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Engineering, term applied to the profession in which a knowledge of the mathematical and the materials and forces of nature. The term engineer properly denotes a person who has natural sciences, gained by study, experience, and practice, is applied to the efficient use of received professional training in pure and applied science, but is often loosely used to describe
the operator of an engine, as in the terms locomotive engineer, marine engineer, or stationary
engineer. In modern terminology these latter occupations are known as crafts or trades.
individuals known as subprofessionals or paraprofessionals, who apply scientific and inspectors, draftsmen, and the like.
Between the professional engineer and the craftsperson or tradesperson, however, are those engineering skills to technical problems; typical of these are engineering aides, technicians,
Before the middle of the 18th century, large-scale construction work was usually placed in the hands of military engineers. Military engineering involved such work as the preparation of topographical maps, the location, design, and construction of roads and bridges; and the
building of forts and docks; see Military Engineering below. In the 18th century, however, the term civil engineering came into use to describe engineering work that was performed by civilians for nonmilitary purposes. With the increasing use of machinery in the 19th century, engineering was similarly recognized.
mechanical engineering was recognized as a separate branch of engineering, and later mining
The technical advances of the 19th century greatly broadened the field of engineering and socioeconomic environment in the 20th century have widened the scope even further.
introduced a large number of engineering specialties, and the rapidly changing demands of the
FIELDS OF ENGINEERING
The main branches of engineering are discussed below in alphabetical order. The engineer who works in any of these fields usually requires a basic knowledge of the other engineering fields, because most engineering problems are complex and interrelated. Thus a chemical engineer designing a plant for the electrolytic refining of metal ores must deal with the design of structures, machinery, and electrical devices, as well as with purely chemical problems. Besides the principal branches discussed below, engineering includes many more specialties than can be described here, such as acoustical engineering (see Acoustics), architectural transportation engineering, and textile engineering. engineering (see Architecture: Construction), automotive engineering, ceramic engineering,
Aeronautical and Aerospace Engineering
Aeronautics deals with the whole field of design, manufacture, maintenance, testing, and use of aircraft for both civilian and military purposes. It involves the knowledge of aerodynamics, structural design, propulsion engines, navigation, communication, and other related areas.
See Airplane; Aviation.
Aerospace engineering is closely allied to aeronautics, but is concerned with the flight of
vehicles in space, beyond the earth's atmosphere, and includes the study and development of rocket engines, artificial satellites, and spacecraft for the exploration of outer space. See Space Exploration.
This branch of engineering is concerned with the design, construction, and management of factories in which the essential processes consist of chemical reactions. Because of the diversity of the materials dealt with, the practice, for more than 50 years, has been to analyze chemical engineering problems in terms of fundamental unit operations or unit processes such as the grinding or pulverizing of solids. It is the task of the chemical engineer to select and appropriate equipment for the new applications. specify the design that will best meet the particular requirements of production and the most
With the advance of technology, the number of unit operations increases, but of continuing
importance are distillation, crystallization, dissolution, filtration, and extraction. In each unit operation, engineers are concerned with four fundamentals: (1) the conservation of matter; (2) the conservation of energy; (3) the principles of chemical equilibrium; (4) the principles of chemical reactivity. In addition, chemical engineers must organize the unit operations in their continuous, or assembly-line, operation is more economical than a batch process, and is frequently amenable to automatic control, chemical engineers were among the first to incorporate automatic controls into their designs. correct sequence, and they must consider the economic cost of the overall process. Because a
Civil engineering is perhaps the broadest of the engineering fields, for it deals with the
creation, improvement, and protection of the communal environment, providing facilities for living, industry and transportation, including large buildings, roads, bridges, canals, railroad lines, airports, water-supply systems, dams, irrigation, harbors, docks, aqueducts, tunnels,
and other engineered constructions. The civil engineer must have a thorough knowledge of all types of surveying, of the properties and mechanics of construction materials, the mechanics of structures and soils, and of hydraulics and fluid mechanics. Among the important subdivisions of the field are construction engineering, irrigation engineering, transportation and coastal and ocean engineering.
engineering, soils and foundation engineering, geodetic engineering, hydraulic engineering,
Electrical and Electronics Engineering
The largest and most diverse field of engineering, it is concerned with the development and design, application, and manufacture of systems and devices that use electric power and signals. Among the most important subjects in the field in the late 1980s are electric power
and machinery, electronic circuits, control systems, computer design, superconductors, solidfiber optics.
state electronics, medical imaging systems, robotics, lasers, radar, consumer electronics, and
Despite its diversity, electrical engineering can be divided into four main branches: electric power and machinery, electronics, communications and control, and computers.
Electric Power and Machinery
The field of electric power is concerned with the design and operation of systems for
generating, transmitting, and distributing electric power. Engineers in this field have brought about several important developments since the late 1970s. One of these is the ability to transmit power at extremely high voltages in both the direct current (DC) and alternating
current (AC) modes, reducing power losses proportionately. Another is the real-time control of power generation, transmission, and distribution, using computers to analyze the data fed system while it is in operation. back from the power system to a central station and thereby optimizing the efficiency of the
A significant advance in the engineering of electric machinery has been the introduction of
electronic controls that enable AC motors to run at variable speeds by adjusting the frequency
passenger-actuated. capacitors. faster switching of components. micro-manipulators. systems are used extensively in aircraft and ships. signals. See also Mathematics. linear systems theory. and for correcting errors in digital information. as systems for keeping spacecraft on course. D2 Electronics Electronic engineering deals with the research. DC motors have also been made to run more efficiently this way. The complex electron-beam lithography. history. design. and demodulating radio signals to recover the information Prior to the 1960s. task of manufacturing these chips uses the most advanced technology. and three-dimensional integrated circuits. ion-beam implantation. to the exotic. Information is now generated. Control transmission and distribution. differential equations. there has been a revolutionary trend toward integrating electronic inductors. See also Electronics. in power Engineers have been working to bring about two revolutionary changes in the field of communications and control: Digital systems are replacing analog ones at the same time that . See also Electric Motors and Generators. and probability theory. Circuits are also used to generate waveforms useful for synchronization and timing. and in robotics. Much of the research in electronics is directed toward creating even smaller D3 Communications and Control Engineers in this field are concerned with all aspects of electrical communications. in automated manufacturing. and stored electronically on a scale unprecedented in unabated. and application of circuits and devices used in the transmission and processing of information. including computers. Matrix Theory and Linear Algebra. engineers rely heavily on various Engineers work on control systems ranging from the everyday. In designing communication systems. adding binary numbers.of the current fed into them. from fundamental questions such as “What is information?” to the highly practical. linear algebra. package. Electric Power Systems. circuits consisted of separate electronic devices—resistors. as in telecommunications. and vacuum tubes—assembled on a chassis and connected by wires to form a bulky devices on a single tiny chip of silicon or some other semiconductive material. and ultraclean chips. Since then. received. such as amplifying electronic they carry. in military fire-control systems. environments. complex variables. as in television. as those that run an elevator. such as design branches of advanced mathematics. and there is every indication that the explosive rate of growth in this field will continue Electronic engineers design circuits to perform specific tasks. integration. transmitted. Probability. such as Fourier analysis. of telephone systems.
The field of computer science is closely related to computer engineering. and geophysics. Fiber optics are likewise immune to interference. Using VLSI.). paleontology. and raw materials in industrial production. safety of human operators. labor. the task of making computers more “intelligent” (artificial intelligence. construction. development of higher level machine languages or other means. through creation of sophisticated programs or being in the realm of computer science. The mining engineer is trained in historical geology. and the most advantageous deployment of automatic . and marketing of crude minerals and mineral products. engineering geologist. Seismology). It is particularly important from the viewpoint of costs and economics of machinery.fiber optics are superseding copper cables. electrical noise. who is also responsible for determining whether the geological structure F Industrial or Management Engineering This field pertains to the efficient use of machinery. processing. is generally regarded as One current trend in computer engineering is microminiaturization. Digital systems offer far greater immunity to carrying capacity. they also have tremendous D4 Computers Virtually unknown just a few decades ago. however. computer engineering is now among the most rapidly growing fields. purification. production. E Geological and Mining Engineering This branch of engineering includes activities related to the discovery and exploration of mineral deposits and the financing. of central processing units. mineralogy. development. Another trend is toward increasing the speed of computer operations through use of parallel processors. The electronics of computers involve engineers in design and manufacture of memory systems. and the like. and are extremely light and inexpensive to manufacture. The employs such tools as the seismograph and the magnetometer for the location of ore or surveying and drawing of geological maps and sections is an important part of the work of the of a given location is suitable for the building of such large structures as dams. Foremost among the avenues now being pursued are the design of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) and new computer architectures. and petroleum deposits beneath the surface of the earth (see Petroleum. operation. engineers continue to work to squeeze greater and greater numbers of circuit elements onto smaller and smaller chips. superconducting materials. and of peripheral devices (see Computer). recovery.
