helical teeth that mesh with a helical gear. The idler revolves in the opposite direction to the driving gear and therefore turns the driven gear in the same direction as the driving gear. a flat. Worm gears . These gears have cone-shaped bodies and straight teeth. from one shaft to another at a 90° angle. also called the screw gear. an idler gear is placed between the driving gear and the driven gear. toothed bar that moves in a the rotation of a pinion to reciprocating motion. By using a train of several gears. gears are variations of the spur gear in which the teeth are cut on the driven by a pinion. or annular. Hypoid gears are helical bevel gears employed when the axes of the two shafts are perpendicular but do not intersect. with a large reduction in speed. When the angle between the rotating shafts is 90°. a small gear with few teeth. In any form of gearing the speed of the driven shaft depends on the number of teeth in each gear. connect the drive shaft and the rear axle in automobiles. inside of a ring or flanged wheel rather than on the outside. across the teeth of the driven gear instead of exerting a direct rolling pressure. which have V-shaped teeth composed of half a right-handed helical tooth and half a left-handed helical tooth. Simple helical gearing has shafts. A gear with 10 teeth gear driving a 10-tooth gear will revolve at half the speed. the bevel gears used are called miter gears. One of the most common uses of hypoid gearing is to rotation between shafts that are not parallel is often incorrectly called spiral gearing. A worm gear is a long. the ratio of driving to driven speed may be varied within wide limits. A rack. gears. Worm gears differ from helical gears in that the teeth of the worm slide are used chiefly to transmit rotation. or herringbone. operates like a gear wheel with an infinite radius and can be used to transform Bevel gears are employed to transmit rotation between shafts that do not have parallel axes. Internal gears usually drive or are straight line.

which is larger than a watch. devices used to measure or indicate the passage of time.Clocks and Watches I INTRODUCTION Clocks and Watches. II MECHANISMS . as well as indicators to register the lapse of time units. A clock. a watch is designed to be carried or worn. is usually intended to be kept in one place. Both types of timepieces require a source of power and a means of transmitting and controlling it.

The quartz-crystal clock developed in 1929 for precision timekeeping employs a ring of quartz that is connected to an electrical circuit and made to oscillate between 10. In electric or electronic clocks. a mainspring. with a balance wheel regulating the motive on a rotor that responds to the arm movements of the wearer. force. or an electric current. which is regulated to deliver an alternating current of precisely 60 cycles per second. The high-frequency oscillation is converted to an alternating current. Electric currents may also be used to keep the movements of several “slave” clocks synchronized with the pendulum in a master clock.000 and 100.000 hertz (cycles per second). Except in electric or electronic clocks. the mainspring is tightened automatically by means of a weight III ELECTRIC TIMEPIECES In the electric clocks used in homes today. reduced to a frequency more convenient for time measurement. the source of power may be produced by weight. the time may be reported audibly by the striking of a gong or chime hands on a dial.In a clock. A mechanical watch uses a coiled spring as its power source. As in spring-powered clocks. the watch conserves energy by means of a gear train. In such a clock. a small motor runs in unison with the power- station generator. periodic adjustments. The motive force generated by the power source in a mechanical clock is transmitted by a gear train and regulated by a pendulum or a balance and is registered visually by the rotation of wheels bearing numerals or by the position of wheel. In self-winding watches. such as lifting the weight or tightening the spring. and thus made to . are needed. time may be shown by a display of numbers.

which measures the distance of an object from the observer. The V ATOMIC CLOCKS . The electric or electronic watch is powered by a small battery that functions for about one year without replacement. a form of chronograph used in athletic contests. or it may be used to drive the oscillations of either a small tuning fork or a quartz crystal. including the telemeter. The maximum error of the most accurate quartz-crystal clocks is plus or minus one second in ten years. IV CHRONOMETERS Carefully constructed mechanical timepieces known as chronometers are precision devices used by navigators in the determination of their longitude at sea and by astronomers and jewelers for calibrating measuring devices. and the production counter. or stopwatch. which not only provides accurate time but also registers elapsed time in fractions of a second. which determines pulse rate. shows elapsed time without providing the time of day. in 1761 by English horologist John Harrison. The battery may drive the balance wheel of an otherwise mechanical clock.drive the motor of a synchronous clock or a digital display. These portable instruments are mounted on a box chronometer is a precision watch regulated in different positions and at various temperatures Another precision timekeeper is the chronograph. the pulsometer. The first successful chronometer was constructed on gimbals so as to maintain the delicate movements in a level position. Various forms of chronographs exist. The modern wrist and certified by testing bureaus in Switzerland. which measures speed of rotation. timer. the tachometer. which indicates the number of products made in a given time.

In this clock. The second is defined as the duration of 9. Their uses include measuring the systems such as the global positioning system in computing distances.192. corresponding period of the waves can be used as a standard to define time intervals. which may vary by 4 to 5 milliseconds per day.The most precise timekeeping devices are atomic clocks. energy states. many atoms make the transition to the new energy state. The most stable cesium-atom clocks have an error of about plus or minus one second in . or hyperfine.631. time. cesium-133 atoms in one hyperfine energy state are subjected to microwave radiation that is near the resonant frequency of the transition to another hyperfine energy state. Because the frequency of these waves is unaffected by external forces. and aiding navigational certain atoms or molecules make the transition between two closely spaced. The frequency of the microwave radiation is then used to determine the period of the microwave.770 periods of radiation. the The cesium-atom clock is used to define the second. and when the correct frequency is reached. The microwave frequency is adjusted. the basic unit of time of the International System of Units. The cesium-atom clock is very accurate and remains stable over long periods of one million years. or the time interval between wave crests. Atomic clocks are tuned to the frequency of the electromagnetic waves that are emitted or absorbed when rotation of the earth.

Clockworks were initially heavy. Devices almost as old as the shadow clock and sundial include the hourglass. The rubidium atoms. The earliest type of timekeeper. in which the flow of sand is used to measure time intervals. by Greek inventor Ctesibius of Alexandria. atoms are forced to change to a lower energy state. a time-measuring instrument was known as a horologium. or gnomon. but they are more compact and less expensive. are first forced to change their hyperfine energy state and are then subjected to microwave radiation to return them to their original state. A clock built in the 14th century by powered by a 227-kg (500-lb) weight that descended a distance of 9. The Henry De Vick of Württemberg for the royal palace (now the Palais de Justice) in Paris was .The rubidium clock uses the transition of the rubidium-87 atom between two hyperfine energy states. even to the inclusion of gearing in about 270 BC Eventually. These they begin to oscillate between the two states. The hydrogen clock and the ammonia clock rely on the maser principle. however. In a hydrogen clock. Until that time. a weight falling under the force of gravity was substituted for the flow of water in time devices. or clepsydra. The first recorded examples are found or hour teller.8 m (32 ft). cumbersome devices. Ancient methods of measuring is still in existence. The name clock. An Egyptian shadow BC was the hours in the absence of sunlight included the notched candle and the Chinese practice of by Chaldean astronomer Berossus. and the water clock. a focused magnetic field selects hydrogen atoms in a specific hyperfine energy state. dating from as far back as 3500 clock of the 8th century about the 3rd century BC shadow clock. anticipating the mechanical clock. The hydrogen VI HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT BC.” was first applied in the present in the 14th century. When many atoms return to their original state. The period of this emitted wave is used to measure time. the correct transition frequency has been reached and the period of the wave can be used to measure time. mechanical time indicators installed in bell towers in the late Middle Ages. electromagnetic wave. time has been measured by the movement of the earth relative to the sun and stars. Clepsydras became more complicated. emitting energy in the form of an clock is very stable for several hours at a time. which originally meant “bell. in which the flow of water indicates passage of time. Rubidium clocks are not as stable or as accurate as cesiumatom clocks. Throughout history. The first hemispherical sundial was described burning a knotted rope and noting the length of time required for the fire to travel from one knot to the next. A The Mechanical Clock The historical origin of the mechanical clock is obscure. It employs the same basic principle as the cesium-atom clock. When many atoms make the transition. a vertical stick or obelisk that casts a shadow. sense to the huge.

known as isochronism. included a spiral hairspring. A guild known as the Clockmakers Company. and clockworks were used in the towers of late . Clocks of that period had dials with only one hand. 17th-century watches. Early clocks were highly ornamented. invented a fusee. and Switzerland also produced many fine artisans whose work was noted for beauty and a high degree of mechanical perfection. a locksmith in Nürnberg. and John Harrison developed a means C Watches Watchworks were developed when coiled springs were introduced as a source of power. Jacob Zech of Prague. invented about 1660 by Robert Hooke. B The Pendulum A series of inventions in the 17th and 18th centuries increased the accuracy of clockworks and the property of a pendulum. stating that the period of the swing is reduced the weight and bulk of the mechanisms. About 1500 Peter Henlein. began producing portable timepieces known popularly as Nürnberg eggs. which indicated the nearest quarter hour. In 1525 another artisan. Many bore sculptured figures. craftsmanship of a high order was required to manufacture accurate. The Netherlands. clockmaking and its apprenticeship. first appeared on were introduced in the 18th century. to equalize the uneven pull of the spring. Germany. is still in existence. Other improvements that increased the accuracy of watches a lever escapement devised by British inventor Thomas Mudge about 1765. and crystals to protect both the dial and hands. Ten years later English physicist Robert Hooke invented an escapement. Such local craft organizations as the Paris Guild of Clockmakers (1544) were organized to control the art of London in 1630. or spiral pulley.apparatus for controlling its rate of fall was crude and the clock inaccurate. Jeweled bearings to reduce friction and prolong the life of watchworks In the centuries that preceded the introduction of machine-made parts. and Minute and second hands. Germany. durable clocks and watches. British of compensating for variations in the length of a pendulum resulting from changes in temperature. for the balance wheel. founded in D Decorative Clocks The clock was often a decorative as well as a useful instrument. clockmaker George Graham improved the escapement. which permitted the use in clocks of a pendulum with a small arc of oscillation. Galileo had described late in the 16th century constant. This type of spring was used in Italy about 1450. In 1657 Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens showed how a pendulum could be used to regulate a clock.

when Thomas Harland of Norwich. which required winding only once a day. a clock could be built in 1716 for the City Hall at Nassau and Wall streets. Chauncey Jerome of Bristol. Switzerland became the center of a watchmaking industry. Simon Willard of Roxbury. Connecticut. Some early English clocks pendulum and weight exposed beneath a gear housing at the top of a tall cabinet. by 1753. Massachusetts. church tower. Connecticut. accuracy and durability. Beginning in watch parts at home to be assembled and sold by a master watchmaker. Such innovations. Watches were not produced in significant volume in the United States until about 1800. pillar-and-scroll clock. Cuckoo clocks. before the introduction of the pendulum clock. were made in the Black Forest of Germany as early as 1730 and are still popular. produced the first Americandesigned watch and the first containing a machine-made part. In 1836 the Pitkin brothers of East Hartford. established a factory with a capacity of 200 units a year. which emerge and “sing” to tell the time. the manufacture of this watch was discontinued as a result of the During this period. In 1650. containing carved wooden birds. particularly in the villages of the Jura Mountains. The grandfather.medieval Europe to set in motion huge statues of saints or allegorical figures. which has the Watches were originally shaped like drums or balls and were worn suspended from a belt or the 18th century. one of the largest clock factories in the world. devised a rolled-brass clock movement that could be sold at a low price. Pennsylvania. in the mid-20th century. was designed before machine-cut gears were introduced. together with the . were made in the form of lanterns or birdcages. however. and Eli Terry of Connecticut evolved a shelf clock called the Plymouth Hollow (now Thomaston). clock. Some modern Swiss watchworks are tiny enough to fit into pencil ends or in VII PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES European clockmakers and watchmakers brought their skills and mechanical ingenuity to colonial America. well-seasoned wood was patented the popular banjo clock. The first public clock in New York City was Mass production of clocks with interchangeable parts began in the United States after the used for the movements. Seth Thomas founded the Seth Thomas Clock Company. About the same time in American Revolution (1775-1783). which was. or case. Massachusetts. Connecticut. Connecticut. Swiss watchmaking by the 1850s had led to the development of a number of small factories and the foundation of earrings. Wristwatches became popular as watchworks became smaller. Because of the scarcity of metals. Despite a reputation for depression of 1837. which temporarily crippled American industry. At first a cottage industry. a major industry. and it continues to be a popular ornamental clock. found in a Boston. In the early 1800s. with families manufacturing kept in a pocket. and a clock was installed in Independence Hall in Philadelphia.

a famous American pocket watch. became known as the dollar watches. developed in England in 1955. Watches wound with keys were replaced after 1875 by stem-wound types. Shortt in 1921 of the Shortt Free Pendulum. soon made the United States the leading clock-making country of the world. .economies of mass production. Later watches were even less expensive. could be sold for only $4 because it used a stamped-out mechanism without jewels. New designs reduced the number of parts required. invented by Henry E. The Ingersol and the Ingraham. Watches also became cheaper as production rose. who induced producers of electric power to time the alternating-current cycles carefully so that synchronous motors could be used for clocks. invented and perfected automatic production machinery in the 1850s. American horologists Aaron Dennison and Edward Howard. The first improvement over the quartz clock was the cesium atomic clock. H. competition reduced the price of a clock to $1 or less. VIII RECENT DEVELOPMENTS The electric clock was an American innovation of the early 1900s. The invention by W. As production increased. for example. working in Massachusetts. made possible the most accurate timekeeper until the introduction of the quartz clock in the United States in 1929. Warren. and for the first time most families could afford a clock. first installed in the Edinburgh Observatory. The first Waterbury.

and raised dots on the dial to mark the hours. pocket or wrist. a quartz crystal provides the oscillations that are reduced to compute time. the alarm watch for the shows the day of month and the week. portable alarm clock. The mainsprings of present-day mechanical watches are made from metals that resist breakage and rust. which has sturdy hands not jeweled bearings. uses the light-producing characteristics of certain semiconductors to illuminate its digital time display. produced in the 1970s. materials having optical properties similar to liquids and solid crystals. synthetics have replaced precious stones in special-purpose watches include the Braille watch for the blind. are being investigated in current horological research. uses liquid crystals.Electric wristwatches appeared on the market in 1957. The LCD. More recent developments have been the LED (light-emitting diode) and LCD (liquid crystal display) watches. which functions as a tiny. such as sunlight. Scientific advances in metallurgy and other fields have led to many improvements in timekeeping devices of all types. and atomic energy. body heat. and cases have been perfected that seal out both dust and moisture. The LED. and the calendar watch. Other covered with a crystal. developed in the 1960s. New sources of power. followed in 1959 by an electronic watch that substituted a small tuning fork for the usual escapement. which . with a battery to power the transistorized oscillating circuit.

engine-driven vehicle that can fly through the air supported by the action of air against its wings. such as helicopters. or special engines that permit level or climbing flight. which are lighter than air. and airplanes that can leave the borne flight. Airplanes are heavier than air.Airplane I INTRODUCTION Airplane. the upward force on the plane. control surfaces. capable of carrying several hundred people. and power plants. seaplanes (aircraft that take off from and land on water). Airplanes are adapted to specialized uses. Today there are land planes (aircraft that take off from and land on the ground). in contrast to vehicles such as balloons and airships. The wings alter the direction of the flow of air as it passes. Airplanes also differ from other heavier-than-air craft. ground using the jet thrust of their engines or rotors (rotating wings) and then switch to wing- II HOW AN AIRPLANE FLIES An airplane flies because its wings create lift. Modern airplanes range from ultralight aircraft weighing no more than 46 kg (100 lb) and several hundred tons of cargo. which make it possible to guide their flight. because they have rigid wings. meant to carry a single pilot. The speed of . and weighing nearly 454 metric tons. as they interact with the flow of air around them. The exact shape of the surface of a wing is critical to its ability to generate lift. such as movable parts of the wings and tail. amphibians (aircraft that can operate on both land and sea). to great jumbo jets.

That is why high-speed fighters and missiles have such thin wings—they need to minimize drag created by lift. and the lift generated by the wing can be modeled using equations derived from Bernoulli’s principle. In this case. The third law of motion formulated by English physicist Isaac Newton specially designed shape of the wing. The air on the top of an airplane wing moves faster and is at a lower pressure than the air underneath the wing. the amount of drag associated with it. because it acts in the opposite direction. which flies at relatively slow speeds. this angle causes them to push air flowing under them downward. under certain circumstances. and drag. The angle the wings make with the horizontal is called the angle of attack. but because of its large size. with shapes that slip easily through the air. When an airplane is level or rising. is one of the marvels of modern aircraft technology. produces friction as it interacts with that fluid and because it must move the fluid out of its way to do its work. A fourth force acting on all airplanes is drag. such as an airplane through air. it will climb. Thrust is provided by the airplane’s propulsion system. and in reaction. the air pushes up on the wings.the airflow and the angle at which the wing meets the oncoming airstream also contribute to the amount of lift generated. A steeper angle of attack will cause the wings to push states that every action produces an equal and opposite reaction (see Mechanics: The Third Law). it is also creating a significant amount of drag. an airplane will accelerate. thick wing because high lift is more important than airplanes. When thrust is greater than drag. When lift is greater than weight. The weight of the airplane must be overcome by the lift produced by the wings. As the wings move through the air. then the lift produced by its wings must be greater than 4. and the air pushing the wings upward is the reaction. which states that. may create a great deal of lift for an airplane. Designing a wing that is powerful enough to lift an airplane off the ground. This causes lift. If an airplane weighs 4. may have a big. aerodynamic Managing the balance between these four forces is the challenge of flight. Weight is the force that offsets lift. . either a propeller or jet engine or combination of the two. the front edges of its wings ride higher than the rear edges. the wings pushing air downward is the action. a faster moving fluid (such as air) will have a lower pressure than a slower moving fluid. Drag is created because any object moving through a fluid. a crop duster. Lift is also often explained using Bernoulli’s principle.5 metric tons. The others are weight. Thrust is the force that propels an airplane forward through the air. An airplane’s wings push down on the air flowing past them. Drag is also minimized by designing sleek. Conversely. the upward force on the plane. Lift is one of the four primary forces acting upon an airplane.5 metric tons in order for the airplane to leave the ground. for example. A high-lift wing surface. and yet efficient enough to fly at high speeds over extremely long distances. Air flowing over the top of the wing is also deflected downward as it follows the more air downward. thrust.

primarily for military airplanes. designers . a pilot can manipulate the balance of the four forces to change the direction or speed. III SUPERSONIC FLIGHT In addition to balancing lift. In some cases.Using various control surfaces and propulsion systems. Fighter pilots in World War II (1939-1945) first ran up against this so-called barrier in high-speed dives during air combat. the pilot can accelerate or climb. After World War II. tackled the realm of supersonic flight. and drag. Or. weight. by retracting the landing gear and flaps. but with commercial applications as well. which has the same effect as reducing thrust. The pilot can add thrust either to speed up or climb. pilots lost control of the aircraft as shock waves built up on control surfaces. The sound barrier is not a physical barrier but a speed at which the behavior of the airflow around an airplane changes dramatically. thrust. modern airplanes have to contend with another phenomenon. A pilot can reduce thrust in order to slow down or descend. effectively locking the controls and leaving the crews helpless. and thereby reducing drag. The pilot can lower the landing gear into the airstream and deploy the landing flaps on the wings to increase drag.

a shock wave consisting of highly compressed air forms at the nose of the plane. of sound.Supersonic flight is defined as flight at a speed greater than that of the local speed of sound. At sea level. At the speed .220 km/h (760 mph). sound travels through air at approximately 1. This shock wave moves back at a sharp angle as the speed increases.

Above that speed. the XB-70 Valkyrie bomber. Airplane designers have concluded that a speed of Mach 2. but harder to manufacture and maintain. Speeds of Designers in Europe and the United States developed succeeding generations of military 25 Foxbat interceptor. culminating in the 1960s and 1970s with Mach 3+ speedsters such as the Soviet MiG- The shock wave created by an airplane moving at supersonic and hypersonic speeds represents a rather abrupt change in air pressure and is perceived on the ground as a sonic distance of the observer from the flight path. metals are more heat-resistant. One of the most difficult practical barriers to supersonic flight is the fact that high-speed flight produces heat through friction. Speeds at or near supersonic flight are measured in units called Mach numbers. flown by Air Force test pilot Chuck Yeager. Titanium and other relatively exotic. An airplane traveling at less than Mach 1 is traveling below the speed of Mach 1 to 5 are referred to as supersonic. if the aircraft moved too fast. sound as it moves air. was generally limited to over-water routes. then the temperature rose above the surface of the craft. and expensive. a commercial supersonic aircraft. At such high speeds.7 is about the limit for conventional. and would most likely have to find a way IV AIRPLANE STRUCTURE . For example. aircraft. enormous temperatures are reached at temperature requirements. an airplane is traveling at the speed of sound (transonic). or to those over sparsely populated regions of the world. the Concorde was forced to fly a flight profile dictated by safe limits for the aluminum structure of the airplane. relatively inexpensive materials and fuels. at Mach 1. an airplane is traveling at twice the speed of sound (supersonic flight). This limitation impacted the commercial viability of the Concorde. constructed of more temperature-resistant materials. which represent the ratio of the speed of the airplane to the speed of sound (subsonic). the Anglo-French Concorde. an airplane would need to be to cool its fuel. which ended its regular passenger service in October 2003. Designers today believe they can help lessen the impact of sonic booms created by supersonic airliners but probably cannot eliminate them. and the SR-71 spy plane. the exact nature of which varies depending upon how far away the aircraft is and the airplanes from efficiently utilizing overland routes. speeds of Mach 5 and above are called hypersonic. For example. at Mach 2.Supersonic flight was achieved in 1947 for the first time by the Bell X-1 rocket plane. Sonic booms at low altitudes over populated areas are generally considered a significant problem and have prevented most supersonic boom.

tail. wings.Airplanes generally share the same basic configuration—each usually has a fuselage. and a set of specialized control surfaces mounted on the wings and tail. A Fuselage . landing gear.

which run from the front. aerodynamic fuselage. These are carefully constructed to shape the wing in a manner that determines its lifting . fuel. or both. cockpit. and some weapons. and engines. Before the 20th century. wings were made of wooden ribs and spars (or beams). of the properties. Some are nearly all wing with a very small cockpit. to the rear. electronics. A conventional wing has one series of ribs. In some of the sleekest of gliders and ultralight airplanes. the fuselage may be nothing more than a minimal structure connecting the wings. or leading edge. or trailing edge. and a cabin section. have wings. In a military fighter plane. covered with fabric that was sewn tightly and varnished to be extremely stiff. B Wings All airplanes. Generally the fuselage has a cockpit section at the front end. or more spars that run from one end of the wing to the other.The fuselage is the main cabin. Others have minimal wings. tail. or wings that seem to be merely extensions of a blended. because of that material’s relatively light weight and high strength. where the pilot controls the airplane. and linen for the cloth covering. or body of the airplane. such as the space shuttle. The cabin section may be designed to carry passengers. cargo. the fuselage may house the engines. Perpendicular to the spar are a wing. Wood and fabric wings often used spruce for the structure. by definition.

After World War I (1914-1918).Early airplanes were usually biplanes—craft with two wings on each side of the fuselage. Moving the elevators up into the airstream will cause the tail to go down and the nose to pitch up. usually one mounted about 1. and fabric through the air. The components of the tail assembly are collectively referred to as the empennage. and elevators. Rudder motion is usually controlled by two pedals on the floor of the cockpit. A monoplane’s single wing gives it great advantages in speed. Over the years. as they are called. The rudder is at the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer and is used by the airplane to help control turns. consisting of vertical and horizontal stabilizers. but airline and airport managers have been unable to integrate these unusual shapes C Tail Assembly Most airplanes. American aerospace manufacturer Northrop Grumman Corporation’s flying wing. these materials enabled the development of modern all-metal wings capable not only of developing lift but of housing landing gear. a rudder. its wings laterally. Popular magazines routinely show artists’ concepts of flying-wing into conventional airline and airport facilities. except for flying wings. wood. airliners. so aircraft engineers eventually pursued the monoplane. Aircraft pioneers found the upper and lower wing to create a strong structure with substantial lift. the B- computerized flight controls. advanced materials. Moving an airplane’s nose left or right is known as a yaw motion. Elevators are control surfaces at the trailing edge of horizontal stabilizers. developed in the 1980s. A pilot controls pitch by moving a control column or stick. and 1940s. but the rudder helps keep the turn coordinated by serving much like a boat’s rudder to move the nose of the airplane left or right. designers began moving toward wings made of steel and aluminum. Flying wings. or pitch. which look like small wings. simplicity.5 m (about 5 to 6 ft) above the other. The stabilizers serve to help keep the airplane stable while in flight. . weapons. were first developed in the 1930s and 2 bomber. and visibility for the pilot. in fact. be nothing but wing. many airplane designers have postulated that the ideal airplane would. of the airplane’s nose. An airplane actually turns by banking. benefiting from modern computer-aided design (CAD). which are pushed by the pilot. The elevators control the up-and-down motion. In pushing the they could build such wings relatively easily and brace them together using wires to connect many cables. and. combined with new construction techniques. or stealth bomber. these designs created a great deal of drag. have a tail assembly attached to the rear of the fuselage. or single-wing airplane. or moving. and fuel. has been a great success as a flying machine.

must be able to handle standstill to nearly 322 km/h (200 mph) at landing. the pilot must press upon rudder pedals on the floor of the cockpit. Push down on the left pedal. banking its wings either left or right. and it makes use of this same airflow to move in any way about the three axes. the pilot will manipulate controls in the cockpit that direct control surfaces on the wings and tail to move into the airstream. or deflected. wheels. the left wing goes down. Antiskid braking systems. Modern aircraft employ brakes. and tires designed specifically for the demands of flight.D Landing Gear All airplanes must have some type of landing gear. a conventional airplane will deflect control surfaces on the trailing edge of the wings known as ailerons. as well as carrying nearly 454 metric tons. thereby increasing slightly the lift produced by the right wing. climb. The An airplane may roll. emergencies. or roll. Finally. Tires must be capable of going from a Brakes. moving about its lateral axis. the ailerons In order to yaw. which may be thought of as a straight line running from wingtip to wingtip. by the pilot. which runs straight down through the middle of the airplane. often incorporating special heat-resistant materials. the left aileron is lifted up into the airstream over the left wing. vertical axis. they can be pulled up into the wing or fuselage after takeoff. Having retractable gear greatly E Control Components An airplane is capable of three types of motion that revolve around three separate axes. An airplane relies on the movement of air across its wings for lift. a plane may pitch its nose up or down. such as a 400-metric-ton airliner aborting a takeoff at the last possible moment. were originally developed for aircraft and are used to gain maximum possible braking power on wet or icy runways. are moved in exactly the opposite fashion. The airplane may yaw its nose either left or right about the plane may fly steadily in one direction and at one altitude—or it may turn. The right wing then comes up. the right aileron is pushed down into the airstream. and the rudder at the trailing . To bank to the right. and the airplane banks to the left. which runs the length of the craft. In order to bank and begin a turn. Larger and more complex aircraft typically have retractable landing gear—so called because reduces the drag generated by the wheel structures that would otherwise hang out in the airstream. or descend. In order to bank left. common on automobiles today. At the same time. depending on which control surfaces or combination of surfaces are moved. The airplane will yaw. creating a small amount of drag and decreasing the lift produced by that wing. To do so. pitch. about the longitudinal axis. or turn the airplane’s nose left or right.

an altimeter. and attitude of the airplane. They may include an airspeed indicator. spoilers. and speed brakes. and to navigate. Pulling back on the wheel deflects the elevators upward into the airstream. As in a boat. These instruments have many variations. an aileron tab acts like a miniature aileron within the larger aileron. an artificial horizon. depending on the complexity and performance of the airplane. lifting the tail and forcing the nose down. trim tabs. Flaps and slats are at low speeds. and a compass. thereby moving the elevators at the trailing edge of the horizontal stabilizer. the pilot usually pulls or pushes on a control wheel or stick. Flaps also often serve to Trim tabs are miniature control surfaces incorporated into larger control surfaces. Systems instruments will tell a pilot about the condition of the airplane’s engines and electrical. and fuel systems. the entire horizontal stabilizer moves in small increments to serve the same function as a trim tab. and oil pressures and temperatures. Airplanes that are more complex also have a set of secondary control surfaces that may include devices such as flaps. These kinds of controls are used to adjust more precisely the flight path of an airplane that may be slightly out of balance or alignment. the left rudder moves the nose of the plane to the left. they also can be extended back generally used during takeoff and landing to increase the amount of lift produced by the wing beyond the normal trailing edge of the wing to increase the surface area of the wing as well as change its shape. to control the flight of the aircraft. thereby increasing lift. Jet-engine instruments measure the flow. although some jets have leading-edge flaps as well. speed. Flaps usually droop down from the trailing edge of the wing. (the angle of the airplane in relation to the Earth) for a given speed through the air. On some airplanes. rotational speeds of the rotating blades in the turbines.edge of the vertical stabilizer moves to the left. as well as gas temperatures and fuel Flight instruments are those used to tell a pilot the course. hydraulic. On some F Instruments Airplane pilots rely on a set of instruments in the cockpit to monitor airplane systems. In order to pitch the nose up or down. high-speed jet aircraft have airspeed indicators that . Pushing forward on the wheel causes the elevators to drop down. For example. pushing the tail down and the nose up. altitude. slats. to change the way the air flows over the wing. Elevator trim tabs are usually used to help set the pitch attitude airplanes. A push on the right pedal causes the airplane to yaw to the right. Piston-engine instruments monitor engine and exhaustgas temperatures. Leading-edge slats usually extend from the front of the wing at low speeds increase drag and slow the approach of a landing airplane. For example.

depending on its airspeed and momentum. Systems (ILS) and Microwave Landing Systems (MLS). a conventional gas-powered piston engine turns a propeller. climbing. The Global Positioning System (GPS). which either pulls or pushes an airplane through the air. combined with special cockpit displays. In larger airplanes. but many airplanes now employ without any help from the ground. The compass is the simplest of these. The artificial horizon indicates whether the may or may not be climbing. Specially equipped airplanes can use ultraprecise radio beacons and receivers. military. known as Instrument Landing to land during conditions of poor visibility. developed for the United States military but now used by many civilian pilots. a turbine engine either turns a propeller through a gearbox. in relation to the Earth. provides an airplane with its position to within a few meters.may indicate speeds both in nautical miles per hour (slightly faster than miles per hour used with ground vehicles) and in Mach number. In smaller airplanes. . An airplane with its nose up General-aviation (private aircraft). Many airplanes still employ radio receivers that tune to a satellite navigation systems and computers to navigate from any point on the globe to another ground-based radio-beacon system in order to navigate cross-country. airplane is banking. or diving. or uses its jet thrust directly to move an airplane through the air. and commercial airplanes also have instruments that aid in navigation. V PROPULSION Airplanes use either piston or turbine (rotating blades) engines to provide propulsion.

all of the air taken into the compressor at the front of the engine is sent through the core of the engine. The rearward force is balanced with an equal force that pushes forward the jet engine and the airplane attached to it. but with the addition of a and spin the compressor. some smaller jet engines are used to turn propellers. adds a large fan in front of the compressor section. a combustion chamber. Known as turboprops. eliminating the need for the spinning compressor section. however. This fan pulls an enormous amount of air into the engine case. which takes advantage of high speed to ram or force the air into the engine. in the form of solid propellant or liquid oxidizer. with many precision-machined parts moving through large ranges and in complex motions. the engine must provide enough power to move the weight of the airplane forward through the airstream.In either case. accelerated rearward by the fan. which then explodes with great force rearward through the exhaust nozzle. there is an opposite but equal reaction. where it cools and quiets the exhaust noise. squeezes the air by pulling it through a series of spinning compressors. machinery. these engines produce most of their thrust through the propeller. only a relatively small fraction of which is sent through the core for combustion. in order to operate in the airless vacuum of space. except that. and an exhaust nozzle. A jet sucks air into the front. mixes it with fuel and ignites the mixture. The simplest is the ramjet. this high-volume mass of air. even though it is never burned. This fan flow is mixed with the hot jet exhaust at the rear of the engine. compressor section. The earliest powered airplanes relied on crude steam or gas engines. Thrust from the engine is derived purely from the acceleration of the released exhaust gases out the rear. The rest runs along the outside of the core case and inside the engine casing. There are several different types of jet engines. are still relatively complicated pieces of pushed their engineering colleagues constantly for engines with more power. In a turbojet. and released. they fall short of the higher performance possible with The turbine or jet engine operates on the principle of Newton’s third law of motion. acting much like a propeller. which states that for every action. A rocket engine operates on the same principle. The turbojet is based on the jet-propulsion system of the ramjet. burned. These piston engines are examples of internal-combustion engines. produces a great deal of thrust In fact. for combustion. a turbine to take some power out of the exhaust A modern derivative known as the turbofan. many smaller general aviation aircraft. which is usually driven by the jet . Although enormously improved over the past 90 years of flight and still suitable for modern jet propulsion and required for commercial and military aviation. lighter weight. In addition. Piston engines. or fan-jet. by itself. Aircraft designers throughout the 20th century and greater reliability. the rocket must carry along its own air. This elegant simplicity is offset by the need to boost a ramjet to several hundred miles an hour before ram-air compression is sufficient to operate the engine.

typically a paved runway. although they are often called. carrier-based airplanes. Land planes.to 70-passenger-capacity range use km/h (400 mph). the landing gear.engine through a set of gears. although some specialized aircraft operating in to as the undercarriage. a turbine engine is extremely efficient. amphibians. turboprops. as in more-sophisticated airplanes in general the Arctic or Antarctic regions have skis in place of wheels. together with the associated brakes. A land plane usually has wheels to taxi. seaplanes. As a power source for a propeller. Some land planes are specially equipped to operate from grass or other unfinished surfaces. usually into the fuselage or wings. but their capabilities and uses make A Land Planes Land planes are designed to operate from a hard surface. The wheels are sometimes referred B Carrier-Based Aircraft . retractable. Landing gear may be fixed. and land. short takeoff and landing (STOL). They are particularly efficient at lower altitudes and medium speeds up to 640 VI TYPES OF AIRPLANES There are a wide variety of types of airplanes. vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL). or and commercial aviation. take off. shuttles all take advantage of the same basic technology. as in some general-aviation airplanes. and space them seem only distantly related. and many smaller airliners in the 19.

and arrested landings. to handle the stresses of catapult-assisted takeoff.Carrier-based airplanes are a specially modified type of land plane designed for takeoff from and landing aboard naval aircraft carriers. in which the C Seaplanes . craft is launched by a steam-driven catapult. including their landing gear. Carrier airplanes have a strengthened structure. made by using a hook attached to the underside of the aircraft’s tail to catch one of four wires strung across the flight deck of the carrier.

Known as flying boats. a VTOL airplane usually transitions to wing-borne flight in order to cover a longer distance or carry a significant load. pointed down at the Earth. cases. Historically. A number of seaplanes fuselages that resemble and perform like ship hulls. some flying boats were fitted with so-called beaching gear. an amphibian is a true seaplane. sometimes called floatplanes or pontoon planes. a system of rolled onto land. but the weight of the airplane is borne by the floating hull. but there are very few VTOL airplanes. . A helicopter is a type of VTOL aircraft. which then allowed the aircraft to be E Vertical Takeoff and Landing Airplanes Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) airplanes typically use the jet thrust from their engines. After taking off. they may have D Amphibians Amphibians. modified with floats instead of wheels so they can operate from water. Such seaplanes have small floats attached to their outer wing panels to help steady them at low speeds on the water. In many landing gear that can be extended to allow the airplane to taxi right out of the water onto land. with a boat hull and the addition of specially designed cradles on wheels positioned under the floating aircraft. are often ordinary land planes have been designed from scratch to operate only from water bases.Seaplanes. to take off and land straight up and down. like their animal namesakes. operate from both water and land bases.

the Harrier can take off vertically from smaller ships. F Short Takeoff and Landing Airplanes Short Takeoff and Landing (STOL) airplanes are designed to be able to function on relatively short runways. although some serve in a passenger-carrying capacity as well. flown by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). G Space Shuttle The space shuttle. or it can be flown to operating areas near the ground troops it supports in its ground-attack role. as well as in Spain. Flown in the United States by the Marine Corps. and the wing takes on the load of the craft. India. propeller-like rotating wings or rotors driven by jet engines at the wingtips. the engine/rotor combination tilts forward. Their designs usually employ wings and high-lift devices on the wings optimized for best performance during takeoff and landing. Italy. For takeoff and landing. which has large. however. much like a helicopter. STOL airplanes are usually cargo airplanes. the engines and rotors are positioned vertically. it flies like a rocket . When the space shuttle takes off.One unique type of VTOL aircraft is the tilt-rotor. is an aircraft unlike any other because it flies as a fixed-wing airplane within the atmosphere and as a spacecraft outside Earth’s atmosphere. as distinguished from an airplane that has a wing optimized for high-speed cruise at high altitude. After takeoff. where it was originally developed. a military attack plane that uses rotating nozzles attached to its jet engine to direct the engine exhaust in the appropriate direction. The most prominent example of a true VTOL airplane flying today is the AV-8B Harrier II. and United Kingdom.