and the body. work and energy. A mechanical engineer designs not only the machines that make products but the products themselves. ventilating. therefore. the wheels. heating. must be trained in mechanics. materials. which entails not only the design of the engine that drives the car but also all its attendant accessories such as the steering and braking systems. and thermodynamics and must be fully grounded in such subjects as metallurgy and machine design. mechanisms. hydraulics. and must design for both economy and efficiency.G Mechanical Engineering Engineers in this field design. including such details as the door latches and the type H Military Engineering . A typical example of the complexity of modern mechanical engineering is the design of an automobile. The mechanical engineer. the controls. the gearing by which the engine's power is delivered to of seat upholstery. they also work on a variety of manufactured goods and certain kinds of structures. and air conditioning. and pneumatics. and (2) heat as applied to engines. build. test. The field is divided into (1) machinery. Some mechanical engineers specialize in particular types of machines such as pumps or steam turbines. and operate machinery of all types. the lighting system. hydraulics.
and the I Naval or Marine Engineering . and airfields. It is generally divided into permanent land defense (see Fortification and Siege Warfare) and field engineering. military engineers also construct some public Military engineering has become an increasingly specialized science. and other communication. In war. development of guns and chemical engineering to the development of propellants.. army engineer battalions have been used to construct ports. which applies mechanical engineering to the Signal Corps. resulting in separate engineering subdisciplines such as ordnance.This branch is concerned with the application of the engineering sciences to military purposes. national monuments. radio.S. and dams (see Army Corps of Engineers). which applies electrical engineering to all problems of telegraph. depots. harbors. In the U. telephone. works.
such as the production of commercial power from the energy generated by nuclear reactions and the use of nuclear reactors for propulsion and of nuclear radiation to induce chemical and biological changes. The ships they design range in size from ocean-going supertankers as much as 1300 feet long to small tugboats that operate in rivers and bays. the marine engineer must choose a propulsion unit. stable. both mechanical and electrical. and must how ships move through water. nuclear engineers develop the special materials necessary to withstand the high . strong. In helping diesel engine or geared steam turbine.Engineers who have the overall responsibility for designing and supervising construction of ships are called naval architects. See also Ships and Shipbuilding. that bear directly on Marine engineering is a specialized branch of mechanical engineering devoted to the design and operation of systems. the naval architect design ships. ships must be designed and built so that they are safe. have a thorough grounding in applied sciences. needed to propel a ship. To accomplish this. such as a speed required. and architect must be familiar with the variety of techniques of modern shipbuilding. and the manner in which nuclear fission may find practical applications. as well as the projected costs of fuel and maintenance. In addition to designing nuclear reactors to yield specified amounts of power. the engineer must take into consideration how much the engine J Nuclear Engineering This branch of engineering is concerned with the design and construction of nuclear reactors and devices. such as fluid mechanics. a naval Regardless of size. that provides enough power to move the ship at the and fuel bunkers will weigh and how much space they will occupy. fast enough to perform the type of work intended for them. In doing so.
In recent years safety engineering has become a specialty adopted by individuals trained in other branches of engineering. and other fields concerned with the control of environmental factors affecting health. See Industrial Safety. L Sanitary Engineering This is a branch of civil engineering. The methods used for supplying communities Plumbing. Many large industrial and construction firms. and toxic materials in work areas. disposal of community wastes and reclamation of useful components of such wastes. and insurance companies engaged in the field of National Safety Council. rural and recreational-site sanitation. and to eliminate dangerous projecting parts. for example. including control of light. In the design of from accidental contact with the operator. and soils. Water Pollution. factories. See Nuclear Energy. control of atmospheric pollution. today maintain safety engineering departments.temperatures and concentrated bombardment of nuclear particles that accompany nuclear fission and fusion. Nuclear engineers also develop methods to shield people from the harmful materials. to put cutoff switches within reach of the operator. control of pollution of surface waterways. especially in dense urban-population areas. it has acquired the importance of a specialized field. known to result in traffic accidents. They also assist in designing machinery. It chiefly deals with problems involving water supply. operation. and roads. or construction that adopts (1) the formal process . workers compensation. Safety engineers develop methods and procedures to safeguard workers in hazardous occupations. See III MODERN ENGINEERING TRENDS Scientific methods of engineering are applied in several fields not connected directly to manufacture and construction. insect and vermin control. Sewage Disposal. groundwaters. Solid Waste Disposal. treatment. radiation produced by nuclear reactions and to ensure safe storage and disposal of fissionable K Safety Engineering This field of engineering has as its object the prevention of accidents. Modern engineering is characterized by the broad application of what is known as systems engineering principles. with pure water and for the disposal of sewage and other wastes are described separately. the safety engineer seeks to cover all moving parts or keep them suggesting alterations and improvements to reduce the likelihood of accident. and distribution. vibration. Water Supply and Waterworks. housing and institutional sanitation. ships. noise. In designing roads the safety engineer seeks to avoid such hazards as sharp turns and blind intersections. machinery. but because of its great importance for a healthy environment. milk and food sanitation. industrial hygiene. The systems approach is a methodology of decision-making in design.
A related field of engineering. and malfunctioning equipment. like doctors and lawyers. storing. using specialists from not only the various engineering disciplines. but also determination determine. founded in 1964 as a private organization. It is also concerned with setting up efficient and safe schedules. design failures. The National Academy of Engineering. but from legal. approach. human-factors engineering. . also known as ergonomics. Approvals by professionally licensed engineers are required for construction of public and commercial structures. are licensed by the state. (3) a formal sequence of procedure employing the In effect. especially installations where public and worker safety is a consideration. for example. efficient. encourages new research. Today. and is concerned with the relationship of engineering to society. Human-factors engineering seeks to establish criteria for the that monitor and govern nuclear reactor operations. transportation engineering in its broadest sense includes not only design of the traffic requirements of the route followed. and behavioral fields as well. or team. or a change in the muscular movements of the operator. (2) an interdisciplinary. This type of engineering work is called time-study engineering. received wide attention in the late 1970s and the '80s when the safety of nuclear reactors was questioned following serious accidents that were caused by operator errors. Engineers in industry work not only with machines but also with people. complicated control panels Among various recent trends in the engineering profession. therefore. among other things. often results in greatly increased production. Computers are increasingly used for solving complex problems as well as for handling. sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs. licensing and computerization are the most widespread. how machines can be operated most efficiently by the workers. principles of operations research. the large. The trend in modern engineering offices is overwhelmingly toward computerization. aesthetic.included in what is known as the scientific method. human-centered design of. and generating the enormous volume of data modern engineers must work with. social. A small change in the location of the controls of a machine or of its position with relation to other machines or equipment. to of the transportation system and building of its lines and rolling stock. many engineers. and the interaction of the system with the community and the environment.
For everyday phenomena. scientists reasoned that a cannonball falls down because its natural position is in the earth. however. He showed that the speed of falling objects increases steadily during the time of their fall. provided air friction (air resistance) is discounted. Regarding the size or weight of the moving object. velocity. Newton’s laws were superseded by Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity. Newton’s three laws of motion remain the cornerstone of dynamics. it contains one point. For example.Mechanics I INTRODUCTION Mechanics. If the object is large. . following the ideas of Greek philosopher and scientist Aristotle. called If the object is rotating. which is the study of what II KINETICS Kinetics is the description of motion without regard to what causes the motion. For atomic and subatomic particles. Modern descriptions of such behavior begin with a careful definition of such quantities as displacement (distance moved). miles per hour. acceleration. stars travel in circles around the earth because it is the nature of heavenly objects to travel in The Italian physicist and astronomer Galileo brought together the ideas of other great thinkers of his time and began to analyze motion in terms of distance traveled from some starting position and the time that it took. Acceleration may be measured in such units as meters per second per second or feet per second per second. the center of mass. however. Until about 400 years ago. it is frequently convenient to describe its rotation about an axis that goes through the center of mass. the moon. the sun. time. Velocity may be measured in such units as kilometers per hour. the motion of which can be described as characteristic of the whole object. mass. The English mathematician and physicist Sir Isaac Newton improved this analysis by defining force and mass and relating these to acceleration. Acceleration is defined as the time rate of change of velocity: the change of velocity divided by the time interval during the change. no mathematical problems are presented if the object is very small compared with the distances involved. and the perfect circles. and force. causes motion. motion was explained from a very different point of view. This acceleration is the same for heavy objects as for light ones. For objects traveling at speeds close to the speed of light. Velocity (the time rate of change of position) is defined as the distance traveled divided by the time interval. branch of physics concerning the motions of objects and their response to forces. or meters per second. Newton’s laws were superseded by quantum theory.
a (uninfluenced by air friction) near the surface of the earth undergoes constant acceleration. The magnitude of velocity is called speed. t. r. for example. the instantaneous velocity at time. In the simplest case. or “t squared. v.6 m (64 ft) and would have a speed of Circular motion is another simple type of motion. traveled at constant d = vt In the second special type of motion. must be defined. d. starting with zero velocity ( v = 0) at t = 0. for example.8 m/sec/sec (32 ft/sec/sec). If an object has constant speed but an acceleration always at right angles to its velocity. v. velocity may be constant. in point). If velocity. in a circle of radius. With constant velocity. or the velocity at a given instant. the centripetal acceleration is acceleration is directed toward the center of the circle and is called centripetal acceleration Another simple type of motion that is frequently observed occurs when a ball is thrown at an angle into the air. is measured with a clock starting at t = 0. First.To fully describe the motion of an object. the ball would have fallen 19. Because the velocity is changing. At the end of the first second. a. time. is v = at The distance traveled during this time is d = at2 An important feature revealed in this equation is the dependence of distance on the square of the time (t2.8 m/sec (32 ft/sec). acceleration is constant. it will travel in a circle. Meanwhile the horizontal component of the original velocity remains . the ball undergoes a constant downward acceleration that first slows its original upward speed and then increases its downward speed as it falls back to earth. the direction of the displacement must be given. in degrees of arc from a reference Several special types of motion are easily described. has both magnitude (a scalar quantity measured. for example. meters per second) and direction (measured. the velocity might be zero. then the distance. t. For an object traveling at speed. Because of gravitation. Velocity. is equal to the product of velocity and time.” is the short way of notating t × t). At the 19.6 m/sec (64 ft/sec). In ball would have fallen 4. For constant acceleration. end of the second second. position would not change during the time interval.9 m (16 ft) and would have a speed of 9. instantaneous velocity. The required (see Centripetal Force). A heavy object falling freely this case the acceleration is 9. the average velocity is equal to the velocity at any particular time.
the stretch is proportional to the force effects.constant (ignoring air resistance). The resulting path of the ball is in the III DYNAMICS To understand why and how objects accelerate. For F = kx where k is a constant that depends on the nature of the spring material and its dimensions. x. The vertical and horizontal components of the motion are shape of a parabola. independent. making the ball travel at a constant speed in the horizontal direction until it hits the earth. a force is just a push or a pull. The measure the amplitude of a force: the greater the force. and they can be analyzed separately. At the intuitive level. See Ballistics. the greater the stretch. which can in turn be used to many springs. IV VECTORS . over a limited range. It can be measured in terms of either of two first effect can be used in the calibration of a spring scale. force and mass must be defined. A force can either distort something. or accelerate an object. such as a spring. F.
Without any . If. the object does not necessarily have zero velocity. The net force is zero. the torque would be zero. For equilibrium to exist it is also necessary that the sum of the torques about any axis A torque is the product of a force and the perpendicular distance to a turning axis. This condition is necessary for equilibrium. a torque is produced. however. the clockwise torques about any axis must be canceled by the counterclockwise torques about that axis. all the horizontal components of the force must cancel one another. they cancel for all axes. repulsion of the tabletop. For an object to be in equilibrium. See Vector. For example. When calculating V TORQUE For equilibrium. one could prove that if the torques cancel for any particular axis. edge on). a maximum torque is created. the net force on it must be zero. then the object will remain at rest or remain moving at constant velocity. When a force is applied to a heavy door to open it.If an object is motionless. and all the vertical components must cancel one another as well. one hand is near the top of the book and the other hand near the bottom. If the door were VI NEWTON’S THREE LAWS OF MOTION Newton’s first law of motion states that if the vector sum of the forces acting on an object is zero. the book is in equilibrium. its side. if a person stands a book up on a table and pushes on the book equally hard with one hand in one direction and with the other hand in the other direction. the torque would be only half of its previous magnitude. If the force were applied parallel to the door (that is. the force is exerted perpendicularly to the door and shoved with the same force at a point halfway between handle and hinge. A book lying on a table is being pulled down by the earth’s gravitational attraction and is being pushed up by the molecular the net force. Therefore. and the book will fall on be zero. the book will remain motionless if the person’s hands are opposite each other. at the greatest distance from the hinges. but not sufficient. Thus. If the force exerted on an object is zero. it is necessary to add the forces as vectors. (The net result is that the book is being squeezed).
The proportionality constant is the mass. The acceleration will be proportional to the magnitude of the the object. an object in motion will continue to travel at constant velocity. It is surprising and profound that the inertial property and the reluctance to change velocity). A massive object will require a greater force for a given acceleration than a small. of F = ma In the International System of Units (also known as SI.forces acting on it. is also a measure of the gravitational attraction that the object gravitational property are determined by the same thing. a. Mass is measured in kilograms. light object. A net force on an object will accelerate it—that is. What is remarkable is that mass. force. m. is measured in meters per second per second. is that it is impossible to distinguish at a point whether the point is in a gravitational field or in B Friction .2248 lb. after the initials of Système International). Einstein made this one of the cornerstones of his general theory of relativity. F. which is the currently accepted theory of gravitation. including friction. change its velocity. which is a measure of the inertia of an object (inertia is its exerts on other objects. force and in the same direction as the force. A The Second Law Newton’s second law relates net force and acceleration. this is equivalent to about 0. The implication of this phenomenon an accelerated frame of reference. A newton is defined as the force necessary to impart to a mass of 1 kg an acceleration of 1 m/sec/sec. in newtons. acceleration.
the friction force does not depend on the apparent area of contact between an object and microscopic bumps on the object and sliding surface are actually touching each other—is relatively small. As the object moves across the sliding surface. add to The left side of the equation is simply the net effective force. When an object moves through a liquid. the downward vertical component of the force will. in effect.Friction acts like a force applied in the direction opposite to an object’s velocity. however. The friction force is proportional to the total perpendicular force. Newton’s second law is expanded to to the horizontal. For dry sliding friction. the area where the Also. (Acceleration will be constant in the direction of the effective force). the friction force is almost independent of velocity. however. If the object is pushed at an angle the weight of the object. the surface upon which it slides. the tiny bumps on the object and sliding surface collide. Newton’s second law then becomes water or air (at subsonic speeds). the magnitude of the friction depends on the velocity. For most human-size objects moving in speed. and force is required to move the bumps past each other. The actual contact area depends on the perpendicular force between the object and sliding surface. where no lubrication is present. Frequently this force is just the weight of the sliding object. The actual contact area—that is. the resulting friction is proportional to the square of the . Where friction is present.
the product of the large mass and small velocity of the adult must equal the product of the small mass and large velocity of the child. and thus the initial momentum of the system is zero. Another conserved quantity of great importance is angular (rotational) momentum. k. Therefore. and depends on the area of contact between the two surfaces and the degree of streamlining of the moving object. The angular momentum of a rotating object depends on its speed of rotation. thus decreasing their distance from the axis of rotation. in addition to the force the adult imparts on the child. Because the mass of the adult is larger. At the start of the skater’s arms are lowered. When a skater standing on a friction-free point spins faster and faster. As the . thus adding to zero. the momentum of the system must remain zero. the rotational speed must increase in order to maintain constant angular momentum. is characteristic of the two materials that are sliding past each other. During the interaction. a large adult gently shoves away a child on a skating rink. Newton’s third law also requires the conservation of momentum. angular momentum is conserved despite the increasing speed. C The Third Law Newton’s third law of motion states that an object experiences a force because it is interacting with some other object. with no external forces acting on it. For an isolated system. and the distance of the mass from the axis. In the example of the adult and child on the skating rink. spin. its mass. The force that object 1 exerts on object 2 must be of the same magnitude but in the opposite direction as the force that object 2 exerts on object 1. their initial velocities are zero. however. internal forces are at work between adult and child. for example.The proportionality constant. the acceleration of the adult will be smaller. or the product of mass and velocity. the momentum must remain constant. If. The momenta are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. the skater’s arms are outstretched. After the adult pushes the child away. Part of the mass is therefore at a large radius. but net external forces equal zero. the child imparts an equal but oppositely directed force on the adult.
the energy to another. In all transformations from one kind of to raise it.VII ENERGY The quantity called energy ties together all branches of physics. if work is done on a rubber ball gravitational potential energy is transformed to kinetic energy. for example. When a force is exerted on an object but the force does not cause the object to move. compressed gases. thermal energy. This friction is transformed into heat. joules. it becomes distorted and thereby creates friction between the molecules of the ball material. energy has been stored in the form of gravitational potential energy. or foot-pounds. When the ball hits the ground. energy stored in stretched springs. In the field of mechanics. its gravitational potential energy is increased. Many other forms of energy exist: electric and magnetic potential energy. or thermal energy. the total energy is conserved. If work is done lifting an object to a greater height. or molecular bonds. If the ball is then dropped. work is defined as the product of force and the distance an object moves in the direction of the force. . energy must be provided to do work. For instance. Energy and work are both measured in the same units—ergs. kinetic energy. and mass itself. no work is done.
Friction allows car tires to grip and roll . reducing the engine’s efficiency. it hinders a process. such as ice. In cases involving fluid friction. The strength of frictional force depends on the nature of the surfaces that are in contact and the force pushing them together. such as a refrigerator or bookcase. water. In other cases. the force depends upon the shape and speed Friction occurs to some degree in almost all situations involving physical objects. Friction results from two surfaces rubbing against each other or moving relative to one another. In many cases. friction between the moving parts of an engine resists the engine’s motion and turns energy into heat. along the ground. object or objects.Friction I INTRODUCTION Friction. such as in a running automobile engine. This force is usually related to the weight of the of an object as it moves through air. Friction between people’s shoes and the ground allows people to walk by pushing off the ground without slipping. On a slick surface. It can hinder the motion of an object or prevent an object from moving at all. For example. force that opposes the motion of an object when the object is in contact with another object or surface. making walking difficult. or other fluid. shoes slip and slide instead of gripping because of the lack of friction. Friction also makes it difficult to slide a heavy object. friction is helpful.
along the road without skidding. Friction between nails and beams prevents the nails from Sliding out and keeps buildings standing.
When friction affects a moving object, it turns the object’s kinetic energy, or energy of motion, into heat. People welcome the heat caused by friction when rubbing their hands together to stay warm. Frictional heat is not so welcome when it damages machine parts, such as car brakes.