175 metric tons of thrust generated by its solid-fuel rocket boosters and liquid-fueled main engines to power its way up.with wings. military. They are strictly regulated—in the United States. States and Airbus in Europe—offer a wide variety of aircraft with different capabilities. by Transport Canada. and out of the landing without propulsion. During landing. all of which fall under different government-mandated certification A Commercial Airplanes Commercial aircraft are those used for profit making. by other national aviation authorities. Modern large commercial-airplane manufacturers—such The Boeing Company in the United jet airliners carry anywhere from 100 passengers to more than 500 over short and long distances. atmosphere. relying on the 3. such as commercial. through. and in other countries. Today’s . the shuttle becomes the world’s most sophisticated glider. usually by carrying cargo or passengers for hire (see Air Transport Industry). in Canada. VII CLASSES OF AIRPLANES Airplanes can be grouped into a handful of major classes. by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). general-aviation airplanes. and and operating rules.

The United at twice the speed of sound. A fatal air sharp decline in airline travel following the September 11 terrorist attacks. although some airplanes have both capabilities. The Concorde ended its regular passenger service in October 2003 due to its lack of for a round-trip fare. cargo. training. flag carriers States had an SST program. such as missiles. in either defensive or offensive situations. Declining ticket sales for the high-priced service. Some fighters have a ground-attack . Combat airplanes are generally either fighters or bombers. Fighters are designed to engage in air combat have been capable of Mach 2+ flight (a Mach number represents the ratio of the speed of an role as well and are designed to carry both air-to-air weapons. and air-towith other airplanes. profitability. but it was ended because of budget and environmental concerns in 1971. and observation (see Military Aviation). combined with higher costs led to the Concorde’s demise.Beginning in 1976 the British-French Concorde supersonic transport (SST) carried passengers of the two nations that funded its development during the late 1960s and 1970s. Since the 1950s many fighters airplane to the speed of sound as it travels through air).000 and up crash in 2000 grounded the Concorde for a full year. It returned to service only to witness a B Military Airplanes Military aircraft are usually grouped into four categories: combat. The Concorde flew for British Airways and Air France. which cost about $9.

following the terrain. the Boeing F-15 Eagle. while others. such as the B-2. the MiG-29 Fulcrum. Fighters include aircraft such as the Panavia Tornado. Bombers are designed to carry large air-to-ground-weapons loads and either penetrate or avoid enemy air defenses in order to deliver those weapons.ground weapons. and the Northrop-Grumman B-2 stealth bomber. the Lockheed-Martin F-16 Falcon. may use sophisticated . Bombers such as the B-52 are designed to fly fast at low altitudes. the Boeing B-1. and the Su-27 Flanker. in radar-defeating technologies to fly virtually unobserved. order to fly under enemy radar defenses. Some well-known bombers include the Boeing B-52. such as bombs.

and even smaller aircraft. Such tankers include the Boeing KC-135 and KC-10. carriers.Today’s military cargo airplanes are capable of carrying enormous tanks. Some cargo planes can serve a dual role as aerial gas stations. refueling different types of military airplanes while in flight. armored personnel 5B and Boeing C-17 were designed expressly for such roles. Cargo planes such as the giant Lockheed C- . artillery pieces.

UAVs include the Predator drone. made by General Atomics Aeronautical Systems. factor. They typically begin the flight training in relatively simple. aircraft. of chemicals. uses specialized engines and fuel to reach altitudes greater than 25. or reconnaissance. observation airplanes were developed solely for highly specialized missions. Lockheed’s SR-71. A very specialized type of airplane.000 ft) and speeds well over Mach 3.. highly maneuverable. Most business airplanes require more reliable performance and more range and Another class of general-aviation airplanes is used in agriculture. They relay video and battlegrounds during the day or at night. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) also were developed for reconnaissance in situations considered too dangerous for piloted aircraft or in instances where pilot fatigue would be a based in San Diego. a two-seat airplane. These unpiloted aircraft are flown by software programs infrared images in real time to military commanders. ultralight airplanes to sleek twin turboprops capable of carrying eight people. They can be seen swooping low over farm fields. providing instantaneous views of Vehicles (UCAVs). crop dusters lack sophisticated navigation aids and complex systems. California. Pleasure aircraft range from simple single-seat. Business aircraft transport business executives to all-weather capability. With the advent of the Lockheed U-2 spy plane in the 1950s.All military pilots go through rigorous training and education programs using military training airplanes to prepare them to fly the high-performance aircraft of the armed forces. or transports. bombers. Some military trainers include the T-34 Mentor. Not intended for serious crosscountry navigation. also carry weapons that can be fired by ground operators using the aircraft’s video and infrared cameras to locate their targets. crop dusters are rugged. Inc. and the Boeing T-45 Goshawk. appointments. known as Unmanned Combat Aerial C General-Aviation Aircraft General-aviation aircraft are certified for and intended primarily for noncommercial or private operations. A final category of military airplane is the observation. and capable of hauling several hundred pounds VIII HISTORY . Some UAVs.000 m (80. containing navigational instructions and operated from the ground. the T-37 and T-38. Large farms require efficient ways to spread fertilizer and insecticides over a large area. propeller airplanes and move into basic jets before specializing in a career path involving fighters.

few people had applied themselves to the study of flight. practices. three devices important to aviation had been invented in Europe in the Middle Ages and had reached a high stage of development by Leonardo’s time—the windmill. Cayley laid the foundations inclined plane to provide lift. during the 15th century. and the model helicopter. technical value to experimenters but was a source of inspiration to aspiring engineers. Apart from Leonardo’s efforts. flight control by means of a single of aerodynamics. an early propeller. in which both lift and thrust are provided propelling devices to provide thrust. the use of the rudder-elevator unit mounted on a universal joint. Cayley sent his unwilling coachman on the . the kite. In 1853. pitch. His aeronautical work lay unknown until late in the 19th century. Through his published works. in his third full-size machine. called ornithopters. and other devices and first gliding flight in history. He demonstrated. and designed airplanes with rigid wings to provide lift. streamlining. and roll stability. both with models and with full-size gliders. when it could furnish little of A The First Airplanes Between 1799 and 1809 English baronet Sir George Cayley created the concept of the modern by the wings.Before the end of the 18th century. and with separate airplane. an early airplane wing. Cayley abandoned the ornithopter tradition. Leonardo was preoccupied chiefly with bird flight and with flapping-wing machines. One was the Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci.

turn. Langley began experimenting in 1892 with a steam-powered. fuselage. That first flight traveled a distance of about 37 m (120 ft). an effective system for controlling the aircraft. 1903. called the Flyer. Their fourth and final flight of the day lasted 59 seconds and covered only 260 m (852 ft). Ohio. heavier-than-air. While successful as gliders. suffered from design faults. Inventors continued to pursue the dream of sustained flight. . and a wing and structure that were both strong and lightweight. The distance was less than the wingspan of many modern airliners. up to half an hour on occasion. Lilienthal and legs in the direction he wished to go. Steam-powered models made by Henson in 1847 were promising but unsuccessful. The Aerodrome never successfully carried a person. but it represented the beginning of a new age in technology and human achievement. However. the Wright brothers put together the combination At Kitty Hawk. the unpiloted Aerodrome. are considered the fathers of the first successful piloted heavier-than-air flying machine. powerful engine. Steam Carriage. was the world’s first fully practical airplane. Henson’s design did more than any other to establish the form of the modern In 1890 French engineer Clément Ader built a steam-powered airplane and made the first actual flight of a piloted. Between 1891 and 1896 German aeronautical engineer Otto Lilienthal made thousands of successful flights in hang gliders of his own design.In 1843 British inventor William Samuel Henson published his patented design for an Aerial airplane—a fixed-wing monoplane with propellers. North Carolina. as Langley called it. a reliable transmission and efficient propellers. Through the disciplines of critical characteristics that other designs of the day lacked—a relatively lightweight (337 kg/750 lb). B The First Airplane Flight American aviators Orville Wright and Wilbur Wright of Dayton. make figure eights. unpiloted aircraft. the flight was not sustained. and the airplane brushed the ground over a distance of 50 m (160 ft). and in 1896 made the first sustained flight of any mechanically propelled heavier-than-air craft. Orville Wright made the first successful flight of a piloted. and with flight control by means of rear elevator and rudder. The third Flyer. heavier-than-air craft. self-propelled craft. Virginia. It could bank. and remain in the air for as long as the fuel lasted. hung in a frame between the wings and controlled his gliders entirely by swinging his torso control system and a reliable method for powering the craft. He was killed in a gliding accident American inventor Samuel Pierpont Langley had been working for several years on flying machines. and thus prevented Langley from earning the place in history claimed by the Wright brothers. on December 17. circle. his designs lacked a in 1896. of sound scientific research and engineering. Launched by catapult from a houseboat on the Potomac River near Quantico. which the Wrights constructed in 1905. and wheeled landing gear.

. the development of the airplane accelerated dramatically. while circling the field at Fort died from his injuries and became the first fatality from the crash of a powered airplane.000-km (2.E. American inventor and aviator Glenn Curtiss introduced the first practical seaplane. a wartime potential. Army used a Wright brothers’ biplane to make the first live bomb test from an airplane. In 1915 Fokker mounted a machine gun with a timing gear so that the gun could fire between the rotating propellers. That same year. or acrobatic flying. the most successful fighter in the skies.S. Virginia. and other stunts proved the maneuverability of France to Egypt. prior to World War I (1914-1918). from France to Tunisia. were considered superior to their Allied competition. the airplane was used in its first wartime operation when an Italian captain flew over and observed Turkish positions during the Italo-Turkish War of 1911 to 1912.500-mi) flight from was introduced. and the first nonstop flight across the Mediterranean Sea. 2c version of this airplane was so successful that nearly 2. air craft as early as 1898. with many stops. the airplane was relegated mostly to the county-fair circuit. airplanes. for a time. Selfridge On July 25. which had long been using balloons to observe the battlefield and expressed an interest in heavier-thanSignal Corps at Fort Myer. and this potential was further demonstrated in 1910 and 1911.” Aerobatics. In 1911 the U. The B. when monoplane of his own design.C Early Military and Public Interest The airplane. This was a biplane with a large float beneath the center of the lower wing and two smaller floats beneath the tips of the lower wing. European designers such as Louis Blériot and Dutch-American engineer Anthony Herman Fokker exploited basic concepts created by the Wrights and developed ever faster. The year 1913 became known as the “glorious year of flying. and deadlier combat airplanes. In 1908 the Wrights demonstrated their airplane to the U. 2 proved itself to be the first naturally stable airplane in the world.000 were subsequently built. Army’s Myer. where daredevil pilots drew large crowds but few investors. One exception was the United States War Department. Long-distance flights made in 1913 included a 4. a modified Farnborough B. The resulting Fokker Eindecker monoplane fighter was. such as the D-VII and D-VIII flown by German pilots. more capable. like many other milestone inventions throughout history.E. was not immediately recognized for its potential. Blériot’s channel crossing made clear to the world the airplane’s American pilot Eugene Ely took off from and landed on warships. French engineer Louis Blériot crossed the English channel in a Blériot XI. In September of that year. D Planes of World War I During World War I. Fokker’s biplanes. and upside-down flying. Also in 1911. 1909. In Britain. Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge. Orville crashed while carrying an army observer.S. loops. During the very early 1900s.

S.600 m (25. It was for ten passengers.800 m (19. The DC-3 quickly came to dominate commercial aviation in the late 1930s. when the American inventor Elmer Sperry perfected the artificial horizon and directional gyro. By the end of World War I in 1918. travel at 145 km/h (90 mph) and was light. proved the value of Sperry’s instruments by taking off. which became. although it had to stop many times for 3s are still in service today.000 ft) and had a top speed of 190 km/h (120 mph). Light and powerful. and could travel across the country in less than 24 hours of travel time. an all-metal. Boeing’s Model 247 was considered the first truly modern airliner. these engines gave strong competition to the older. for an alternative. and landing. and room production line and led indirectly to the development of perhaps the most successful propeller Beach. with retractable landing gear. which flew as high as 5. In the early 1920s the air-cooled engine was perfected. flying over a predetermined course. liquid- introduced in 1925. an American pilot and army officer. The first regularly scheduled passenger line in the world operated between Saint Petersburg and Tampa. On September 24. Post Office for airmail. 1. In the mid-1920s light airplanes were produced in great numbers. used powerful. E Development of Commercial Aviation Commercial aviation began in January 1914. Commercial aviation developed slowly during the next 30 years. Florida. Notable French fighters included the Spad (1916) and the Nieuport 28 (1918). engine casing. 1929. Trans World Airlines. approached airplane manufacturer Donald Douglas in Long and the DC-3. the DC-2. the Douglas DC-3. low-wing monoplane. just 10 years after the Wrights pioneered the skies. outstanding early British fighters included the Sopwith Pup (1916) and the Sopwith Camel (1917). all without visual reference to the Earth.000 ft) and speeds up to 250 km/h (155 mph). in quick succession. strong. both warring sides had fighters that could fly at altitudes of 7. California.000-horsepower engines. The Moth could Instrument flying became practical in 1929. and some DC- . and easy to handle. The inexpensive DeHavilland Moth biplane. not willing to wait for Boeing to finish the order from United. Introduced in 1933. an insulated cabin. along with its streamlined cowling. The DC-3 carried 21 passengers. put flying within the financial reach of many enthusiasts. James Doolittle. the DC-1. During World War I. An order from United Air Lines for 60 planes of this type tied up Boeing’s airliner in history. fuel. or cooled engines. driven by the two world wars and service demands of the U. and club and private pleasure flying became popular.The concentrated research and development made necessary by wartime pressures produced great progress in airplane design and construction.

Jet transportation in the commercial-aviation arena arrived in 1952 with Britain’s DeHavilland Comet. now carried Wartime technology efforts also brought to aviation critical new developments. Pan American World Airways inaugurated Boeing 707 jet service in October of 1958. four-engine 707s and DC-8s had established themselves. airlines clamored for smaller. early versions of which carried troops and VIPs during the war. shorter-range jets. and reached a rate of became available in large numbers. After the big. a pressurized derivative of the famous B-17 bomber. With its regulated cabin air at speeds of 320 km/h (200 mph). when comfortable. A large number of sophisticated new transports. used in wartime for troop and cargo carriage. and Boeing and Douglas delivered. pressure. Douglas produced the DC-9 and Boeing both the 737 and the trijet 727.000 a year by the end of the war. four-engine jet. the Stratoliner could carry 33 passengers at altitudes up to 6.Boeing provided the next major breakthrough with its Model 307 Stratoliner. England. entering service in 1940. an 885-km/h (550-mph).000 m (20. The Comet quickly suffered two fatal crashes due to structural problems and was grounded. Transatlantic jet service enabled travelers to fly from New York City to London. When the United nearly 50. became available to commercial operators after Constellation. the war ended. such as the jet engine. half the propeller-airplane time. Airplane production concentrated mainly on fighters and bombers. in less than eight hours. and air travel changed dramatically almost overnight. there were fewer than 300 planes in airline service. that the airline industry really prospered. pressurized air transports States entered World War II in 1941. This complication gave American manufacturers Boeing and Douglas time to bring the 707 and DC-8 to the market. Boeing’s new 707 carried 112 passengers at high speed and quickly brought an end to the propeller era for large commercial airplanes. Pressurized propeller planes such as the Douglas DC-6 and Lockheed paying passengers on transcontinental and transatlantic flights. G The Jumbo Jet Era .000 ft) and F Aircraft Developments of World War II It was not until after World War II (1939-1945).

was the age of the jumbo jet. so-called fly-by-wire aircraft with sidestick controllers for the pilots rather than conventional control columns and wheels. a superjumbo jet that will seat Scheduled to enter service in 2006.The next frontier. a wide-body jumbo jet that can hold up to 400 passengers. The company ceded the superjumbo jet market to Airbus and instead focused . During the 1980s and 1990s Airbus expanded its family of aircraft by introducing the slightly smaller A310 twin jet and the narrow-body A320 twin. 80. a unique. Airbus also introduced the larger A330 twin and the A340. pioneered in the late 1960s. produced later in an updated version known as the MD-11. the jet will be the world’s largest passenger airliner. sometimes called jumbo jets. The L-1011 is no longer in production. In 1997 Boeing acquired longtime rival McDonnell Douglas. McDonnell Douglas built a somewhat smaller. Lockheed built the L-1011 Tristar. lighter. In 2000 the company launched production of the A380. MDits efforts on developing a midsize passenger airplane. In the 1980s McDonnell Douglas introduced the twin-engine MD-80 family. Boeing. McDonnell Douglas. Boeing developed and still builds the 747. both of which extend the entire length of the fuselage. on which passenger loads are somewhat 555 passengers on two decks. Airbus had developed the A300 wide-body twin during the 1970s. and Lockheed-Martin no longer builds commercial airliners. and MD-90. and Lockheed all produced wide-body airliners. Boeing introduced the 777. a four-engine airplane for longer routes. in 1995. and Boeing brought online the narrow-body 757 and wide-body 767 twin jets. three-engine jet called the DC-10. a trijet that competed with the DC-10. and a year later the company announced its intention to halt production of the passenger workhorses MD-11.

and quickly. such as calculations or electronic communication. computer and are retrieved and processed by the computer’s electronics. machine that performs tasks. such as video display monitors or printers. Computers perform a wide variety of activities reliably.Computer I INTRODUCTION Computer. Programs usually reside within the are stored or routed to output devices. accurately. The program results II USES OF COMPUTERS . under the control of a set of instructions called a program.

Computers in automobiles regulate the flow of fuel. the central processing unit (CPU) that carries out program instructions. such as a keyboard or mouse. tiny computers embedded in the electronic circuitry of most appliances control the indoor temperature. with computer-controlled projection units. they Instruction). and transfer funds electronically. thereby increasing gas mileage. and animation to their communications (see Computer-Aided track grades and communicate with students. and to keep III HOW COMPUTERS WORK The physical computer and its components are known as hardware. and turn videocassette recorders (VCRs) on and off. exist to aid every level of education. check the credit status of customers. creating digitized sound on stereo systems or computer-animated features from a digitally encoded laser disc. the output devices. operate home security systems. the input devices. Computer programs. In homes. Computer hardware includes the memory that stores data and program instructions. The military employs track of personnel and supplies. or applications. investigate complicated data. computers track inventories with bar codes and scanners. In business. sound. such as printers . tell the time. Computers are used extensively in scientific research to solve mathematical problems. Computers also entertain. or model systems that are too costly or impractical to build. Educators use computers to can add graphics. from programs that teach simple addition or sentence construction to programs that teach advanced calculus. such as testing the air flow around the next generation of aircraft.People use computers in many ways. computers in sophisticated communications to encode and unscramble messages. that allow the user to communicate with the computer.

These instructions tell the computer how to start up. which is the software that makes the computer these commands and other operations. body. to control the arm of a robot to weld a car’s of the computer. Some operating systems allow the user to B Computer Memory . touch. When the user requests that a program run. have commands. Software generally is designed to perform a particular type of task—for example. and controls the sequence of the software and hardware actions. or icons. one of the first sets of these instructions is a special program called the operating system. such as Microsoft Windows and the Macintosh system (Mac OS). the work. and buses (hardware lines or wires) that connect these and other computer components. or other input methods. the user clicks the mouse on the icon or carry out these tasks via voice. The programs that run the computer are called software. to represent various files and presses a combination of keys on the keyboard. It prompts the user (or other machines) for input and commands.and video display monitors. to write a letter. graphical user interfaces (GUIs)—that use tiny pictures. that enable the computer to present information to the user. to display and modify a photograph. reports the results of operating system loads the program in the computer’s memory and runs the program. Usually. or to direct the general operation A The Operating System When a computer is turned on it searches for instructions in its memory. Popular operating systems. stores and manages data. To access these files or commands.

024 bytes—can store about 1. 011. a character within a string of The physical memory of a computer is either random access memory (RAM). data are stored in a computer in the form of binary digits. called a byte. 101. 100. in lower and upper cases. combinations: 00. A byte is a useful quantity in which to store information because it provides enough possible punctuation marks. If a second bit is added to a single bit of information. which can be read by . the number of possible patterns is doubled. and several character-sized graphics symbols. Numbers can represent anything from chemical bonds to dollar figures to colors to sounds. See also Expanded Memory. 10.To process information electronically. given byte should be interpreted—that is. Each time a bit is added. a byte has 256 possible combinations of 0s and 1s. resulting in four possible the number of combinations. the number of representations is doubled. 010. A third bit added to this two-bit representation again doubles 110. as a single character. which can be read or changed by the user or computer. Computer programmers usually decide how a text. each having two possible representations (0 or 1). characters such as . and a terabyte can store about 1 trillion characters. or 111. or bits. resulting in eight possibilities: 000. a gigabyte can store about 1 billion characters. Eight bits is Extended Memory. A kilobyte—1. or read-only memory (ROM). or 11.000 characters. or part of a larger number. as well as numeric digits. 01. 001. including non-English patterns to represent the entire alphabet. a megabyte can store about 1 million characters. A byte also can be interpreted as a pattern that represents a number between 0 and 255. a single number.

Information is stored in a CPU memory location called a register.the computer but not altered in any way. Each wire can carry one bit. hard drives. a touch panel. some of them specialized to carry particular forms of data. and digital video discs (DVDs). Early computer designs utilized a single or very few buses. One way to store memory is within the circuitry of the computer. E The Central Processing Unit Information from an input device or from the computer’s memory is communicated via the bus to the central processing unit (CPU). Memory also can be stored outside the circuitry of the computer on external storage devices. D Input Devices Input devices. compact discs (CDs). which can store 8. temporarily storing instructions or data. Modern designs typically use many buses. and a microphone. When a program is running. A single CD can store nearly as much information as several hundred floppy disks. The CPU is a microprocessor chip—that is. which is the part of the computer that translates commands and runs programs. such as graphics. Registers can be thought of as the CPU’s tiny scratchpad. The bus is usually a flat cable with numerous parallel wires. used to input sounds such as the human voice which can activate computer commands in conjunction with voice recognition software. a scanner. “Tablet” computers are being developed that will allow users to interact with their screens using a penlike device. which can store up to 680 megabytes of information. The memory within these computer chips is RAM.5 gigabytes of information. to communicate as program instructions are being carried out. allows the simultaneous transmission of 16 bits (2 bytes) of information from one component to another. microscopically wired electrical components. The . which converts images such as photographs into digital images that the computer can manipulate. a single piece of silicon containing millions of tiny. which can store gigabytes of information. C The Bus The bus enables the components in a computer. such as the CPU and the memory circuits. and some DVDs can hold more than 12 times as much data as a CD. one special register called the program counter keeps track of which program instruction comes next by maintaining the memory location of the next program instruction to be executed. a 16-bit bus. usually in tiny computer chips that hold millions of bytes of information. Other input devices include a joystick. a rodlike device often used by people who play computer games. with 16 parallel wires. such as a keyboard or mouse. For example. which can store about 2 megabytes of information. which senses the placement of a user’s finger and can be used to execute commands or access files. permit the computer user to communicate with the computer. such as magnetic floppy disks. so the bus can transmit many bits along the cable at the same time.

Machine CPU). Meanwhile. overhead projectors. and it uses the program counter to locate and retrieve the next instruction from memory. These other languages are slower because the language must be translated first so that the than code written directly in the machine’s language. depending on the computer and the . liquid crystal display. Any data the instruction needs are retrieved via the bus and placed in the register or copied to specific memory locations via a bus. Other output devices are printers. for example. the program counter changes—usually increasing a small amount—so that it contains the location of the instruction that will be The instruction then travels along the bus from the computer’s memory to the CPU. The current instruction is analyzed by a decoder. The CPU executes the instruction. and speakers. Typical instructions are for copying data from a memory location or for adding the code instructions are few in number (roughly 20 to 200. All other programming languages must be converted to machine code for them to be understood. An executable program is a sequence of extremely simple instructions known as machine code. Frequently. such as a video display monitor or a flat recorders (VCRs). however.CPU’s control unit coordinates and times the CPU’s functions. several instructions may be in process simultaneously. A CPU has a limited set of instructions known as machine code that it is capable of understanding. In a typical sequence. the CPU locates the next instruction in the appropriate memory device. This entire sequence of steps is each at a different stage in its instruction cycle. stored in a special instruction register. The translation can lead to code that may be less efficient to run A Machine Language Computer programs that can be run by a computer’s operating system are called executables. which determines what the CPU’s registers. where it is executed next. This is called pipeline processing. These instructions are specific to the individual computer’s CPU and associated hardware. F Output Devices Once the CPU has executed the program instruction. Intel Pentium and Power PC microprocessor chips each have different machine languages and require different sets of codes to perform the same task. The CPU can understand only this language. computer can understand it. called an instruction cycle. See also Input/Output Devices. Computer programmers. and the results are stored in another instruction will do. the program may request that the information be communicated to an output device. prefer to use other computer languages that use words or other commands because they are easier to use. videocassette IV PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES Programming languages contain the series of commands that create software.

Instead. B” instructs the computer to copy data from location A to location B. Complex tasks require a sequence of these simple instructions. For example. computer instructions usually are not written in machine code. High-level languages are easier to use than machine and assembly languages because their commands are closer to natural human language. Each machine language instruction has an statement “MOV A.contents of two memory locations (usually registers in the CPU). Encarta User!’ << endl. to display a greeting need include only the following command: cout << ‘Hello. CPUs use different machine languages and therefore require different programs and different program to carry out specific hardware tasks or to speed up parts of the high-level program C High-Level Languages High-level languages were developed because of the difficulty of programming using assembly languages. This command directs the computer’s CPU to display the greeting. it is converted to a machine-language program by another program called Assembly language is fast and powerful because of its correspondence with machine language. sequences of bits (0s and 1s). When this statement is executed. equivalent command in assembly language. and it will work no matter between the quotes will be displayed. these languages are not CPU-specific. Once an assembly-language an assembler. Although the “cout” and “endl” parts of the above For example. It is still difficult to use. For example. “cout” sends the greeting message to the “standard output” (usually the computer . Assembly language is sometimes inserted into a high-level language that are executed frequently. B Assembly Language Assembly language uses easy-to-remember commands that are more understandable to programmers than machine-language commands. Machine code instructions are binary—that is. the text that appears statement appear cryptic. because assembly-language instructions are a series of abstract codes and each instruction carries out a relatively simple task. a programmer writing in the high-level C++ programming language who wants what type of CPU the computer uses. Because these sequences are long strings of 0s and 1s and are usually not easy to understand. in one Intel assembly language. In addition. different assembly languages. Instead. the program is written. programmers quickly become accustomed to their meanings. The same instruction in machine code is a string of 16 0s and 1s. computer programmers write code in languages known as an assembly language or a high-level language. they contain general commands that work on different CPUs. In addition. however.

Hopper is credited for inventing the term bug. (IBM) developed Fortran. especially in physics. an acronym for Formula Translation. BASIC commands typify high-level languages because of their simplicity and their can be written as Hungarian-American mathematician John Kemeny and American mathematician Thomas early personal computers. For example. For example. standard programming language because it could process mathematical formulas. This simplifies the programmer’s V FLOW-MATIC American naval officer and mathematician Grace Murray Hopper helped develop the first commercially available high-level software language. and the term discovered a hardware failure in the Mark II computer caused by a moth trapped between its eventually came to represent any computer error. Unlike languages that require all their instructions to be translated closeness to natural human language.” X 20 Y=X/2 . The language was easier to learn than its predecessors and became popular due to its friendly. using compilers designed for those machines. This is the task of a special program called a compiler. BASIC is turned into machine language line by line as the program runs. Like assembly-language instructions. interactive nature and its inclusion on into machine code first.” VI FORTRAN From 1954 to 1958 American computer scientist John Backus of International Business Machines.user’s screen) and “endl” is how to tell the computer (when using the C++ language) to go to a new line after it outputs the message. FLOW-MATIC. in 1945 she mechanical relays. including one based strictly on incorrect instructions in software. Inc. Hopper taped the moth into her notebook and wrote. such as a Sun Microsystems work station or a personal task and makes the software more portable to different users and machines. New Hampshire. computer (PC). a programmer may write a program in a high-level language such as C++ or Java and then prepare it for different machines. “First actual case of a bug being found. A compiler turns a high-level program into a CPU-specific machine language. high-level languages also must be translated. in 1957. developed BASIC (Beginner’s Allpurpose Symbolic Instruction Code) in 1964. She documented the event in her laboratory notebook. a program that divides a number in half 10 INPUT “ENTER A NUMBER. which indicates a computer malfunction. Fortran and VII BASIC Kurtz at Dartmouth College in Hanover. It became a its variations are still in use today.

such as a circle. Digital refers to the processes in computers that manipulate binary numbers (0s or 1s). Visual Basic. Prolog. and tested.” Y The numbers that precede each line are chosen by the programmer to indicate the sequence a question mark to prompt the user to type in the number labeled “X. but they enable a programmer to think in terms of collections of cooperating objects instead of lists of commands. Some languages. and media selections. resulting in more “reusable” computer code.14). Objects.” In the third line. This set of programming classes simplifies the programmer’s task. are based on traditional high-level languages. but they have become increasingly sophisticated. such as the “markup languages” known as HTML. A bit can have the value 0 or the value 1. but so can 0. LISP. Classes of objects can inherit features from other classes of objects. and it results in more IX A TYPES OF COMPUTERS Digital and Analog Computers can be either digital or analog. C++. 1. XML. or a number like  (approximately 3. Pascal. especially for users of the World Wide Web. but nothing in between 0 and 1. graphics. Markup languages are often not considered A Object-Oriented Programming Languages Object-oriented programming (OOP) languages.5. have properties such as the radius of the circle and the command that draws it on the computer screen. Analog refers to circuits or numerical values that have a continuous range. and Java. This makes the programmer’s task easier. Ada. The first line prints “ENTER A NUMBER” on the computer screen followed by program demonstrates how data are stored and manipulated in most high-level programming VIII OTHER HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES Other high-level languages in use today include C. such as C++ and Java. designed. a class defining squares can inherit features such as right angles from a class defining rectangles. that number is divided by two and stored as “Y. the result of the operation is displayed on the computer screen. are intended to display data.” In the next line. COBOL. of the commands. Reusable code allows a programmer to use code that has already been reliable and efficient programs. programming languages. For example.5. this simple languages. . Even though BASIC is rarely used today.30 PRINT “HALF OF THAT NUMBER IS. and their variants. written. Both 0 and 1 can be represented by analog computers. Virtually all modern computers are digital. which represent switches that are turned on or off by electrical current.

delivering doses of medicine. the user slides been shown recently in analog computers. or on or off bits. and program instructions. These bits can be combined to denote information such as numbers. to track finances. trackball. They can be in the 20th century was the slide rule. If a dimmer replaces the on/off switch. and address books. or keeping accurate time. and physical size. is. lightweight LCDs instead of television-like video display monitors. if equipped with a cellular phone. gauged wooden strip inside a rulerlike holder. Some small computers can be held in one hand and are called personal digital assistants (PDAs). particularly in areas such as neural networks. a mouse. speed. B Range of Computer Ability Computers exist in a wide range of sizes and power. memory. Laptop and notebook computers usually have hardware and software similar to PCs. graphics. but they are more compact and have flat. They generally are “hard-wired”—that Programmable computers vary enormously in their computational power. The smallest are embedded within the circuitry of appliances. These built to respond to continuous electrical signals. These computers are typically preprogrammed for a specific task. Hand-held game devices are also examples of Portable laptop and notebook computers and desktop PCs are typically used in businesses and at home to communicate on computer networks. They are used as notepads. exchange information regardless of location. then the lamp system is digital. letters. for word processing. such as televisions and wristwatches. and for entertainment. the slide rule is analog. because the amount of light can vary continuously from on to off and all intensities Analog computer systems were the first type to be produced. New interest has are specialized computer designs that attempt to mimic neurons of the brain. A popular analog computer used a narrow. To perform calculations with a slide rule. Because the sliding is continuous and there is no mechanism to stop at any exact values. They have large amounts of internal memory to store hundreds of pointing device. are digital machines whose components have a finite number of states—for example. then the lamp in between. their programs are represented as circuits that cannot be reprogrammed. Most modern computers. the 0 or 1. and a video display monitor or liquid crystal display (LCD) to display programs and documents. because the lamp either produces light at a given moment or it does not. or other information. however. Most sources consider the terms “laptop” and “notebook” synonymous. such as tuning to a particular television frequency. they can connect to worldwide computer networks to small computers. If the lamp has a simple on/off switch. is analog. sound. scheduling systems. They are equipped with a keyboard.A desk lamp can serve as an example of the difference between analog and digital. .

each PC may have “local” memory (for example. and it simplifies each individual workstation or PC. but the bulk of storage resides on the server. a local area network (LAN). the boundaries between the various types have from one type of computer to another. scientific computers break a task into small pieces. Large businesses. such as those used to create weather predictions. mathematical abilities. or terminals that have no computational abilities of their own. become less rigid. The most powerful mainframe computers. For example. workstations. and capabilities than workstations and are usually shared by multiple users through a series of interconnected computers. such as stock exchanges—that require complex and fast computations. and each CPU processes a portion of the task to increase overall speed and efficiency. such as hard-disk space or printers. Networks also allow remote use of a computer by a user who cannot physically access the computer. The server stores and manages programs and data. As institutions. a hard the workstation or PC because less expensive computers can be purchased. can be shared. speed.Workstations are similar to personal computers but have greater memory and more extensive exchange data. and business environments— especially financial ones. consists of several PCs or workstations connected to a special computer called a server. They are typically found in scientific. These “dumb” terminals are used only to enter data into. . and they are connected to other workstations or personal computers to Mainframe computers have more memory. Such computers are called parallel processors. They may be connected to PCs. and the military use them. networked PCs can work together on a given task in a version of parallel processing known as distributed computing. They control businesses and industrial facilities and are used for scientific research. Some supercomputers have many sets of CPUs. These computers have increased in sophistication. process complex and time-consuming calculations. often within the same building or office networked group’s data and enables LAN workstations or PCs to be set up without large complex. and software and hardware resources. or receive output from. This reduces the cost of the maintenance of software because the software resides only on the server rather than on Mainframe computers and supercomputers commonly are networked. One type of network. industrial. called supercomputers. In this scenario. the central computer. The performance of various tasks and types of computing have also moved X NETWORKS Computers can communicate with other computers through a series of connections and associated hardware called a network. drive) specific to itself. The advantage of a network is that data can be exchanged rapidly. A server often contains all of a storage capabilities.

Schikard invented a machine that used 11 complete and 6 incomplete sprocketed wheels that French philosopher. American computer scientist Vinton Cerf was largely responsible for Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The largest WAN is the Internet. automatically carrying and borrowing digits from column to column. or sophisticated searching software known as search engines. The World Wide Web. In 1623 German scientist Wilhelm could add. Pascal built 50 copies of his machine. government. programs. D. sounds. enabling users to browse (transfer their attention from one information site to another) via buttons. The Internet is a mammoth resource of data. B First Punch Cards .C.Wide area networks (WANs) are networks that span large geographical areas. These data are extensively cross-indexed. highlighted text. Users can obtain a variety of information in the form of text. developed in the 1980s by British physicist Timothy Berners-Lee. or video. For example. multiply and divide. a global consortium of networks linked by common communication programs and protocols (a set of established standards that enable computers to communicate with each other). Seventeenth-century German mathematician Gottfried Leibniz designed a special gearing system to enable multiplication on Pascal’s machine. mathematician. graphics. a person in Washington. and with the aid of logarithm tables. and scientific agencies. but most served as curiosities in parlors of the wealthy. In 1984 the development of Internet technology was creating the Internet in 1973 as part of the United States Department of Defense Advanced turned over to private. Computers can Los Angeles can browse through the computerized archives of the Library of Congress in connect to these networks to use facilities in another city or country. is a system of information resources accessed primarily through the Internet. and utilities. XI A HISTORY Beginnings The history of computing began with an analog machine. and physicist Blaise Pascal invented a machine in 1642 that added and subtracted.

its . She was the daughter of the famous poet Lord Byron and one of only a few woman mathematicians of her time. Although the Analytical Engine was never built. however. Engine. Babbage’s lack of political skills kept him from obtaining the approval and funds to build it. The Analytical Engine Augusta Ada Byron. Babbage also made plans for another machine. emperor Napoleon I for his work.000 of his looms existed in Lyon. was a personal friend and student of Babbage. the Difference Engine was intended to be a machine with a 20-decimal capacity that could solve mathematical problems. The loom prevailed. still used today. especially in the manufacture of fine furniture fabrics. The looms are C Precursor to Modern Computer Another early mechanical computer was the Difference Engine. Jacquard’s loom used punched cards to program patterns that helped the loom create woven fabrics. he fled for his life from the city of Lyon pursued by weavers however: When Jacquard died. considered the mechanical precursor of the modern computer. She prepared extensive notes concerning Babbage’s ideas and the Analytical Engine. Lovelace’s conceptual programs for the machine led to the naming of a programming language (Ada) in her honor. Although never completed by Babbage. the Analytical was designed to perform all arithmetic operations efficiently. Although Jacquard was rewarded and admired by French who feared their jobs were in jeopardy due to Jacquard’s invention. countess of Lovelace. designed in the early 1820s by British mathematician and scientist Charles Babbage.In the early 19th century French inventor Joseph-Marie Jacquard devised a specialized type of computer: a silk loom. more than 30.