CAUSES OF FRICTION
Friction occurs in part because rough surfaces tend to catch on one another as they slide past each other. Even surfaces that are apparently smooth can be rough at the microscopic level. of the other, effectively creating a type of mechanical bond, or glue, between the surfaces. Two surfaces in contact also tend to attract one another at the molecular level, forming They have many ridges and grooves. The ridges of each surface can get stuck in the grooves
chemical bonds (see Chemistry). These bonds can prevent an object from moving, even when it is pushed. If an object is in motion, these bonds form and release. Making and breaking the bonds takes energy away from the motion of the object.
Scientists do not yet fully understand the details of how friction works, but through
experiments they have found a way to describe frictional forces in a wide variety of situations. The force of friction between an object and a surface is equal to a constant number times the force the object exerts directly on the surface. The constant number is called the coefficient of
friction for the two materials and is abbreviated µ. The force the object exerts directly on the
increasing the amount of force increases the amount of contact that the object has with the calculated from the following formula:
surface is called the normal force and is abbreviated N. Friction depends on this force because surface at the microscopic level. The force of friction between an object and a surface can be
In this equation, F is the force of friction, µ is the coefficient of friction between the object and the surface, and N is the normal force.
Scientists have measured the coefficient of friction for many combinations of materials.
Coefficients of friction depend on whether the objects are initially moving or stationary and on the types of material involved. The coefficient of friction for rubber sliding on concrete is 0.8 (relatively high), while the coefficient for Teflon sliding on steel is 0.04 (relatively low).
The normal force is the force the object exerts perpendicular to the surface. In the case of a level surface, the normal force is equal to the weight of the object. If the surface is inclined, only a fraction of the object’s weight pushes directly into the surface, so the normal force is less than the object’s weight.
KINDS OF FRICTION
Different kinds of motion give rise to different types of friction between objects. Static friction occurs between stationary objects, while sliding friction occurs between objects as they slide against each other. Other types of friction include rolling friction and fluid friction. The coefficient of friction for two materials may differ depending on the type of friction involved. Static friction prevents an object from moving against a surface. It is the force that keeps a up an object without the object slipping through your fingers. In order to move something, you must first overcome the force of static friction between the object and the surface on
book from sliding off a desk, even when the desk is slightly tilted, and that allows you to pick
which it is resting. This force depends on the coefficient of static friction (µs) between the object and the surface and the normal force (N) of the object.
A book sliding off a desk or brakes slowing down a wheel are both examples of sliding friction, It prevents the book or wheel from moving as fast as it would without friction. When sliding friction is acting, another force must be present to keep an object moving. In the case of a book sliding off a desk, this force is gravity. The force of kinetic friction depends on the
also called kinetic friction. Sliding friction acts in the direction opposite the direction of motion.
coefficient of kinetic friction between the object and the surface on which it is moving (µk) and the normal force (N) of the object. For any pair of objects, the coefficient of kinetic friction is book sliding than it does to keep the book sliding. usually less than the coefficient of static friction. This means that it takes more force to start a
Rolling friction hinders the motion of an object rolling along a surface. Rolling friction slows rolling along the ground. Another force must be present to keep an object rolling. For
down a ball rolling on a basketball court or softball field, and it slows down the motion of a tire example, a pedaling bicyclist provides the force necessary to the keep a bike in motion. Rolling friction depends on the coefficient of rolling friction between the two materials (µr) and the normal force (N) of the object. The coefficient of rolling friction is usually about that of than they will slide along it.
sliding friction. Wheels and other round objects will roll along the ground much more easily
Metals, group of chemical elements that exhibit all or most of the following physical qualities: they are solid at ordinary temperatures; opaque, except in extremely thin films; good electrical and thermal conductors (see Conductor, Electrical); lustrous when polished; and
have a crystalline structure when in the solid state. Metals and nonmetals are separated in the periodic table by a diagonal line of elements. Elements to the left of this diagonal are metals, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, polonium, and astatine—have both metallic and nonmetallic properties (see Periodic Law). The common metallic elements include the cobalt, copper, gold, iridium, iron, lead, lithium, magnesium, manganese, mercury, following: aluminum, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, chromium, molybdenum, nickel, osmium, palladium, platinum, potassium, radium, rhodium, silver, and elements to the right are nonmetals. Elements that make up this diagonal—boron, silicon,
sodium, tantalum, thallium, thorium, tin, titanium, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. Metallic elements can combine with one another and with certain other elements, either as compounds, as solutions, or as intimate mixtures. A substance composed of two or more alloys. Alloys of mercury with other metallic elements are known as amalgams.
metals, or a substance composed of a metal and certain nonmetals such as carbon are called
Within the general limits of the definition of a metal, the properties of metals vary widely. Most metals are grayish in color, but bismuth is pinkish, copper is red, and gold is yellow. Some metals display more than one color, a phenomenon called pleochroism. The melting
points of metals range from about -39° C (about -38° F) for mercury to 3410° C (6170° F) for tungsten. Osmium and iridium (specific gravity 22.6) are the most dense metals, and lithium (specific gravity 0.53) is the least dense. The majority of metals crystallize in the cubic system, but some crystallize in the hexagonal and tetragonal systems (see Crystal). Bismuth has the lowest electrical conductivity of the metallic elements, and silver the highest at ordinary temperatures. (For conductivity at low temperatures, see Cryogenics;
Superconductivity.) The conductivity of most metals can be lowered by alloying. All metals expand when heated and contract when cooled, but certain alloys, such as platinum and iridium alloys, have extremely low coefficients of expansion.
Metals are generally very strong and resistant to different types of stresses. Though there is considerable variation from one metal to the next, in general metals are marked by such the resistance to breakage; elasticity, the ability to return to the original shape after properties as hardness, the resistance to surface deformation or abrasion; tensile strength, deformation; malleability, the ability to be shaped by hammering; fatigue resistance, the breaking. See Materials Science and Technology.
ability to resist repeated stresses; and ductility, the ability to undergo deformation without
Metals typically have positive valences in most of their compounds, which means they tend to donate electrons to the atoms to which they bond. Also, metals tend to form basic oxides. Typical nonmetallic elements, such as nitrogen, sulfur, and chlorine, have negative valences in most of their compounds—meaning they tend to accept electrons—and form acidic oxides (see Acids and Bases; Chemical Reaction).
Metals typically have low ionization potentials. This means that metals react easily by loss of carbonates, for example) by serving as reducing agents (electron donors).
electrons to form positive ions, or cations. Thus, metals can form salts (chlorides, sulfides, and
In early attempts to explain the electronic configurations of the metals, scientists cited the consist of ionized atoms in which the free electrons form a homogeneous sea of negative
characteristics of high thermal and electrical conductivity in support of a theory that metals charge. The electrostatic attraction between the positive metal ions and the free-moving and atoms. Free movement of the electrons was then held to be responsible for the high thermal then have higher specific heats than they do.
homogeneous sea of electrons was thought to be responsible for the bonds between the metal and electrical conductivities. The principal objection to this theory was that the metals should
In 1928 the German physicist Arnold Sommerfeld proposed that the electrons in metals exist in a quantized arrangement in which low energy levels available to the electrons are almost fully occupied (see Atom; Quantum Theory). In the same year the Swiss-American physicist Felix Bloch and later the French physicist Louis Brillouin used this idea of quantization in the currently accepted “band” theory of bonding in metallic solids.
According to the band theory, any given metal atom has only a limited number of valence among individual atoms is therefore required. This sharing of electrons is accomplished
electrons with which to bond to all of its nearest neighbors. Extensive sharing of electrons through overlap of equivalent-energy atomic orbitals on the metal atoms that are immediately adjacent to one another. This overlap is delocalized throughout the entire metal sample to form extensive orbitals that span the entire solid rather than being part of individual atoms. Each of these orbitals lies at different energies because the atomic orbitals from which they were constructed were at different energies to begin with. The orbitals, equal in number to the number of individual atomic orbitals that have been combined, each hold two electrons, and are filled in order from lowest to highest energy until the number of available electrons has
been used up. Groups of electrons are then said to reside in bands, which are collections of that band; in some metals, there are energy gaps between bands, meaning that there are
orbitals. Each band has a range of energy values that the electrons must possess to be part of certain energies that the electrons cannot possess. The highest energy band in a metal is not filled with electrons because metals characteristically possess too few electrons to fill it. The may be promoted by absorption of thermal energy into these unfilled energy levels of the band. high thermal electrical conductivities of metals is then explained by the notion that electrons
Objects moving through a fluid experience fluid friction, or drag. Drag acts between the object and the fluid and hinders the motion of the object. The force of drag depends upon the object’s shape, material, and speed, as well as the fluid’s viscosity. Viscosity is a measure of a fluid’s resistance to flow. It results from the friction that occurs between the fluid’s molecules, and it differs depending on the type of fluid. Drag slows down airplanes flying through the air and fish swimming through water. An airplane’s engines help it overcome drag and travel forward, while a fish uses its muscles to overcome drag and swim. Calculating the force of
drag is much more complicated than calculating other types of friction. (see Aerodynamics)
EFFECTS OF FRICTION
Friction helps people convert one form of motion into another. For example, when people
walk, friction allows them to convert a push backward along the ground into forward motion. Similarly, when car or bicycle tires push backward along the ground, friction with the ground makes the tires roll forward. Friction allows us to push and slide objects along the ground without our shoes slipping along the ground in the opposite direction.