Massachusetts. Aiken used vacuum tubes and solid state transistors (tiny electrical switches) to manipulate the binary science program at Harvard University in Cambridge. Von Neumann's 1945 design for the Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC)—in stark contrast to . ENIAC. used an idea similar to Jacquard’s loom when he combined the use of punched cards with devices that created and electronically read the cards. development of computers. insisting that the integrity of the machine could be maintained only through a strict separation of program instructions from data. and UNIVAC At the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. XII A DEVELOPMENTS IN THE 20TH CENTURY Early Electronic Calculators Herman Hollerith. Hollerith’s tabulator was used for the 1890 U. This electronic calculating machine used relays and electromagnetic components to replace mechanical components. Aiken obsessively numbers. which was built by IBM. Turing equations without human direction. meteorology. Aiken also introduced computers to universities by establishing the first computer mistrusted the concept of storing a program within the computer. can be found in many modern computers. In 1924 the company changed its name to International Business Machines (IBM). insisting that there would never be a need for more than five or B EDVAC. such as the capacity to store instructions. The machine (now known as a Turing machine) resembled intended the device to be a “universal machine” that could be used to duplicate or represent the function of any other existing machine. the use of punched cards as a primitive memory. Hungarian-American mathematician John von Neumann developed one of the first computers used to solve problems in mathematics. the modern digital computer. New Jersey.S. and it made the computational time three to four times shorter than the time previously needed for hand counts. He also urged the National Bureau of Standards not to support the six of them nationwide. Turing’s machine was the theoretical precursor to theorists. and hydrodynamics. economics. and the ability to print. The Turing machine model is still used by modern computational In the 1930s American mathematician Howard Aiken developed the Mark I calculating machine. Hollerith’s Tabulating-Recording Company.key concepts. an American inventor. Tabulating Machine Company eventually merged with two companies to form the Computing- In 1936 British mathematician Alan Turing proposed the idea of a machine that could process an automatic typewriter that used symbols for math and logic instead of letters. In later machines. which could be stored away from the computer. census. His computer had to read instructions from punched cards.

which was United States Census Bureau in 1951. Atanasoff developed the concepts that were data processing from memory. or later used in the design of the ENIAC.000 team of six technicians. The first UNIVAC was delivered to the Between 1937 and 1939.000 lb). it had to be reprogrammed for each task. Many of ENIAC’s first tasks were for military purposes. American physicist John Mauchly proposed the electronic digital computer called ENIAC. which was then bought by the Rand Corporation. general digital computer. and contained more than 18. and MANIAC. weighed more than 27. Roughly 2. there were 46 UNIVACs in use. but it is not clear whether a functional version was ever built.000 kg (60. They produced the Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC). with the help of his assistant. Jr.000 of the computer’s vacuum tubes were replaced each month by a calculating ballistic firing tables and designing atomic weapons. the Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer. patent on ENIAC was settled. JOHNNIAC. when a lawsuit regarding the XIII THE TRANSISTOR AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS TRANSFORM COMPUTING . his contemporary—was the first electronic computer design to some with clever names like ILLIAC. It occupied 167 sq m (1. It is regarded as the first successful. incorporate a program stored entirely within its memory. By 1957. This machine led to several others. used for a broader variety of commercial applications. at the Moore School of Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. Atanasoff’s device was the first computer to separate ABC.. ENIAC was operational in 1945 and introduced to the public in 1946. American physicist John Vincent Atanasoff built a prototype computing device called the Atanasoff-Berry Computer. Since ENIAC was initially not a Eckert and Mauchly eventually formed their own company. such as stored program machine. He helped build it along with American engineer John Presper Eckert.the designs of Aiken.800 sq ft). vacuum tubes. Atanasoff did not receive credit for his contributions until 1973. Clifford Berry. while teaching at Iowa State College.

American physicists Walter Houser Brattain. As integrated resulted from the simultaneous.In 1948. replacing costly. Manufacturers used integrated circuit technology to build smaller and cheaper computers. and William Bradford Shockley developed the transistor. In the 1970s refinements in integrated circuit technology led to the development of the modern microprocessor. better storage devices. John Bardeen. more components could be designed into a single computer circuit. The Altair used an 8-bit Intel 8080 microprocessor. independent work of Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments and circuits became miniaturized. and unreliable vacuum tubes. Inc. integrated circuits that contained thousands of transistors. Graphical user interfaces were first designed by the Xerox Corporation. a device that can act as an energy-inefficient. the Mac OS. had 256 bytes of RAM. sold by Micro Instrumentation Telemetry Systems (MITS). The first of these so-called personal computers (PCs)—the Altair 8800—appeared in 1975. then later with the inclusion of video displays. and CPUs with more computational used successfully by Apple Computer. at Bell Telephone Laboratories. . Today the development of sophisticated operating systems such as Windows. received input through switches on the front panel. The transistor had a tremendous impact on computer design. In the late 1960s integrated circuits (tiny transistors and other electrical components arranged on a single chip of silicon) replaced individual transistors in computers. electric switch.. and Linux enables computer users to run programs and manipulate data in ways that were unimaginable in the mid-20th century. Modern microprocessors can contain more than 40 million transistors. Refinements in the PC continued abilities. Integrated circuits Robert Noyce of the Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation in the late 1950s. and displayed output on rows of light-emitting diodes (LEDs).

rather than one programmed XIV THE FUTURE OF COMPUTERS . Italy. becoming the first computer to win a match against a reigning world chess champion with regulation time controls.Several researchers claim the “record” for the largest single calculation ever performed. Japan. is whether a computer can be to solve a specific set of tasks. however. developed with the ability to learn to solve problems on its own. to a chess match with a supercomputer called Deep Blue. Deep Blue serves as a prototype for future computers that will be required to solve complex problems. At issue. One large single calculation was accomplished by physicists at IBM in 1995. They solved one million trillion mathematical subproblems by continuously running 448 computers for two years. The computer had the ability to compute more than 100 million chess positions per second. Their analysis demonstrated the existence of a previously hypothetical subatomic supercomputers that will run these types of calculations 100 times faster. Many experts predict these types of parallel processing machines will soon surpass human chess playing ability. and some speculate that massive calculating power will one day replace intelligence. In a 1997 rematch Deep Blue defeated Kasparov. the reigning world chess champion. particle called a glueball. and the United States are collaborating to develop new In 1996 IBM challenged Garry Kasparov.

better computer security. to store data so far. compromise. the physical limitations of miniaturizing circuits embedded in silicon. the technology of interacting with a computer using all of the human senses. Programs called viruses or worms can replicate and spread from computer to computer. Future uses of . Unfortunately. Virtual reality. This is now known as Moore’s Law. and it has proven to be somewhat accurate. Quantum computers may one day be thousands to millions of times faster than current computers. Scientists investigate them because of related to heat generated by even the tiniest of transistors. expression. and computing that uses deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Long-standing issues. Quantum computers under development use components of a chloroform molecule (a combination of chlorine and hydrogen atoms) and a variation of a medical procedure called physics called quantum mechanics. which describes the behavior of subatomic particles magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compute at a molecular level. There are also limitations Intriguing breakthroughs occurred in the area of quantum computing in the late 1990s. computers simplify day-to-day life. and more versatile. Computer hackers—people who illegally gain access to computer systems—often violate privacy and can tamper with or destroy records. erasing information or causing malfunctions. molecular computing that uses molecules with particular properties. are limited in abilities or are strictly theoretical. New ethical issues also have arisen. such as privacy and freedom of governments are working to solve these problems through informed conversation. The number of transistors and the computational With their increasing power and versatility. as the basis for quantum computing. These are examples of possible future computational platforms that. Components continue to shrink in size and are becoming faster. the basic unit of heredity. and Computers will become more advanced and they will also become easier to use. Individuals. including biological computing that uses living organisms. These laws allow quantum computers could include code breaking (see cryptography) and large database quantum computers to examine all possible answers to a query simultaneously. exotic models of computation are being developed. Other individuals Security). Scientists use a branch of (particles that make up atoms). such as how to regulate material on the have used computers to electronically embezzle funds and alter credit histories (see Computer Internet and the World Wide Web. Virtual Reality Modeling language (VRML)—are currently in use or are being developed for the World Wide Web.In 1965 semiconductor pioneer Gordon Moore predicted that the number of transistors contained on a computer chip would double every year. Improved speech recognition will make the operation of a computer easier. companies. speed of microprocessors currently doubles approximately every 18 months. because they take advantage of the laws that govern the behavior of subatomic particles. cheaper. Standards for virtual-reality program languages—for example. and carry out operations. and regulatory legislation. Other. so do the opportunities for misuse. are being reexamined in light of the digital revolution. as computer use becomes more widespread. will also contribute to better human and computer interfaces.

mathematics. Theorists of chemistry. Communications between computer users and networks will benefit from new technologies such as broadband communication systems that can carry significantly more data faster or more conveniently to and from the vast interconnected databases that continue to grow in number and type.queries. computer science. . and physics are now working to determine the possibilities and limitations of quantum computing.

Laser light is very pure in color. The word laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. compact disc (CD) players. Lasers are used in many modern technological devices including bar code readers.Laser I INTRODUCTION Laser. and can be directed with great accuracy. from II PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION . Lasers can generate light beyond the range visible to the human eye. the infrared through the X-ray range. Masers are similar devices that produce and amplify microwaves. a device that produces and amplifies light. can be extremely intense. and laser printers.

inducing the electrons to emit the absorbed energy as light. Atoms are the building blocks of Light is composed of tiny packets of energy called photons. Electrons are the underlying source of almost all light.Lasers generate light by storing energy in particles called electrons inside atoms and then all matter on Earth and are a thousand times smaller than viruses. and neutrons. Lasers produce coherent light: light that is monochromatic (one color) and whose photons are “in step” with one another. A Excited Atoms At the heart of an atom is a tightly bound cluster of particles called the nucleus. which have a positive charge. The nucleus makes up more than 99. Enlarge an atom up to the size of Yankee . made up of two types of particles: protons. which occupies only a tiny part of the atom’s space.9 percent of the atom’s mass but Stadium and the equally magnified nucleus is only the size of a baseball. This cluster is have no charge.

Electrons can move from a low to a high energy level by absorbing energy. This stimulated emission is the key to laser operation.Electrons. or energized. Excited atoms in lasers collectively emit photons of a single color. light (see Photoelectric Effect). Neon signs and fluorescent lamps glow with this kind of light as B Stimulated Emission Lasers are different from more familiar sources of light. An atom with at least one electron that occupies a higher energy level than it normally would is said to be excited. When two photons are in step. the photon can stimulate the excited atom to immediately emit light that has the same wavelength and is in step with the photon that interacted with it. equivalently. the same wavelength) as the photon this atom is about to emit energy source. electrons quickly jump back to the low energy level. An excited atom can then be “stimulated” by a photon of exactly the same spontaneously. Usually. and wavelength are directly related: All photons of a given energy are the same color and have the same frequency and wavelength. to an excited state by an color (or. The new light . all traveling in the same direction and all in step with one another. giving off the extra energy as many electrons independently emit photons of different colors in all directions. frequency. Electrons travel in complex orbits and exist only in certain specific energy states or levels (see Quantum Theory). An atom can become excited by absorbing a photon whose energy equals the difference between the two energy levels. If the photon approaches closely enough. whirl through the rest of the space inside atoms. the peaks and troughs of their waves line up. color. A photon’s energy. The electrons in the atoms of a laser are first pumped. tiny particles that have a negative charge.

gas. they trigger further stimulated emissions and the light gets brighter and brighter with each pass through the excited atoms. highly reflective mirrors facing inward at each end. but it was later challenged by the American physicist and engineer Gordon Gould. A Solid-State Lasers Solid-state lasers produce light by means of a solid medium. The patent for the laser was granted to Townes and Schawlow. As the photons bounce between the two silvered. Gould eventually won a partial patent covering several types of III TYPES OF LASERS Lasers are generally classified according to the material. and single-colored laser light finally escapes through this slightly transparent mirror. This procedure. In a gas laser. is achieved with brilliant strobe light from xenon flash tubes. called pumping. semiconductor. or metal-vapor lamps. called the medium. for example. directional. (Both men won Nobel Prizes in physics for their work. brief burst of light. required more than four decades. coined the word laser in 1957. Bursts as short as 12 × 10-15 sec have been achieved. The working principles of lasers were outlined by the American physicists Charles Hard Townes and Arthur Leonard Schawlow in a 1958 patent application. and the two photons go on to stimulate other excited atoms to give up their extra energy. The Albert Einstein first proposed stimulated emission. They are usually pulsed to generate a very are useful for studying physical phenomena of very brief duration. arc lamps. Translating the idea of stimulated emission into a working model. the underlying process for laser action. coherent beam of light: laser light. The escaped light forms the laser beam. however. . One of the mirrors is only partially intense. These short bursts One method of exciting the atoms in lasers is to illuminate the solid laser material with higherenergy light than the laser produces. The ends of the rods are fashioned into two parallel surfaces coated with a highly reflecting nonmetallic film. In 1960 American physicist Theodore Maiman of Hughes Aircraft Corporation constructed the first working laser from a ruby rod. in 1917. allowing a small amount of light to pass through rather than reflecting it all. they use to produce the laser light. the photons usually zip back and forth in a gas-filled tube with parallel mirrors. Solid-state.adds to the existing light. who had written down some ideas and laser. again in step. The most common solid laser media are rods of ruby crystals and neodymium-doped glasses and crystals. Solid-state lasers offer the highest power output. The phenomenon snowballs into an amplified. Townes in 1964 and Schawlow in 1981). and free electron are all common types of lasers. liquid.

C Liquid Lasers The most common liquid laser media are inorganic dyes contained in glass vessels. cavity surface-emitting lasers. Semiconductor lasers also form the heart of fiber-optics communication systems (see Fiber Optics). meaning that the color of the laser light they emit D Semiconductor Lasers Semiconductor lasers are the most compact lasers. Gallium arsenide is the most common semiconductor used. Only a small percentage of the energy used to excite most other lasers is converted into light. called quantum-dot verticalon a chip the size of a fingernail. electron beams. lasers are pumped by the direct application of electric current across the junction. E Free Electron Lasers. or chemical reactions. A typical semiconductor laser consists of a junction between two flat layers of gallium arsenide. The medium is usually contained in a cylindrical glass or quartz tube. Gas lasers can be pumped by ultraviolet turning the energy used to excite their atoms into laser light. and the other with an impurity whose atoms are one electron short. a mixture of gases. Some dye lasers are tunable. wave mode. The helium-neon laser is known for its color purity and minimal beam spread. . They are pumped by intense flash lamps in a pulse mode or by a separate gas laser in the continuous can be adjusted with the help of a prism located inside the laser cavity. lasers that emit light continuously rather than in pulses. Free electron lasers employ an array of magnets to excite free electrons (electrons not bound to atoms). These lasers are so tiny that more than a million of them can fit Common uses for semiconductor lasers include compact disc (CD) players and laser printers. Two mirrors are located light. First developed in 1977. They can be Scientists have developed extremely tiny semiconductor lasers. One layer is treated with an impurity whose atoms provide an extra electron. Consequently. or even metal vapor. Carbon dioxide lasers are very efficient at outside the ends of the tube to form the laser cavity. Semiconductor operated in the continuous wave mode with better than 50 percent efficiency. they are now becoming important research instruments.B Gas Lasers The lasing medium of a gas laser can be a pure gas. electric current. they are the most powerful continuous wave (CW) lasers—that is.

or vaporize material. Lasers have become valuable tools in industry. to induce controlled nuclear fusion (see Nuclear Energy).Free electron lasers are tunable over a broader range of energies than dye lasers. The devices become more difficult to operate at higher energies but generally work successfully from X-ray range. trim microelectronics. to drill holes in diamonds. producing very high-power radiation that is currently too expensive to produce. the focused beams can readily and precisely heat. electron lasers can function even in the The free electron laser facility at the University of California at Santa Barbara uses intense farinfrared light to investigate mutations in DNA molecules and to study the properties of semiconductor materials. for example. Lasers have been used. to cut fashion patterns. the military. and the arts. Theoretically. to shape machine tools. Free electron lasers should also eventually become capable of near-infrared beams from a free electron laser could defend against a missile attack. communications. Consequently. and to attempt to . melt. to synthesize new material. medicine. A Industry Powerful laser beams can be focused on a small spot to generate enormous temperatures. infrared through ultraviolet wavelengths. At high power. IV LASER APPLICATIONS The use of lasers is restricted only by imagination. scientific research.

and in precise tests to confirm Einstein’s theory of relativity. and the detectors of certain types of air pollution. Powerful. short of a second possible. Lasers have been used for precise determination (to within one inch) of the distance between . Scientists also have used lasers to determine the speed of light to an unprecedented accuracy. By measuring the scattering and color shifts. Chemical reactions can be selectively induced. laser pulses also make high-speed photography with exposure times of only several trillionths B Scientific Research Because laser light is highly directional and monochromatic. (see Chemical Analysis. Photochemistry). Perfectly straight and uniformly sized tunnels. extremely small amounts of light scattering and small shifts in color caused by the interaction between laser light and matter can easily be detected. may be dug using lasers for guidance. existence of trace substances in samples can be detected. scientists can study molecular structures of matter. for example. Lasers are also the most effective Scientists use lasers to make extremely accurate measurements. Lasers are used in this way for monitoring small movements associated with plate tectonics and for geographic surveys.Highly directional laser beams are used for alignment in construction. Earth and the Moon.

and cauterize blood vessels. Low-loss optical addition. vaporize procedures for eye disorders. Lasers are also used to play audio D Medicine Lasers have a wide range of medical uses. high-energy laser light can carry 1. tiny bits of matter (see Particle Trap). Scientists also use lasers to trap single atoms and subatomic particles in order to study these C Communications Laser light can travel a large distance in outer space with little reduction in signal strength. Intense. dimensional image can be reconstructed with a laser beam. Lasers are therefore ideal for space communications. from which a threeCDs and videodiscs (see Sound Recording and Reproduction). Laser techniques have also been used for high-density information recording. Laser techniques have also been developed for lab tests of small E Military Applications . healthy tissues.Very fast laser-activated switches are being developed for use in particle accelerators. bore holes in the skull. Laser surgery has virtually replaced older surgical biological samples.000 times the television channels today carried by fibers have been developed to transmit laser light for earthbound communication in telephone and computer systems. laser light simplifies the recording of a hologram. Lasers have been used to “weld” the retina. narrow beams of laser light can cut and cauterize certain body tissues in a small fraction of a second without damaging surrounding lesions. For instance. In microwave signals.

S. or diffused. The CDRH has divided lasers into six groups. The use of laser beams to destroy hostile ballistic Ronald Reagan and the Ballistic Missile Defense program supported by President George W. depending on their power output. and cause permanent eye damage whether the light is direct. laser light should not be viewed either directly or reflected. and satellites have been constructed. and the energy of the photons they emit. The higher its potential to injure. classification system.Laser guidance systems for missiles. Guns can missiles has been proposed. The higher the laser’s energy. and laser use in Canada is overseen by Health Canada’s Radiation . president be fitted with laser sights and range finders. more efficient ways to separate isotopes for construction of nuclear weapons. Canada uses the same Protection Bureau. the enforced by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH). Bush. High-powered lasers of the Class IV type (the highest classification is then attached to the laser as a sticker. Lasers sold and used commercially in the United States must comply with a strict set of laws and Drug Administration. a department of the Food classification) generate a beam of energy that can start fires. Therefore. as in the Strategic Defense Initiative urged by U. The ability of tunable dye lasers to selectively excite an atom or molecule may open up V LASER SAFETY Because the eye focuses laser light just as it does other light. reflected. burn flesh. the chief danger in working with lasers is eye damage. aircraft. their emission duration.

new applications. laboratory techniques and research tools of physics. scientists and engineers devised ways of fashioning thousands of In the late 1980s. beginning in the early 1960s. ways that metals could not. chemistry. nonmetallic as well as metallic. and other nonmetals in applications formerly reserved for metals. and metallurgy. including levitating trains and superfast computers. scientists are II RECENT DEVELOPMENTS The rapid development of semiconductors (see Semiconductor) for the electronics industry. gave materials science its first major impetus. Using the finding new ways of using plastics. Even with goggles.Goggles blocking the specific color of photons that a laser produces are mandatory for the safe use of lasers. If the temperature at which these new materials become superconductive can be raised high enough. direct exposure to laser light should be avoided. Materials Science and Technology I INTRODUCTION Materials Science and Technology. . materials science research was given renewed emphasis with the discovery of ceramics that display superconductivity at higher temperatures than metals do. Having discovered that nonmetallic materials such as silicon could be made to conduct electricity in tiny integrated circuits (see Integrated Circuit) on a small chip of silicon. and how they can be adapted and fabricated to meet the needs of modern technology. This then made it possible to miniaturize the components of electronic devices such as computers. the study of materials. ceramics. are possible.

compression. Knowledge of tensile stress. Under tension. For the aircraft industry. scientists have been developing. mechanical properties are also of major. composite materials that are lighter. and engineers testing. a material usually stretches. or fracture. When a material is subjected to a bending. stronger. both tensile and is stretched and subjected to a tensional force. Even when the maximum stress never exceeds the elastic limit. such as tension. Time-dependent effects of external forces are creep and fatigue. Tension is a pulling force that acts in one direction. shearing. Materials subjected to high temperatures are especially susceptible to this deformation. an example is the force in a cable holding a weight. and under even greater forces the Compression is the decrease in volume that results from the application of pressure. and the resistance of materials to creep and fatigue are of basic importance in engineering. the sagging of long-span cables. Under larger tensions. . bending. or torsional (twisting) force. and shear. Solid materials respond to these forces by elastic deformation (that is. nonmetallic other metals currently used to form the outer skin of aircraft. The gradual loosening of bolts. compressive forces are simultaneously at work. torsion. fatigue can be avoided by keeping the cyclic force below a certain level. permanent deformation. but small localized cracks develop and propagate through the material until the remaining cross-sectional area cannot support the maximum stress of the cyclic force. the material returns to its original size and form when the external force is lifted). Creep extended over a long time eventually leads to the rupture of the Fatigue can be defined as progressive fracture. for instance. the deformation itself. When a rod is bent. permanent deformation that results from a steady force acting on a material. continuing importance. such as vibration. failure of the material can occur even after a short time. which are defined below. No deformation is apparent during fatigue.Although the latest developments in materials science have tended to focus on electrical properties. In many cases the slow deformation stops because the force causing the creep is eliminated by material. the material ruptures. With some metals. and the deformation of components of machines and engines are all noticeable examples of creep. See also Metals. returning to its original length if the force does not exceed the material's elastic limit (see Elasticity). material does not return completely to its original condition. for example. such as titanium alloys. elastic limits. It occurs when a mechanical part is subjected to a repeated or cyclic stress. and easier to fabricate than the aluminum and III MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS Engineers must know how solid materials respond to external forces. one side of it Creep is a slowly progressing. and the other side is compressed.

Refrigeration .

and evaporator. Foodstuffs maintained at this temperature or slightly above have an increased storage life.3 Btu/lb). constant cooling is achieved by the circulation of a refrigerant in a closed system. In the evaporator the refrigerant is vaporized and heat is absorbed from the material contents or the space being cooled. In order to melt. ice must absorb heat amounting to 333.I INTRODUCTION Refrigeration. If no leakage occurs. now employed largely for heat-operated air-conditioning units but formerly also used for heat-operated domestic units. The vapor next is drawn into a . normal atmospheric pressure. Such refrigeration checks both bacterial growth and adverse chemical reactions that occur in the normal atmosphere. All that is required to maintain cooling is a constant supply of energy.1 kJ/kg (143. the refrigerant lasts indefinitely throughout the entire life of the system. The two main types of mechanical refrigeration systems used are the compression system. Having no liquid phase at temperature of -78. and a method of dissipating waste heat. II COMPRESSION SYSTEMS Compression systems employ four elements in the refrigeration cycle: compressor. furs. used in domestic units for large coldstorage applications and for most air conditioning. when mechanical or electric refrigerators became available. condenser. is used also as a refrigerant. in which it evaporates to a gas and then condenses back again to a liquid in a continuous cycle. Solid carbon dioxide. Melting ice in the presence of a dissolving salt lowers its melting point by several degrees. The use of natural or manufactured ice for refrigeration was widespread until shortly before World War I. expansion valve.5° C (-109.3° F). preserving certain substances. Ice owes its effectiveness as a cooling agent to the fact that it has a constant fusion temperature of 0° C (32° F). process of lowering the temperature and maintaining it in a given space for the purpose of chilling foods. known as dry ice. pharmaceuticals. or other items under refrigeration is commonly known as cold storage. or power. and the absorption system. it sublimes directly from the solid to vapor phase at a temperatures during the period of sublimation. Dry ice is effective for maintaining products at low In mechanical refrigeration. Storing perishable foods. or providing an atmosphere conducive to bodily comfort.

From the condenser the liquid flows through an expansion valve. is always placed in an insulated space. known refrigerant would. IV ABSORPTION SYSTEM A few household units. however. One popularly as Refrigerant-12. The resulting condensed liquid would then enter the expansion valve to drop to evaporator pressure and repeat the cycle of absorbing heat at low temperature and low pressure and dissipating heat at the much higher condenser pressure and temperature. In some cases this space constitutes the whole refrigerator cabinet. the ammonia gas is reabsorbed in the partially cooled. III REFRIGERANTS For every refrigerant there is a specific boiling. A similar pressure-temperature relationship holds in the condenser. Instead of the gas being inducted into a compressor on exit from the returning from the generator. which passes into a condenser.7 psi). called the freezer. With air-conditioning units the condenser heat must be dissipated out of doors or directly into cooling water.3 kPa (19. to maintain a temperature of -23. operate on the absorption principle. the motor driving the compressor is controlled by a thermostatic switch. A frozen-food refrigerator resembles the household refrigerator except that its compressor and motor must be of sufficient size to handle the larger gas volume of the refrigerant at its lower evaporator pressure. for example. The condenser.9 psi) would condense at 37.or water-cooled pressure and temperature are reduced to the conditions that are maintained in the evaporator. This synthetic chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) when used as a of the most widely used refrigerants for many years has been dichlorodifluoromethane. so that it is only necessary to control the pressure in the evaporator to obtain a desired temperature. weak solution .2 psi) is required with Refrigerant-12.2 kPa (131. vaporize at -6. This process of evaporator. temperature associated with each pressure. which raises its temperature. The lower temperatures.motor-driven compressor and elevated to high pressure. Changed to a liquid state in the condenser. or vaporization. called gas refrigerators. In small domestic refrigerators used for food storage. In order to maintain the interior of the box within the desired compressor is usually oversized.2 kPa (35. to form the strong ammonia solution. In a domestic refrigeration system the evaporator.7° C (20° F) in its evaporator under a pressure of 246.3° C (-10° F) an evaporator pressure of 132. In such gas refrigerators a strong solution of ammonia in water is heated by a gas flame in a container called a generator. the condenser heat is dissipated into the kitchen or other room housing the refrigerator.8° C (100° F) in the condenser. For example. so that if it ran continuously it would produce progressively temperature range. the ammonia flows to the evaporator as in the compression system. high-pressure gas is then condensed to liquid in an air. in which its resulting superheated. and the ammonia is driven off as a vapor. and after compression to 909.

2° to 10° C) are suitable. however. that CFCs are posing a major threat to the global environment through their role in the destruction of the ozone layer. water can be used as a refrigerant with an aqueous salt solution. recirculates back to the absorber to complete the cycle. for which purpose refrigerant temperatures of 45° to 50° F (7. the generator and condenser operate at about 10. .0 kPa (0. The very cold boiling water from the evaporator is absorbed in concentrated salt solution. This solution is then pumped into the generator.reabsorption occurs in a container called the absorber. this solution. It has been found. as the absorbent material. Refrigerant-11 and Refrigerant-22. the surplus water is boiled off to increase the salt concentration of the solution. The system operates at high vacuum at an evaporator pressure of about 1. after cooling. The units are usually direct-fired or use steam generated in a boiler. at elevated temperature.0 kPa (1. from which the enriched liquid flows back to the generator to complete the cycle. Increasing use of absorption refrigeration now occurs in refrigeration units for comfort space cooling. and some manufacturers of CFCs have already pledged to phase out these products by the end of the century. where. are currently the major compounds used in the cooling and insulation systems of home refrigeration units.45 psi). In this temperature range. V REFRIGERANTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT Refrigerant-12 and related CFCs. usually lithium bromide. A search has therefore begun for replacements.145 psi).

circulation. or indirect. either separately or in combination with the heating or air-conditioning system. Ventilating.Heating. or heated air passing through pipes or other ducts transports thermal energy to all the rooms of a building. humidity. controls both the supply and exhaust of air within given areas in order to provide sufficient oxygen to the occupants and to eliminate odors. and purity for the occupants of that space or for the industrial materials that are II HEATING The heating process may be direct. The earliest heating system was the open fire with which people warmed their dwellings. air handled or stored there. braziers of various types that were developed by the ancient Romans are still employed in . Air conditioning designates control of the indoor environment year-round to create and maintain desirable temperature. Stoves and some parts of the world. related processes designed to regulate ambient conditions within buildings for comfort or for industrial purposes. as in a central system in which steam. and Air Conditioning (HVAC). Heating an area raises temperature in a given space to a more satisfactory level than that of the atmosphere. heated water. Ventilation. Ventilating. as from a fireplace or stove in an individual room. and Air Conditioning (HVAC) I INTRODUCTION Heating.

Fireplaces are included in modern houses mainly for aesthetic reasons rather than thermal efficiency.A Fireplaces The fireplace was developed as a method of heating rooms by means of an open fire. and andirons are used for wood. From 85 to 90 percent of the heat improve heating efficiency. or a pair of metal charcoal. peat. an enclosure of metal or ceramic materials in which fuel is burned. raised on legs. These devices promote combustion by permitting The useful heat given off by a fireplace consists of both direct radiation from the burning fuel from the burning fuel is lost in the combustion gases that go up the chimney. . with short flues that communicated with the open air. and the circulation of air under the fuel. The fuels used include wood. B Stoves The stove. is an improvement over the fireplace because its surfaces are in contact with the air of the room and by convection deliver heat to the air passing over them. coke. Grates are used for such fuels as coal. On the hearth is either a metal grate. however. gas. To and indirect radiation from the hot sidewalls and back wall. Fireplaces with chimneys sufficiently high above the roof of the building to provide adequate draft for the fire were introduced during the 12th century. Ordinary fireplaces consist of a hearth enclosed on three sides with brick and surmounted by a completely enclosed chimney or flue that carries away the smoke and other combustion supports called firedogs or andirons. products of the fire. and kerosene. recessed into the walls of buildings. some modern fireplaces are built with an arrangement of interior ducts in which cold air from the room is warmed and then recirculated through the room. coal. coke. An efficient stove delivers about 75 percent of the energy of the burning fuel. The first fireplaces were hearths.

gas. The combustion firebox and the associated boiler are customarily enclosed in an insulated casing.C Central Heating Central-heating systems. A type of centralized heating. or coal. large and small. such as those in shopping malls. Furnaces for heating systems conventionally are fired with such fuels as oil. are automatically responsive to remote thermostats that control their operation. in which one centrally located heating unit is used to warm several rooms or an entire house. Furnaces that use solid fuels. system. In large systems steam or hot water is usually employed to distribute even groups of buildings. . and or a group of buildings. it heats metal surfaces that in turn transfer the heat to water. but the first successful central in the U. introduced in 1835.S. The removal of ashes from the stoker or grates is also essential. used warm air. As air in some residential furnaces. Oil. the fuel burns. or even Most furnaces. require the admission of additional fuel to the system. using hot water. steam. Most dwellings are provided with central heat. was used to a limited extent in Britain about 1816. This system subsequently came into extensive use Present-day central-heating systems provide heat from a central furnace for a single building the heat. The term district heating is applied to systems in which a large number of buildings are supplied with steam from central boiler rooms operated by a public utility. were developed in the 1800s. as are office buildings.or gas-fired furnaces only need the control of burners to regulate heat. however. Steam heating was developed about 1850. hotels.

To ensure natural circulation of firebox and the casing and is heated by contact with the hot surfaces of the furnace. rather than by radiation. it passes through the ducts to opened or closed to control the temperature of the rooms. baseboard. warehouses. such a system may be included in the system to ensure the cleanliness of the air. thus. and factories are often equipped with so-called Although heat is provided in part by radiation in all forms of direct heating. and dehumidifying units. the system may not heat a house adequately. either from within the house or from outdoors. the panels containing heating elements are heat and has a comparatively low cost of operation. is admitted between the a sheet-metal casing. and properly insulated to prevent heat losses. heat is provided largely by convection. primarily because the same equipment can provide air conditioning . The convector enclosures designed to permit air circulation. unit heaters in which an electric fan or blower forces air through heating coils. When combined with cooling. slanted upward from the furnace. humidifying. ensures the circulation of a large amount of air even under unfavorable conditions. As the air is heated. or the ceiling of the room. Unless the warm-air ducts are comparatively large in diameter. Forced-circulation warm-air systems are popular for through the year. Dust filters residential installations. and ducts leading to the various rooms. Radiant heating provides uniform C1 Warm-Air Systems The simplest warm-air heating system consists of a firebox and waste-gas passage set within the warm air. mounted on a wall. forced-circulation systems may be used effectively for heating and cooling. These units are placed in series of cast-iron grids or coils having a comparatively large total surface area. individual grills or registers in each room of the upper floors. The grills or registers can be The chief problem in this type of system lies in obtaining adequate air circulation. or ceilings are used as the radiating units. Steam or hot-water pipes are placed in the walls or floors during construction of the building. which tends to rise. If electricity is used for heating.The devices generally employed to transfer heat from the heating system to the area to be warmed are known commonly as radiators and convectors. Cold air. Ordinary radiators consist of a consists of a network of finned steel or nonferrous-metal tubes. Stores. the term radiant heating is applied popularly to systems in which floors. Efficiency is high because radiant heat raises the inside-surface temperature. walls. In a forced-circulation system a fan or blower is placed in the furnace casing. thereby providing comfort at a lower room-air temperature than other systems. the furnace usually is situated below the first floor of the house. Often the furnace is arranged so the warm air passes over a water pan in the furnace for humidification before circulating through the house.