While friction allows us to convert one form of motion to another, it also converts some energy into heat, noise, and wear and tear on material. Losing energy to these effects often reduces the efficiency of a machine. For example, a cyclist uses friction between shoes and pedals, the
chain and gears, and the bicycle’s tires and the road to make the bicycle move forward. At the the cyclist and the air all resist the cyclist’s motion. As the cyclist pedals, friction converts
same time, friction between the chain and gears, between the tires and the road, and between some of the cyclist’s energy into heat, noise, and wear and tear on the bicycle. This energy of the energy in the fuel into heat, noise, and wear and tear on the engine’s parts. Excess engines makes it necessary to periodically replace some parts.
loss reduces the efficiency of the bicycle. In automobiles and airplanes, friction converts some frictional heat can damage an engine and braking system. The wearing away of material in
Sometimes the heat that friction produces is useful. When a person strikes a match against a
rough surface, friction produces a large amount of heat on the head of the match and triggers the chemical process of burning. Static friction, which prevents motion, does not create heat.
Reducing the amount of friction in a machine increases the machine’s efficiency. Less friction methods to reduce friction. The first method involves reducing the roughness of the surfaces
means less energy lost to heat, noise, and wearing down of material. People normally use two in contact. For example, sanding two pieces of wood lessens the amount of friction that occurs between them when they slide against one another. Teflon creates very little friction because it is so smooth.
Applying a lubricant to a surface can also reduce friction. Common examples of lubricants are oil and grease. They reduce friction by minimizing the contact between rough surfaces. The between the surfaces. Lubricants such as machine oil reduce the amount of energy lost to lubricant’s particles slide easily against each other and cause far less friction than would occur frictional heating and reduce the wear damage to the machine surfaces caused by friction.
Two other simple machines. the wheel and axle. the work requires less force. consisting of a ramp or a similar wedge-shaped device. are really alternate forms of the inclined plane. Some jacks that are used to lift II WORK AND MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE An inclined plane makes doing work easier by changing both the direction and the amount of effort that are used to lift an object. An inclined plane makes it easier to lift heavy objects by enabling a person to apply the necessary force over a greater distance. Work. less effort than climbing straight up a ladder would require. that moves an object over a distance. A sharp knife is an everyday example of a wedge. . an inclined plane allows a person to lift an object gradually (at an angle) applied to an object multiplied by the distance over which the force is applied. One of the most common examples of an inclined plane is a staircase. and the pulley). and the distance corresponds to the distance the object is lifted. the force needed is the effort required to lift the object. simple machine.Inclined Plane I INTRODUCTION Inclined Plane. is defined as the amount of force this can be expressed by the following equation: Work = Force x Distance When lifting an object is the work being done. that makes doing a given amount of work easier. In physical terms. work is the result of a force. which allows people to move within a building from one floor to another with cars use threaded screws. but because the inclined plane increases the distance over The inclined plane is one of the four simple machines (along with the lever. Mathematically. The same amount of work is accomplished in lifting the object which the force is applied. such as the effort of pushing or pulling something. with or without the inclined plane. Rather than lifting an object straight up. the screw and the wedge. in physics.
The actual MA of a machine is less than the theoretical MA because of friction. Increasing the ratio of the length of the ramp to the height of the ramp decreases the effort needed to lift an object. In this case. There are two kinds of MA: theoretical and actual. Walking up an inclined plane or rolling a load (such as a barrel) up a plane creates little friction. or that the user needs to apply only half as much effort to lift an object to a desired height as he or she would without the ramp. lose some of their MA to friction. The longer the inclined plane. like Friction is a phenomenon that reduces the efficiency of all machines. this allows heavy loads to be lifted with a small amount of effort. and the actual MA is close to the theoretical MA. By increasing distance. The MA of an inclined plane without any friction is equal to the length of the plane divided by the height of the plane. Screws are often used to raise objects. a resistance created between objects when they move against each other. and raises the automobile. which is placed under a vehicle. and some jacks used to lift automobiles rely on screws. A screw is an inclined plane wrapped around an axis. be. the ramp would simply run straight up. Theoretical MA is the MA a machine would have if it were perfect. The mechanical advantage (MA) of an inclined plane measures how much the plane magnifies the effort applied to the machine. A ramp that is twice as long as it is high has a mechanical advantage of 2.over a greater distance. the mechanical advantage would be 1. A jack has a large screw attached to a small platform. Wheels can be added to the load to decrease friction. People also frequently build inclined planes with small rollers or casters built into the plane to reduce friction. Friction makes the process of moving objects. which means the ramp did not magnify the user’s effort. around the axis. III MODIFIED INCLINED PLANES The screw and the wedge are common adaptations of the inclined plane. The edge of the inclined plane forms a helix. or pole. All machines. and therefore doing work. sliding a load (especially a flat load such as a crate) up a plane creates friction and causes the plane to lose much of its MA. the inclined plane decreases the amount of force needed to do the same amount of work without the plane. or spiral. which equates with effort applied over a long distance. the larger the MA will a vertical ladder. Since the pitch is generally small compared to the circumference. This idea explains why climbing up a steep hill takes more effort (and seems more difficult) than walking up a longer. If the length of a ramp was equal to its height. The mechanical advantage of a screw is related to the circumference of the screw divided by the pitch of the threads. This means that the ramp doubles the effort applied by the user. large mechanical advantages can be achieved by using screws. however. more gradual path to the same height as that of the steep hill. The pitch of a thread is the distance along the axis of the screw from one thread to the next. However. The screw requires a lot of turning. more difficult. Turning the screw many times produces a small amount of vertical lift on the platform. Screws are also .
Evidence from drawings of that time indicates People used wedges in ancient times to split wood. People also used wooden wedges in prehistoric times to split rocks. The bottom end of the cylinder is set in water. from about 2700 that the Egyptians used a lubricant. Effort is applied directly to the wedge. They placed dry wooden wedges into cracks in rocks and then allowed the wedges to swell by absorbing water.useful as fastening devices. There are indications that the Egyptians created earthen ramps to raise huge blocks of stone during the construction of the pyramids. A person walking up a gradual path to the top of a mountain rather than climbing straight up a steep face is taking advantage of the principle of the inclined plane. The wedge shape of the knife edge helps the user cut through material. . Wedges transfer downward effort applied to the blunt edge of the where two planes are joined at their bases. transferring the force they applied to the blunt edge out to the sides of the wedge. the mechanical advantage of a wedge is difficult to determine. where the effort travels along the plane. These devices use friction to hold things together. threaded nuts and bolts take advantage of the friction that results from the contact between A wedge is another form of inclined plane. This principle is still used in some pumps today. to reduce the sliding friction and thus increase the efficiency of the inclined planes. The main benefit of the wedge is changing the direction of effort to help split or cut through an object. Screws driven straight into wood or other materials. The resulting pressure in the cracks caused the rocks to split. narrows down to a tip. probably milk. as well as the inclined plane and other objects. which differs from an inclined plane. IV HISTORY The inclined plane is undoubtedly one of the first of the simple machines people ever used. It consists of a cylinder with a wide-threaded screw inside. Screws were used in ancient times as lifting devices. The joined inclined planes form a blunt end that wedge out to the sides of the wedge to help it cut through an object. A knife is also a form of wedge. Historians believe that Greek inventor Archimedes (287-212 BC) invented a screw-type device (known as Archimedes’ screw) for raising water. A wedge is essentially a double inclined plane. BC to 1000 BC. Since there is much friction involved. and turning the screw lifts water up the cylinder to a higher level. Wedges are often used to split materials such as wood or stone.
CAM engineers similarly use computer modeling to determine the best overall manufacturing procedures for use in an industrial plant. Engineers use CAD and CAM together to create the design in CAD on one computer. CAD is software for creating precise engineering drawings. it is much more efficient to change and distribute drawings by computer. II COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN Engineers use CAD to create two. including ease of production and cost. The first two steps in . CAM adds a computer to a machine tool. Designers manipulate and test these models on video display screens until information is then combined with CAM procedures through shared databases. Today. floor plans. then transmit the design to a second computer that creates the part using CAM. such as those for automobile and airplane parts. including the testing and handling of finished products. In the design stage. The CAD possible to perform the six-step "art-to-part" process with a computer. the application of computers in the design and manufacture of components used in the production of items such as automobiles and jet engines. such as a drill or a lathe.Computer-Aided Design/ComputerAided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) I INTRODUCTION Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM). and maps. it is this process are the use of sketching software to capture the initial design ideas and to they incorporate the best balance of features. drafting and computer graphics techniques are combined to produce models of objects. While it may be faster for an engineer to create an initial drawing by hand.and three-dimensional drawings.
which removes gouges. CAM software selects the best cutting tools for the material and sets the most effective cutting speed. The tool's path has three stages: the containment area. or model. and cleans up the part. Since the the CAD software programs instead of through shared databases mid-1980s CAD and CAM have come closer together. Next. produces a smooth finish. and polishing. as some CAM software operates within . plastic stencil. much as print preview in a word- processing program displays a page before it is printed. which removes large areas of material. such as the ink pen. drilling. expensive computers. the rough cut. plastic. Step five is the production of a prototype. that shows how the tool will cut the material. and electric eraser. beyond which the tool may not cut. called a toolpath display. III COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING CAM uses a computer to control the manufacture of objects such as parts. He designed CAD to replace the traditional drafting board and software ran on large. The software generates an image. engineers use analysis software to ensure that the part is strong enough. engineers can run CAD software on personal computers or UNIX workstations. and the surface finish cut. Early CAD The earliest CAM software was a simple computer attached to a milling machine. Today. or wood. which are most often made of metal. Massachusetts. The manufacturing operations may include milling. Punching buttons on the computer’s front panel programmed the software for the machine. IV HISTORY American Ivan Sutherland invented CAD in 1961 when he described a computerized sketchpad in a doctoral thesis while attending the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge. The third step is rendering an accurate image of what the part will look like. other tools drafters used.produce accurate engineering drawings. lathing. In the final step the CAM software controls the machine that produces the part.
The word that humans find difficult or undesirable. As the engine steam to the engine was decreased.Robot I INTRODUCTION Robot. and accomplish work while interacting with its environment. As the water rises. also appeared in the clockwork figures of creatures. An example of feedback control is a watering trough that uses a float to sense the water level. These machines. This device featured two metal balls connected to the drive shaft of a speed increased. and releases more water into the trough. meaning “compulsory labor. thus regulating the speed. and accurately than humans. computer-controlled machine that is programmed to move. or manlike machines. specialized machines were developed for tasks such as placing caps on bottles or pouring liquid rubber into tire not reach for objects and place them in a desired location. had none of the versatility of the human arm.U. however. and 18th-century watchmakers were famous for their clever mechanical Feedback (self-correcting) control mechanisms were used in some of the earliest robots and are still in use today. When the water falls past a certain level. and the division of work into smaller automation of factories in the 18th century. medieval churches. opens a valve. tasks that could be performed by either workers or machines were essential ingredients in the molds. the development of specialized tools. Automata.R. The term robot originates from the robot has been used since to refer to a machine that performs work to assist people or work II HISTORY The concept of automated machines dates to antiquity with myths of mechanical beings brought to life. the float drops. manipulate objects. closing the valve. The flow of Feedback control.” It was first used in the 1921 play R. As technology improved. invented in 1788 by the Scottish steam engine and also coupled to a valve that regulated the flow of steam. so does the float. tasks more quickly. engineer James Watt. the balls swung out due to centrifugal force. The first true feedback controller was the Watt governor. Robots are able to perform repetitive Czech word robota. When the float reaches a certain height. (Rossum's Universal Robots) by the Czech novelist and playwright Karel Capek. the valve is closed and the water is shut off. cheaply. they could .
. developed a truly flexible multipurpose manipulator known as the Programmable Universal Manipulation Arm (PUMA).. PUMA was capable of moving an object and placing it with any orientation in a for most contemporary robots. the gripper is moved from one position to another.The development of the multijointed artificial arm. are designed to mimic the grippers to grasp particular devices such as a rack of test tubes or an arc-welder. in 1954. or end effectors. while a graduate student at Stanford University in California. desired location within its reach. or manipulator. Robot arms also can be constructed so that they bend like an elephant trunk. changing its orientation. The basic multijointed concept of the PUMA is the template III HOW ROBOTS WORK The inspiration for the design of a robot manipulator is the human arm. by sliding cylindrical sections one over another to lengthen the arm. but with some differences. function and structure of the human hand. Grippers. In 1975 the American mechanical engineer Victor Scheinman. led to the modern robot. For example. a robot arm can extend by telescoping—that is. In most robots. Many robots are equipped with special purpose The joints of a robotic arm are usually driven by electric motors. A primitive arm that could be programmed to perform specific tasks was developed by the American inventor George Devol. Jr. A computer calculates the joint angles needed to move the gripper to the desired position in a process known as inverse kinematics.
and about 60. such as ultrasonic or infrared sensors. Robots can perform these repetitive. Any robot designed to move in an unstructured or unknown environment will require multiple sensors and controls. require a multitude of sensors and powerful onboard computers to process the complex information that allows them mobility.000 in Western Europe.000 were used in Japan. Many robot applications are for tasks that are either dangerous or unpleasant for human beings. This is particularly true for robots designed to work in close proximity meals in a hospital. robots are used in repetitive.000 robots were operating in the industrialized world. monotonous tasks in which human performance might degrade over time. Safety must be integral to the design of human service robots. high- . Controllers and associated computers also must process sensor information collected from cameras that locate objects to be grasped. Over 500. controllers that receive input to the controller. Robots. In other cases. robots handle potentially hazardous materials. such as blood or urine samples.Some multijointed arms are equipped with servo.000 in the United States. Each joint in the arm has a device to measure its angle and send that value computed angle. If the actual angle of the arm does not equal the computed angle for the desired position. such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) planetary rovers. to avoid obstacles. or feedback. about 120. such as robots that assist persons with disabilities and robots that deliver IV USES FOR ROBOTS In 1995 about 700. with human beings. or they must touch sensors on grippers that regulate the grasping force. the servo controller moves the joint until the arm's angle matches the from a computer. In medical laboratories.
robots can explore distant planets. prospecting for underwater mineral deposits. Assembly is one of the painting and depends on low-cost sensor systems and powerful inexpensive computers. Similarly. under the remote control of expert surgeons that may one day perform operations in distant battlefields. cleanup of nuclear waste. and very high-precision uses robots. Robots are used in electronic assembly where they mount microchips on circuit boards. painting. and active volcano exploration. traveled to Jupiter in 1996 and performed tasks such as determining the chemical content of the Jovian atmosphere. such as locating sunken ships. NASA's Galileo. parts transfer. particularly on assembly lines in factories. Robots are being used to assist surgeons in installing artificial hips. jobs are created in software and sensor development. But robots can cause the loss of unskilled jobs. an unpiloted space probe. New and in the conversion of old factories and the design of new ones. industry. . machine loading. General Motors Corporation uses approximately 16.000 robots for tasks such as spot fastest growing industrial applications of robotics. and assembly. are ideally suited to robots.precision operations 24 hours a day without fatigue. Research in telesurgery V IMPACT OF ROBOTS Robotic manipulators create manufactured products that are of higher quality and lower cost. A major user of robots is the automobile welding. These new jobs. robots can assist surgeons with delicate operations on the human eye. in robot installation and maintenance. however. It requires higher precision than welding or Activities in environments that pose great danger to humans.
Technologically oriented societies must face the task can be employable in the industries of the 21st century. Increasingly. clean underground pipelines. the management of a battlefield. of retraining workers who lose jobs to automation. vessels to deliver medicine or clean arterial blockages. or the control of a large factory will be performed by intelligent computers. One important trend is the development of microelectromechanical systems.require higher levels of skill and training. Prototypes of systems to perform all of these tasks already exist. the maintenance of the world's infrastructure. construct steel frameworks of buildings. ranging in size from centimeters to millimeters. and machines are being developed that can perform cognitive tasks. . providing them with new skills so that they VI FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES Automated machines will increasingly assist humans in the manufacture of new products. Robots will be able to make new highways. diagnosis of failures in aircraft or satellites. and mow lawns. The field of artificial intelligence is moving rapidly from university laboratories to practical application in industry. These tiny robots may be used to move through blood machines to diagnose impending mechanical problems. They also may work inside large Perhaps the most dramatic changes in future robots will arise from their increasing ability to reason. and the care of homes and businesses. such as strategic planning and learning from experience.
and servicing of automobiles have become key elements of industrial economies. the automobile has brought noise and air pollution. style. Those used to carry cargo are called pickups . and intended use. number of doors. has four wheels and can carry up to six people. particularly in the United States and other industrialized nations. Larger vehicles designed to carry more passengers are called vans. also called a car. the 1900s and economy well into the 21st century. minivans. motorcar. From the growth of suburbs to the development of modern landscape. the so-called horseless carriage has forever altered the leading causes of death and injury throughout the world. or buses. But for better or worse. omnibuses. self-propelled vehicle used primarily on public roads but adaptable to other surfaces. and automobile accidents rank among the elaborate road and highway systems. can be called the Age of the Automobile. Automobiles changed the world during the 20th century. and passenger car. and cars will no doubt continue to shape our culture Automobiles are classified by size. auto. including a driver.Automobile I INTRODUCTION Automobile. sale. The typical automobile. The manufacture. But along with greater mobility and job creation.
which includes a transmission. or fuels derived from methanol (wood alcohol) and .5 million passenger cars. lubricate its moving parts. which include springs and shock absorbers. Steering and braking systems provide control over controls many aspects of the vehicle’s operation. depending on their size and design. The engine drivetrain. An electrical system starts and operates the engine. Minivans are van-style vehicles built on a passenger car frame that can usually carry up to eight passengers.or trucks. In 2001 manufacturing plants in more than 35 countries produced 39. and other stresses. fuel. axles. and remove exhaust gases it creates. but some engines use diesel ethanol (grain alcohol). natural gas. and seat belts help protect occupants in an accident. electricity. also known as SUVs. a differential gear. see Automobile Industry. Suspension systems. monitors and propel the vehicle forward or backward. About 7. For information on the business of making cars. Sport-utility vehicles. and help protect the vehicle from being damaged by bumps. direction and speed. and powers such components as headlights and radios. when rotated by powered axles. are more rugged than passenger cars and are designed for driving in mud or snow. one or more driveshafts. Various systems supply the engine with fuel. Safety features such as bumpers. cushion the ride and Wheels and tires support the vehicle on the roadway and. II POWER SYSTEM Gasoline internal-combustion engines power most automobiles. The automobile is built around an engine. heavy loads. air bags.3 million passenger vehicles were produced in North America in 2001. cool it produces mechanical power that is transmitted to the automobile’s wheels through a during operation. solar energy.