In both systems an expansion tank is required to furnace through a common return pipe. or mechanical-pump. Both one-pipe and two-pipe arrangements are employed for circulating the steam and for returning to the boiler the water formed by and vacuum. in which water is heated to a temperature of from 60° to 83° C (140° to 180° F). a subatmospheric type is less used. Air vents on each radiator permit air to be forced out of the radiator by the steam during the warm-up period and also during operation. which compresses and expands to compensate for volume changes in the water. Modern systems of this type employ a boiler. circulates through the radiator. and hence the radiators farthest from the furnace must be larger than those nearer the furnace in order to deliver the same amount of heat. water is admitted to back into the same pipe.C2 Hot-Water Systems In the first hot-water heating systems the waters of natural hot springs reputedly were used as a source of heat. The disadvantage of this arrangement is that the water becomes each radiator from the supply side of the main pipe. The water is then circulated by means of pipes to radiators located in the various rooms. but the pipes must be large to accommodate both the steam and the condensate. and the air is discharged either . The steam condenses in the radiators. Closed expansion tanks contain about 50 percent air. In the two-pipe system all radiators are supplied with hot water at the same temperature from a single supply pipe. C3 Steam Systems Steam-heating systems closely resemble hot-water systems except that steam rather than hot water is circulated through the pipes to the radiators. accomplished by pressure and gravity. This is the least expensive system to install. The two-pipe system is thus more efficient and easier compensate for variations in the volume of water in the system. In the one-pipe system. Circulation of the hot water can be because it provides flexibility and control. systems. and the water from all the radiators flows back to the to control than the one-pipe system. condensation. vapor systems. and air and condensate are delivered to the return pipe by means of a steam trap on the radiator.or two-pipe systems may be used. The one-pipe air-vent system is an arrangement in which the force of gravity causes the condensate to flow from the radiator to the boiler in the same pipe through which steam reaches the radiator. The vapor system is a two-pipe arrangement in which steam passes into the radiator through an inlet valve. and flows increasingly cool as it flows away from the furnace. Three main types of steam systems are used: air-vent systems. giving up its latent heat (see Heat: Latent Heat). The condensate is returned to the boiler. but forced circulation using a pump is more efficient Either one.

the ground. or some other source. cleanliness. The overall cost of electric C5 Heat pump A heat pump is a system designed to provide useful heating and cooling. so radiators can be situated either above or below the boiler. economical because it can be operated on the low-firing cycle of the furnace and thus requires Vacuum systems resemble vapor systems in that each radiator is equipped with an inlet valve and a steam trap. well water. or as baseboard ceilings or floors to radiate low-temperature heat into a space. varying patterns—for example. through a vent for each zone heated by the system. valves reverse the flow so that the refrigerant picks up heat from inside and discharges it outside. The condensate and air return to a central point from which the the pump a partial vacuum is maintained in the system so that the steam. such as Freon. the heat pump transfers heat from one place to another. The heat can be provided from electric coils or strips used in radiation in part or all of a room. in larger installations. A vapor system. There the warmth is radiated or blown into the room or through a valve where its pressure and temperature are lowered further before it liquefies and is pumped into the outdoor coil to continue the cycle. and condensate condensate is pumped back into the boiler and the air is expelled into the atmosphere. air. although more expensive to install than the one-pipe system. then flows so it absorbs heat from the outside air. convectors in or on the walls. the rate at which air reenters the system is so reduced that minimal pressure is required to propel the steam. as does a furnace. With circulate more readily. Electric heating generally costs more than energy obtained from combustion of a fuel. If the system is constructed with light joints. having given up much of its heat. is more less fuel. To air condition a space. C4 Electric Heating The practice of using electric energy for heating is increasing not only in residences but in public buildings as well. . and reduced space needs of electric heat can often justify its use. In heating season. but they differ in having a vacuum pump installed in the return piping. most heat pumps are controlled by thermostats. Like furnaces. The refrigerant is cold. and its actions are essentially the same for either process. The refrigerant. Heating elements or wires can even be incorporated in heating can be substantially reduced through the use of a heat-pump system. is pumped through a coil that is outside the area to be heated. flows first to a compressor. With a full vacuum system the condensate does not have to be returned by gravity.through one central air vent in the basement or. Instead of creating heat. but the convenience. It then vapor before it flows to an indoor coil. under windows. a liquid refrigerant. which raises its temperature and pressure so that it becomes other space to be heated.

clarity of the atmosphere. The water. The usual kerosene stove is made of sheet metal and contains one or more wick burners that heat metal flues within the stove. and the direction relative to the sun that an absorbing surface faces at any given time. provided enough solar absorbing surface can be installed and enough heat storage is made available to carry the building during periods of darkness and inclement weather. C6 Solar heating During each sunlight hour of the day approximately 0. drawing in cool air through vents in the bottom of the stove and emitting heated air from top vents. The actual energy received varies with time of day. The most common types are kerosene stoves and electric heaters. thus warming glass or quartz in which resistance wires are embedded. A number of such systems are in successful operation. delivered heat should amount to more than twice the heat purchased from the power source. Because the heater has no incandescent wires. A common method employed uses roof panels with built-in elsewhere in the house. a supplementary heat source for the water is usually provided. which circulates air around the heating unit. In colder water circuits.Most heat pumps use atmospheric air as their heat source. This energy can often be more than enough to heat a well-designed building. The entire plate or tube is warmed by the wires and gives off radiant heat. Proper placement of the glazing in any house can also greatly reduce the heating need D Portable Heating Units Houses lacking central-heating systems are equipped with various types of portable and semiportable heating devices. Kerosene stoves should be used with adequate outside ventilation because combustion gases can be harmful. it is safer to use. then flows into insulated tanks or pools located climates. the Heat-pump systems are now being used extensively not only in residences but also in commercial buildings and schools. many of which can be moved from room to room as needed. by convection as well as by radiation.9 kw per sq m (280 Btu per hour per sq ft) of solar energy reaches the surface of the earth. heated by the sun. Some radiant heaters include a fan. The simplest electric heaters are radiant heaters having a resistanceheating unit in front of a reflector. Kerosene stoves heat both by radiation and by convection. This presents a problem in areas where winter temperatures frequently drop below freezing. large stoves of this general pattern can provide adequate heat for several rooms. Another type consists of a plate or tube of heat-resistant . time of year. cold. this water becomes a source of heating for the house. making it difficult to raise the temperature and pressure of the refrigerant. Known generally as space heaters. For economical heating performance. latitude. particularly in areas where the weather is not severely from fuels or electric power in winter. which concentrates the radiant heat into a narrow beam.

. These use outgoing air to heat or cool incoming air. dilute the amount of air movement or ventilation ordinarily is provided by air leakage through small crevices in the building's walls. Radiators filled with oil that is heated electrically are also available. Providing this amount of ventilation usually requires mechanical devices to augment the Simple ventilation devices include fans or blowers that are arranged either to exhaust the stale air from the building or to force fresh air into the building. Nearly all chemical processes generate hazardous waste gases and vapors. or Factory ventilation systems must remove hazardous airborne contaminants from the workplace. concentration of carbon dioxide and water vapor. but not for public buildings such as offices and theaters. thereby increasing the IV AIR CONDITIONING Theoretically. however. or cooling devices.Electric-steam radiators are used to supplement other heating systems. In popular usage. and purity at all times. natural flow of air. and minimize unpleasant odors. an air-conditioning system consists of centralized equipment that provides an atmosphere with controlled temperature. Many systems include efficiency of the system by reducing the amount of energy needed to operate it. and the units can be moved from place to place and plugged into any electrical III VENTILATION Buildings in which people live and work must be ventilated to replenish oxygen. filters. and engineers. in particular. heat exchangers. A certain ventilation may suffice for homes. or that about 280 to 850 liters (about 10 to 30 cu ft) of outside air per minute should be supplied for each occupant. These radiators are to warm a small conventional radiator partially filled with water. No pipe connections are outlet. miniature steam-heating systems in which an electrical-heating unit generates enough steam necessary. filtered air. are involved in ventilation design for factories and refineries. Engineers estimate that for adequate ventilation the air in a room should be changed these must be removed from the workplace environment in a cost-effective manner. Such haphazard for factories. humidity controls. the term air conditioning often is applied improperly to air cooling. Many so-called air-conditioning units consist merely of blowerequipped refrigerating units that provide only a flow of cool. regardless of weather conditions. Chemical completely from one and a half to three times each hour. humidity. Ventilating systems may be combined with heaters. especially around windows and doors. or both.

as is necessary in the manufacture of certain drugs and medical supplies. Such installations are used for cooling and dehumidifying during the summer months. stores. through a labyrinth of oil-covered plates. The air is passed through water electrostatically by means of precipitators (see Electrostatic Precipitator). When dry air is required. and other public buildings. require air conditioning for the control of conditions during manufacture. Such systems. and ventilation. restaurants. blowers.A number of manufacturing processes. sprays or. A room or building with large windows exposed to the sun. in some filters. and the nature of their activity. such as those used in the production of paper. and the regular heating refrigerating unit and blower in a compact cabinet that can be mounted in a window. generally must be installed when the building is constructed. being complex. as required. in others. In older buildings. textiles. cooling. these systems have increasingly been automated by computer technology for purposes of energy conservation. and a plenum chamber in which air from the interior of the building is mixed with outside air. and printed matter. In the latter process it is passed through chambers containing adsorptive chemicals such as silica gel. dust is removed Centralized air-conditioning systems. the number of occupants. system is used during the winter. or an indoor office . providing fully controlled heating. are employed widely in theaters. it is usually dehumidified by cooling or by dehydration. When air must be completely free of dust. Air is humidified by circulation through water baths or sprays. single apartments or suites of offices may be equipped with a refrigerating unit. A smaller apparatus for cooling single rooms consists of a The design of an air-conditioning system depends on the type of structure in which the system is to be placed. the air- conditioning system is designed to include some type of filter. the amount of space to be cooled. in recent years. Air conditioning of this kind usually is based on adjusting the humidity of the circulated air. air ducts.

746 kw) represents work power and not cooling. All rights reserved.5 kw of cooling.5 kw—a Btu is the amount of heat removed from 1 lb (0. and a Air-conditioning units are rated in terms of effective cooling capacity. The circulation of air must be greater in a space in which the occupants are allowed to smoke than in a space of heated air can be recirculated without discomfort to the occupants. . because a horsepower (or 0.space with many heat-producing lights. equal capacity in which smoking is prohibited. but the term is misleading because under usual summer conditions a motor of one horsepower could support 3. It came into use Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005. or water when its temperature is lowered by 1° F (5/9° C). but in laboratories or constant supply of cooled or heated fresh air must be supplied. Usage still supports the term ton of refrigeration. which implies the amount of heat that would have to be absorbed to melt a ton of water-ice in 24 hours.45 kg) of Horsepower ratings were formerly used for small air conditioners. 12. which properly should be expressed in kilowatt units. most of the cooled or factories employing processes that generate noxious fumes. the equivalent of a ton of refrigeration. no air can be recirculated. In homes or apartments. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation.000 Btu/hour equal to 3. requires a system with a larger cooling capacity than an almost windowless room in which cool fluorescent lighting is used.

see Motion Pictures. chlorine. Millions of people around the made with still cameras. which are salts consisting of silver and chemicals called halogens (usually bromine. For information on the history of photography and its artistic practice. world own cameras and enjoy taking pictures. cameras. and records of family life. every year more than 10 billion exposures are This article discusses how photographs are produced using film. such as filtration and electronic flash. information on motion picture technology and history. History of Motion II GENERAL PRINCIPLES Light is the most essential ingredient in photography. and surveys how photographic technologies have evolved since the medium's invention. plants that close their based on the fact that certain chemicals are photosensitive—that is. and chemistry. It also outlines techniques of modern photography. these silver salts are distributed in gelatin to make a mixture called an emulsion. historical documents. The word photography comes from Greek words and means “drawing with light. see History of Photography. method of picture making developed in the early 19th century. and lenses. they change in some way blooms at night are one example. optics. or iodine). Nearly all forms of photography are when exposed to light. Photosensitive materials abound in nature. works of art. The films used in photography depend on a limited number of chemical compounds that darken when exposed to light. The compounds most widely used today are silver halide crystals.Photography I INTRODUCTION Photography. conveyers of news. which is applied to film or another supporting material in a thin .” Photographs serve as scientific evidence. based on principles of light. For the purpose of producing a photograph. For Pictures.

person. The photographer. The photographer can switch a modern zoom lens from wide to narrow angles of view by turning a collar or pressing a button. To take one example. Lenses that take in a wide angle of view make the subject seem farther away. When the emulsion is exposed to light. the denser or more opaque that part of the film becomes. thousands of people have III PHOTOGRAPHIC FILMS . in some cameras. a or circular opening of the lens. The dense (or dark) areas of the negative translate into light areas on the final photograph. The diaphragm controls the size of the aperture.layer. project a temporary image of something they wanted to draw. The stronger the light that strikes the crystals. The area where they re-form an image of the subject bends the light rays reflected from the subject so that these rays cross and reappear upsideinside the camera is called the plane of focus. the shutter speed can range from a small fraction of a second (1/1000 or less) to minutes or even hours. or an automatic mechanism focus falls exactly where the film lies. The amount of light that a lens allows to fall on the film is controlled by a lens diaphragm. Most types of film produce a negative image. must adjust the distance between the lens and the film so that the plane of Various types of lenses admit different amounts of light and permit different angles of view. from which a positive final copy can be printed on sensitized paper. but their photographs look different because the photographers made different choices with these controls. the silver halide crystals undergo chemical changes and. angle of view. making the resulting image appear in focus. The camera and lens control how much light strikes the film in what is called an exposure. camera size. In most cases the camera and its lens determine the appearance of the photographic image. shutter speed—influences the appearance of the photograph as much stood in the same spot to take photographs of the Grand Canyon over the years. which in a modern camera contains film. In both the camera obscura Cameras work on the basic principle of the camera obscura. The combination of choices that a photographer makes—film type. The purpose of the lens is refraction. a device that artists once used to and the modern camera. light passes through a lens fitted into an otherwise lightproof box. mechanism built of overlapping metal blades. after further processing. the bending of light. focus. Almost all modern photography relies on this negative-to-positive process. A device called a shutter controls how long light strikes the film. as the choice of subject and the time of day. lens aperture. lenses that take in a narrow angle make the subject seem magnified. The camera’s glass or plastic lens down on the other side of the lens. an image becomes visible. or scene in front of the camera—onto the inside of the box. Light passing through the lens casts an image of the camera’s subject—the object.

Niépce later switched from pewter to Daguerre continued Niépce’s pioneering work and in 1839. transparency) and sensitivity levels. which has been coated with one or more light-sensitive emulsions. version of this system. A few years later American inventor George Eastman devised a flexible improved on this by using a type of plastic called celluloid instead of paper. a long paper strip that could replace the glass plate. Advanced Photo System (APS). Within each film format there are a range of film types (black and white. painted image onto leather or paper. because the details were no longer lost in the texture of the Because the wet collodion (or wet plate) process required photographers to coat the glass support just before taking a picture. Beginning in 1850 glass replaced paper as a support for the negative. and the silver salts were suspended in collodion. Dry plates. French painter Louis Jacques Mandé improved version of the process. particularly silver nitrate and silver chloride. that are appropriate for different lighting conditions. The smooth glass negatives could produce paper. a type of roll film that incorporates various conveniences for amateur photographers. usually acetate. producing the first . another copper plates and from bitumen to silver chloride. Typical formats are 35-millimeter and 6-centimeter roll films. Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. announced an The daguerreotype process produced a detailed. He achieved this by placing a pewter plate coated with bitumen. In the early 19th century English scientists Thomas Wedgwood and Sir Humphry Davy used silver nitrate in an attempt to transfer a was not permanent. called film speeds. or color A A Brief History of Film Scientists recognized the photosensitivity of certain silver compounds. is credited with having made the first successful photograph in 1826. While they succeeded in producing a negative image. and most recently. but were eventually replaced by a negative/positive process. 4-by-5 and 8-by-10 inch sheet films. in the back of a camera obscura. It is available in a variety of shapes and sizes determined by the format of the camera. the entire surface blackened after continued exposure to light. sharper images than paper ones. This refinement became known as the wet collodion process. Talbot’s process produced a paper negative. He exposed silver- sensitized paper briefly to light and then treated it with other chemicals to produce a visible image. a thick liquid. after Niépce's death. color print. pieces of glass coated in advance with an emulsion of gelatin and silver bromide. during the 18th century. English inventor William Henry Fox Talbot devised this process and perfected it in the 1840s. positive image on a shiny copper plate small enough to be held in the hand. Daguerreotypes remained popular through the 1850s. In 1889 he were invented in 1878. it A French inventor. which he called the daguerreotype. experimenters sought a dry version of the same process.Modern film consists of a transparent material. from which he could produce any number of paper positives. light-sensitive material.

filters to screen the light these emulsions receive. B1 Dyes and Emulsions Photographic films vary in the way they react to different wavelengths of visible light. and infrared and ultraviolet radiation. films are sensitive to all colors of the visible spectrum. Both of these films produced positive negatives in 1942. yellow. But the era of color photography did not really begin until the advent of color transparencies. typically cyan (a greenish blue). yellow. the shortest as violet. Kodachrome color film in 1935 and Agfacolor in 1936.) wavelengths as red. The Kodak company introduced Kodacolor film for color enjoyed in black and white. These films are also known as reversal . plastics that are less flammable than celluloid. which gave amateurs the same negative/positive process they had long B How Film Works To understand how film works. it is first necessary to understand a few things about light. So. which also includes invisible energy in the form of radio waves. the blue flowers would appear too light.photographic film. and to prevent light from scattering within Color transparency films produce a positive color image for viewing with the help of a slide projector or an illuminated surface called a light table. and magenta (a purplish red). and blue in between. specialized compounds called dye sensitizers were incorporated into the emulsion. gamma rays. Even black-and-white films record colors as different shades of gray. which produces the actual color that resembles what the eye sees. in a picture of blue. The narrow band of electromagnetic waves that the human eye can detect is called the visible spectrum. for example. The first commercially successful material for making color photographs. whereas the red and orange flowers would look unrealistically dark. which we see as colors. and orange black-and-white films were sensitive to only the shorter wavelengths of the visible spectrum. Each emulsion responds to only one color of light and is coupled with a dye layer. green. Except for some isolated experiments. Early primarily to light perceived as blue. flowers. or slides. Other layers act as the film. Eastman's invention paved the way for all modern films. Today. Light is the visible portion of a broad range of energy called electromagnetic radiation. Most color films are coated with three emulsions. To correct this. called Autochrome. X rays. which are made of acetate or polyester. with a few specialized exceptions. with orange. became available in 1907 and was based on a process devised by French inventors Auguste and Louis Lumière. red. color films were not invented until the 20th century. Our eyes perceive the longest (A rainbow or a prism shows all the colors of the visible spectrum.

produce positive prints. Exposure to lots of light causes many particles to form. The resulting image produced on the film is called a negative because the tonal values of the subject photographed are reversed. just as in black-and-white processing. Color negative films. But when exposed to paper for printing color photographs it produces an image composed of different shades of a single color. and the print shows a flag properly striped with red. B2 Positive/Negative Development When film is processed in a chemical agent called a developer. The tonal values of the during the development of the film—creating a positive image. although silver is also essential to the process. The dyes in some brands of transparency film are added during development. and yellow (the complement of blue). Chromogenic color films. exhibit dye images rather than silver images. For instance. also known as print films. blue (the complement of yellow). called chromogenic film. areas in the subject that were dark appear light on the negative. Different combinations of those colors create the more complex colors visible on the to metallic silver and washed away during the initial development remain to be converted again combine with dye couplers to form the final color image. As these remaining silver halides are converted to metal. in others. large particles of metallic silver form in areas of the film that were exposed to light. dyes built into the emulsion chemically react with the silver salts that form the image. positive form. and areas that were bright appear dark. negative are reversed again in the printing process—or in the case of transparencies (slides). makes use of color-film technology to produce a negative that has just a single dye layer. The silver is then removed. which is red. leaving a negative image in the three colors. in which the dye is built in. and blue. As with some transparency films. When light shines through this negative onto color-sensitive print paper. magenta. the colors return to One type of black-and-white film. The colors on the processed negative are the complements of the colors in the and blue. before the second layer of metallic silver is also washed away. In color transparency films. When exposed to conventional blackand-white photo paper. yellow. while exposure to dim light or exposure for a very short time causes just a few particles to form. they are built into the film itself. turning what would otherwise be a negative image into a positive one. complement of red). the negative provides an image nearly identical to that of conventional black-and-white film. yellow. During processing. if you took a picture of the Ecuadorian flag. unexposed silver halide crystals that are not converted during a second development. the chemical action of the developer creates initial images in metallic silver. final print. they . and yellow dye images. the colored dyes on the negative would be a blue-green color called cyan (the original scene. But in color processing the developer also stimulates dye couplers (chemicals that react to a specific color of light and cause corresponding dyes to be released) to form cyan.films because the initial developed image is chemically reversed during processing.

So-called daylight films. pictures from them often have an orange cast when taken indoors without flash. but generally require fewer layers. see the Filtration section of this article. which produce negatives. are designed for both outdoor photography and pictures taken indoors with certain types of bulbs manufactured for such situations called photofloods. The color in print films. Black-and-white papers have a single layer of emulsion. a negative. Films may vary in their sensitivity to different kinds of light and in their ability to record fine details or quickly moving subjects. as C2 Exposure Latitude In any lighting situation there is an optimal exposure that will produce a perfect image on film. because print films are balanced for daylight. electronic flash. While the theory of color temperature is complicated. . Nonetheless. C1 Sensitivity and Color Balance Most films now in use are panchromatic.Photographic print papers are constructed much like films. meaning that they respond to all colors of light and can record each color’s relative strength with a fair degree of accuracy. commonly made of plastic or paper) is coated with a lightcolor papers have at least three layers. sensitive emulsion. the practical concept is simple: color films are balanced to perform best in specific lighting conditions. which produce direct positive images that cannot be altered. specifically with Distinguishing between daylight and tungsten film types is important mainly with transparency or slide films. the end result is a positive. Too short an exposure and the image is underexposed. can be adjusted during printing to compensate for different lighting conditions. The so-called paper support (today. be designed to respond to the specific quality or energy of light illuminating the scene. Color films also must may be outdoor sunlight. which Each of these kinds of light has a distinct characteristic referred to as color temperature. Tungsten films are designed to be used indoors without flash. For more information about eliminating color casts. Film exposed to light for a longer than optimal time is said to be overexposed and produces prints that look bleached out and blurred. pictures with unpleasant green or purple casts when taken indoors under fluorescent light. incandescent lamps. or electronic flash. which shows most visibly as insufficient contrast between dark and light. just as films are. the most widely used. When these papers are exposed to light shone through C Film Characteristics Certain characteristics help people determine which film will work best in a particular situation. All color films will produce in an office.

the margin for error is small. A photographer can push the limits of a film by overriding the recommended exposure for that film speed and shortening the exposure time. But to achieve the best-possible image quality. High ISO numbers correspond to highly light-sensitive. the greater its ability to provide satisfactory prints or slides Films that produce negatives generally offer much greater latitude than transparency films. The manufacturer of the film assigns it a standardized Organization). With films that have a narrow exposure latitude. all films exhibit a pattern called grain. with other adjustment for you. the C3 Speed and Grain Film is also classified by speed. an exposure adjusted for a shady area is likely to result in overexposure of adjacent sunny in a range of lighting conditions. Despite these advantages. setting an exposure compensation dial will trick the camera into making this lengthened to compensate for the underexposure. such as when photographing a rapidly moving subject. especially when enlarged. The photographer must then make sure that the development time is Whether fast or slow.Every film has a characteristic exposure latitude. this rating determines the amount of exposure required to photograph a numerical rating known as the ISO number (ISO stands for the International Standards numbers to less sensitive. and low Today. a range of settings within which it can accurately render the color and tonal values (contrasts of light and dark) of the subject photographed. Film grain is the visible trace of the metallic silver that forms the image. Staying within a given film’s exposure latitude can ensure an acceptable range of tones in the picture. halide grains. but films that are even slower exist. With some cameras the photographer will need to manually adjust the ISO number. slow films. while films above ISO 200 are considered fast. photographs taken with slowspeed film appear less grainy. it renders fine details intense colors than fast film. For this reason. subject under a given lighting condition. Slow-speed film also produces a smoother range of tones and more films in certain situations. fast films. slow-speed films typically have a rating between ISO 25 and ISO 100. including full detail throughout the picture. The individual grains of silver are generally larger and more obvious in faster film than in slower film. slow-speed film generally has a higher resolution—that is. areas. The wider a film's latitude. For each film. cameras. Films in the ISO 125 to ISO 200 range are considered medium speed. In addition. exposure time and aperture size need to be precisely set to fit the lighting conditions. a rating that provides a measure of the film’s sensitivity to light. many high-speed films have a greater exposure latitude than slower films. Because of the small size of its silver with greater sharpness. slow films are not as desirable as fast C4 DX Coding .

takes one or more minutes. The DX code is also placed on the film itself to inform the developing laboratory of this information. reversal films. duplication. which produce prints through the classic negative-to-positive process. used to make color slides and larger transparencies. and Agfacolor. for both special Polaroid cameras and for standard-format cameras (see Polaroid Corporation). including the popular 35-millimeter format (in which a single frame of the film is 35 millimeters wide). Film speeds of slide films commonly range from a very slow ISO 25 to a very fast D3 Polaroid In 1947 American physicist Edwin Herbert Land invented the Polaroid process. Manufacturers also offer premium films in most formats. which provide better color and smaller grain size. include such brand names as Kodacolor. which ray and infrared. These types include color print films. Today Polaroid films . manufacturers print a checkerboard pattern that corresponds to an electronic code. a type of photography that produces prints almost immediately after exposure. Most cameras with electronic controls are equipped with DX sensors that can read this information and automatically adjust exposures accordingly. Ideal for amateur use. Films are available in several sizes. Each manufacturer supplies its brand in several speeds: ISO 100. develop into prints without additional processing. This the film speed by hand in the camera's built-in exposure meter. Fujichrome. On cartridges of 35-millimeter code tells the camera’s computer the ISO rating of the film as well as the number of frames on the roll. and a number of specialty films such as X- D1 Print Films Color print films. 200. Manufacturers also design films for such specific tasks as slide ISO 3200. Polaroid films. Ektachrome. and 400 are the most common. it was quickly dubbed instant photography. D2 Slide Films Kodachrome. D Color Films in Use Today A range of color film types is available to photographers. Although the process are available in both black-and-white and color.DX coding is a recent innovation in film and camera technology that eliminates the need to set film. they are designed to provide excellent color rendition out of doors and with electronic flash. Fujicolor. or formats. and Agfachrome are examples of films that produce 35-millimeter slides and larger transparencies. Both daylight and tungsten versions of these films are generally available.

light.The processing chemicals and conventional silver halide emulsions in instant film are combined in a self-contained paper envelope or within the print itself. with some pleated leather sides called bellows. improvements. producing a print. on the other hand. Long before film was invented artists used The inventors of photography in the early 19th century adapted the camera obscura by adding a device for holding sensitized plates in the back of the box. has no separate negative. Basically. They placed thin paper onto the viewing screen and could easily trace the reflected image. At first the shutter was simply a blind dropped in front of the lens by the force of . This kind of camera. a large-format camera known as the view camera. Over the course of three centuries the camera obscura evolved into a handheld box with a lens device was a darkened room with a tiny hole in one wall. Older Polaroid films use a system in which the negative peels away from the final print. allowed the photographer to easily adjust the distance today. and users can watch the image develop before their eyes. a camera is a lighttight box with a lens on one side and light-sensitive film on the other. was used throughout the 19th century. devices that could limit the time of exposure to a fraction of a second. technology over the years have given photographers more control over the quality of their A A Brief History of Cameras Today’s cameras all derive from the 16th-century camera obscura. and Special Films Some special-purpose films are sensitive to wavelengths beyond the visible spectrum of light. The mirror reflected an image onto a this device to help them draw more accurately. The earliest form of this hole and projected an upside-down image of the subject onto the opposite wall. One notable enhancement for the box. infrared portion of the spectrum in addition to visible respond to X rays and other forms of electromagnetic radiation. between the lens and the plane of focus. Improvements in camera photographs. Infrared film responds to the invisible. Film manufacturers also design specialized emulsions for medical and scientific films that IV CAMERAS The most important tool of photography is the camera itself. Light entered the room through this replacing the pinhole and an angled mirror at the back. X-ray. Polaroid SX-70 film. Professional photographers still use a similar camera In the 1880s the invention of more sensitive emulsions and better lenses led to the development of lens shutters. A chemical diffusing agent transfers the negative image to the paper. ground-glass viewing screen on the top of the box. D4 Infrared.

But because these settings are not adjustable. a fixed. which used a cylindrical shutter that the photographer turned by pulling a string on the front of the camera. On most box cameras. the focal-plane shutter allows photographers to switch lenses safely in the middle of a film roll. Box cameras consist photographer looks to frame the scene. most of today’s cameras offer a range of automated features that greatly simplify picture taking and reduce the likelihood of error. The Kodak was one of the earliest handheld cameras. All but the earliest Leicas used a focal-plane shutter. plastic cameras come loaded with 35-millimeter color print film. These cardboard-covered. or by a spring. a waterproof body. when the camera is used outdoors in the sun. a small-sized film initially designed for motion pictures. and a shutter with one or possibly two speeds. a viewfinder window. or the ability to show panoramic views in B2 View Cameras . Whereas cameras once required many decisions on the part of photographers. After taking a roll of pictures. the photographer can do little to control the results. the Leica and other 35-millimeter cameras became popular with both amateur and professional photographers. Because it blocks light from the film even when the lens is removed. the lens is set to an aperture and focus that produce reasonably sharp pictures of a subject at least 2 m (about 6 ft) away. In 1925 the Leitz Company in Germany introduced the Leica. Single-use cameras are also available in several advanced extra-wide prints. simple lens. the user turns over the entire camera to a processing lab for development. Manufacturers now reuse or recycle many of the parts inside these cameras. and the of a rigid box or body.gravity. B Modern Camera Types Cameras come in a variety of forms. through which the simplicity of this easy-to-use design has assured its popularity ever since. B1 Box Cameras The Eastman Kodak Company introduced one of the first box cameras in 1888. one of the first cameras to use 35-millimeter film. Because of its compactness and economy. In 1888 George Eastman introduced the first Kodak camera. Later designs featured a set of blades just behind the optical lens. models—offering built-in flash. It made photography available to amateurs for the first time and created a snapshot craze at the turn of the 20th century. The modern-day equivalents of the old Kodak box cameras are the disposable cameras now sold at drugstores and tourist shops. located just in front of the film.

for use with either 35-millimeter film or the larger format 6- and-shoot cameras have largely replaced them. but today’s pointworks well under certain circumstances. but it is ideal for carefully arranged studio shots. some also use a newer film type called Advanced Photo System (APS). or swing the front and rear elements separately. B3 Rangefinder Cameras Rangefinder cameras were the first cameras to have an optical viewfinder—that is. (For more information. It has two capture far greater detail than 35-millimeter films. raise. The cameras work with all types of 35-millimeter film. Point-and-shoot cameras feature battery-operated electronic systems that may are available with a fixed single-focal-length lens or a zoom lens. and takes the picture. which are able to unlike that of most general-purpose cameras. The viewfinder adjusts a ring or collar until the two views appear as one. but only one that closely approximates it. modern rangefinders feature lenses that can be removed from the camera body so that photographers can choose a lens specifically suited to the subject. and film rewinding. flash. the modern rangefinder camera centimeter film. at which point the camera has set show the scene through the lens. focusing. film winding. see the Recent Developments: APS section of this article. aperture. The gap in time between framing and exposure makes the view camera useless for action shots. a separate. The photographer can shift. and some professionals still use it. the lenses cannot be include automatic controls for exposure. The body configuration of the view camera. the rear holds a ground-glass panel. B4 Point-and-Shoot Cameras The most popular camera type today is the point-and-shoot camera. and the space in between is enclosed in an expandable leather bellows. then inserts a film holder in front of the glass. and framing. The photographer frames and focuses the scene that appears in the glass panel at the back. allowing for great variation in perspective and focus. Since the viewfinder window does not Rangefinder cameras were once very popular with amateur photographers. Nevertheless. is extremely adjustable. rangefinder cameras can be inaccurate for framing close-up shots. tilt. Rangefinders are available in two formats. To focus the camera. window-like lens through which the photographer sees and frames the subject. They use large-format films.View cameras are larger and heavier than most amateur cameras but allow for maximum precision in focus. is paired with an adjacent window called a rangefinder. Unlike point-and-shoot cameras. It has a number of automatic features that make it practically foolproof to operate while producing pictures of high quality.) . landscapes. or architectural photography. the photographer the focus to precisely match the distance of the subject. independently moveable elements that ride on a track: The front element holds the lens and shutter. They removed from the body.

Increasingly. Because of this system. Most modern cameras have focal-plane or leaf shutters. a spring-activated mechanical device. precise automatic exposure systems. at the moment of exposure. a spring automatically pulls the mirror out of the path between lens and film. C1 Viewfinders A viewfinder enables photographers to frame their subject the way they would like it to appear in the finished photograph. The focal-plane shutter consists of a black shade with a variable-size slit across its the slit moves. In today’s cameras many of these features are automated. width. C Modern Camera Features Modern cameras feature several components to help photographers control their results under widely varying conditions. the image recorded on the film is almost taking situations. exposing it progressively as C3 Built-in Meters and Automatic Exposure . C2 Shutters The shutter. the photographer uses a single lens for both viewing the scene and taking the picture. and built-in flash controls. an innovation originally reserved for less sophisticated cameras. a great advantage in many picture- Most SLRs are precision electronic instruments equipped with fast focal-plane shutters. at the moment the photographer snaps the picture. When released. keeps light from entering the camera except during the interval of exposure. a cluster of meshed blades springs apart to uncover the full lens aperture and then springs shut. In the leaf shutter. A more complex and more accurate viewfinding system is the single-lens-reflex system.B5 Single-Lens-Reflex Cameras With the single-lens-reflex (SLR) camera. camera manufacturers are producing SLRs with automatic focusing. which then reflects it through a five-sided prism into the viewfinder. Some viewfinders consist of a simple window on top of the camera that only approximates the view through the lens. exactly what the photographer sees in the viewfinder. described above. The mirror is hinged. Light comes through the lens onto a mirror. the shade moves quickly across the film.

Today all but C4 Autofocusing Autofocus cameras use electronics and a small computer processor to automatically sample The computer then signals a small mechanism that turns the lens barrel to this point. the user attaches a leader extending the other side. With 35-millimeter film. Passive systems require a certain amount of detail—usually there must in the subject. the user must use a crank to rewind the film.For early photographers. setting the correct aperture and shutter speed for an exposure was meters in the 1930s. the camera could adjust itself to produce an appropriate exposure. Automatic cameras wind the film into position when the back is closed and cameras. A passive system would have trouble setting the correct focus. called active and passive. for a photograph in which the plain white sails of a boat took up the center of the frame. emits either an infrared light beam or high-energy (ultrasonic) sound waves. When the light or sound waves bounce off the subject and return to the camera. be discernable lines present in the target zone for this system to determine maximum contrast C5 Film Loading and Transport Most people today buy film in the form of lighttight cartridges or cassettes that they can insert into the camera in daylight. only professional photographers using sheet films still need to load their cameras in the dark. There are two widely used methods for determining the focus automatically. By the 1960s camera companies had begun to build exposure meters right into the camera body. for instance. An active autofocus system. from the cartridge to a spool at one side of the camera. most autofocusing systems will ignore it. for example. then drops the cartridge into a slot on rewind the exposed film into the cartridge when all exposures have been taken. they give an accurate reading of the distance focus of the lens until sensors detect that maximum contrast has been reached inside a rectangular target at the center of the focusing screen. automatically adjust the Neither method is foolproof. in electronics. Passive systems. The point of maximum contrast corresponds to the point of greatest sharpness. which interrupts their beams. In the 1980s this process became automated: With builtthe most inexpensive cameras feature such a system of automatic exposure. But with the development of handheld photoelectric exposure adjust the exposure accordingly. such systems typically required the user to center a needle over a pointer inside the viewfinder. If the primary subject is off to one side of the frame. With older . used in most point-and-shoot cameras. photographers were able to take precise readings of the light level and essentially an educated guess. the distance between camera and subject and from this determine the exact plane of focus. Active systems can be fooled by window glass. to that subject. used in more sophisticated cameras.

Over the next 300 years. leading to rapid developments in the field of lens making. B Focal Lengths Camera lenses are categorized according to their focal lengths and maximum apertures. the lens barrel incorporates an aperture ring and a focusing ring. Motor drives allow the photographer to snap a sequence of exposures in rapid succession while V LENSES The lens is the eye of the camera. which determines how much light reaches the film. are cemented into groups. The greater the size of . A A Brief History of Lenses The modern camera’s predecessor. as many as three to five pictures per second can be taken this way. These elements. Together with the shutter. the camera obscura. A camera can have a single lens or a complex set of lenses. sharper image by fitting a camera obscura with a convex (outward-curving) lens. such lens came from a pair of eyeglasses. Quality modern lenses are made of many individual elements of ground and polished glass (6 to 14 elements is common). a more rapid way of advancing the film.Most cameras now automatically advance the film to the next frame after an exposure has been made. By turning the aperture ring. the larger the image inside the camera will be. The focusing ring is used to focus the image on the film plane by changing the distance between the element groups. On a manually controlled camera. interest in telescopes and With the invention of photography in the 19th century. the more light the lens will admit. holding a finger on the shutter-release button. Some cameras come with a motor drive. each group is then assembled in what is called a lens barrel. or elements. The the aperture. to control optical distortion. The first microscopes led to the development of better and brighter lenses. each of a different shape and purpose. and the second was the discovery of ways to combine several pieces of glass. the photographer adjusts the opening of the lens diaphragm. In the 17th century people discovered they could produce a brighter. the lens controls the amount of light that enters the camera. Focal length is the distance from the optical center of the lens to the image formed inside the camera. Because this distance varies depending on how the camera is focused. These developments took place along two fronts: The first was the invention of new types of glass that refracted light more effectively. consisted of a simple pinhole in the side of a room or box. focal length ratings are defined by measuring the longer the focal length. the need for camera-specific lenses increased. Its function is to bring light from the subject into focus on the film.