called the systems bolt or attach to the engine block. crankshaft is now rotating via the up-and-down motion of the pistons. Fuel vapor enters and exhaust gases leave the combustion chamber through openings in the cylinder head controlled by valves. Bolted to the top of the block. cylinder head. in older cars. Pistons compress air and fuel against the cylinder head prior to ignition. pistons. or torque. Fuel-injection systems or. a carburetor deliver fuel vapor from the gas tank to the engine cylinders. Lubricated bearings enable both ends of the connecting rod to The top of the piston forms the floor of the combustion chamber. or combusts. The starter motor turns a disk known as a flywheel. transferring the piston’s vertical motion into the crankshaft’s rotational force. valves. depending on how much fuel is delivered to the cylinders. The fuel mixture explodes. it seals the tops of the cylinders. The rotating crankshaft move up and down. and crankshaft. pistons.Most gasoline engines work in the following way: Turning the ignition key operates a switch that sends electricity from a battery to a starter motor. to The pistons compress the vapor inside the cylinders. crankshaft. which are solid cylinders that fit snugly inside the engine’s hollow cylinders. and camshaft. which in turn causes the engine’s crankshaft to revolve. Engine blocks are made of cast iron or aluminum alloy The upper part of the engine is the cylinder head. creating hot expanding gases that push the pistons down the cylinders and cause the crankshaft to rotate. The pistons’ motion rotates the crankshaft at speeds ranging from about 600 to thousands of revolutions per minute (rpm). the piston to the crankshaft. The lower part of the engine. A rod connects the bottom of pivot. The block is manufactured with internal and formed with a set of round cylinders. The components of other engine passageways for lubricants and coolant. cylinders. The motor to disengage from the flywheel. The typical engine valve is a metal shaft with a disk at one . An electric current flows through a spark plug to ignite the vapor. houses the cylinders. engine block. causes pistons. permitting the starter A Engine The basic components of an internal-combustion engine are the engine block.
or flat. In-line designs are arranged so that the cylinders stand upright in a single line over the crankshaft. 2. belt. In a V design. When the crankshaft forces the camshaft to turn. are similar to gasoline internal-combustion engines. also known as Wankel engines. which have one or more elliptical chambers in which triangular-shaped rotors. Commercial electric car models for specialized purposes were car in the mid-1990s. space. the shaft that transmits engine power to the axles. 12. Outlet valves open to let exhaust gases out. but they have a different ignition system. At the bottom of the V is the crankshaft. By relying more on electricity and less on fuel combustion. A typical hybrid is an electric motor with batteries that are recharged by a generator run by a small gas. common in large trucks or buses. with greater force than a gasoline engine does. the intake and outlet valves close B Engine Types The blocks in most internal-combustion engines are in-line designs or V designs. or chain links the camshaft to the crankshaft. The other end of the shaft is mechanically linked to a camshaft. increase. General Motors Corporation introduced a mass-production all-electric Automobiles that combine two or more types of engines are called hybrids. producing temperatures hot enough to ignite Electric motors have been used to power automobiles since the late 1800s. and more cylinders. The V design allows the same number of cylinders to spaces is a horizontally opposed. arrangement in which the crankshaft lies between two rows of cylinders. HEVs have higher fuel efficiency and emit . Inlet valves open to allow fuel to enter the combustion chambers. and use more fuel. available in the 1980s. Most modern vehicles in the United States have 4-. A gear wheel. but car Diesel engines. Another engine design that fits into shorter. moments in the engine’s cycle. rotate. fit into a shorter. These hybrids are known as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). 3. Diesels compress air inside the cylinders the diesel fuel on contact. although wider. 6-. shallower Engines become more powerful. two rows of cylinders are set at an angle to form a V. Electric power supplied by batteries runs the motor. When fuel vapor ignites. Some cars have rotary engines.or diesel-powered engine. In-line configurations of six or eight cylinders require long engine compartments found more often in trucks than in cars. instead of pistons. a round rod with odd-shaped lobes located inside the engine block or in the cylinder head. or 8-cylinder engines.end fitted to block the opening. lobes on the camshaft cause valves to open and close at precise tightly to direct the force of the explosion downward on the piston. as the size and number of cylinders engines have been designed with 1. which rotates a driveshaft. 5.
Since the exact quantity of gas needed is injected into carburetor. . Ltd. and more consistent than a openings to the combustion chambers. or vapor. Several automakers have experimented with hybrids. to a fuel-injection system. fuel and air in the cylinders’ combustion chambers. in 1999. Corporation became the first to mass-produce a hybrid vehicle.fewer pollutants. The carburetor controls the mixture of gas and air that travels to the engine. was offered by Honda Motor Co. delivering better efficiency. A vacuum created by the downward strokes of pistons draws air through the carburetor and intake The intake manifold delivers the fuel vapor to the cylinders. the Prius. Fuel is stored in a tank until it is needed. and pollution control. easier to adjust. the airflow transforms drops of fuel into a fine mist. The first hybrid available for sale in North America.. gas mileage. in newer cars. leading to the cylinders. It mixes fuel with air at the head of a pipe. engine responsiveness.. Fuel injectors spray carefully calibrated bursts of fuel mist into cylinders either at or near the cylinders. In 1997 Toyota Motor in Japan in 1997 and in North America in 2000. Fuel-injection systems vary widely. where it is ignited. All new cars produced today are equipped with fuel injection systems instead of carburetors. fuel injection is more precise. called the intake manifold. the Honda Insight. manifold. Inside the carburetor. It became available C Fuel Supply The internal-combustion engine is powered by the burning of a precise mixture of liquefied then pumped to a carburetor or. but most are operated or managed electronically.
called antifreeze that has a higher boiling point and lower freezing point than water. A cooling system conducts this heat away from the engine’s cylinders and radiates it into the air. they are designed so a flow of air can reach metal fins that conduct heat away from the cylinders. these features produce greater horsepower. that is. Exhaust gases leave the engine in a pipe. A pump sends the coolant from the engine to a radiator. By increasing the air and fuel flow to the engine. atmosphere and reduces. In most automobiles. The conventional muffler is an enclosed metal tube packed with sound-deadening material. which transfers heat from the coolant to the air. engine noise.High-performance automobiles are often fitted with air-compressing equipment that increases an engine’s output. a liquid coolant circulates through the engine. leaving only low-level heat to emerge from the tailpipe. smaller radiator is fitted to all modern cars. Some engines are air cooled. Car manufacturers are experimenting with an electronic muffler. Some contain partitions to help reduce engine noise. making it A second. The sound waves from the electronic muffler collide with the exhaust sound waves and they cancel each other out. The system generates sound waves 180 degrees out E Cooling and Heating System Combustion inside an engine produces temperatures high enough to melt cast iron. that controls speakers near the tailpipe. Chemical reactions inside the catalytic converter change most of the hazardous hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide produced by the engine into water vapor and carbon dioxide. D Exhaust System The exhaust system carries exhaust gases from the engine’s combustion chamber to the traveling through a catalytic converter and a muffler before exiting through the tailpipe. Turbochargers are turbine-powered compressors run by pressurized exhaust gas. the coolant is a chemical solution effective in temperature extremes. or muffles. the coolant was water. which uses sensors to monitor the sound waves of the exhaust noise. Superchargers are compressors powered by the crankshaft. In most automobiles today. Most conventional mufflers are round or oval-shaped with an inlet and outlet pipe at either end. This unit uses engine heat to warm the interior of the passenger compartment and supply heat to the windshield defroster. III DRIVETRAIN . The sound wave data are sent to a computer of phase with the engine noise. In early engines.
a transmission alters the rotational speed and torque of the gears provide more power for starting a car from engine passed along to the driveshaft. differential gears. one A Transmission The transmission. wheels make up the drivetrain. There are three basic transmission types: manual.The rotational force of the engine’s crankshaft turns other shafts and gears that eventually cause the drive wheels to rotate. although some automobiles were designed with a transmission mounted on the rear axle. The various components that link the crankshaft to the drive or more driveshafts. As the engine’s crankshaft rotates. The major parts of the drivetrain include the transmission. and continuously variable. standstill The transmission usually is located just behind the engine. transfers power from the engine to the driveshaft. Gears are selected with a shift lever located on the floor next . while low a and for climbing hills. The driveshaft causes axles to rotate and turn the wheels. A manual transmission has a gearbox from which the driver selects specific gears depending on road speed and engine load. combinations of transmission gears pass the energy along to a driveshaft. automatic. also known as the gearbox. and axles. By using gears of different sizes. Higher gears permit the car to travel faster.
and Rear-Wheel Drive Depending on the vehicle’s design. a continuously variable transmission uses belts and pulleys to smoothly slide the gear ratio up or down.to the driver or on the steering column. others feature full-time. The transmission keeps the engine running at its most B Front. Commercial applications have been limited to small engines. a mechanical lever called a clutch fork and a device called a throwout bearing separate the two disks. In some vehicles. The clutch disk attaches to the transmission’s input shaft. . four-wheel drive is an option the driver selects for certain road conditions. Instead of a manual clutch. or to all four wheels. Instead of making distinct changes from one gear to the next. transferring torque from the engine to the transmission. Most automobiles either are frontwheel or rear-wheel drive. The driver presses on the clutch to disengage the transmission from the engine to permit a change of gears. It presses against a circular plate attached to the engine’s flywheel. the rear wheels. Continuously variable transmissions appeared on machinery during the 19th century and on a few smallefficient speed by more precisely matching the gear ratio to the situation. automatic transmissions use a hydraulic torque converter to transfer engine power to the transmission. An automatic transmission selects gears itself according to road conditions and the amount of load on the engine. When the driver presses down on the clutch pedal to shift gears. engine power is transmitted by the transmission to the front wheels. Releasing the clutch pedal presses the two disks together. The wheels receiving power are called drive wheels: They propel the vehicle forward or backward. engine automobiles as early as 1900. all-wh eel drive.