Focal length determines the magnification and angle of view of the image. must refocus as the focal length changes—a disadvantage only if the camera does not offer automatic focusing. reproduce an object at one-fifth its actual size. seen through a telephoto lens. reproduce an object on film at one-half its actual size. Lenses that approximate the angle of view of the human eye are called normal lenses. the same objects will seem closer (and closer telephoto narrows this view. The aperture size is measured by numerical settings called f-stops. while the The zoom lens offers a range of focal lengths. The most common specialized task is close-up photography. called infinity). and thus the amount of light that passes through the lens. or lens opening. and is one of the most popular types of lenses today. Magnification of a subject to greater than its actual size calls for more specialized equipment. macro lenses were developed for single-lens-reflex cameras. and is called photomicrography. such as a microscope. To cope with these small subjects. they only can attach to a normal lens to allow close-ups. It operates in conjunction with the shutter. this allows photographers with single-lens-reflex cameras to focus precisely at high magnification lens. at best. objects photographed with a wide-angle lens will seem farther away than with together). with the addition of an extension ring. However. Macro lenses for 35millimeter cameras extend the focusing range to a matter of inches. the varifocal C Macro Lenses Some photographic subjects require task-specific optics. With the camera in a normal lens. On their own they can the camera can picture an object at life size. Typical f-stops . before framing the picture at a different focal length. Many modern zoom lenses come with a macro setting that allows a limited range of close-up focusing. The wide-angle can take in a broader angle of view than the eye can see.distance when the focusing ring is set for photographing a distant subject (indicated on the focusing ring with the symbol ∞. these are no substitute for a true macro lens because. Extension rings or simple close-up lenses also D Aperture The lens diaphragm controls the size of the aperture. a telephoto lens. manually controlled camera the f-stops are inscribed on an adjustable ring that fits around the lens. So-called true zooms maintain focus while changing the focal length. A lens with a short focal length is commonly called a wide-angle lens. The user can change the focal length by simply pushing a button or turning a ring on the lens barrel. a fixed position. On a traditional. with a long focal length. for subjects ranging from flowers to coins. Another type of zoom lens.

With single-lens-reflex cameras. with a wide aperture. and focal length. However. Conversely. by turning a ring or a focusing collar on the camera lens. With simple automatic-exposure cameras. f/2. f/4. and f/16. in which objects in the background are purposely blurred. f/5. depth of field will be most shallow when photographing a subject at close range. and a small aperture. many manufacturers now design zoom lenses with a variable maximum aperture: The size of the with a smaller aperture. in practice we call a picture “in focus” when it appears reasonably sharp at a given magnification and viewing distance. through use of a mechanism connected to an autofocusing sensor.6. All other factors being equal. using a long focal length (telephoto) lens. f/8.8. focusing distance. A telephoto lens requires a larger lens diameter and greater length to aperture changes as the focal length of the lens goes from wide-angle to telephoto settings. a lens with a large maximum aperture will have a larger diameter and weigh more than a lens let in the same amount of light as a normal or wide-angle lens. film captures only one plane of a picture in perfect focus. the area between the closest and farthest objects that will appear sharply focused in the photograph. f/16 a small aperture. adjustment. This term refers to a zone of focus—that is. f/11. thus the aperture ring has disappeared from many of today's lenses. To reduce their bulkiness and complexity. The setting f/2 represents a large aperture. called infinity. . But most of today's cameras with built-in lenses will adjust the lens automatically. Like telephoto lenses. The factors that determine depth of field are lens aperture. Lenses come with a rating for their maximum aperture. photographers make use of a concept called depth of field. Until recently photographers had to bring an image into focus manually. E Focusing Technically. indicating how much light can reach the film when the lens diaphragm is wide open. Most lenses will focus from a few feet in front of the camera to a point in the far F Depth of Field To help determine what will appear in focus in a picture. depth of field will be greatest when photographing a distant subject. A picture with a shallow depth of field might be a close-up portrait. using a short focal length (wide-angle) lens. a computer sets the aperture size. the maximum aperture also influences how bright the image appears in the viewfinder. zoom lenses are also physically large.are f/2. Within lens types. Cameras with interchangeable lenses still have focusing collars to allow for manual distance. A picture with a deeper zone of focus might be a landscape in which both the trees in the foreground and the mountains in the background appear in sharp focus.

photographers can obtain the maximum depth of field by turning the focusing collar until the infinity sign aligns with the outside depth-of-field mark for the f/stop they have chosen. For capturing the image of a moving subject. however. coatings enhance the contrast of the film image and account for the characteristic green and VI EXPOSURE All light-sensitive photographic materials—film or photographic print paper—produce their development. Automatic cameras are designed to focus precisely on a single subject at the center of the frame or. With manual focusing. Precise exposure. A variant of this manual-focusing technique is called zone focusing: The photographer chooses an aperture and a focusing distance that together cover the range of distances at which the subject is likely to appear. certain cameras with motor Focusing precisely on a central subject. finest results when given the optimum exposure. photographers can shade the front of the lens with a collar called a lens hood that photographing with the sun in front of or just to the side of the lens. manually adjusted lenses. In cameras with removable. Zone focusing is especially useful for candid photography. unwanted light that enters the lens and causes strange reflections and a loss of contrast on the film. Hoods for zoom lenses are less effective of view. a depth-of-field scale shows the approximate sharp-focus zone for the different aperture settings. because they must angle away from the lens enough to accommodate the lens's widest angle Lens makers also combat the more subtle effects of flare by coating the exterior and interior surfaces of the lens’s glass elements with thin layers of reflection-absorbing material. In most cases. is the technical key to excellent photographs. does not necessarily provide the greatest depth of field. G Lens Hoods and Coatings One of the worst enemies of photographers is flare. the photographer locks in the focus by pressing the shutter drives will adjust the focus continuously while the photographer tracks the subject. Flare is especially obvious when of flare. These purple hues visible when one looks into the front of a modern lens. To decrease the incidence prevents sunlight from striking the glass surfaces. button part way. A one-stop change in shutter speed is equivalent to an . to focus on a band of details across the central picture area. coupled with consistent A photographer can change the amount of exposure the film receives by adjusting either the shutter speed or the aperture setting.A photographer using a single-lens-reflex camera or view camera can judge the approximate depth of field by looking directly through the lens with the aperture set to the desired f-stop. in more sophisticated designs.

called averaging meters because they read a broad angle of the scene. different combinations of f-stop and shutter speed result in the same amount of light hitting For example. At first these meters were independent.6 at 1/15 second allows the same amount of light to strike the film as an exposure of f/2. but the pictorial results. unless the print exposure time is doubled. there are limits to this relationship.6 for 1/15 second produces twice the density and very great amounts of exposure. At the extremes of very little be noticeably underexposed. If the photographer is holding the camera by hand the second option is speed is two stops faster. and vice versa.aperture change of one f-stop. The meters built into modern cameras are called reflected light meters: They measure the measures the light that is falling on the scene or subject. this rule is less consistent and the resulting images will A Light Metering To help photographers determine the ideal exposure. with a sensor measuring the light as it came through the lens. (Another type. an exposure of f/5. camera uses data from its built-in exposure meter to automatically adjust the shutter speed All metering systems share one principle: They respond to the world as if it were a uniform shade of gray. photographing a still subject. and to help them avoid the problems associated with extremely high or extremely low exposure levels. For example. The final development was automatic exposure. The exposures are thus comparable. If the photographer is using a tripod to hold the camera still and provides greater depth of field. Thus. every stop of increase in the exposure (one step up in either f-stop or shutter speed) effectively doubles the density of an exposure at the same f-stop for 1/30 second. manufacturers introduced photoelectric exposure meters in the 1930s. but they produce different preferable. the first option may be preferable because the smaller aperture When film is developed according to the manufacturer's specifications. in which the and lens aperture.) Most of these devices are also amount of light reflected into the lens by the subject. later they were incorporated into the camera itself. and therefore a print made from it will be twice as light. because at speeds below 1/60 second. This shade (called 18 percent gray for its ratio of reflection) represents the average amount of light reflected by an average outdoor subject. In most situations. between exposure and density. movement of the camera or of the subject is likely to blur the image. for a given lighting situation several the film. basing the exposure on this average reading produces ideal results: the negative receives just the right amount of light.8 at 1/60 second—the aperture is two stops larger. those that read a . handheld devices. the incident-light meter. of the negative. called reciprocity. However. an exposure at f/5.

It then compares the results to a computerized formula to determine the best overall exposure. Spot meters give very precise readings.narrow angle are called spot meters. Lengthening development time lightens the resulting images. a roll of ISO 100 slide film exposed by mistake at a rating of ISO 200 can be same token. more sophisticated single-lens-reflex cameras try to increase the accuracy of their automatic-exposure systems with what is called a multipattern metering system. automatic exposure systems will assume that the snow is an average shade of gray and underexpose it. exposure and image density. Likewise. which otherwise would appear too dark. In backlit conditions. Pictures taken at either very fast or very slow speeds tend . By the For example. Averaging meters provide somewhat less accuracy than spot meters but are easy to use. fails. or one-to-one relationship between to result in underexposed images. resulting in high contrast between light and dark areas. If the lighting is harsh. For example. a sophisticated photographer might overexpose the negative and then shorten its development time to subdue the harsh light. pushed—that is. B Development and Exposure Perfectly exposed film will produce imperfect pictures if it is not developed properly. Based on the data gathered. Newer. have its development time extended during processing to produce reasonable results. it is common to adjust the exposure and development of each picture individually to compensate for varying contrast conditions. the colors may also shift. At significantly slower or faster speeds the reciprocity. development can be adjusted to compensate for certain variations in exposure. but the photographer must know how to correctly interpret these readings. these meters try to guess the kind of picturetaking situation at hand and compensate for some problems. if the main subject is a snowman in a field of snow. In black-and-white photography. most meters will recommend too little exposure. view camera photography and is the foundation C Long and Short Exposure Times Most films are intended for use at shutter speeds between 1/2 and 1/1000 second. This type of system measures the light coming through the lens from several different areas within the picture frame. meter readings are not foolproof. With color films. so portrait photographers have to adjust their exposures to compensate. of the method used by American wilderness photographer Ansel Adams. neither very dark nor very light skin tones reflect 18 percent of the light. when a person is surrounded by a bright background. Despite all the advances in exposure technology. This technique is often used in large-format. such as an overly bright sky.

The most commonly used sources of artificial illumination are electronic flash. For some fast-moving subjects—such as the wings of a hummingbird in flight or a golf club as a golfer swings it—even a shutter-speed setting of 1/1000 second is not sufficient to capture the image in focus. When a brief jolt of electricity is applied to the electrodes sealed at the ends of the tube. Some designs. Flash photography can produce an effect equivalent to shorter exposure times. a disposable bulb filled with oxygen and a mass of fine magnesium Flash units vary in size from small. sometimes in rapid succession. both indoors and outdoors. Special electronic flash units are able to limit the duration of their light output to as little as 1/100.000 second. enabling him to capture the image of a bullet in flight. light source.000 second is Eugene Edgerton. although a duration of 1/100. Generally speaking. the maximum speed at which synchronization is possible is usually 1/125 second. the shutter must be open for the duration of the flash.Exposure meters do not compensate for reciprocity effects. Camera-mounted flashes are adequate for snapshots of family and friends. the gas produces an intense burst of light of very short duration. without wearing out the tube. Most flash exposures last from 1/1000 to 1/5000 second. development times must also be increased. D Flash Photography In the absence of adequate daylight. camera-mounted units to large studio units that plug into an electric wall socket. In 1931 the inventor of the electronic flash. Flash units are designed either as part of the camera mechanism or as accessories. instead. and quartz lamps. the larger the unit. photographers use artificial light to illuminate scenes. the flashbulb. developed an electronic strobe light (see Stroboscope) with which he now readily available. With black-and-white film. the greater the intensity of light produced. American engineer Harold produced flashes of 1/500. the photographer must compensate by manually adjusting the exposure according to charts supplied by the film manufacturer. Setting the shutter speed is important because the shutter and the flash need to be synchronized—that is. Another once-popular alloy wire. but to illuminate a large scene evenly and with a single burst of light. a powerful studio unit is needed. has gone the way of the dinosaur. . called dedicated flash units. In cameras with a focal-plane shutter (this includes most commonly used cameras).000 second. battery-powered. An electronic flash unit consists of a glass quartz tube filled with an inert gas—usually xenon. The process can be repeated thousands of times. tungsten lamps called photofloods. are made for use with a particular camera model and have circuitry that sets the shutter speed and illuminates a light in the viewfinder when the tube is ready to fire again.

Exposed in daylight. strong. change photography. has a yellow-amber cast when exposed indoors under incandescent light or photofloods. For this type of picture. photographers could control the exposure only by adjusting the aperture. making the centers of the subject’s eyes appear red. A series 80 conversion filter corrects this problem. In a landscape photograph taken with a red filter. Similar type of artificial light to work with a second type of artificial light. for example. or create special effects. changes the color balance of light when it is radically different from that of the film. called fill-flash. color filters transmit light of one color while blocking light of a contrasting color. more even light and eliminates red eye. The color temperature of electronic flash is practically the E Filters Filters added to the front of a camera lens change the quantity or quality of the light that contrast or brightness. it was not possible to adjust the flash output. which is balanced for sunlight at noon. to conversion filters are light-balancing filters.Modern dedicated flash units. causing the sky to appear darker and thereby emphasizing clouds. using flash also causes a condition known as red eye. as well as built-in camera units. much of the blue light of the sky is blocked. A series 85 conversion filter can correct this. When photographing people or animals in very dim conditions. With some flash units it is possible to achieve more pleasant results indoors by aiming the flash at the ceiling. Tungsten films. Photographers also use CC filters to make small changes in color rendition on . the exposure generally should be set to half of what would be overriding the main source of light. called a conversion filter. This technique. medium-yellow filter is often used for outdoor black-and-white photography because it renders Another type of filter. Daylight film. contain automatic flash systems. minimize haze. filters may alter the color balance of light. This sensor is commonly located inside the invented. camera. They have a sensor that determines the appropriate amount of light from the flash tube. which can adjust tungsten film designed for one Color-compensating (CC) filters help balance fluorescent light for daylight film or indoor (tungsten) film. lightens shadows without same as daylight so the two light sources do not produce noticeable color differences. they produce pictures with a bluish cast. where it can gauge the amount of light at the film plane. In black-and-white reaches the film. As light bounces from ceiling to subject. The the tone of a blue sky in much the same way as the human eye does. A yellow filter produces a less extreme effect because more blue light is transmitted to the film. flat lighting. Flash can also be used in daylight to fill in foreground areas where shadows may be too required for the existing light. Before automatic flash was Flash aimed directly at the subject usually produces harsh. are balanced for use indoors with light from photofloods or incandescent lightbulbs. depending on the aperture set on the lens. Made of gelatin or glass. it produces a softer. for example.

filters are familiar amateur accessories. many photographers traveled with many people have a home darkroom built in their basement. a special orange-colored light bulb called a safelight can provide some illumination. a UV filter eliminates most of the excess blue that appears in distant landscape photographs and secondarily provides a transparent protective cap for the lens. But during the processing of black-and-white films. which measures VII DARKROOM PROCESSING A darkroom is a room for processing photography materials. color films. A darkroom is divided into a dry side and a wet side. Today enlarging. the enlarger lens focuses this . Photographers make prints with an enlarger. and the photographer should always wear latex gloves when handling wet materials and a dust mask when mixing powdered chemicals with water. filter factors are less relevant. and is used for the chemical processing of films and prints. film is customarily developed in a lighttight tank. certain precautions are necessary: the darkroom should have an exhaust During the process of exposing and developing black-and-white printing paper. factors. In color photography. In the home darkroom. The enlarger light shines through the negative. The dry side is used for loading. light. called filter the light after it has come through the lens. Some professional transparency films require CC filtration as a matter of course. and preparation. the wet side contains a sink with temperature-controlled running water. laundry room. because these materials are panchromatic—that is. In the early days of the medium. All such reductions. They filter ultraviolet of a lens. which were housed in horse-drawn wagons or carried by servants. the darkroom must be totally dark. they are sensitive to all types of light. All filters reduce the amount of light reaching the lens to some degree—with a polarizing filter the reduction can amount to two stops or more of exposure. or ultraviolet (UV). must be calculated into manual exposures. It must completely seal out light from outside the room. an upright device that functions much like a camera except that it contains its own light source. Screwed into the end A polarizing filter reduces reflections from the surfaces of shiny subjects such as windows. polarizing filters also produce more intense colors. which is invisible to humans but which can register on film as blue.the film or when printing in the darkroom. Because many processing fan to expel fumes and dust. or closet. Skylight. portable darkrooms. but they still require slower shutter speeds or larger apertures. With automatic exposure. which holds metal reels onto which the exposed film has been wound. and color printing papers. chemicals are toxic.

The contact method works for making prints of exactly the same size as the negative. photographers transfer the film to a solution called the stop bath. which shows all the exposures from a For projection printing. and a large image of the negative projects onto the printing paper. which sits on a flat easel at the base of the enlarger. Switching on the enlarger light source projects an enlarged image of the negative onto the paper. It encourages large grains of silver to form around the minute particles of metal that already make up the latent (not yet visible) image. bathing the processed film in a washing aid promotes uniform drying and prevents formation of water spots or streaks. a visible image develops on the film. Finally. The exposure commonly lasts from ten seconds to a minute. The density of silver deposited in each area depends on the amount of light the area received during exposure. or fixer. is applied to clear any remaining fixer from the film. along with a timer connected to the enlarger light. the photographer can reduce or increase the amount of light falling on selected portions of the image. as residual fixer tends to destroy negatives over time. As large particles of silver begin to form. which chemically neutralizes the developer. they place the emulsion side of the negative in contact with the printing material and expose the two together to a source of light. Using this method. This solution reactivates the process begun by the action of light when the film was exposed. An aperture on the enlarging lens controls the exposure. a fixer remover. thus lightening or darkening those areas in the final print. In order to arrest the action of the developer. use this method to print what is called a contact sheet. The solution used for this process is commonly referred to as hypo. photographers first place the negative in the enlarger and place a piece of sensitized printing material on the flat easel at its base. to remove After a short rinse. they apply another chemical solution to the negative image to fix it—that is. Photographers with 35-millimeter cameras commonly single roll of film in small size. By blocking part of the light source with hands or small tools. A Developing the Film Photographers develop film by treating it with an alkaline chemical solution called a developer. B Printing the Photos Photographers produce prints by either of two methods: contact or projection. After rinsing the residual silver halide crystals unexposed to light. The film must then be thoroughly washed in water. it darker. This technique is known as dodging when used to lighten an area and as burning when making .light. or hypo-clearing agent. film.

APS is not a digital photography system. APS film is APS cameras magnetically encode information onto the exposed film that automated easier to load. And although APS film is of a smaller Soon after Kodak’s introduction of APS. In comparison to 35-millimeter point-and-shoot models. After exposing the print.For either printing process. APS cameras are slightly smaller and lighter. prints are made on sheets of paper or plastic that have been coated with a light-sensitive emulsion. well-exposed prints than with 35-millimeter processing. other film and camera makers also adopted the system. including several single-lens-reflex models. However. but are changing photography in such image-making systems. the target market for APS remains the point-and-shoot camera user. which are explained in the next section. dozens of APS cameras are now available. including silver halides and dye couplers. Called the Advanced Photo System (APS). And photofinishing machines can read. less sensitive to light. digital systems. for color prints. APS employs well-established color B Digital Photography Digital photography is a method of making images without the use of conventional photographic film. it is capable of results that nearly match the precision and sharpness of the older format. Instead. a drum VIII RECENT DEVELOPMENTS The technology of photography continues to develop rapidly. a machine called a scanner records visual information and converts . this technology challenges conventional 35-millimeter photography on several fronts. unlike film technology. this results in a higher percentage of format than 35-millimeter film. This coating is similar to that used for film but is much positive image by a process very similar to that used for developing film. since the APS film cartridge has no leader to thread into a take-up spool. fundamental ways that the distinction has begun to blur between photography and other A APS In the early 1990s the Eastman Kodak Company introduced a new line of cameras and film designed for amateur photographers. such as computers and the graphic arts. the photographer can then develop and fix the and-white prints. the paper is usually placed in a series of open trays. Electronic technologies have not only changed the way that most cameras work. One of the biggest differences between APS and conventional photography is that photographers can have their pictures processed conventionally or have them scanned onto a compact disc (CD) for use with a computer. According to Kodak. To process blackor automatic roller processor is preferred.

with automatic focus. stored on disks. Photographs in digital form can be manipulated by means of various computer programs.it into a code of ones and zeroes that a computer can read. The more expensive professional cameras function as sophisticated 35-millimeter cameras but record the picture information as pixels. for example) or as a conventional silver halide print Digital cameras aimed at the amateur photography market function much as point-and-shoot cameras do. so the whole family can look at snapshots together. Others accept a disc or similar portable storage unit to achieve the same purpose. The original high-resolution image can later be reproduced in ink (in a magazine. and built-in electronic flash. image files can be transferred to a home computer. Some digital cameras are able to transfer their large picture files directly into a computer for storage. There can be several million pixels in a high-resolution. Pictures from these cameras contain fewer pixels than those from a more expensive camera and are therefore not as sharp. Digital cameras are now available for both professional photographers and amateur enthusiasts. Digital photography was widely used in advertising and graphic design in the late 1990s. full-color digital photograph. the user can connect the camera directly to a television set or video cassette recorder. automatic exposure. Alternatively. or sent to friends via electronic mail. or digital dots of color (see Computer Graphics). and was quickly replacing conventional photographic technology in areas such as photojournalism. After taking pictures. .

but the positive charge of the proton is exactly opposite the negative charge of the electron. Electricity can also be converted efficiently into other forms of energy. and countless other necessities and luxuries possible. or moving. Electric charges can be stationary. or electrically neutral. as Electricity is an extremely versatile form of energy. Electricity is generated. It makes telephones. as in an electric current. it is said to be negatively charged. and other forms of energy through natural processes. Electrical forces hold transmitted between neurons (nerve cells). Static electricity consists of electric charges that stay in one place. Because of this versatility. two of the basic in static electricity. It can be generated in many ways and from many different sources. An electric current is a flow of electric charges between objects or locations. positively charged. a property of certain elementary particles such as electrons and protons. Electric charge comes in two forms: positive and negative. as Electrical activity takes place constantly everywhere in the universe. transmitted. II ELECTRIC CHARGE Electricity consists of charges carried by electrons. particles that make up the atoms of all ordinary matter. Electrons and protons both carry exactly the same amount of electric charge. light. one of the basic forms of energy. . heat. and mechanical power. and other particles. it is said to be an object contains as many protons as electrons. If Electricity occurs in two forms: static electricity and electric current. protons. The nervous systems of animals work by means of weak electric signals converted into heat. if it has more electrons than protons. and it can be stored. If an object has more protons than electrons. electricity plays a part in nearly every aspect of modern computers. and well as by devices built by people. televisions. motion. the charges will cancel each other and the object is said to be uncharged.Electricity I INTRODUCTION Electricity. Electricity is associated with electric charge. Electricity provides light. molecules together. It can be sent almost instantaneously over long distances. technology.

the material materials should be clean and dry. The object that gains electrons becomes negatively charged. Electrons move from the surface of one object to the surface of the other if the second material holds onto its electrons more strongly than the first does. and the material later in the list becomes positive. Charges in motion form an electric current. if a nylon comb is run through clean. An electroscope is a device that contains two strips of metal foil. and fur (or hair). The ability to store charge is called capacitance and is measured in units called farads. a charge flows from the first to the second object for a brief time. The comb becomes negatively charged and the hair becomes positively charged. that hang from one end of a metal rod. The following flannel. The electroscope has thus been charged by contact with the comb. The A Charging by Contact Objects become electrically charged in either of two ways: by contact or by induction. which the leaves remain apart because they retain their charges. since it now has more electrons than protons. the amount of charge that an object receives depends on its ability to store charge. dry hair.III STATIC ELECTRICITY Static electricity can be produced by rubbing together two objects made of different materials. silk. materials are named in decreasing order of their ability to hold electrons: rubber. separate because they now hold like charges and repel each other. called leaves. A metal ball is at the other end of the rod. The object that gives up electrons becomes positively charged. For example. earlier in the list becomes negative. glass. When charge flows between objects in contact. A charged object transfers electric charge to an object with lesser charge if the two touch. If any two of these materials are rubbed together. Charging by contact can be demonstrated by touching an uncharged electroscope with a charged comb. When the charged comb touches the ball. . some of the charges on the comb flow to the leaves. some of the electrons on the hair are transferred to the comb. If the comb is removed. When this happens.

charge will flow from the 8-coulomb object to the 4-coulomb . When they touch. and objects with similar charges repel each late 18th century. called conductors. the greater the distance between the objects. or discharge. also named after Coulomb. if an object gains a large enough charge of static electricity. part of the charge may jump. allow an electric current to flow through them easily. Some materials. However. the lesser the force between them. However. formulated by French physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb during the the force between two charged objects is directly proportional to the product of their charges charges on the objects. When the charge is large enough. materials. The unit of electric charge. it requires a pathway for the electric charge to move along. Suppose. through the air to another object without touching it directly. is equal to the combined charges of 6. the larger the force between them. The greater the other. quantifies the strength of the attraction or repulsion. B Coulomb’s Law Objects with opposite charges attract each other. the air becomes a conductor. If two charged objects in contact have the same capacitance. they divide the charge evenly.This flow of charge between objects with different amounts of charge will occur whenever possible. that one object has a charge of +4 coulombs and the other a charge of +8 coulombs. air is an insulator. Other Under normal conditions. Lightning is an example of a discharge. This law states that and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. strongly resist the passage of an electric current.24 × 1018 protons (or electrons). called insulators. Coulomb’s law. for example.

If two objects have different capacitances. For example. If an object with a capacitance of 10 farads touches an object with a capacitance of 5 farads. no charge would flow between them. Because electrons leave the far side of the neutral object while its protons remain stationary. .object until each has a charge of +6 coulombs. they divide the charge in proportion to their capacitances. If each object originally had a charge of +6 coulombs. coulombs. the electrons in the the neutral object that is nearest to the positive object. This side of the neutral object neutral object are attracted to the positive object. if a positively charged object is brought near a neutral object. Their total charge is therefore +12 farad object will have +4 coulombs. that side becomes positively charged. Some of these electrons flow to the side of accumulates electrons and becomes negatively charged. the 10-farad object will have a charge of +8 coulombs and the 5- C Charging by Induction A charged object may induce a charge in a nearby neutral object without touching it. After they touch. Suppose that the objects are oppositely charged and that one has a charge of +20 coulombs and the other a charge of -8 coulombs. the 10-farad object will end up with twice the amount of charge of the 5-farad object.

taken away. is flow to the other side of B. the charge on the far side. Even if A is subsequently removed. A. remains positive because the wire has been disconnected and B cannot regain electrons from IV ELECTRIC CURRENT . since it has lost electrons to Earth. the electrons flow out through the wire into the ground. so that it An object can also be charged permanently by induction. Object B is said to be grounded by the wire connecting it to Earth. B. the electrons on the other object redistribute themselves evenly over it. Similarly. being neutral. such as a metal wire. As before. the net effect is an attraction between the objects. B still Earth to neutralize its positive charge. As soon as the charged object is again becomes neutral.Since the negatively charged side of the neutral object is closest to the positive object. the positively charged side and the positive object. If that side of B is then connected to the ground by a good brought near a neutral object. The ground can receive almost any amount of charge because Earth. has an enormous capacitance. The net effect is an attraction between the objects. If a negatively charged object. Thus B has been permanently charged by induction. B has a positive charge. the electrons on B are repelled as far as possible from A and conductor. attraction between this side and the positive object is greater than the repulsion between the negative object induces a positive charge on the near side of the neutral object and a negative The induced charges described above are not permanent. when a negatively charged object is brought near a neutral object. If this wire is then removed.

Electric current can be demonstrated by connecting a small light bulb to an electric battery by two copper wires. For example. a metal doorknob or radiator. Rubber. Electricians wear rubber gloves so that electric current will not pass from electrical equipment to their bodies. will be discussed in the Alternating Current section of this article. such as the current in a battery-powered flashlight. If 2 coulombs flow C Voltage . Current that flows in one direction only. but not in contact with. reversing direction again and again. Most metals are good conductors. an electric current flows from one object to the other until the charge is distributed according to the capacitances of the objects. and resistance in any circuit are all A Conductors and Insulators Conductors are materials that allow an electric current to flow through them easily. Substances that do not allow electric current to flow through them are called insulators. In the dark.An electric current is a movement of charge. If 1 coulomb of charge flows past past each point in a second. through an insulator to another object. voltage. causing the bulb to glow. Direct current. or jump. glass. is called alternating current. which is used in most devices that are “plugged in” to electrical outlets in buildings. if you shuffle across a wool rug and then hold your finger very close to. such as a copper wire. nonconductors. current flows through the wires and the bulb. When the connections are properly made. then an electric current flows from one object to the other through the wire. the current is 2 amp. See also Electric Meters. is easier to understand than alternating current. each point of a wire every second. which is used in most battery-powered devices. If two objects are connected by a material that lets charge flow easily. The amount of current. the wire is carrying a current of 1 amp. and air are common insulators. When two objects with different charges touch and redistribute their charges. the passage of the current through the air is visible as a tiny spark. is called direct current. Most of the following discussion focuses on direct current. However. B Measuring Electric Current Electric current is measured in units called amperes (amp). or dielectrics. Other properties that are used to quantify and compare electric currents are the voltage (also called electromotive force) driving the current and the resistance of the conductor to the related through an equation called Ohm’s law. the charge can arc. even though air is an insulator. passage of the current. current will arc through the air from your finger to the doorknob or radiator. Alternating current. Current that flows back and forth. if an object contains a sufficient amount of charge.

A good insulator has a very high resistance. and resistance is given by Ohm’s law. Collisions between the electrons and the atoms of the conductor interfere with the flow of electrons. voltage. One terminal continuously sends electrons into the conductor.When the two terminals of a battery are connected by a conductor. silver is the best conductor and copper is the second The resistance of a piece of wire depends on its length. The more willing the terminals are to give up and receive electrons. Electric wires are usually made of copper. an electric current flows through the conductor. This law states that the amount of current passing through a conductor is directly proportional to the voltage across the conductor and inversely proportional to the resistance of the conductor. This phenomenon is known as resistance. because a thick wire offers more room for an electric current to pass through than a thin wire does. Another name for a voltage produced by a source of electric current is electromotive force. where V is the difference in volts between two locations (called the potential difference). while the other continuously receives electrons from it. the higher the temperature of a wire. Voltage is measured in units called volts. A wire whose cross- wire of identical diameter and material. but it does not permit the current to flow with perfect freedom. which is less expensive than silver. and its cross-sectional area. length. At commonly encountered temperatures. the greater its resistance. to cross-sectional area. or thickness. The current flow is caused by the voltage. and area by saying that resistance is proportional to length and inversely proportional Usually. If one wire is twice as long as a shorter one. A good conductor is one that has low resistance. and R is the resistance in ohms of the conductor between the two locations of interest. the greater its resistance. best. the higher the voltage. Scientists describe this relationship between resistance. The symbol for ohms is the Greek letter omega. D Resistance A conductor allows an electric current to flow through it. V = IR can also be written R = V/I and I = V/R. If any . between the terminals. the longer wire offers twice as much resistance as the sectional area is twice that of another wire of equal length and similar material has only half the resistance of the thinner wire. Ù. Ohm’s law can be expressed as an equation. The longer the wire is. E Ohm’s Law The relationship between current. has less resistance. V = IR. I is the amount of current in amperes that is flowing between these two points. A thicker wire. or potential difference. Resistance is measured in units called ohms. The resistance of some materials drops to zero at very low temperatures. however. This phenomenon is known as superconductivity.

However. the greater the heat. Most of the electrons in a bar of copper. electric current is conducted differently in solids. V HOW ELECTRIC CURRENT IS CONDUCTED All electric currents consist of charges in motion. However. the third can be calculated. When an electric current flows in a solid conductor. Under normal conditions. This energy is supplied by is supplied to a device is called power. resistance is constant in conductors made of metal. because the current is carried entirely by electrons. and liquids. The rate at which energy power P supplied by a current of I amp passing through a resistance of R ohms is given by P = I2R. if a potential difference of 110 volts sends a 10-amp current through a conductor. however. For example. and it is often measured in units called watts. The current I will be doubled. then R is still 11. if a voltage is applied to the two ends of a copper bar by means of a battery. gases. If V = 110 and R = 11. The the source of the current. then the resistance of the conductor is R = V/I = 110/10 = 11 ohms. however. The other end is said to be at a lower potential . A current of I amp passing through a resistance of R ohms for t seconds generates an amount of heat equal to I2Rt joules (a joule is a unit of energy equal to 0. F Heat and Power A conductor’s resistance to electric current produces heat. such as a battery or an electric generator. some are free to move from atom to atom. the greater the heat. the greater the resistance. that is. In liquids and gases. then I = V/R = 110/11 = 10 amp.239 calorie). since I = V/R = 220/11 = 20 amp. for example. The greater the current passing through the conductor. Also. the free electrons tend to drift toward one end. the flow is in one direction only. If the voltage is raised to 220 in the example above. However. as many of them are moving in one direction as in another. are tightly bound to individual copper atoms. Energy is required to drive an electric current through a resistance. This end is said to be at a higher potential and is called the positive end.two of the quantities are known. enabling current to flow. a two-directional flow is made possible by the process of ionization (see Electrochemistry). Ordinarily the motion of the free electrons is random. A Conduction in Solids The conduction of electric currents in solid substances is made possible by the presence of free electrons (electrons that are free to move about).

Cl-. Thus. When sodium chloride dissolves in water. the substance is gradually separated into two parts. and negative chlorine ions. Semiconductors generally have a higher resistance to B Conduction in Gases Gases normally contain few free electrons and are generally insulators. VI SOURCES OF ELECTRIC CURRENT . Such the flow of current than does a conductor. When a strong potential difference is applied between two points inside a container filled with a gas. Na+.and is called the negative end. while the positive ions drift toward the negative point. the electric current is composed of these flows of opposite charges. C Conduction in Liquid Solutions Many substances become ionized when they dissolve in water or in some other liquid. The electrons move toward the high-potential (more positive) point. while water that is absolutely pure is an insulator. A battery does this by supplying electrons to the negative end of the bar to replace those that drift to the positive end and also by absorbing electrons at the positive end. water that contains even a slight impurity of an ionized substance is a conductor. it separates into positive sodium ions. while the ions move toward the low-potential (more negative) point. If two points in the solution are at different potentials. The function of a battery or other source of electric current is to maintain potential difference. such as copper. but no such Some substances that ordinarily have no free electrons. Since the positive and negative ions of a dissolved substance migrate to different points when an electric current flows. This separation is called electrolysis. such as glass. the negative ions drift toward the positive point. but a lower resistance than an insulator. The gas atoms become positively charged ions and the gas is free electrons are accelerated by the potential difference and collide with the atoms of the gas. A perfect insulator would allow no charge to be forced through it. An example is ordinary table salt. their atoms. The best insulators offer high but not infinite resistance at room temperature. Insulators cannot conduct electric currents because all their electrons are tightly bound to substance is known at room temperature. can conduct electric currents when small amounts of certain impurities are added to them. An electric current in a gas is composed of these opposite flows of charges. said to be ionized. the few knocking free more electrons. substances are called semiconductors. sodium chloride (NaCl). As in gases. such as silicon and germanium.

holds its electrons less . are connected voltage between the terminals drives an electric current through the appliance that is plugged B Electrolytic Cells Electrolytic cells use chemical energy to produce electricity. Certain sources of electric current operate on the principle that some metals hold onto their strongly than aluminum does. Chemical reactions within an consists of a cell or group of cells connected together. however. The into the outlet. electrons more strongly than other metals do. electrolytic cell produce a potential difference between the cell’s terminals. the platinum loses electrons and becomes positive. other buildings. A Generators Generators use mechanical energy. from which electricity to operate lights and appliances is drawn. fuel cells do not store chemicals and therefore must be constantly refilled. See Electric Power Systems. for example. Fuel cells. If a strip of platinum and a strip of aluminum are pressed together under the proper conditions. such as water pouring through a dam or the motion of a turbine driven by steam.There are several different devices that can supply the voltage necessary to generate an electric current. to produce electricity. The electric outlets on the walls of homes and to giant generators located in electric power stations. produce electricity through chemical reactions. As the aluminum gains electrons and becomes negative. Platinum. some electrons will flow from the platinum to the aluminum. An electric battery C Other Sources There are many sources of electric current other than generators and electrolytic cells. The two most common sources are generators and electrolytic cells. Unlike electrolytic cells. for example. Each outlet contains two terminals.

and two pieces of wire. and back to the positive terminal of the battery. the connection is broken. the electric current flows from the negative terminal of the battery. through the bulb filament (also a type of wire). through the other piece of connecting wire. Electricity produced in this way is called photoelectricity. A flashlight is an example of such a circuit. electrons will pass from one strip to the other. In a simple circuit consisting of a small light bulb. a battery.The strength with which a metal holds its electrons varies with temperature. the filament heats up and the bulb lights. Some substances emit electrons when they are struck by light. When pressure is applied to certain crystals. A switch can be placed in one of the connecting wires. When the switch is closed. Electricity produced directly by heating is called thermoelectricity. electric current cannot flow through the circuit. When the electric current flows through the filament. develops across them. through one piece of connecting wire. Some microphones VII ELECTRIC CIRCUITS An electric circuit is an arrangement of electric current sources and conducting paths through which a current can continuously flow. When the switch is open. a potential difference work on this principle. current flows and the bulb lights. Electricity thus produced is called piezoelectricity. and the bulb does not light. If two strips of different metals are joined and the joint heated. .

the objects are said to be connected in series. . stopping the flow of current. and so on. the other objects one after another. The electron current first passes from the negative terminal of the source into the first object. a wire in the fuse heats up and melts. the electric current flows through them against the resistance of the first object. and other devices. such as lights. When too much current flows through the fuse. To prevent this from happening. and fuse are connected in series. thereby breaking the circuit and melt. The load includes all appliances placed in the circuit. There are two basic ways in which the parts of a circuit are arranged. The wire in the fuse is designed to melt before the filament would The part of an electric circuit other than the source of electric current is called the load. then flows through The current is the same throughout the circuit. A Series Circuits If various objects are arranged to form a single conducting path between the terminals of a source of electric current. When objects are connected in series. fans. fuses. buzzers. It also includes the connecting wires. a fuse (circuit breaker) may be placed in the circuit. One arrangement is called a series circuit. and toasters. radios. The load forms a continuous conducting path between the terminals of the current source.The bulb filament may burn out if too much electric current flows through it. then against the resistance of the next object. and the other is called a parallel circuit. bulb. the wires. as well as switches. switch. In the example of the light bulb. and finally returns to the positive terminal of the source.

where V is the voltage drop across the object. The voltage that each object uses up is called the voltage drop across that object.. if a parallel circuit consists of three branches with resistances of 10. For example. For example. Adding up the voltage drops (2 + 2 + 96) B Parallel Circuits If various objects are connected to form separate paths between the terminals of a source of electric current. their total resistance is R1 + R2 + R3. Each separate path is called a flowing through the separate branches. R2. and R is the resistance of the object. If the voltage is 100 volts. The electric current through a parallel circuit is distributed among the branches according to the resistances of the branches. If three objects with resistances R1. the current in each branch can the voltage. each with a resistance of 1 ohm. resistance of the motor and wires is 48 + 1 + 1 = 50 ohms. are the resistances of the branches. if a motor with a resistance of 48 ohms is connected to the terminals of a current source by two wires.Therefore the total resistance to the current is equal to the sum of the individual resistances. I is the amount of In the example of the motor. and 30 ohms. the voltage drop in the motor is 2 × 48 = 96 volts. and R is the resistance of the branch. V is The total resistance of a parallel circuit can be calculated from the equation where R is the total resistance and R1. a Voltage can be thought of as being used up by the objects in a circuit. Current from the source splits up and enters the various branches. 15. If each branch has the same resistance. they are said to be connected in parallel. This is because a parallel circuit offers more than one branch (path) for the electric current. If the branches have different resistances.. be determined from the equation I = V/R. the total current of 100/50 = 2 amp will flow through the circuit. In a series circuit the sum of the voltage drops across the objects always equals the total voltage supplied by the source. whereas a series circuit has only one path for all the current. and gives a total drop of 100 volts. R2. where I is the amount of current in the branch. then . the current merges again before reentering the current source. from the equation V = IR. the voltage drop in each wire is V = IR = 2 × 1 = 2 volts. Voltage drop can be calculated current. then the current in each will be equal. . After The total resistance of objects connected in parallel is less than that of any of the individual resistances. branch of the circuit. and R3 are connected in series.

the net sum of the voltage encountered will be equal to the net sum of the products of the resistances encountered and the currents flowing through them. may have within it several objects in a series. For example. In other circuit. but also to any given section of a D Series and Parallel Sources Sources of electric current can also be connected in various ways. On the other hand.Therefore. is connected to a 150-volt source. Sources can be arranged in series by connecting a terminal of one source to the opposite terminal of the next source. if the positive terminal of battery A is connected to the negative terminal of battery B. amp. be combined according to the rules for a series circuit. then batteries A. The branches are parallel and must be treated by the rules for parallel circuits. the smaller the portion of the electric current and 30 ohms. The greater the resistance of a given branch. with resistances of 10. and the positive terminal of battery B to the negative terminal of battery C. These rules make it possible to find the amount of electric current flowing through each second law states that. The first of Kirchhoff’s laws states that at any junction in a circuit through which a steady current is flowing. the branch with a resistance of 10 ohms flowing through that branch. a voltage of 150 volts would produce an electric current of I = V/R = 150/5 = 30 amp. These branch currents add up to a total current C Series-Parallel Circuits Many circuits combine series and parallel arrangements. The resistances of these objects must at one point divide into two or more branches and then rejoin. If a parallel circuit of three branches. In this circuit. One branch of a parallel circuit. and C are in series. The laws. . which is the value obtained by dividing the voltage by the total resistance. Ohm’s law applies not only to a circuit as a whole. R = 5 ohms. 15. The load is then placed between the positive terminal of battery C and the negative terminal of battery A. words. Similarly. for example. a series circuit may Complicated series-parallel circuits may be analyzed by means of two rules called Kirchhoff’s part of any circuit. starting at any point in a circuit and following any closed path back to the starting point. would receive a current of V/R = 150/10 = 15 amp. as well as the voltage across it. B. and the 30-ohm branch receives 5 amp. the sum of the currents flowing to the junction is equal to the sum of the currents flowing away from that point. the 15-ohm branch receives 10 of 30 amp.

This region is called the electric field of force of the A Lines of Force . three 1.5-volt batteries connected in series furnish a total of 4. The load is then placed between the group of positive Arranging sources in parallel does not increase the voltage. Current sources may be arranged in parallel by connecting all the positive terminals together terminals and the group of negative terminals. stored in the region around the charge. If a high voltage battery is current through the low voltage battery and damage it.5 volts. All charged objects have electric fields around them. and it will demonstrate this ability as soon as another charge is brought near it. If three 1. the total voltage is still 1. For example. Batteries should not be connected in connected in parallel with a low voltage battery.When sources of electric current are connected in series.5/9 = 0. If the load is 9 ohms. the high voltage battery will force an electric VIII ELECTRIC FIELDS A single electric charge can attract or repel. The ability to attract or repel can be thought of as being charge. and all the negative terminals together. connected in parallel.5-volt batteries are parallel unless they have approximately the same voltage. the batteries send a current of 4. their total voltage is equal to the sum of their individual voltages.5 volts.5 amp through the load.

A magnet has two opposite poles. B Field Direction When a charge is placed at any given point in an electric field. For example. If a positive and a negative object placed near each other. At greater distances from the charge. the idea of lines of force helps in visualizing an electric field. The field strength values that the lines represent are relative. The lines in the field around a positively charged object radiate in all directions away from the object. Where the lines are close together.An electric field can be visualized as consisting of imaginary lines called lines of force. since the object repels positive charges. it is acted on by a force that tends to push it in a certain direction. Conversely. If two objects with similar charges are Lines of force are only imaginary. force of 10 newtons. An object with Field strength is represented graphically by the closeness (density) of the lines of force. Where they are far apart. of a field at any point is defined as the force exerted on a charge of 1 coulomb placed at that point. The field direction can be represented graphically by the lines of force near an electric C Field Strength The strength. the electric field is 10 newtons per coulomb at that point. . the field is strong. referred to as north and south. their lines of force connect. if a point charge of 1 coulomb is subjected to a a charge of 5 coulombs would be subjected to a force of 50 newtons at the same point. or intensity. Opposite magnetic poles attract each other. the lines in the field around a negatively charged object are directed toward the object. This direction is called the direction of the field at that charge. exactly as happens with electric charges. Nevertheless. IX ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM Many similarities exist between electric and magnetic phenomena. point. the field is strong and the lines are close together. the field weakens and the lines are not as close together. the lines do not connect. and similar magnetic poles repel each other. Lines of force never cross each other. Near a charge. Each line corresponds to the path that a positive charge would take if placed in the field on that line. since a field can be drawn with as many lines as desired. are placed near each other. the field is weak.

The field can . The magnetic effect of electricity is be detected when a magnet is brought close to the current-carrying conductor. See also Quantum Electrodynamics. The similarities between electric and magnetic phenomena indicate that electricity and magnetism are related. they constitute an electric current. If electric charges are moving. See also Magnetism. A Magnetic Effects of Electricity It has been noted that an electric field exists around any electric charge. The relationship between electricity and magnetism is called electromagnetism.The force with which magnetic poles attract or repel each other depends on the strength of the poles and the distance between them. demonstrated by the fact that a magnetic field exists around any electric current. This relationship is similar to the Coulomb’s inverse square law for electric charges. Electricity produces magnetic effects and magnetism produces electric effects.

then the magnetic lines the individual loops of wire. the thumb of the right hand is pointed in the direction in which the current is flowing and the fingers are curled around the wire. (The right-hand rule assumes that current flows from positive to B Motor Effect As already stated. behaves in the same way as a of force tend to go through the center of the coil from one end to the other rather than around magnet and is the basis for all electromagnets. The direction of the fingers then indicates the direction negative. is used in electric motors. the magnetic fields interact to produce a force that tends to push the wire out of the Motors and Generators. If the wire is placed between the poles. The polarity of the coil can be determined by applying the left-hand coil rule. and a magnetic field exists between the two poles of a magnet. Such a coil.The magnetic field around an electric current can be thought of as lines of magnetic force that form closed circular loops around the wire that carries the current. The direction of the magnetic field can be determined by a convenient rule called the right-hand rule.) of the lines of magnetic force. field. If the left hand grasps the coil in such a way . a magnetic field exists around a wire carrying an electric current. called a solenoid. See also Electric C Solenoids If a wire is bent into many continuous loops to form a long spiral coil. This phenomenon. The end from which the lines exit is the north pole and the end into which the lines reenter is the south pole. To apply this rule. known as the motor effect.

X ALTERNATING CURRENT An alternating current is an electric current that changes direction at regular intervals.that the fingers curl around in the direction of the electron current. This current is called an induced current. the flow of current in the conductor will reverse direction as often as the physical motion of the conductor reverses direction. a voltage is created across the wire. Some of the unique traits of alternating A Amperage and Voltage . Alternating currents current make it ideal for power generation. completed by an electric current in one second is called the frequency of the current. are called a cycle. It does not matter whether the wire moves or the magnetic field moves. some properties of alternating current are somewhat different from those of direct current. and dies down to zero. provided that the wire cuts through lines of force. If a magnet is moved near a stationary wire. D Electric Effects of Magnetism If a wire is moved through a magnetic field in such a way that it cuts the magnetic lines of force. It then and again dies down to zero. When a conductor is moved back and forth in a magnetic field. then the thumb points in the direction of the north pole. most currents have a frequency of 60 cycles per second. In the Although direct and alternating currents share some characteristics. one in each direction. Two consecutive surges. builds up to a maximum in that direction. and use. transmission. An electric current will flow through the wire if the two ends of the wire are connected by a conductor to form a circuit. The number of cycles United States and Canada. also produce phenomena that direct currents do not. immediately starts flowing in the opposite direction. the lines of magnetic force are cut by the wire and an electric current is induced in the wire. The current flows first in one direction. and the induction of a current in this manner is called electromagnetic induction. builds up to a maximum in that direction. Like any electric current. Lenz’s law expresses an important fact concerning this magnetic field: The motion of an induced current is always in such a direction that its magnetic field opposes the magnetic field that is causing the current. Then it immediately starts in the first direction again. Most electric power stations supply electricity in the form of alternating currents. This surging back and forth can occur at a very rapid rate. an induced current generates a magnetic field around it.

but not in direct in the second coil. which it passes. the magnetic field about the any value desired by means of a simple electromagnetic device called a transformer.000 volts and a current of 1 amp or by a potential of 2. it may be equally well supplied by a potential of 200. both for industrial installations and in the home. These effects depend on the frequency of the current and on an alternating current is called impedance. electric connection with it. the voltage of an alternating current is considered in terms of the effective voltage. The effective amperage of an alternating scientists simply deal with the effective amperage. the voltage induced in the number of individual conductors. alternating current is hindered by the resistance of the conductor through hinder the alternating current. Conversely. If 200. an alternating current current is equal to the amperage of a direct current that produces heat at the same rate. C Advantages of Alternating Current Alternating current has several characteristics that make it more attractive than direct current as a source of electric power.000 volts and a current of 100 amp. I is the effective current in amperes (amp). 1 effective amp of alternating current through a conductor produces heat at the B Impedance Like direct current. various effects produced by the alternating current itself the design of the circuit. where V is the effective voltage in volts. In a transformer. In same rate as 1 amp of direct current flowing through the same conductor. a coil of wire is placed in the magnetic field of the first coil. other words. or induced. and impedance is expressed by V = IZ. If the second coil has more turns than the first. It is equal to the resistance plus the reactance. The total hindering effect on The relationship of effective current.The strength. because the field is acting on a greater The action of a transformer makes possible the economical transmission of electric power over long distances. is equal to the square of the current times the . the secondary. Since it is inconvenient to take into account a whole range of amperage values. The movement of the magnetic field induces an alternating current second coil will be larger than the voltage in the first. however. however. or amperage. The most important of these characteristics is that the voltage or the current may be changed to almost alternating current surges back and forth through a coil of wire. of an alternating current varies continuously between zero and a maximum. produces heat as it passes through a conductor. In addition. Like a direct current. if there are fewer turns in the second coil.000 watts of power is supplied to a power line. Similarly. effective voltage. and Z is the impedance in ohms. because power is equal to the product of voltage and current. and together they are called reactance. When an coil expands and collapses and then expands in a field of opposite polarity and again collapses. voltage will be smaller than the primary voltage. The power lost in the line through heating.

which Franklin called positive charge. but scientists did not make great progress in understanding electricity until the 1700s.000 watts. In a treatise written about three centuries later. The machine consisted of a sulfur sphere turned by a crank. The object that loses electric fluid acquires a resinous charge.000-volt line will be 100. In 1600 English physician William Gilbert published a book in which he noted that many substances besides amber could be charged by rubbing. Theophrastus. attracted small. According to Franklin’s theory. The object that gains electric fluid acquires a vitreous charge. little progress was made in the study of electricity. The word electricity was first used by English writer and physician Sir Thomas Browne in 1646. or half the distance transmission. Gray during the early 1700s. Von Guericke also described the first machine for producing an electric charge in 1672. the loss on the 200. since it could make The ancient Greeks observed that amber. A 600 Early Theories Greek philosopher Thales of Miletus held that amber had a soul. who observed conduction in a linen thread. Thus.000-volt line will be 10 watts. if the resistance of the line is 10 ohms. power companies tend to favor high voltage lines for long XI HISTORY Humans have known about the existence of static electricity for thousands of years. . American scientist Benjamin Franklin theorized that electricity is a kind of fluid. electric fluid flows from one object to the other. available power. stated that other substances also have this power. light objects. BC For almost 2. another Greek philosopher. when rubbed. When a hand was held against the sphere. The fact that electricity can flow through a substance was discovered by 17th-century German physicist Otto von Guericke.000 years after Theophrastus. He found that opposite kinds attract each other while similar kinds repel. About other objects move. when two objects are rubbed together. Gray also noted that some substances are good conductors while Also during the early 1700s.resistance. Dufay called one kind vitreous and the other kind resinous. which Franklin called negative charge. Frenchman Charles Dufay observed that electric charges are of two kinds. Conduction was rediscovered independently by Englishman Stephen others are insulators. a charge was induced on the sphere. which is derived from the Greek word elektron (which means “amber”). whereas the loss on the 2. Accordingly. He gave these substances the Latin name electrica.

Franklin. When the string became wet enough to conduct. a device able to store electric charge. Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted demonstrated that electric currents are surrounded by magnetic fields in 1819. body. a German high school teacher. Ampère also demonstrated the magnetic properties of abilities of various metals. put his hand near a metal key attached to string to the key and then jumped across an air gap to flow to the ground through Franklin’s charged by touching it to the key when electric current was flowing down the string. The voltaic pile made the study of electric current much easier by providing a reliable. steady source of current. Georg Simon Ohm. French physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb reinvented a torsion balance to electric charges varies inversely with the square of the distance between the charges. a form of electric battery. The same effect was discovered a year later by English scientist Michael useful in the study of electricity. Priestley’s observations and also showed that the force between two charges is proportional to In 1791 Italian biologist Luigi Galvani published the results of experiments that he had leg would contract if he applied an electric current to them. Faraday introduced the concept of lines of force.Franklin demonstrated that lightning is a form of electricity. Shortly afterward. including the relationship now In 1830 American physicist Joseph Henry discovered that a moving magnetic field induces an electric current. who stood the string. Electric charge gathered by the kite had flowed down the wet under a shed and held the string by a dry silk cord. performed on the muscles of dead frogs. Ferdinand von Helmholtz demonstrated that electricity is a form of energy and that electric . a concept that proved extremely About 1840 British physicist James Prescott Joule and German scientist Hermann Ludwig circuits obey the law of the conservation of energy. A spark jumped. In 1752 he constructed a kite and flew it during a storm. could be Around 1766 British chemist Joseph Priestley proved experimentally that the force between also demonstrated that an electric charge distributes itself uniformly over the surface of a hollow metal sphere and that no charge and no electric field of force exists within such a sphere. investigated the conducting known as Ohm’s law. In 1827 Ohm published his results. Alessandro Volta. Galvani had found earlier that the muscles in a frog’s B 19th and 20th Centuries In 1800 another Italian scientist. André Marie Ampère discovered the relationship known as Ampere’s law. With this apparatus he confirmed the product of the individual charges. announced that he had created the voltaic pile. Franklin also showed that a Leyden jar. which solenoids. Faraday. gives the direction of the magnetic field. Priestley measure accurately the force exerted by electric charges.

© 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. who produced and detected electric waves in the atmosphere in 1886. American physicist Robert Andrews Millikan source of power is largely due to the work of pioneering American engineers and inventors and early 20th centuries. His work paved the way for German physicist Heinrich Rudolf Hertz. Maxwell summed up almost all the laws of electricity and magnetism in four mathematical equations. Nikola Tesla. and for Italian engineer Guglielmo Marconi. The widespread use of electricity as a such as Thomas Alva Edison. . was first advanced by Dutch physicist Hendrik Antoon Lorentz in 1892. and Charles Proteus Steinmetz during the late 19th Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005.Also during the 19th century. All rights reserved. British physicist James Clerk Maxwell investigated the properties of electromagnetic waves and light and developed the theory that the two are identical. who harnessed these waves in 1895 to produce the first practical radio signaling system. The electron theory. accurately measured the charge on the electron in 1909. which is the basis of modern electrical theory.

WWW.COM Worm Gears If you want to create a high gear ratio. Each time the shaft spins one revolution. If the gear has 40 teeth. nothing beats the worm gear.HOWSTUFFWORKS@YAHOO. a threaded shaft engages the teeth on a gear. you have a 40:1 gear ratio in a very small package. the gear moves one tooth forward. In a worm gear. A mechanical odometer is another place that uses a lot of worm gears: . Here's one example from a windshield wiper.

However. In that case. as shown here: . Let's say you want a gear ratio of 6:1 with the input turning in the same direction as the output. One specialized gear train is called a planetary gear train. the blue gear has six times the diameter of the yellow gear (giving a 6:1 ratio). A common place where this same-axis capability is needed is in an electric screwdriver.There are three worm gears visible in this odometer. you can use a planetary gear system. See How Odometers Work for more information. Planetary Gears There are many other ways to use gears. The size of the red gear is not important because it is just there to reverse the direction of rotation so that the blue and yellow gears turn the same way. One way to create that ratio is with the following three-gear train: In this train. Planetary gears solve the following problem. imagine that you want the axis of the output gear to be the same as that of the input gear.

and we hold the ring gear stationary and attach the output shaft to the planet carrier. You can see a picture of a two-stage planetary gear system on the electric screwdriver page. this gear train is extremely rugged. In this case. we get a different gear ratio. Another interesting thing about planetary gearsets is that they can produce different gear ratios depending on which gear you use as the input. and which one you hold still. the yellow gear (the sun) engages all three red gears (the planets) simultaneously.this gives the same 6:1 gear ratio. Because there are three red gears instead of one. subtracting one revolution from the sun gear. For instance. if the input is the sun gear.In this gear system. as shown here: . it has to spin seven times. and they engage the inside of the blue gear (the ring) instead of the outside. using clutches and brake bands to hold different parts of the gearset stationary and change the inputs and outputs. gears are often connected together in gear trains. the planet carrier and planets orbit the sun gear. All three are attached to a plate (the planet carrier). This is because the planet carrier circled the sun gear once in the same direction as it was spinning. and a three-stage plenetary gear system of the sprinkler page. and this time hold the sun gear stationary. So in this case. and the planet carrier is held stationary -. An automatic transmission uses planetary gearsets to create the different gear ratios. Gear Trains To create large gear ratios.17:1 gear reduction. You could rearrange things again. The output shaft is attached to the blue ring gear. which gear you use as the output. This would give you a 1. we get a 7:1 reduction. You also find planetary gear systems inside automatic transmissions. take the output from the planet carrier and hook the input up to the ring gear. so instead of the sun gear having to spin six times for the planet carrier to make it around once.

one on top of the other. as shown in the next two figures. as shown above. Gear trains often consist of multiple gears in the train. . A small gear and a larger gear are connected together.The right-hand (purple) gear in the train is actually made in two parts.

with the gears having a ratio of 10:1. you will see that the five dials are connected to one another through a gear train like this. the green gear will turn at a rate of 500 rpm and the red gear will turn at a rate of 2.500-rpm motor to the red gear to get 100 rpm on the purple gear. In the same way.500 rpm. the purple gear turns at a rate twice that of the blue gear. The red gear turns at twice the rate as the green gear. you could attach a 2. The gear train shown below has a higher gear ratio: In this train. The green gear turns at twice the rate of the purple gear.In the case above. the smaller gears are one-fifth the size of the larger gears. If you can see inside your power meter and it's of the older style with five mechanical dials. That means that if you connect the purple gear to a motor spinning at 100 revolutions per minute (rpm). Because the dials are directly connected .

they spin in opposite directions (you will see that the numbers are reversed on dials next to one another). You can place a big gear between them if you want them to have the same direction of rotation: Or you can use two equal-sized gears if you want them to have opposite directions of rotation: However. An Example Imagine the following situation: You have two red gears that you want to keep synchronized.to one another. In these cases. as shown here: . the common solution is to use either a chain or a toothed belt. in both of these cases the extra gears are likely to be heavy and you need to create axles for them. but they are some distance apart.

in a car engine. If you had to use gears in place of the belt. it would be a lot harder. check out the links on the next page! . For example. the ability to separate the two gears by some distance. two camshafts and the alternator. and the ability to connect many gears together on the same chain or belt. the same toothed belt might engage the crankshaft.The advantages of chains and belts are light weight. For more information on gears and their applications.

such as a hand pushing a book across a table. This can be written in mathematical terms: Work = Force × Distance move objects. Machines lessen the force needed to is subsequently used. no other simple machines have been discovered. but increasing speed requires the application of more effort. the screw and the wedge. Machines can make a tough job seem easier by enabling a person to apply less force or to apply force in a direction that is easier to manipulate. Two Some common examples of simple machines are the shovel (a form of lever). simple device that affects the force. it is composed of some combination of the four simple machines. Although these simple machines have been other common simple machines. Machines can also increase the speed at which work makes an object travel. needed to do a certain amount of work. Work. known and used for thousands of years. a wheel and axle (the turning knob). no matter how complicated a machine is. the pulley. or effort. the pulley at the top of a flagpole. Knowing the mechanical advantage of a machine allows a user to predict how much force is needed to lift a given object. perform work by lengthening the distance over which the force is applied. are complex machines wheel and axle.Machine I INTRODUCTION Machine. Distance refers to the distance a load is moved by the force. and the wheelchair ramp (a form of inclined plane). composed of many parts. or MA. can opener. are really adaptations of the inclined plane. Although less force There are four types of simple machines: the lever. II WORK Machines help people do work by changing the amount of force and the distance needed to the distance over which the force is applied. However. is the amount of force used to move an object multiplied by Force is defined as a push or a pull exerted on one body by another. which combines a lever (the hinged handle). the steering wheel of an automobile (a form of wheel and axle). The advantage that a machine gives its user by affecting the amount of force needed is called the machine’s mechanical advantage. the inclined plane. the amount of work that results remains the same. . in physics. such as automobiles or power tools. and the Most mechanical machines. Each machine affects the direction or the amount of effort needed to do work. An everyday example of a complex machine is the and a wedge (the sharpened cutting disk).

but they make the bicycle travel faster on flat terrain. such as an airplane engine or an elevator. Not all machines use muscle power. Some gears require more effort. A complex machine. the main source of imperfection is friction. A machine decreases the amount of force needed by increasing the distance over which the effort is applied to move the object.A How Machines Work A machine can make a given task seem easier by reducing the amount of force needed to move an object. The amount of work needed to overcome gravity and lift a given load always remains the same. to make manual chores easier. An elevator uses large engines. The that of the wheel and axle. Other gears require less effort and are useful for climbing hills. This is why walking gradually up a gentle slope is easier than walking up a steep slope. The wheel and axle and certain types of levers are simple machines that can either speed up a task (requiring more effort) or slow down a task (requiring less effort). If the distance in the equation defining work (Work = Force × Increasing the speed at which a task is performed requires more force than would otherwise be necessary. but the effort needed to reach the top is less. In simple machines. such as airplane fuel or the energy stored in electricity. The theoretical. and this slows down the speed of work. or by doing both. Scientists find the mechanical advantage of a machine by dividing the force the machine delivers by the effort put into the machine. Friction results from two bodies moving against each other in different . Electricity also powers the levers that help open and shut the elevator doors. usually powered by electricity. or ideal. They do this by reducing the distance Distance) is reduced. to pull cables that raise and lower the elevator car. various gears on a multispeed bicycle (another complex machine) work in a manner similar to People use simple machines. Some machines can actually speed up a task. The mechanical energy in a person’s muscles makes the machine do work. of airplane fuel to power the engine that turns the propeller. The distance walked on the gentle slope is longer. B Mechanical Advantage and Friction Measuring the mechanical advantage (MA) is a mathematical way to determine how much a machine affects the amount of force needed to do work. An airplane engine uses the combustion. however. over which the effort is applied. Airplane engines and elevators are not powered by hand. is made up of many simple machines. mechanical advantage of a machine is the advantage it would produce if the machine were perfect. to do work. such as levers and pulleys. Complex machines often use the energy stored in chemical substances. then the force must therefore be increased to keep work constant. Applying effort over a greater distance takes more time. A gentle slope is a form of inclined plane. by changing the direction in which the force must be applied. or rapid burning. to provide the necessary force to do work. but spreading the necessary effort out over a longer distance makes the task seem easier.

and some levers can also be used to increase the speed of performance of a task. one way to compute theoretical mechanical advantage is to divide a load 5 m (16 ft) off the ground is easier if the load is moved up a gradual slope. or that only half as much effort was needed to raise the load. the person must move the object a farther distance.) The tradeoff is that also changes the direction—from straight up to along the angle of the plane—of the effort height while applying less force than would otherwise be needed. Friction always opposes motion and makes doing work harder. a person with the inclined plane. rather than lifted straight up. (Without the plane. A perfect machine would be 100 percent efficient. the work that results to the amount of work put into the machine. Most simple machines are very efficient. Moving the load along a 10-m (32-ft) inclined plane would provide a mechanical advantage of 10 divided by 5. or 2. The efficiency of a machine because much of the energy used to move the crankshaft is lost to friction in the form of heat III TYPES OF SIMPLE MACHINES The four simple machines each function in different ways. meters above the ground. This means that the work was twice as easy. or an the distance the effort is applied by the distance the load actually travels. but doing so A Inclined Plane Ramps and staircases are simple examples of inclined planes. but they all change the direction or the amount of effort put into them. the load needed to be pushed twice as far to end up 5 C Efficiency Another factor that people sometimes compute for machines is their efficiency. but they always lose some efficiency due to friction. raising inclined plane. Since friction is theoretical mechanical advantage. or the ratio of is usually expressed as a percentage and can vary from 5 percent to 95 percent. Because of the inclined plane. For example. however. An inclined plane is an object that decreases the effort needed to lift an object by increasing the distance over which the effort is applied. the actual mechanical advantage is always less than the Because simple machines increase mechanical advantage by increasing the distance over which the effort is applied. present in almost every machine. An inclined plane .directions. The wheel and axle always increases the amount of force needed. All four of these machines can be used to decrease the amount of force needed to do work or to change the direction of the force. This increase in distance allows a person to move a large object to a certain would need to lift with a force equal to the entire weight of the object. An automobile engine is much less efficient dissipating from the engine.

sometimes called machine screws or bolts. Lifting screws are used to lift loads or to exert forces on other bodies. An example of a lifting screw is the screw jack used to change tires on a car. reduce friction. Examples of fastening screws are wood or metal screws. or pole. The MA of a screw is related to the pitch of the threads (the distance along the axis of the screw from one thread to the next) and the diameter of the axis. with a plane on each side. because the effort is applied over a greater distance.applied. There are two different types of screws: fastening screws and lifting screws. The amount of work done is the same whether the person lifts the object straight up or along an inclined plane. than a steep inclined plane. Wedges are often used to split wood. which have threads that dig into the materials being joined. Fastening screws are used to join things together. toward the wood being split. Other screws. The MA of an inclined plane equals the length of the plane divided by the height to which the object is raised. but some friction with lifting screws is helpful so that the screw can safely hold B Lever . have threads that are matched by the threads on the inside of a nut. A long inclined plane at a small angle has a greater mechanical advantage double inclined plane. Lifting screws are usually lubricated to the load. The materials are held together by a combination of friction on the threads and compression of the screw by the materials. A wedge is a changing the downward direction of the force from a sledgehammer to a sideways force A screw is a form of inclined plane in which the plane is wrapped around an axis.

a downward pull on a cord is required.One of the most commonly used simple machines is the lever. with one major difference: the wheel is fixed to the axle. the fulcrum and the effort is far from the fulcrum. The MA is maximized when the load is close to load. If a single pulley is used. the mechanical advantage is 1. the fulcrum lies at one end. One of the limitations of levers is that they only operate through relatively small angles. but the load is at the other end. There are three classes of levers. The MA of a block and tackle is equal to the number of strands of rope on the part of the block and tackle that is attached load requires the user to pull the rope three times farther than the load actually moves. For When multiple pulleys are combined (in what is called a block and tackle). The force applied by the user is the effort. Tweezers are another example of a Class 3 lever. they can have mechanical advantages greater than 1. This to the load. The object being lifted is called the load. as in a wheelbarrow. and the only example. which means that one-third as much effort is required to move the load. Pulleys are used at the top of flagpoles and in some types of window blinds. as in a seesaw. A seesaw is an example of a lever. and the effort is applied in the middle. because they increase the distance the rope travels. D Wheel and Axle The wheel and axle is similar in appearance to a pulley. which is called the fulcrum. cable. The human arm is actually a lever. and this limits the number of pulleys that can be used. In this case. The elbow is the fulcrum. and the muscles apply the force needed to lift weight or move objects. the effort is applied at the other end. In a Class 2 lever. Using a combination of pulleys that results in three strands of rope attached to the results in an MA of 3. which has a groove cut into the edge to guide a rope. and the fulcrum along the bar. the fulcrum is again at one end. In a Class 3 lever. The human forearm is a Class 3 lever. as is the steering wheel of a car. to raise window blinds. A user applies effort to the large outer wheel of the steering wheel to move the load at the axle. the load. called a sheave. or chain. In a Class 1 lever. thereby increasing the distance over which the effort is applied. and the forearm muscles apply the effort between the elbow and hand. advantage of using the pulley is that the direction of the force needed is changed. The MA of a lever is the distance from the fulcrum to the point where the force is applied divided by the distance from the fulcrum to the load. A lever consists of a bar that rotates around a pivot point. the fulcrum lies between the effort and the load. The MA of a wheel and axle is equal . and the load is in the middle. which vary in the placement of the effort. The rope on a pulley causes a good deal of friction. a small effort can move a large C Pulley The pulley is a special type of wheel.

fit together and transfer force and power from one gear shaft to another. A pair of pliers is really two Class 1 levers with the same fulcrum (the pivot pin). the distance over which the effort is applied is much greater than the distance the load. which is thought of as an electronic device. large mechanical advantage. which is a form of wheel.to the radius of the wheel divided by the radius of the axle. The radius of the wheel. The transmission uses gears. This fan is a complex machine in which to turn the disk and a system of levers to position the heads that read and write the data on the disk. the motor shaft turns the fan. The whole engine is held together by threaded bolts. moves. Such combinations are known as complex machines. Some common examples of a wheel and axle are a doorknob and IV COMPLEX MACHINES Many everyday objects are really combinations of simple machines. A pair of scissors is a pair of pliers with wedges between the load and the fulcrum. This placement decreases the distance near the tip of the scissors. giving the scissors a higher MA than if the cutting was done Some complex machines are very complicated. Pliers usually as the cutting edge. An automobile is one such machine. is usually much larger than the radius of the axle. which is placed at the axle. The doorknob is a wheel and axle system that transfers the force applied by a person to a system of levers. and therefore its circumference. Two gears of the gears. which are a form of inclined plane. The levers move the bolt and unlatch the door. A computer. which are a form of wheel and axle with specially shaped teeth on the outside of the wheels. has a cooling fan. and pulleys. the speed and direction of the rotation of the axles can be controlled. The disk drive uses a wheel and axle . wheels and axles. have a mechanical advantage of 5 or higher. Therefore. The difference in the sizes of the wheel and axle can result in a a round water faucet handle. The engine contains many levers. Cutting something thick or hard is easier when the scissors are opened wide and the object is placed near the pivot pin. By choosing the size Even devices that do not seem to be mechanical use simple machines.

into work. Waterwheels. developed a screw-type device known as Archimedes’ screw The Greek Machines can transform natural energy. from the ground. All rights reserved. of force to do work. gradual approach up a mountain rather than walking up a steeper. Some modern water pumps still use this principle. People used wooden wedges to swell by absorbing water.V HISTORY The history of machines dates back thousands of years. which were lighter than solid wheels. . Later Industrial Revolutions elsewhere brought about the invention of even more complex machines. used the water falling from a waterfall to turn large wheels (see Waterpower). which is used to pump water produce electricity. shorter path would have been taking advantage of an inclined plane. Pumps connected to windmills transform the rotary motion of a windmill into reciprocating (back and forth) motion. for raising water. and the automobile. However. such as wind and falling water. such as the cotton gin (used to separate cotton fibers from seeds). People also used such a device for lifting soldiers over battlements. Grinding wheels connected to waterwheels can grind grain for making The windmill also uses the same wheel and axle principle to magnify and change the direction flour or power large saws for sawing wood. and later adopted by Europeans in the 12th century. used spoked wheels. someone choosing a long. Although the date of the first use of simple machines is not known. Jr. Waterwheels and windmills can also be connected to electrical generators to Complicated machines such as the power loom (patented in 1786) helped cultivate the improvements seen in Great Britain during the first Industrial Revolution at the end of the 18th century. Archimedes also used a block and tackle to pull ships onto dry land. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005. Contributed By: Odis Hayden Griffin. The first levers were probably branches or logs used to lift heavy objects. as early as 2000 Chariots in Asia Minor BC. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. the lever is believed to be the first simple machine that was utilized by humans. According to legend. the mechanical reaper (used to cut grain). People used a counterbalanced lever called a shadoof in ancient Egypt for lifting irrigation water. Metal or stone wedges have been used since ancient times for splitting wood. Historians believe the people of ancient Mesopotamia (an early civilization near modern-day Iraq) used wheels as early as 3500 inventor Archimedes (287-212 BC) split rocks by placing dry wooden wedges into cracks in rocks and then allowing the wedges to BC. first used in ancient Greece and Rome.

simple machine consisting of a rigid bar that rotates about a fixed point. the amount of effort needed to move the load can be decreased. is the product of the force used to lift a load multiplied by the distance the force. and the inclined plane. the load to be moved must be close to the fulcrum and the force must be applied far from the fulcrum. and are used to lift heavy objects. The same amount of work would have been done if the nail had been pulled directly out by hand. This relationship can be written mathematically as: Work = Force × Distance The amount of work needed to move an object a given distance always remains the same by reducing the force needed to move an object. called a fulcrum. that moves an object over a distance. and the object to be moved (referred to as the resistance or load) is usually located at Physicists classify the lever as one of the four simple machines used to do work. by using the lever the force was spread out over a greater nail is much closer to the fulcrum than is the hand applying the force. except when friction is present. In order to reduce the force needed. The lever. The human arm is also a lever. A common II WORK AND MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE A lever makes work easier by reducing the force needed to move a load. the distance over which the force is applied must be increased. in physics. lever. The head of the hammer is the fulcrum. Work. or effort. like all simple machines. the wheel and axle. makes doing work easier To increase this distance. Levers affect the effort. To move an object with a lever. (The other three are the pulley.) Work is defined in physics as example of a lever is the seesaw.Lever I INTRODUCTION Lever. The away from the fulcrum. with the fulcrum somewhere between the two. By varying the distances between the force and the fulcrum and between the load and the fulcrum. A good example is a claw hammer used to pry nails loose. such as a person lifting. force is applied to one end of the the other end of the lever. making the job easier. where the elbow is the fulcrum and the muscles apply the force. Since the hand is farther . and the nail at the other end of the lever is the load to be moved. needed to do a certain amount of work. The user’s hand applies force to the handle at one end of the lever. is applied. However. or force. the force travels a greater distance than does the load as the nail is pried loose. the result of a force.

the and each class has different applications. The human forearm is a class 3 lever. and the load in the within the box. which gives a mechanical advantage to the lighter person so B Class 2 Levers The class 2 lever has the fulcrum at one end. To reduce the force required by the user even more. the best wheelbarrow design is one where the wheel is directly under the load. When two fulcrum. the less the effort needed to move a load. greater than 1. and so less force was needed. and the system is balanced. The elbow is the fulcrum. where the wheel is the fulcrum. A class 2 lever always has a middle. reducing the designed in that manner to make them easy for the user to move. The mechanical advantage (MA) of a lever tells how much the lever magnifies effort. load. Depending on the class of lever and the location of the fulcrum. It is possible for a class 1 lever to have a significant mechanical advantage. distance from the load to the fulcrum almost to zero. as in a seesaw. and the force is the lift supplied by the user. the force at the other end. Each class of lever affects force in a different way. the load rests mechanical advantage of greater than 1. and the force in the middle. The force of a smaller person can balance and even lift the load of a larger person as the smaller person moves farther away from the fulcrum.distance. that person that the system is again in balance. depending on the arrangement of the force. and the fulcrum along the lever bar. the MA is the distance of the force to the fulcrum divided by the distance of the load to the fulcrum. Many wheelbarrows and garden carts are C Class 3 Levers A class 3 lever has the fulcrum at one end. Another example is a seesaw. the MA may be less than or III TYPES OF LEVERS There are three different classes of levers. A Class 1 Levers The class 1 lever has the fulcrum between the force and the load. When a heavier person sits on one end. they position themselves an equal distance from the usually moves toward the center. and the muscles of . In practical terms. A common example is the wheelbarrow. The MA of a lever is the ratio of the distance the force travels to the distance the load travels. The greater the MA. people of equal weight use the seesaw. the load at the other end.

with which a greater effort results in a smaller load moving at a greater speed. the lever magnifies the force In addition to using human power as the force applied to the lever. The keys of a piano use levers to transmit force . Consequently. Waterwheels installed near large grindstones for grinding grain into flour. the work requires more effort than would ordinarily be needed.the forearm apply the force between the elbow and the hand. A counterbalanced lever called a shadoof was used in ancient Egypt for lifting irrigation water from the Nile River up onto land. During the Middle Ages. people added weights so that the force they had to exert was lessened. The principle of the lever was often utilized through the rotary motion of the wheel and axle. class 3 levers are useful for increasing the IV HISTORY The first levers were probably branches or logs used to lift heavy objects. speed at which a load is moved. Complex machines from the keys to the hammers that strike the strings. because the load travels a greater distance than the force travels. In both of those applications. A baseball bat and a broom are also examples of class 3 levers. used to till soil for planting crops. Balance scales use levers to find the mass of an object. The class 3 lever always has a mechanical advantage of less than 1. waterfalls used the continuous force of moving water to provide the necessary leverage to turn A crowbar and the claw of a hammer used to pry loose nails are both common examples of levers in action. and it is still used today. followed by sticks applied by a human. Although they boost the amount of effort needed. These weights are called counterweights. attacking armies used a similar device for lifting soldiers over fortress walls. often use a series of levers to transfer force. Learning to use those simple tools led to the development of other applications of the lever.

and the effort of pulling on a rope. pulleys make it easier to apply the force because it is more convenient to pull down than to pull up. Pulling down on the rope causes the flag to go up because the pulley changes the direction of the force applied to the flag. There are two types of MA: . the wheel and axle.Pulley I INTRODUCTION Pulley. simple machine used to lift objects. the less the effort needed to lift a given load. applied to an object multiplied by the distance the force is applied. Pulleys reduce the effort to lift an object by increasing the distance over which the effort is applied. a person must do some work. Pulleys increase distance by requiring additional rope to be pulled to lift an object. The relation of work to force and distance can be show as an equation: Work = Force × Distance A pulley makes work easier by increasing the distance over which effort is applied. or force. A common example of a pulley can be found at the top of a flagpole. Pulleys are used for lifting by attaching one end of the rope to the A single fixed pulley changes the direction of the force applied to the end of the rope. rope or cable moves over it. so that less force is needed to lift an object. Mechanical advantage (MA) is a term that describes how much a machine magnifies effort. Construction cranes use multiple pulley The pulley is one of the four simple machines (along with the lever. and pulling on the other end of the rope. and a rope or cable threaded around the disk. The greater the MA. threading the rope through the pulley (or system of pulleys). Increasing the distance reduces the amount of force needed for the job. Work is defined in physics as the result of a force. The disk of the pulley rotates as the object. Combining pulleys increases the amount of rope needed to lift an object. force. Multiple pulleys can change both the direction of the applied force and the amount of systems to reduce the amount of force needed to lift heavy equipment. Work is the product of the effort. By changing the direction of a force. such as II WORK AND MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE To lift any object. so heavy loads can be lifted with even less effort. the inclined plane) used to do work. that moves an object across a distance. A pulley consists of a grooved wheel or disk within a housing.

Since a pulley system with an MA of 2 increases the force by a factor of 2. Even a single pulley. The MA of a movable pulley (or a movable part (the load being lifted). much rope. the easier it is to do work. meaning that twice the load can be lifted with the same amount of effort. Friction always opposes motion. in order to raise a load a given distance. A movable pulley is one that is attached to the load to be lifted and therefore moves with the load as the rope is pulled. because of the friction of the rope against the pulley and the friction between the pulley and Pulleys can offer MAs of greater than 1 if they are movable. Theoretical MA is the MA most commonly referred to. A single fixed pulley. system of pulleys with a movable part) equals the number of strands of rope coming from the A movable pulley can be used to lift a heavy load from the bottom of a cargo ship up to the deck. In reality. has a theoretical MA of 1. Two common types of pulley systems are the block and tackle and the chain hoist. when placed on the object to be moved. Therefore. any effort applied is doubled. the user must pull and take in twice as deck. For a single movable pulley to work. Effort is not magnified in this case. The load that can be lifted is equal to the force that is applied by the user. It is the MA a machine would have if it were perfect. which is always less than theoretical MA. Chain hoists are usually operated by hand. one end of the rope is tied to a fixed anchor on the and back up to the user. which means for each distance of rope the user travels. and is present to some degree in almost every machine. A Block and Tackle . the result of two bodies rubbing against each other. The main source of imperfection is friction. Since both strands of rope coming from the pulley equally support the load. the pulley system must also double the distance the effort travels. Friction is a major problem in pulleys MA is generally determined by dividing the distance the effort travels by the distance the load top of a flagpole. because of the weight on the rope and the movement of the rope on the pulley. the flag rises the same distance. The rope leads from the anchor down through the pulley (which is attached to the load). provides an MA of 2. such as that at the pulls in. III PULLEY SYSTEMS Systems of pulleys have been used for centuries to move loads. Lubricants and bearings are often used in pulleys to reduce friction.theoretical and actual. The primary benefit of a single pulley is to change the direction of the force or to move a load to a point (such as the top of a flagpole) that cannot be reached by the user. the actual MA is slightly less than 1 the axle on which it turns. The higher the MA. while a block and tackle system is often used with an engine or motor. The actual MA. takes into account imperfections in simple machines.

The large and small pulleys turn together as a unit. the origin of the pulley is unknown. They will. Thus the block and tackle consists of a system of pulleys in the number of strands of rope coming from the moveable set of pulleys attached to the load. joined side by side on the same axle. their housings and a rope used to apply the forces. When early the idea of a single fixed pulley to change the direction of a force. Tackle is a term traditionally used to refer to a sailing ship’s rigging. By using these devices. The top has a large pulley and a small pulley bottom section of a chain hoist is a movable pulley attached to the load. The chain threading through the movable pulley is fed from the small pulley on top. The The chain hangs down from the large pulley on one side. The MA of a block and tackle is equal to sails. and then threads back up around the small pulley. When the chain is pulled. But since there was no wheel to turn. and so the load is raised. sailors can exert large forces. the chain hoist multiplies force. Since the effort travels a greater distance than the load. that pulley pulls in chain from the movable pulley. they used BC Mesopotamia used rope pulleys for hoisting water. this use resulted in considerable friction. down through the movable pulley. When a user pulls on the chain hanging down from the large pulley. people in . This is often necessary because of the large friction losses in such systems. the entire system is usually called a block and tackle. It is believed that by 1500 Archimedes (287-212 BC) peoples lifted heavy objects by throwing vines or other crude ropes over tree limbs. A chain hoist is made up of two sections. On sailing ships. Chain hoists are sometimes used to lift automobile engines out of cars. The MA of a chain hoist depends on the diameters of the large and small pulleys. much like the sprockets that hold a bicycle chain in place. B Chain Hoist A chain hoist is a pulley system joined together by a closed loop of chain that is pulled by hand. Block and tackle systems are commonly used on sailing ships to lift heavy of the pulleys in place. however. The pulleys on a chain hoist have teeth that hold the chain. the large pulley brings in more chain than the small pulley lets out. which are usually made of wood with some metal parts. a block and tackle is used to apply forces to another block and tackle to gain an even greater MA.When several movable and fixed pulleys are used together. and can increase MA considerably. Legend has it that the Greek inventor used a block and tackle system to pull ships onto dry land. A block and tackle typically houses several pulleys. The term block refers to the case that houses the pulleys side by side and holds the axle which was usually made of rope. and back up to the large pulley. have to pull a greater length of rope to accomplish this. IV HISTORY As is the case with all the simple machines.

Construction cranes and cranes used at shipyards move heavy loads using block and tackle systems lower the elevator cars. the user only has to push a button to lift or lower the load. connected to powerful motors.Modern pulley systems are often combined with motors to create hoists for lifting heavy loads. An elevator in a building uses a pulley system to raise and . By using a motor.

a resistance created between objects when they move against each other. that makes doing a given amount of work easier. The actual MA of a machine is less than the theoretical MA because of friction. with or without the inclined plane. simple machine. work is the result of a force. Rather than lifting an object straight up. in physics. . Friction makes the process of moving objects. One of the most common examples of an inclined plane is a staircase. the inclined plane decreases the amount of force needed to do the same amount of work without the plane. There are two kinds of MA: theoretical and actual. the force needed is the effort required to lift the object. however. applied to an object multiplied by the distance over which the force is applied. is defined as the amount of force this can be expressed by the following equation: Work = Force x Distance When lifting an object is the work being done. and the pulley). The same amount of work is accomplished in lifting the object which the force is applied. the work requires less force. and the distance corresponds to the distance the object is lifted. more difficult. consisting of a ramp or a similar wedge-shaped device. Two other simple machines. Some jacks that are used to lift II WORK AND MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE An inclined plane makes doing work easier by changing both the direction and the amount of effort that are used to lift an object. the wheel and axle. and therefore doing work. such as the effort of pushing or pulling something. but because the inclined plane increases the distance over The inclined plane is one of the four simple machines (along with the lever. Mathematically. Work. A sharp knife is an everyday example of a wedge. The mechanical advantage (MA) of an inclined plane measures how much the plane magnifies the effort applied to the machine. By increasing distance. Theoretical MA is the MA a machine would have if it were perfect. an inclined plane allows a person to lift an object gradually (at an angle) over a greater distance. the screw and the wedge. that moves an object over a distance. In physical terms. lose some of their MA to friction. All machines. An inclined plane makes it easier to lift heavy objects by enabling a person to apply the necessary force over a greater distance. less effort than climbing straight up a ladder would require. are really alternate forms of the inclined plane.Inclined Plane I INTRODUCTION Inclined Plane. which allows people to move within a building from one floor to another with cars use threaded screws.

like Friction is a phenomenon that reduces the efficiency of all machines. The edge of the inclined plane forms a helix. People also frequently build inclined planes with small rollers or casters built into the plane to reduce friction. Increasing the ratio of the length of the ramp to the height of the ramp decreases the effort needed to lift an object. A wedge is essentially a double inclined plane. However. Turning the screw many times produces a small amount of vertical lift on the platform. Screws are often used to raise objects. threaded nuts and bolts take advantage of the friction that results from the contact between A wedge is another form of inclined plane. and the actual MA is close to the theoretical MA. which differs from an inclined plane. this allows heavy loads to be lifted with a small amount of effort. the ramp would simply run straight up. III MODIFIED INCLINED PLANES The screw and the wedge are common adaptations of the inclined plane. The mechanical advantage of a screw is related to the circumference of the screw divided by the pitch of the threads. A jack has a large screw attached to a small platform. If the length of a ramp was equal to its height. more gradual path to the same height as that of the steep hill. Effort is applied directly to the wedge. as well as the inclined plane and other objects. and some jacks used to lift automobiles rely on screws. sliding a load (especially a flat load such as a crate) up a plane creates friction and causes the plane to lose much of its MA. narrows down to a tip. Since there is much friction . which equates with effort applied over a long distance. In this case. be. which is placed under a vehicle.The MA of an inclined plane without any friction is equal to the length of the plane divided by the height of the plane. The joined inclined planes form a blunt end that wedge out to the sides of the wedge to help it cut through an object. The screw requires a lot of turning. around the axis. The longer the inclined plane. which means the ramp did not magnify the user’s effort. or spiral. large mechanical advantages can be achieved by using screws. the larger the MA will a vertical ladder. Wheels can be added to the load to decrease friction. the mechanical advantage would be 1. Wedges are often used to split materials such as wood or stone. Walking up an inclined plane or rolling a load (such as a barrel) up a plane creates little friction. This idea explains why climbing up a steep hill takes more effort (and seems more difficult) than walking up a longer. The pitch of a thread is the distance along the axis of the screw from one thread to the next. Wedges transfer downward effort applied to the blunt edge of the where two planes are joined at their bases. This means that the ramp doubles the effort applied by the user. A screw is an inclined plane wrapped around an axis. A ramp that is twice as long as it is high has a mechanical advantage of 2. or that the user needs to apply only half as much effort to lift an object to a desired height as he or she would without the ramp. Since the pitch is generally small compared to the circumference. These devices use friction to hold things together. and raises the automobile. Screws driven straight into wood or other materials. or pole. where the effort travels along the plane. Screws are also useful as fastening devices.

They placed dry wooden wedges into cracks in rocks and then allowed the split. The main benefit of the wedge is changing the direction of effort to help split or cut through an object.involved. bottom end of the cylinder is set in water. and turning the screw lifts water up the cylinder to . There are indications that the Egyptians created earthen ramps to raise huge blocks of stone during the construction of the pyramids. Historians believe that Greek blunt edge out to the sides of the wedge. IV HISTORY The inclined plane is undoubtedly one of the first of the simple machines people ever used. The wedge shape of the knife edge helps the user cut through material. People also used wooden wedges in prehistoric times wedges to swell by absorbing water. Evidence from drawings of that time indicates People used wedges in ancient times to split wood. from about 2700 that the Egyptians used a lubricant. the mechanical advantage of a wedge is difficult to determine. Screws were used in ancient times as lifting devices. transferring the force they applied to the to split rocks. It consists of a cylinder with a wide-threaded screw inside. A person walking up a gradual path to the top of a mountain rather than climbing straight up a steep face is taking advantage of the principle of the inclined plane. A knife is also a form of wedge. The resulting pressure in the cracks caused the rocks to inventor Archimedes (287-212 BC) invented a screw-type device (known as Archimedes’ screw) for raising water. probably milk. This principle is still used in some pumps today. The a higher level. to reduce the sliding friction and thus increase the efficiency of the inclined planes. BC to 1000 BC.

The wheel and axle makes the effort move a greater distance than the load. or open a water valve. in the case of a faucet. .Wheel and Axle I INTRODUCTION Wheel and Axle. A wheel and axle makes work easier by changing the amount and axle—running through and attached to the center of the wheel. The mechanical advantage (MA) of a wheel and axle measures how much the machine the wheel is always larger than the circumference of the axle. A force applied at the outer edge of the wheel moves or turns the load located at the axle. in the case of a doorknob. Because the circumference of will always move a greater distance than the load at the axle. the formula to compute work can be expressed as: Work = Force × Distance For a wheel and axle. is defined as the amount of force applied to an object multiplied by the distance over which that force is applied. the work to be done is the moving or turning of a load. Mathematically. usually located at the axle. such as the effort of pushing or pulling. The wheel and axle is used to make doing a given amount of work easier. and so less effort is needed to move the load. In this The wheel and axle is one of the four simple machines (along with the lever. the inclined plane). any effort applied to the wheel multiplies the force applied by the user. a greater distance than would be possible if the force were applied directly to the axle. The wheel enables a user to apply the force over way. There are two kinds of MA: theoretical and actual. Work. in physics. simple machine. and the distance corresponds to how far the wheel is turned as effort is applied. The object to be moved is a resistance. located at the axle. turn) an object. The force needed is the effort required to turn the load. consisting of a circular object—the wheel—with a shaft—the water faucet are both examples of wheels and axles. that moves an direction of the force applied to move (or in this case. the pulley. Another common example of a wheel and axle is the cause the load at the axle (the front wheels) to turn. where the driver exerts a force on the outer edge of the wheel to II WORK AND MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE A wheel and axle makes work easier by changing the amount of force applied to a load. All simple machines change the amount of effort needed to do work. a wheel and axle reduces the effort needed to move a load. A round doorknob and a round Work is the result of a physical force. object over a distance. or load. and are the basis for all other machines. The much larger handle turns a much smaller axle to move a door latch. and steering wheel of a car.

larger handle of the screwdriver is much easier than trying to turn the smaller screw by itself. the MA is the radius of the axle divided by the radius of the wheel. If the gears are the same size. the smaller gear turns faster than the larger gear. This produces a If a wheel can rotate independently about the axle. However. This requires more force to move the wheel. Theoretical MA is the one most commonly referred to. When force is applied at MA less than 1. This will always produce an MA greater than 1. are actually wheels with teeth around the edge. because it does not change force. closed loops of rope or rubber. . Friction makes the process of moving objects. but it takes the power of an the axle. force applied at the wheel moved a heavy load at the axle. the distance the effort travels is divided by the distance the load travels. then the device is not a true machine. Belts. and therefore doing work. When one gear turns. Force can also be applied at the axle to move a load at the wheel. propeller move much faster than the small axle in the middle. III WHEEL AND AXLE APPLICATIONS Wheels and axles are used in one form or another in most complex machines. Rolling is easier than pushing or dragging an object. Wheel and axle combinations also can be used with belts or chains (as on a bicycle) to transmit the forces from one wheel to the other.Theoretical MA is the MA that would exist if the machine were perfect. they turn at the same speed. In the previous examples. Wheels and axles used in this fashion often obtain force generated by fuel-powered engines. The wheel (the handle) transmits the user’s force to the axle (the screwdriver shaft) to turn a screw. To find the MA of a simple machine. The large blades of an airplane engine to turn the axle. Gears. Friction is a resistance created between objects when they move against each other. A wheel that drives or is driven by a chain is usually referred to as a sprocket. A screwdriver is a type of wheel and axle. the other gear turns in the opposite direction. since actual MA can be difficult to calculate. and means that speed will be gained. are often used in automobiles to transmit the rotary power from the engine to fans or other devices. then the MA of a wheel and axle equals the radius of the wheel divided by the radius of the axle. but all machines lose some of their MA to friction. Turning the The mechanical advantage of this type of wheel and axle can be very large. However. if one gear is larger than the other. more difficult. but one benefit is that the wheel will move much faster. freely rotating wheels and axles are used frequently to reduce friction. since the force will always travel a greater distance on the larger wheel than will the load at the smaller axle. such as those used in a mechanical clock. If force is applied to the wheel.

The drive wheels of an old-fashioned crankshaft. which can be used with a rope to pull heavy objects with less effort. A small force applied at the outer edge of a winch handle is changed into a large force at the axle. usually made of stone and used to make pottery. The use of wheels to reduce friction while moving objects was one of the most important inventions in human civilization. method is used to convert the rotary motion of an electric motor into the up-and-down motion IV HISTORY Wheels and axles have been used for centuries to magnify force. This of a jigsaw blade or a sewing-machine needle. The steam locomotive operate in this way. or move other large objects. A likely early use of the fixed wheel and axle to multiply force was the winch. Most mechanical devices make some use of the wheel and axle. a special type of axle that provides the rotary motion to the wheels of a car. because it made transportation much easier. grinding grain. The pistons in an automobile engine are connected to a process is also used in reverse so rotary motion can be changed to reciprocating motion. One of the first uses of the wheel as a tool was the potter’s wheel.Wheels and axles are also used to change the direction of applied force. It was invented about the same time as the wheel used in transportation. Windmills and waterwheels (both forms of wheel and axle) were combined with gearing to make mills for bolts. The back and forth motion (called reciprocating motion) of a piston in an engine can be changed into rotary motion by connecting the piston to the edge of a wheel. Wheels used for transportation are believed to have been used on carts in Mesopotamia as early as 3500 BC. Winches can be used to haul heavy buckets of water up from wells. The wrench uses the principle of the wheel and axle to turn screws or tighten .

Propeller (mechanics) I INTRODUCTION Propeller (mechanics). Propellers may operate in either air or water. The distance that a propeller or propeller blade will move forward when the pitch. when turned. pulls itself through the air or water in the same way that a bolt pulls itself through a nut. virtually all aircraft. along the axis of rotation when rotated in a fluid. A propeller. or thrust. Marine propellers are frequently termed screws. each of which is a section of a helix. The distance that the propeller actually moves through the air or water in one rotation . Virtually all ships are equipped with propellers. and aircraft propellers are termed airscrews in Britain. three. which is the geometric form of a screw thread. were also propelled in the same way. is called the geometric screw. inefficient in the other. except gliders. this corresponds to the pitch. gas or liquid. mounted on a high-speed wheel geared to a generator. of a simple propeller shaft is given one complete rotation. or the distance between adjacent threads. or four blades. mechanical device that produces a force. The propeller is essentially a screw that. and until the although a propeller designed for efficient operation in one of these media would be extremely development of jet propulsion. acts as a windmill when placed in a wind current. Typical propellers consist of two. if there is no slippage.

or the turning force. of the driving engine. and the effective pitch is almost equal to the geometric pitch. it is not as comprehensive as the blade-element theory. in general. The complete motion of a blade element involves a combination of the forward velocity represented by the flight speed. when all the blade elements and the number of blades are accounted for. and the difference between effective and geometric pitch is called slip. thrust in the direction of the flight. an efficient propeller slips little. . Aircraft operate at lower efficiencies. when driven through the air. creates lift and drag. and the peripheral velocity due to the rotation of the in recent years. In general. however. the criterion of propeller efficiency is not slip. The forces created by the motion of the propeller are resolved into a component. but the ratio of propulsive energy produced to energy consumed in rotating the propeller shaft. but marine propellers II AIRCRAFT PROPELLERS An aircraft propeller blade is aerodynamically similar to a wing. The other component in the plane of rotation represents the force that must be overcome by the torque.is called the effective pitch. propellers are often operated at efficiencies as high as 86 percent. This simple concept of propeller action has been extensively refined by aerodynamicists momentum of the flow as it passes through the propeller disk. which. Another method of analysis of propeller action is based on the changes in blade. This approach was originally used by the British engineer and naval architect William Froude but. Airplane). perpendicular and parallel to the air velocity relative to a section of the blade (see Aerodynamics.

it would not rotate if the propeller shaft were placed on knife edges with the blades in any position. most ship propellers operate at efficiencies . A more effective procedure is to use a variable-pitch propeller with the pitch or blade angle controllable in flight so as to maintain operating conditions very close to the optimum. Thus. the top speed never approaches the speed of sound. but. for example. their pitch may be varied. III SHIP PROPELLERS A ship propeller operates in much the same way as the airplane propeller. if the blade has a fixed pitch. however. The rotor of an autogiro or helicopter is essentially similar to an ordinary aircraft propeller in The blades are not twisted. In order to adapt a given propeller to aircraft with different flight characteristics. adjustablepitch propellers are sometimes used. each blade is very broad (from leading to trailing edge) and very thin. The propeller must be very precisely balanced. are usually capable of being feathered. The speed of sound in water is much higher than the speed in air. and produces lift. that is. Although efficiencies as high as 77 percent of about 56 percent. the blade angle can be set parallel to the flight failure. with a severe corresponding drop in the blade's efficiency. a condition will eventually be reached at which the blade will produce little or no thrust. and because of the high frictional resistance of water. and would vibrate if rotated at high speed. The propellers are equipped with deicing equipment. in which the blade can be rotated in the hub so as to alter the effective pitch. and a 28. In the ship propeller. as the forward speed is decreased. Clearance is also less of a problem on ship propellers. If. the angle between the velocity vector and the blade will become so large as to cause the blade to stall. the resultant velocity at a blade element increases in magnitude as the forward speed is increased.5-g (1-oz) weight were attached to the tip of the other blade. however. the propeller would be in static balance. while at the same time the angle of the resultant velocity vector with the plane of rotation is also increased. Propellers of this type are usually operated at a constant rotational speed by means of either a hydraulic or electrical governing mechanism. On the other hand. Controllable-pitch propellers direction.For a given rotational speed. it would not. that it consists of several blades. The capability of setting the blade in a negative pitch condition may also be included in Modern propeller blades are usually made either of solid aluminum alloy or of hollow steel. be in dynamic balance. This operation must be accomplished on the ground with the propeller removed from the aircraft. that is. both statically and dynamically. The blades are usually built of copper alloys to resist corrosion. although the have been achieved with experimental propellers. like ordinary aircraft propeller blades. so as to prevent windmilling that could otherwise occur in the event of an engine the design so as to provide negative thrust and aerodynamic braking action in landing. each shaped like an airfoil in cross section. a 57-g (2-oz) weight were attached to the middle of one blade of a two-bladed propeller.

the formation of a vacuum along parts of the propeller excessive underwater noise. which leads to excessive slip. It also causes . blade.diameter and position of the propeller are limited by the loss in efficiency if the propeller blades come anywhere near the surface of the water. and pitting of the blades. a serious disadvantage on submarines. loss of efficiency. The principal problem of ship-propeller design and operation is cavitation.

especially metals. Presses (elongating). and high-energy particle beams to shape the exotic materials and II HISTORY . stationary power-driven machines used to shape or form solid materials. electrical. Machine tools may be classified under three main categories: conventional chip-making machine tools. superheated gases. pressing. presses. Machine tools form the basis of modern industry and are used either directly or indirectly in the manufacture of machine and tool parts. The shaping is accomplished by removing material from a workpiece or by pressing it into the desired shape. and sonic alloys that have been developed to meet the needs of modern technology.Machine Tools I INTRODUCTION Machine Tools. employ a number of different shaping processes. or drawing energy. including shearing. and unconventional machine tools. Conventional chip-making tools shape the workpiece by cutting away the unwanted portion in the form of chips. Unconventional machine tools employ light. chemical.

planers. The earliest attempts to manufacture interchangeable parts occurred almost simultaneously in Europe and the United States. now widely used.S. During the 19th century. and their use became widespread in the industrializing nations. The machines lacked flexibility. government to produce 10.Modern machine tools date from about 1775. Joseph Whitworth speeded the wider use of Wilkinson's and Maudslay's machine tools by developing. who in 1798 obtained a contract with the U. drilling. and they were not adaptable to a variety of products or to variations in manufacturing standards. About 1794 Henry Maudslay developed the first engine lathe. After 1920 they and saws and milling. His work was of great value because precise methods of measurement were necessary for the subsequent mass production of articles having interchangeable parts. The first true mass- production system was created by the American inventor Eli Whitney. As a result. such standard machine tools as lathes. From about 1930 to 1950 more powerful and had become available. These specialized machine tools made it possible to manufacture rigid machine tools were built to utilize effectively the greatly improved cutting materials that standardized products very economically. making possible the economical manufacture of products of complex design. During the early part of the 20th century. when the English inventor John Wilkinson constructed a horizontal boring machine for producing internal cylindrical surfaces. all with interchangeable parts. Such tools are III CONVENTIONAL MACHINE TOOLS . grinders. became more specialized in their applications.000 army muskets. in the past three decades engineers have developed highly versatile and accurate machine tools that have been adapted to computer control. however. machine tools were enlarged and made even more accurate. in 1830. These efforts relied on the use of so-called filing jigs. using relatively unskilled labor. and boring machines reached a fairly high degree of precision. with which parts could be hand-filed to substantially identical dimensions. measuring instruments accurate to a millionth of an inch. Later. shapers.

grinders. or it may drill or bore holes in the workpiece. Auxiliary to these are drilling and boring machines. saws. It is. because it depends on reciprocating (alternating forward and return) strokes. In general. It uses a single-point tool and is relatively slow. the shaper is seldom found on a production line. the planer. A Lathe A lathe. The tool may be moved parallel to or across the direction of rotation to form parts that have a cylindrical or conical shape or to cut threads. a lathe may also be used to produce flat surfaces. rooms and for job shops where flexibility is essential and relative slowness is unimportant . returns to its starting position. valuable for tool and die because few identical pieces are being made. as a milling machine does. however. For this reason. the shaper. and then cuts on the next surface composed of straight-line elements. B Shaper The shaper is used primarily to produce flat surfaces. the shaper can produce almost any workpiece and cuts on one stroke. and the milling machine. With special attachments. and various metal-forming machines. The tool slides against the stationary stroke after a slight lateral displacement. holds and rotates metal or wood while a cutting tool shapes the material.Among the basic machine tools are the lathe. the oldest and most common type of turning machine.

After each reciprocating cycle. to alter a to cut threads for a screw). Milling machines are the most versatile of all Angles. horizontal. Flat or contoured surfaces may be machined with excellent finish and accuracy. and machine tools. or diagonal cuts. the planer is intended to produce vertical. Like the shaper. or to lap or hone a hole to create an accurate size or a smooth finish. hole in accordance with some specification (by boring or reaming to enlarge it. which moves a tool past a fixed workpiece. It is D Milling Machine In a milling machine.C Planer The planer is the largest of the reciprocating machine tools. the workpiece is advanced laterally to expose a new section to the tool. cutter. or by tapping . slots. gear teeth. The workpiece is held on a table that controls the feed against the vertical. horizontal. Unlike the shaper. also possible to mount several tools at one time in any or all tool holders of a planer to execute multiple simultaneous cuts. E Drilling and Boring Machines Hole-making machine tools are used to drill a hole where none previously existed. a workpiece is fed against a circular device with a series of cutting edges on its circumference. and recess cuts can be made by using various cutters. The table conventionally has three possible movements: longitudinal. the planer moves the workpiece past a fixed tool. in some cases it can also rotate.

Drilling machines vary in size and function, ranging from portable drills to radial drilling machines, multispindle units, automatic production machines, and deep-hole-drilling machines. See Drill.

Boring is a process that enlarges holes previously drilled, usually with a rotating single-point borers and vertical and horizontal boring mills.

cutter held on a boring bar and fed against a stationary workpiece. Boring machines include jig

F

Grinders

Grinding is the removal of metal by a rotating abrasive wheel; the action is similar to that of a each grain acting as a miniature cutting tool. The process produces extremely smooth and accurate finishes. Because only a small amount of material is removed at each pass of the

milling cutter. The wheel is composed of many small grains of abrasive, bonded together, with

wheel, grinding machines require fine wheel regulation. The pressure of the wheel against the workpiece can be made very slight, so that grinding can be carried out on fragile materials that cannot be machined by other conventional devices. See Grinding and Polishing.

G

Saws

Commonly used power-driven saws are classified into three general types, according to the

kind of motion used in the cutting action: reciprocating, circular, and band-sawing machines.

They generally consist of a bed or frame, a vise for clamping the workpiece, a feed mechanism, and the saw blade.

H

Cutting Tools and Fluids

Because cutting processes involve high local stresses, frictions, and considerable heat

generation, cutting-tool material must combine strength, toughness, hardness, and wear

resistance at elevated temperatures. These requirements are met in varying degrees by such cutting-tool materials as carbon steels (steel containing 1 to 1.2 percent carbon), high-speed steels (iron alloys containing tungsten, chromium, vanadium, and carbon), tungsten carbide, and diamonds and by such recently developed materials as ceramic, carbide ceramic, and aluminum oxide.

In many cutting operations fluids are used to cool and lubricate. Cooling increases tool life and helps to stabilize the size of the finished part. Lubrication reduces friction, thus decreasing the heat generated and the power required for a given cut. Cutting fluids include water-based solutions, chemically inactive oils, and synthetic fluids.

I

Presses

Presses shape workpieces without cutting away material, that is, without making chips. A press consists of a frame supporting a stationary bed, a ram, a power source, and a mechanism that moves the ram in line with or at right angles to the bed. Presses are equipped with dies (see Die) and punches designed for such operations as forming, punching, and for only one stroke of the ram. shearing. Presses are capable of rapid production because the operation time is that needed

IV

UNCONVENTIONAL MACHINE TOOLS

Unconventional machine tools include plasma-arc, laser-beam, electrodischarge,

electrochemical, ultrasonic, and electron-beam machines. These machine tools were

developed primarily to shape the ultrahard alloys used in heavy industry and in aerospace microprocessors.

applications and to shape and etch the ultrathin materials used in such electronic devices as

A

Plasma Arc

Plasma-arc machining (PAM) employs a high-velocity jet of high-temperature gas (see

Plasma) to melt and displace material in its path. The materials cut by PAM are generally those that are difficult to cut by any other means, such as stainless steels and aluminum alloys.

B

Laser

Laser-beam machining (LBM) is accomplished by precisely manipulating a beam of coherent light (see Laser) to vaporize unwanted material. LBM is particularly suited to making accurately placed holes. The LBM process can make holes in refractory metals and ceramics and in very thin materials without warping the workpiece. Extremely fine wires can also be welded using LBM equipment.

C

Electrodischarge

Electrodischarge machining (EDM), also known as spark erosion, employs electrical energy to remove metal from the workpiece without touching it. A pulsating high- frequency electric and vaporize small areas of the workpiece. Because no cutting forces are involved, light, delicate operations can be performed on thin workpieces. EDM can produce shapes unobtainable by any conventional machining process. current is applied between the tool point and the workpiece, causing sparks to jump the gap

D

Electrochemical

Electrochemical machining (ECM) also uses electrical energy to remove material. An

electrolytic cell is created in an electrolyte medium, with the tool as the cathode and the

workpiece as the anode. A high-amperage, low-voltage current is used to dissolve the metal

and to remove it from the workpiece, which must be electrically conductive. A wide variety of and milling.

operations can be performed by ECM; these operations include etching, marking, hole making,

E

Ultrasonic

Ultrasonic machining (USM) employs high-frequency, low-amplitude vibrations to create holes and other cavities. A relatively soft tool is shaped as desired and vibrated against the workpiece while a mixture of fine abrasive and water flows between them. The friction of the abrasive particles gradually cuts the workpiece. Materials such as hardened steel, carbides, rubies, quartz, diamonds, and glass can easily be machined by USM.

F

Electron Beam

In electron-beam machining (EBM), electrons are accelerated to a velocity nearly three-fourths that of light. The process is performed in a vacuum chamber to reduce the scattering of electrons by gas molecules in the atmosphere. The stream of electrons is directed against a precisely limited area of the workpiece; on impact, the kinetic energy of the electrons is converted into thermal energy that melts and vaporizes the material to be removed, forming holes or cuts. EBM equipment is commonly used by the electronics industry to aid in the etching of circuits in microprocessors. See Microprocessor.

Microprocessor, electronic circuit that functions as the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer, providing computational control. Microprocessors are also used in other advanced electronic systems, such as computer printers, automobiles, and jet airliners.

Hand-Held Computer The hand-held computer attests to the remarkable miniaturization of computing hardware. The early computers of the 1940s were so large that they filled entire rooms. Techonological innovations, such as the integrated circuit in 1959 and the microprocessor in 1971, shrank computers’ central processing units to the size of tiny silicon chips.Photo Researchers, Inc. The microprocessor is one type of ultra-large-scale integrated circuit. Integrated circuits, also known as microchips or chips, are complex electronic circuits consisting of extremely tiny components formed on a single, thin, flat piece of material known as a semiconductor. Modern microprocessors incorporate transistors (which act as electronic amplifiers, oscillators, or, most commonly, switches), in addition to other components such as resistors, diodes, capacitors, and wires, all packed into an area about the size of a postage stamp.

Microprocessor Microprocessors, also called silicon chips, are typically embedded in a protective casing. The wires radiating from the silicon chip above connect to short metal legs that are soldered into integrated circuit boards.The Image Bank/Jean-Pierre Horlin A microprocessor consists of several different sections: The arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) performs calculations on numbers and makes logical decisions; the registers are special memory locations for storing temporary information much as a scratch pad does; the control unit deciphers programs; buses carry digital information throughout the chip and computer; and local memory supports on-chip computation. More complex microprocessors often contain other sections—such as sections of specialized memory, called cache memory, to speed up access to external data-storage devices. Modern microprocessors operate with bus widths of 64 bits (binary digits, or units of information represented as 1s and 0s), meaning that 64 bits of data can be transferred at the same time. A crystal oscillator in the computer provides a clock signal to coordinate all activities of the microprocessor. The clock speed of the most advanced microprocessors allows billions of computer instructions to be executed every second. II COMPUTER MEMORY Because the microprocessor alone cannot accommodate the large amount of memory required to store program instructions and data, such as the text in a word-processing program, transistors can be used as memory elements in combination with the microprocessor. Separate integrated circuits, called random-access memory (RAM) chips, which contain large numbers of transistors, are used in conjunction with the microprocessor to provide the needed memory. There are different kinds of randomaccess memory. Static RAM (SRAM) holds information as long as power is turned on

and is usually used as cache memory because it operates very quickly. Another type of memory, dynamic RAM (DRAM), is slower than SRAM and must be periodically refreshed with electricity or the information it holds is lost. DRAM is more economical than SRAM and serves as the main memory element in most computers. III MICROCONTROLLER A microprocessor is not a complete computer. It does not contain large amounts of memory or have the ability to communicate with input devices—such as keyboards, joysticks, and mice—or with output devices, such as monitors and printers. A different kind of integrated circuit, a microcontroller, is a complete computer on a chip, containing all of the elements of the basic microprocessor along with other specialized functions. Microcontrollers are used in video games, videocassette recorders (VCRs), automobiles, and other machines. IV SEMICONDUCTORS sidebar SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES Manufacturing an Integrated Circuit Beginning in the late 20th century, integrated circuits based on silicon chips shrank rapidly in price and size while expanding in capacity. These advances in chip technology contributed to a boom in the computer industry. The creation of a single silicon chip requires hundreds of manufacturing steps. In this Scientific American article, Intel Corporation president and chief operating officer Craig R. Barrett describes the chip manufacturing process from design through completion. open sidebar All integrated circuits are fabricated from semiconductors, substances whose ability to conduct electricity ranks between that of a conductor and that of a nonconductor, or insulator. Silicon is the most common semiconductor material. Because the electrical conductivity of a semiconductor can change according to the voltage applied to it, transistors made from semiconductors act like tiny switches that turn electrical current on and off in just a few nanoseconds (billionths of a second). This capability enables a computer to perform many billions of simple instructions each second and to complete complex tasks quickly. The basic building block of most semiconductor devices is the diode, a junction, or union, of negative-type (n-type) and positive-type (p-type) materials. The terms n-type and p-type refer to semiconducting materials that have been doped—that is, have had their electrical properties altered by the controlled addition of very small quantities of impurities such as boron or phosphorus. In a diode, current flows in only one direction: across the junction from the p- to n-type material, and then only when the p-type material is at a higher voltage than the n-type. The voltage applied to the diode to create this condition is called the forward bias. The opposite voltage, for which current will not flow, is called the reverse bias. An integrated circuit contains millions of p-n junctions,

each serving a specific purpose within the millions of electronic circuit elements. Proper placement and biasing of p- and n-type regions restrict the electrical current to the correct paths and ensure the proper operation of the entire chip. V TRANSISTORS The transistor used most commonly in the microelectronics industry is called a metaloxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). It contains two n-type regions, called the source and the drain, with a p-type region in between them, called the channel. Over the channel is a thin layer of nonconductive silicon dioxide topped by another layer, called the gate. For electrons to flow from the source to the drain, a voltage (forward bias) must be applied to the gate. This causes the gate to act like a control switch, turning the MOSFET on and off and creating a logic gate that transmits digital 1s and 0s throughout the microprocessor. VI CONSTRUCTION OF MICROPROCESSORS Microprocessors are fabricated using techniques similar to those used for other integrated circuits, such as memory chips. Microprocessors generally have a more complex structure than do other chips, and their manufacture requires extremely precise techniques.

Economical manufacturing of microprocessors requires mass production. Several hundred dies, or circuit patterns, are created on the surface of a silicon wafer simultaneously. Microprocessors are constructed by a process of deposition and removal of conducting, insulating, and semiconducting materials one thin layer at a time until, after hundreds of separate steps, a complex sandwich is constructed that contains all the interconnected circuitry of the microprocessor. Only the outer surface of the silicon

short-wavelength ultraviolet light must be used to resolve the tiny details of the patterns. the resist is removed from the wafer either by chemicals. is placed between each conductive layer on the wafer. indicating that there is no more than one speck of dust per cubic foot of air. The most important type of dielectric is silicon dioxide.) . called the photoresist or resist. This is accomplished by ionizing the boron or phosphorus atoms (stripping off one or two electrons) and propelling them at the wafer with an ion implanter at very high energies. In the next step of the process. The oxygen combines with the silicon to form a thin layer of oxide about 75 angstroms deep (an angstrom is one ten-billionth of a meter). At present. (For comparison. ion implantation. which is “grown” by exposing the silicon wafer to oxygen in a furnace at about 1000°C (about 1800°F). The ions become embedded in the surface of the wafer. etching.wafer—a layer about 10 microns (about 0. making it easy to dissolve in a developing solution. ion implantation.0004 in) thick. a silicon slice in the shape of a round wafer that is polished to a mirror-like smoothness. Because the shortest wavelength of visible light is about 0. changes when exposed to light. the films are deposited using sputterers in which thin films are grown in a plasma. in a special vacuum chamber. and film deposition. Microprocessor features are so small and precise that a single speck of dust can destroy an entire die. or by means of chemical-vapor deposition. In each case. A coating on the surface of the wafer. by means of evaporation. These patterns are as small as 0. In the final step of the process.5 microns. lithography. the largest wafers used in industry are 300 mm (12 in) in diameter. a typical home is class one million or so. in a process known as wet etching. whereby the material condenses from a gas at low or atmospheric pressure. The purest of today's clean rooms are referred to as class 1.13 microns in size. After photolithography. which is analogous to transforming the wafer into a piece of photographic film and projecting a picture of the circuit on it. In the oxidation step. the wafer is etched—that is. The thin layers used to build up a microprocessor are referred to as films. whereby the material is melted and then evaporated coating the wafer.01 mm/0. an electrically nonconducting layer. or by exposure to a corrosive gas. Nearly every layer that is deposited on the wafer must be patterned accurately into the shape of the transistors and other electronic elements. impurities such as boron and phosphorus are introduced into the silicon to alter its conductivity. The processing steps include substrate creation. called a plasma. or about one-tenth the thickness of a human hair—is used for the electronic circuit. oxidation. called a dielectric. also called doping. The rooms used for microprocessor creation are called clean rooms because the air in them is extremely well filtered and virtually free of dust. the film must be of high purity and its thickness must be controlled within a small fraction of a micron. The first step in producing a microprocessor is the creation of an ultrapure silicon substrate. Usually this is done in a process known as photolithography.

An Operating System Interface A screen shot from the Windows XP operating system displays icons and other images typical of the graphical user interface (GUI) that makes computers easy to use. printers. The Intel 8008 contained 3. By the end of the decade microprocessors contained many millions of transistors. such as floppy disk. In the mid-1990s chips included the Intel Pentium Pro. and the Digital Equipment Corporation's Alpha 21164A. it organizes files on a variety of storage media. the PowerPC620. a computer user can easily execute commands by clicking on pictures.000 operations per second. In 1965 Moore predicted that the number of transistors on a computer chip would double every year. The rate of change followed an early prediction made by American semiconductor pioneer Gordon Moore.4 million transistors. IBM. in computer science. containing 5. produced in 1971. containing 9.300 transistors on a 4-bit microprocessor that could perform only 60.3 million transistors. compact disc. further reading These sources provide additional information on Microprocessor. and performed billions of instructions per second.5 million transistors. or icons with a pointing device known as a mouse.Photo Researchers. developed in 1972 to run computer terminals.2 million transistors and capable of executing 20 million instructions per second had been introduced. containing 5. The operating system has three major functions: It coordinates and manipulates computer hardware. The most common semiconductor materials used in making computer chips are the elements silicon and germanium. words. containing 7 million transistors. In the 1990s the number of transistors on microprocessors continued to double nearly every 18 months.5X magnification) is manufactured by the Intel Corporation.VII HISTORY OF THE MICROPROCESSOR Pentium Microprocessor The Pentium microprocessor (shown at 2. transferred 64 bits of data at once. Inc. and Motorola. the UltraSparc-II. and it manages hardware errors and the loss of data. was the 8-bit Intel 8080 (see Microprocessor. disks. developed jointly by Apple. hard drive./Michael W. digital video disc. The first 8-bit microprocessor was the Intel 8008. Davidson The first microprocessor was the Intel 4004. the basic software that controls a computer. which contained 4. 32-bit microprocessors containing 1. Originally developed for a calculator. although nearly all computer chips are made from silicon. mouse. By 1989.© Microsoft Corporation.300 transistors. 8080). and monitor. developed in 1974. II HOW AN OS WORKS . With a GUI.500 transistors and could execute 200. it contained 2. a prediction that has come to be known as Moore’s Law. Operating System (OS). All Rights Reserved. and tape. It contains more than three million transistors. keyboard. and revolutionary for its time. such as computer memory. The first truly general-purpose microprocessor.000 instructions per second. by Sun Microsystems.

but many experienced computer users prefer text-oriented command interpreters. The processes appear to run simultaneously because the user's sense of time is much slower than the processing speed of the computer. it is suspended and another process is run.). such as running a spreadsheet program or accessing information from the computer's memory. The OS performs the “bookkeeping” that preserves a suspended process. so performance of the computer slows. there is only one central processing unit (CPU. To implement this technique.). and Windows. Inc. For instance. III CURRENT OPERATING SYSTEMS Operating systems commonly found on personal computers include UNIX. Its file system provides a simple means of organizing . however. and Linux (available for download free of charge and distributed commercially by companies such as Red Hat. If the process is not completed within the allotted time. an on-screen picture that represents a specific command. In most computers. UNIX and its clones support multitasking and multiple users.Operating systems control different computer processes. It also has a mechanism. Variations of UNIX include SunOS (distributed by SUN Microsystems. This exchanging of processes is called context switching. All modern operating systems are multitasking and can run several processes simultaneously. the computational and control unit of the computer). Some command interpreters are text oriented. space on the hard drive is used to mimic the extra memory needed. is a popular operating system among academic computer users. Xenix (distributed by Microsoft Corporation). that determines which process will be run next. Software for the Internet was initially designed for computers that ran UNIX. so a multitasking OS creates the illusion of several processes running simultaneously on the CPU. when the computer is printing a document. Accessing the hard drive is more time-consuming than accessing main memory. Beginners generally find graphically oriented interpreters easier to use. The scheduler runs short processes quickly to minimize perceptible delay. UNIX. whereby each process is run individually for a fixed period of time. The most common mechanism used to create this illusion is time-slice multitasking. it cannot start another process or respond to new commands until the printing is completed. One important process is interpreting commands. requiring commands to be typed in or to be selected via function keys on a keyboard. Macintosh OS. Its popularity is due in large part to the growth of the interconnected computer network known as the Internet. The more primitive singletasking operating systems can run only one process at a time. Operating systems can use a technique known as virtual memory to run processes that require more main memory than is actually available. Inc. Other command interpreters use graphics and let the user communicate by pointing and clicking on an icon. called a scheduler. enabling the user to communicate with the computer. developed in 1969 at AT&T Bell Laboratories. Operating systems are either single-tasking or multitasking. however.

a process can run on any computer in the network (presumably a computer that is idle) to increase that process's performance. more memory. and mastering the system is difficult. although UNIX is popular for professionals. All basic OS functions—such as maintaining file systems. A recently developed type of OS called a distributed operating system is designed for a connected. windowing systems with graphical interfaces. which make computer technology more accessible. and higher-quality monitors—than do command-oriented operating systems. The commands in UNIX are not readily apparent. software has been developed that can be taught to recognize an individual's handwriting. .disk files and lets users control access to their files. graphical systems generally have the disadvantage of requiring more hardware—such as faster CPUs. and recovering data in the event of a partial failure— become more complex in distributed systems. However. ensuring reasonable behavior. are widely used in personal computers (PCs). but independent. collection of computers that share resources such as hard drives. IV FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES Operating systems continue to evolve. however. Currently these types of input are imprecise because people pronounce and write words very differently. such as Windows and the Macintosh OS. advances in this field have led to systems that can recognize a small number of words spoken by a variety of people. Research is also being conducted that would replace the keyboard with a means of using voice or handwriting for input. Instead. In addition. In a distributed OS. it is not the operating system of choice for the general public. However. making it difficult for a computer to recognize the same input from different users. Consequently.

II HISTORY .04 percent to 2. containing virtually no carbon. and pig iron contain amounts of carbon varying from 2 to 4 percent. known as ferroalloys. technology related to the production of iron and its alloys. they contain from 20 to 80 percent of an alloying element. Steels of various types contain from 0. The differences between the various types of iron and steel are sometimes confusing because of the nomenclature used. such as manganese. often with an admixture of other elements. Cast iron. A malleable iron. particularly those containing a small percentage of carbon.25 percent of carbon. special form of malleable iron. Steel in general is an alloy of iron and carbon. Open-hearth iron and wrought iron contain only a few hundredths of 1 percent of carbon. is used in the manufacture of iron and steel alloys. A special group of iron alloys.Iron and Steel Manufacture I INTRODUCTION Iron and Steel Manufacture. or chromium. malleable cast iron. is known as white-heart Some alloys that are commercially called irons contain more carbon than commercial steels. silicon.

This sponge of iron was removed from the furnace while still AD. usable metal is not known. Ironworkers learned to make process the iron absorbed enough carbon to become a true steel.” the mixture of raw materials. Under this treatment the ore was reduced to the sponge of metallic iron filled with a slag composed of metallic impurities and charcoal ash. by accident. round ingots known as pigs) was then further refined to make steel. the iron ore in the upper part of the furnace was first it by the blast. indeed. would be classified today as wrought iron. and increased draft was used to force the combustion gases through the “charge. Since the 1960s. BC. an alloy that melts at a lower stubby. The process of refining molten iron with blasts of air was accomplished converter. The iron produced under these conditions usually contained about 3 percent of slag particles and 0.1 percent of other impurities.S.The exact date at which people discovered the technique of smelting iron ore to produce date from about 3000 about 1000 BC. ore. reduced to metallic iron and then took on more carbon as a result of the gases forced through temperature than steel or wrought iron. The earliest iron implements discovered by archaeologists in Egypt advanced technique of hardening iron weapons by heat treatment was known to the Greeks and iron ornaments were used even earlier. in 1855. By this After the 14th century the furnaces used in smelting were increased in size. The product of these furnaces was pig iron. a true steel rather than wrought iron. and. In these larger furnaces. They were made by heating a incandescent and beaten with heavy sledges to drive out the slag and to weld and consolidate the iron. steel production. Occasionally this technique of ironmaking produced. all the iron alloys made until about the 14th century mass of iron ore and charcoal in a forge or furnace having a forced draft. The giant steel mills remain essential for the production of steel from iron III PIG-IRON PRODUCTION . Such mills are an important component of total U. or by the old ironworkers. Pig iron (so called because it was usually cast in Modern steelmaking employs blast furnaces that are merely refinements of the furnaces used by the British inventor Sir Henry Bessemer who developed the Bessemer furnace. the comparatively The alloys produced by early iron workers. several so-called minimills have been producing steel from scrap metal in electric furnaces. steel by heating wrought iron and charcoal in clay boxes for a period of several days.

5 A typical blast furnace consists of a cylindrical steel shell lined with a refractory. and a trace of sulfur. but below the tuyeres. which is about 27 m (about 90 ft) in height.25 to 2. The coke is burned as a fuel to heat the furnace. The lower portion of the furnace. reducing them to metallic iron. Near the bottom of the bosh is a hole through which the molten another hole for draining the slag. it has the equation: Fe2O3 + 3CO = 3CO2 + silicate. 0. called the bosh.The basic materials used for the manufacture of pig iron are iron ore. carbon. phosphorus. and a pair of round hoppers closed with bellshaped valves through which the charge is introduced into the furnace. iron silicate would be formed. is nonmetallic substance such as firebrick. and above this hole. which combines with the iron oxides in the ore. The shell is tapered at the top and at the bottom and which the air blast is forced. 3 or 4 percent. 0. is equipped with several tubular openings or tuyeres through pig iron flows when the furnace is tapped. as it burns. silicon. The materials are skip hoist. This 2Fe. manganese. percent. 0. and limestone. Ordinary pig iron as produced by blast furnaces contains iron. Calcium silicate plus other impurities form a slag that floats on top of the molten metal at about 92 percent. contains vents for the escaping gases. The limestone in the furnace charge is used as an additional source of carbon monoxide and as a “flux” to combine with the infusible silica present in the ore to form fusible calcium is the basic chemical reaction in the blast furnace. the coke gives off carbon monoxide. which is any is widest at a point about one-quarter of the distance from the bottom. The top of the furnace.5 to 3 percent. with a resulting loss of metallic the bottom of the furnace. coke.04 to 2 percent. brought up to the hoppers in small dump cars or skips that are hauled up an inclined external . iron. Without the limestone.

and the iron itself is drawn The air used to supply the blast in a blast furnace is preheated to temperatures between approximately 540° and 870° C (approximately 1. Then the flame is turned off and the air for the blast is blown through the stove. The pressurizing technique makes possible better combustion of the coke and higher output of pig iron. have also shown that the output of blast furnaces can be increased by enriching the air blast The process of tapping consists of knocking out a clay plug from the iron hole near the bottom of the bosh and allowing the molten metal to flow into a clay-lined runner and then into a as much as 100 tons of metal. large. weight of air used in the operation of a blast furnace exceeds the total weight of the other raw An important development in blast furnace technology. Any slag that may flow from the furnace with the metal is skimmed off before it reaches the container. In such blast furnaces may be mixed in a large ladle before it is converted to steel. cylinders containing networks of firebrick. brick-lined metal container. the pressure within the furnace may be built up to 1.740° F). which may be either a ladle or a rail car capable of holding Modern-day blast furnaces are operated in conjunction with basic oxygen furnaces and sometimes the older open-hearth furnaces as part of a single steel-producing plant. The heating is performed in stoves.Blast furnaces operate continuously. to minimize any irregularities in the composition of the individual melts. the waste gases from the top of the furnace. One such method is the so-called direct method of making iron and steel from ore. off or tapped about five times a day. By “throttling” the flow of gas from the furnace vents.000° and 1. without making pig iron. The container of molten pig iron is then transported to the steelmaking shop. Experimental installations with oxygen. In this process iron ore and coke are mixed in a revolving kiln and heated to a temperature of about 950° C (about 1. plants the molten pig iron is used to charge the steel furnaces. Carbon monoxide is given off from the heated coke just as in the blast furnace and reduces the oxides . was introduced after World War II.600° F). The raw material to be fed into the furnace is divided into a number of small charges that are introduced into the furnace at 10. Slag is drawn off from the top of the melt about once every 2 hr.to 15-min intervals. The output of many blast furnaces can be increased 25 percent by pressurizing. other methods of iron refining are possible and have been practiced to a limited extent. The bricks in the stoves are heated for several hours by burning blast-furnace gas. the pressurizing of furnaces.7 atm or more. The materials employed. The molten metal from several IV OTHER METHODS OF IRON REFINING Although almost all the iron and steel manufactured in the world is made from pig iron produced by the blast-furnace process.

this furnace can be operated at a high temperature by regenerative preheating of the fuel gas and air used for combustion in the furnace. which is roofed over at a height of about 2.of the ore to metallic iron. which prevents the use of ordinary fuels and furnaces. In regenerative preheating.650° C (approximately 3. V OPEN-HEARTH PROCESS Essentially the production of steel from pig iron by any process consists of burning out the steel is its high melting point. and the kiln produces so-called sponge iron of much higher purity than pig iron. rectangular brick hearth about 6 m by 10 m (about 20 ft by 33 ft). The entire . by passing an electric current through a solution of ferrous chloride. The secondary reactions that occur in a blast furnace. To overcome this difficulty the open-hearth furnace was excess carbon and other impurities present in the iron. furnace is reversed and the fuel and air pass through the heated chambers and are warmed by The furnace itself consists typically of a flat. the exhaust gases from the furnace are drawn through one of a series of chambers containing a mass of brickwork and give up most of their heat to the bricks.000° F). In front of the hearth a series of doors opens out onto a working floor in front of the hearth. Through this method open-hearth furnaces can reach temperatures as high as 1.500° F). Then the flow through the the bricks.5 m (about 8 ft). Neither the direct nor the electrolytic processes has yet achieved any great commercial significance. however. about 1. Virtually pure iron is also produced by means of electrolysis (see Electrochemistry). One difficulty in the manufacture of developed.370° C (about 2. do not occur.

350 kg (25. The proportions of the charge vary within wide limits. After the furnace has been charged and turned upright. which combine with the limestone to form slag. Thousands of cubic meters of oxygen are blown into the furnace at supersonic speed. From the ladle the steel is poured into cast-iron molds that form ingots usually about 1. and subjecting it to physical examination or chemical analysis. manganese. 11. 11. After the furnace has been charged.650° C (2. the raw material for all forms of fabricated steel. has been replaced by a high-pressure stream of nearly lowered into it. and sulfur. lb) of iron ore. its oxygen In the basic oxygen process.400 kg (100. and iron ore that provides additional oxygen. Recently. These reactions take place while the metal in the furnace is at melting heat. The furnace is charged with a mixture of pig iron (either molten or cold). Limestone is added for flux and fluorspar to make the slag more fluid. The water-cooled tip of the lance is usually about 2 m (about 6 ft) above the charge although this distance can be varied according to requirements. weigh approximately 2. These ingots.540° and 1. but a typical charge might consist of 56. steel is also refined in a pear-shaped furnace that tilts sideways pure oxygen. and the space under the hearth is taken up by the heat-regenerating chambers of the furnace. A furnace of this size produces about 100 metric tons of steel every 11 hr. Experienced open-hearth operators can often judge the carbon content of the metal the furnace. made use of a tall.000 furnace is lighted and the flames play back and forth over the hearth as their direction is Chemically the action of the open-hearth furnace consists of lowering the carbon content of the charge by oxidization and of removing such impurities as silicon.000 lb) of scrap steel. scrap steel. 900 kg (2. When by its appearance. charging and pouring. and 230 kg (500 lb) of fluorspar. called a Bessemer converter. 45. The oxygen combines with .hearth and working floor are one story above ground level.000 lb) of molten pig iron. however.800 kg (26. cooling it.750 kg (125.25 metric tons in this size. the furnace is tapped through a hole at the rear. but the melt is usually tested by withdrawing a small amount of metal from the carbon content of the melt reaches the desired level. and the furnace is held between 1.000° F) for many hours until the molten metal has the desired carbon content. Great quantities of air were blown through the molten metal. the Bessemer process. an oxygen lance is for charging and pouring.000 lb) of cold pig iron. first having to go through the process of casting ingots. pear-shaped furnace. Air. methods have been put into practice for the continuous processing of steel without VI BASIC OXYGEN PROCESS The oldest process for making steel in large quantities.5 m (about 5 ft) long and 48 cm (19 in) square. phosphorus.000 lb) of limestone. The molten steel then flows through a short trough to a large ladle set below the furnace at ground level. that could be tilted sideways for united chemically with the impurities and carried them off. the reversed by the operator to provide heat regeneration.800° and 3.

because its alloy content will affect the composition of the order to help remove carbon and other impurities that are present. and then arcs back to the next electrode. heat is generated in a coil. such as rods.carbon and other unwanted elements and starts a high-temperature churning reaction that takes 50 min or less. electrodes are lowered close to the surface of the metal. together with that coming from the intensely hot arc itself. channels. tees. high-purity oxygen is injected through a lance. Refining takes place in a tightly closed chamber. quickly melts the metal. and I-beams. The additional alloying refined metal. approximately 275 metric tons of steel can be made in an hour. electric furnaces are particularly valuable for producing stainless steels and other highly alloyed steels that must be made to exacting specifications. electricity instead of fire supplies the heat for the melting and refining of steel. This heat. Before it is ready to be used. rapidly burns out impurities from the pig iron and converts it into steel. railroad rails. such as small quantities of iron ore and dry lime. . The quantity of oxygen entering the furnace can always be closely controlled. arcs to the metallic charge. Because refining conditions in such a furnace can be regulated more strictly than in open-hearth or basic oxygen furnaces. In another type of electric furnace. These shapes are produced at steel mills by rolling and otherwise forming heated ingots to the required shape. pipes. the scrap must first be analyzed and sorted. raising the temperature of the furnace and decreasing the time needed to produce the finished steel. The metal. See Electric Furnace. into the refined steel as it is poured into the ladle. flows through the resistance to the flow of current through the charge. where temperatures and other conditions are kept under rigid control by automatic devices. Heat is generated by the overcoming of current enters through one of the electrodes. After the furnace is charged. thus keeping down undesirable oxidizing reactions. The refining process VII ELECTRIC-FURNACE STEEL In some furnaces. are added in elements go either into the charge or. VIII FINISHING PROCESSES Steel is marketed in a wide variety of sizes and shapes. Other materials. The working of steel also improves the quality of the steel by refining its crystalline structure and making the metal tougher. During the early stages of this refining process. Most often the charge consists almost entirely of scrap. later.

The distance between the rollers diminishes for each successive pair as the steel is elongated and reduced in thickness. . The rollers of mills used to produce railroad rails and such structural shapes as I-beams. In hot rolling the cast ingot is first of pairs of metal rollers that squeeze it to the desired size and shape. and the square billets of steel that the ingot produces are known as blooms. H-beams. heated to bright-red heat in a furnace called a soaking pit and is then passed between a series The first pair of rollers through which the ingot passes is commonly called the blooming mill.The basic process of working steel is known as hot rolling. and angles are grooved to give the required shape. From the blooming mill. the steel is passed on to roughing mills and finally to finishing mills that reduce it to the correct cross section.

casting methods.4 m (8 ft). A slab of hot steel over 11 cm (about 4. a steel mill in Indiana became the first outside Europe to adopt this new system. a current of electricity is passing through a piece of pure tin into the same solution. and devices for coiling the sheet automatically when it reaches the end of the mill. The most common method of coating is by the electrolytic process. The “tin” can is actually more than 99 percent steel. Continuous mills are equipped fed through a series of rollers which reduce it progressively in thickness to 0. less than half a molten tin.5 in) thick is and increase its length from 4 m (13 ft) to 370 m (1. German engineers have eliminated any need for blooming and roughing mills. ingots must still be passed through a blooming mill in order to produce slabs By devising a continuous casting system that produces an endless steel slab less than 5 cm (2 in) thick. In 1989. Such mills process thin sheet steel rapidly. For the product . or skelp. pair of inclined rollers that have a pointed metal bar. the edges of the skelp are usually overlapped and passed between a pair of rollers curved to correspond with the outside diameter of the pipe. The completed coils of sheet are dropped on a the sheet by knocking it off mechanically. loosening it by means of an air blast.Modern manufacturing requires a large amount of thin sheet steel. Using conventional thin enough to enter a continuous mill.210 ft). Meanwhile. In electrolytic processing. set between them in such a X TIN PLATE By far the most important coated product of the steel mill is tin plate for the manufacture of containers. Seamless pipe or tubing is made from solid rods by passing them between a way that it pierces the rods and forms the inside diameter of the pipe at the same time that the rollers are forming the outside diameter. The pressure on the rollers is great enough to weld the edges together. before it cools and becomes unworkable. IX PIPE Cheaper grades of pipe are shaped by bending a flat strip. Sheet steel is kilogram of tin will coat more than 18. The edging rollers are sets of vertical rolls set opposite each other at either side of the sheet to ensure that the width of the sheet is maintained. Descaling apparatus removes the scale that forms on the surface of sheet sharply at some point in its travel. For the smaller sizes of pipe. causing the tin to dissolve slowly and to be deposited on the steel.05 in) with a number of accessory devices including edging rollers.6 sq m (more than 200 sq ft) of steel. of hot steel into cylindrical form and welding the edges to complete the pipe. or mandrel. or bending the conveyor and carried away to be annealed and cut into individual sheets. In some mills steel sheets that have been hot-rolled and then cold-rolled are coated by passing them through a bath of slowly unrolled from its coil and passed through a chemical solution.127 cm (0. Continuous mills roll steel strips and sheets in widths of up to 2. descaling devices. A more efficient way to produce thin sheet steel is to feed thinner slabs through the rollers.

which is less expensive to produce and The puddling furnace used in the older process has a low. arched roof and a depressed hearth on which the crude metal lies. The development of new processes using Bessemer converters and open-hearth furnaces allowed the production of larger quantities of wrought iron. a treatment that makes the steel plate extra tough as well as extra thin. Lightweight packaging containers are also being made of tin-plated steel foil that has been laminated to paper or cardboard. and has become moderately heated. and drawing the steel through dies (see Die). . The silicon and most of the manganese in the iron are oxidized and some sulfur and phosphorus are eliminated. The furnace is then min the iron is melted and the puddler adds more iron oxide or mill scale to the charge. The iron is then cut into flat pieces that are piled on one another. The resulting pasty. As the more and more pasty. because it can be effectively is typically of more uniform quality than wrought iron. production of wrought iron in tonnage quantities was impossible. After about 30 working the oxide into the iron with a bent iron bar called a raddle. of about 80 to 90 kg (about 180 to 200 lb) each. however. After the furnace is lit the hearth and walls with a paste of iron oxide. yet they contain less steel. required a great deal of Wrought iron is no longer produced commercially. Cans made of thin tin are about as strong as ordinary tin cans.known as thin tin. spongelike mass is separated into lumps. As the gas is evolved the slag puffs up and the level of the charge rises. and “reverberates” upon the contents of the hearth. XI WROUGHT IRON The process of making the tough. The temperature of the furnace is then raised slightly. The flame in the combustion chamber surmounts the wall. with a resultant saving in weight and cost. and finally the bath drops to its former level. called furnace with tongs and are placed directly in a squeezer. Because this process. replaced in nearly all applications by low-carbon steel. known as puddling. a machine in which the greater part of the intermingled siliceous slag is expelled from the ball and the grains of pure iron are thoroughly welded together. founding. sheet and strip are given a second cold rolling before being coated with tin. other forms of steel making. and the carbon starts to burn out as carbonoxide gases. the puddler. separated by a wall from the combustion chamber in which bituminous coal is burned. The balls are withdrawn from the cohesion of the particles. or furnace operator. Other processes of steel fabrication include forging. “fettles” it by plastering charged with about 270 kg (about 600 lb) of pig iron and the door is closed. the puddler stirs the charge with the raddle to ensure uniform composition and proper balls. malleable alloy known as wrought iron differs markedly from hand labor. usually hematite ore. As the iron increases in carbon is burned away the melting temperature of the alloy increases and the charge becomes purity. strikes the arched roof.

The modern technique of making wrought iron uses molten iron from a Bessemer converter and molten slag. molybdenum. they are the newest of the five chief families of steels. and sand in an open-hearth furnace.65 percent manganese. bobby pins are among the products made of carbon steels. and then rolled into a single piece. freight cars made of HSLA steels can carry larger loads because their walls are thinner than would be necessary with carbon steel of equal strength. 0. to have much more strength than carbon steels of the same weight. Machines. silicon.heated to welding temperature. containing certain percentages of vanadium. it is less . The force exerted by the gas shatters the metal into minute particles that are heavier than the slag and that accumulate in the bottom of the ladle. however. They cost less than the regular alloy steels because they contain only small amounts of the expensive alloying elements.60 percent silicon. and B Alloy Steels These steels have a specified composition. and copper than do the regular carbon steels. which is usually prepared by melting iron ore. They have been specially processed. most structural steel for buildings. roller skates. When the molten iron. which carries a large amount of gas in solution. and carving knives are some of the many things that are made of alloy steels. and 0. The molten slag is maintained in a ladle at a temperature several hundred degrees below the temperature of the molten iron. Carbon Steels More than 90 percent of all steels are carbon steels. the ball of iron is removed and squeezed and rolled like the product of the puddling furnace. as well as larger amounts of manganese.60 percent copper. also. agglomerating into a spongy mass similar to the balls produced in a puddling furnace. For example. bedsprings. C High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels Called HSLA steels. After the slag has been poured off the top of the ladle. ship hulls. because an HSLA freight car is lighter in weight than the ordinary car. is poured into the ladle containing the molten slag. automobile bodies. mill scale. releasing the dissolved gas. XII A CLASSIFICATIONS OF STEEL Steels are grouped into five main classifications. Automobile gears and axles. They contain varying amounts of carbon and not more than 1. or other elements. the metal solidifies almost instantly. This rolling process is sometimes repeated to improve the quality of the product.

a compound of iron containing about 7 percent carbon. but if cooling is sudden. hardness. handling equipment is often made of stainless E Tool Steels These steels are fabricated into many types of tools or into the cutting and shaping parts of power-driven machinery for various manufacturing operations. In steel because it does not taint the food and can be easily cleaned. The toughness and hardness of a steel that is not heat treated depend on the proportions of these three ingredients. They contain tungsten. for jet planes. kitchens and in plants where food is prepared. when the steel has 0. frameworks of HSLA steels. Surgical instruments and equipment are made from these steels. nickel. Ferrite is iron containing small amounts of carbon and other elements in solution and is soft and ductile. and other alloying elements that keep them bright and rust resistant in spite of moisture or the action of corrosive acids and gases.of a load for the locomotive to pull. cooled slowly the austenite reverts to ferrite and pearlite. Stainless steels are used for the pipes and tanks of petroleum refineries and chemical plants. and D Stainless Steels Stainless steels contain chromium. Pearlite is an intimate mixture of ferrite and cementite having a specific composition and characteristic structure. Because of their shining surfaces architects often use them for decorative purposes. and for space capsules. resistance to wear. the which has the property of dissolving all the free carbon present in the metal. and XIII STRUCTURE OF STEEL The physical properties of various types of steel and of any given steel alloy at varying the iron. it is entirely composed of pearlite. Some stainless steels are very hard. molybdenum. Girders can be made thinner without sacrificing their strength. some have unusual strength and will retain that strength for long periods at extremely high and low temperatures. and other alloying elements that give them extra strength. Raising the temperature of steel changes ferrite and pearlite to an allotropic form of iron-carbon alloy known as austenite. and they are also used to patch or replace broken bones because the steels can withstand the action of body fluids. Before heat treatment most steels are a mixture of three substances: ferrite. is extremely brittle and hard. temperatures depend primarily on the amount of carbon present and on how it is distributed in pearlite.8 percent of carbon. Numerous buildings are now being constructed with additional space is left for offices and apartments. Cementite. the amount of ferrite present decreases and the amount of pearlite increases until. and physical characteristics intermediate between its two constituents. and cementite. As the carbon content of a steel increases. If the steel is . Steel with still more carbon is a mixture of pearlite and cementite.

Other methods of heat treating steel to harden it are used. Metallurgists have discovered that the change from austenite to martensite occurs during the latter part of the cooling period and that this change is accompanied by a change in volume that may crack the metal if the cooling is too swift. which for most steels is the range from about 288° C (about 550° F) to room temperature. In carburizing.austenite is “frozen” or changes to martensite. Many variations of the basic process are practiced. set up large internal strains in the metal. and distribution of the cementite particles in the ferrite. or annealing. and is then cooled slowly in air. Tempering results in a decrease in hardness and strength and an increase in The primary purpose of the heat-treating process is to control the amount. and these are relieved by tempering.400° to treatments. which form martensite. which is an extremely hard allotropic modification that resembles ferrite but contains carbon in solid solution. or quenching. or in carbonaceous gases such as methane or carbon monoxide. In case hardening. size. which in turn determines the physical properties of the steel. In nitriding. Such hardening temperature at which austenite is formed. XIV HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL The basic process of hardening steel by heat treatment consists of heating the metal to a 1. and is then placed in section. its surface layer. which consists of reheating the steel to a lower ductility and toughness. the piece is heated in charcoal or coke.600° F) and then cooling. In a constant-temperature bath until it attains a uniform temperature throughout its cross martempering the steel is withdrawn from the quench at the same point. a finished piece of steel is given an extremely hard surface by heating it with carbon or nitrogen compounds. usually about 760° to 870° C (about 1. The steel is then allowed to cool in air through the temperature range of martensite formation. These compounds react with the steel. shape. In austempering the steel is quenched in a bath of metal or salt maintained at the constant temperature at which the desired structural change occurs and is held in this bath until the change is complete before being subjected to the final cooling. temperature. In time-quenching the steel is withdrawn from the quenching bath when it has reached the temperature at which the martensite begins to form. Three comparatively new processes have been developed to avoid cracking. steels of special composition are hardened by heating them in ammonia gas to form alloy nitrides. it rapidly in water or oil. either raising the carbon content or forming nitrides in . Cyaniding consists of hardening in a bath of molten cyanide salt to form both carbides and nitrides.

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