The driveshaft connects the transmission’s allow it to rotate as the axles move up and down over the road surface. wheel suspension systems. luxury sedans. dampen. Sensors. One shock absorber is installed at combination to absorb energy. Shock absorbers control. the driveshaft runs under the car to a differential gear at the rear axle. or the shock transferred from the road wheels to the body. or a Luxury sedans generally have a soft suspension for comfortable riding. a pump. or strut. advanced passenger cars. the differential is on the front axle and the connections to the transmission are much shorter. gas. and sports cars feature independent rear- Active suspensions are computer-controlled adjustments of the downward force of each wheel as the vehicle corners or rides over uneven terrain. and air. much like the arrangement on horse-drawn buggies. a long tube. part of the undercarriage of an automobile.The differential is a gear assembly in an axle that enables each powered wheel to turn at different speeds when the vehicle makes a turn. Four-wheel-drive vehicles have drive shafts and differentials for both axles. . Universal joints at both ends of the driveshaft In rear-wheel drive. Modern shock absorbers have a telescoping design and use oil. shock absorbers and other devices to protect the auto body and passenger compartment from A Suspension System The suspension system. the sudden loading and unloading of suspension springs to reduce wheel bounce and each wheel. without a system of severe bumps and bounces. has a shock absorber built into its center section. Older automobiles were equipped with one-piece front axles attached to the frame with semielliptic leaf springs. especially on unpaved roads. contains springs that move up and down to absorb bumps and vibrations. In one type of suspension system. Front wheels on wheel has its own axle and suspension supports. Sports cars and sportutility vehicles have firmer suspensions to improve cornering ability and control over rough terrain. In front-wheel drive. Many rear-axle However. IV SUPPORT SYSTEMS Automobiles would deliver jolting rides. so the shock of one wheel hitting a bump is suspensions for automobiles and heavier vehicles use rigid axles with coil or leaf springs. and hydraulic cylinders. modern cars roll independently of each other on half-shafts instead of on a common axle. output shaft to a differential gear in the axle. Each not transferred across a common axle to the other wheel or the rest of the car.
first patented in 1845. so driving conditions. more impact absorbent. fit on the outside rims of the wheels. enable the vehicle to lean into corners and compensate for the dips and dives that accompany emergency stops and rapid acceleration. the driver controls the to the engine.all monitored and controlled by computer. traction and strength are primary requirements. These controls are made possible by the steering and braking systems. which adjusts the amount of fuel fed . and more expensive. Automobile wheels generally are made of steel or aluminum. Tires help smooth out the ride and provide the automobile’s only contact with the road. Aluminum wheels are lighter. Tire treads come in several varieties to match V CONTROL SYSTEMS A driver controls the automobile’s motion by keeping the wheels pointed in the desired direction. Pneumatic (air-filled) rubber tires. vehicle’s speed with the transmission and the gas pedal. In addition. and by stopping or slowing the speed at which the wheels rotate. B Wheels and Tires Wheels support the vehicle’s weight and transfer torque to the tires from the drivetrain and braking systems.
wood. Another method was to use a lever to clamp a strap or brake shoes tightly around the driveshaft. Electric power steering uses an electric B Brakes Brakes enable the driver to slow or stop the moving vehicle. leather. Depending on the steering mechanism. the driver pressed a block of friction between the wheel and the brake shoe caused the vehicle to slow down or stop. securely park the car. friction applied by linings. ABS helps the driver maintain better control over the car during emergency stops and while braking on slippery surfaces. Most steering systems link the front wheels together by means of a tie-rod. Conventional power steering uses hydraulic pressure. to motor instead of hydraulic pressure. greatly extending the life of the brake the shoes inside the drum slowed or stopped the wheel. the mechanical action rotates a steering shaft inside the steering column. The first automobile brakes were much like those on horse-drawn wagons. When a driver turns the steering wheel. although a few automobile types have The tie-rod insures that the turning of one wheel is matched by a corresponding turn in the other. known as the shoe. especially on uneven terrain. were replaced by asbestos after 1908. requiring less effort by the driver. operated by the pressure or movement of a liquid. Automobiles are also equipped with a hand-operated brake used for emergencies and to foot pedal sets the brake. Manual steering relies only on the force exerted by the driver to turn the wheels. With sufficient pressure. Hydraulically assisted braking was introduced in the 1920s. Since the drum and wheel rotate together. An antilock braking system (ABS) uses a computer. By pulling a lever. Disk brakes. appeared in 1903. augment that force. against the wheel rims. sensors. or metal. Cotton and leather shoe coverings.A Steering Automobiles are steered by turning the front wheels. Introduced in the 1980s. or mechanism. Pulling on a lever or pushing down on a . and a hydraulic pump to stop the automobile’s forward motion without locking the wheels and putting the vehicle into a skid. called drum brakes. gears or other devices convert the rotating motion of the steering wheel into a horizontal force that turns the wheels. all-wheel steering. in which friction pads clamp down on both sides of a disk attached to the axle. A brake system with shoes that pressed against the inside of a drum fitted to the wheel. were in use by the 1950s.
VI ELECTRICAL SYSTEM The automobile depends on electricity for fuel ignition. but all gasoline-engine ignition systems draw electric current from the battery. horn. then deliver it to spark plugs that project into the combustion chambers. An electric arc between two electrodes at the bottom of the spark plug ignites the fuel vapor. but 12 volts became standard after World War II (1939-1945) to operate the growing number of electrical accessories. windshield wipers. significantly increase the current’s voltage. headlights. In older vehicles. Eventually. radio. A battery and an alternator supply electricity. routes high-voltage current to the spark plugs. The alternator generates electric current while the engine is running. which is an electrical switching device. or 48-volt systems may become the standard as more computers and electronics are built into A Ignition System The ignition system supplies high-voltage current to spark plugs to ignite fuel vapor in the cylinders. There are many variations. The distributor’s housing contains a switch called the breaker . and other accessories. turn signals. The Early automotive electrical systems ran on 6 volts. 24automobiles. battery stores electricity for starting the car. recharging the battery and powering the rest of the car’s electrical needs. a distributor.
located in doors cushion between the occupant and the vehicle’s interior. the bag inflates almost instantaneously. in some cases. bumpers became stylish and. Some automobiles have side-impact air bags.000 volts or more. Air bags first appeared in the midsold in the United States. while others can Modern vehicles feature crumple zones. not strong enough to survive minor collisions without expensive repairs. points from damage by the high-voltage surge. points. Some car models are equipped with shoulder-restraint An air bag is a high-speed inflation device hidden in the hub of the steering wheel or in the or seats.5-mph) collisions with no damage. Bumpers evolved as rails or bars to protect the front and rear of the car’s body from damage in minor collisions. interrupting the supply of low-voltage current to a transformer called a coil. in case the vehicle that otherwise would be transmitted to the passenger compartment. which mechanically routes it through wires to spark plugs. the distributor. Passenger compartments overturns. portions of the automobile designed to absorb forces on many vehicles also have reinforced roll bar structures in the roof. Today they are installed on all new passenger cars . This high-voltage current passes back to the distributor. The distributor and other devices control the In modern ignition systems. A computer controls the ignition system and adjusts it to provide maximum efficiency in a variety of driving conditions. Seat belt and upper-body restraints that relax to permit comfort but tighten automatically belts that slide into position automatically when the car’s doors close. during an impact are now common. Some bumpers can withstand 4-km/h (2. At impact. A rotating shaft in the distributor causes the switch to open and close. government regulations required bumpers designed to withstand low-speed collisions with less damage. and protective beams in the doors to help protect passengers from side impacts.points. and condenser have been replaced by solid-state electronics controlled by a computer. coil. available as an optional accessory. A condenser absorbs excess current and protects the breaker timing of the spark-plug discharges. 1970s. producing a spark that ignites the gas vapor in the cylinders. withstand 8-km/h (5-mph) collisions with no damage. The inflated bag creates a dash on the passenger’s side. The coil uses electromagnetic induction (see Electricity: Electromagnetism) to convert interruptions of the 12-volt current into surges of 20. Eventually. VII SAFETY FEATURES Manufacturers continue to build lighter vehicles with improved structural rigidity and ability to protect the driver and passengers during collisions. Over the years.
In 1802 a steam-powered coach designed by British engineer Richard Trevithick Laws barred them from public roads and forced their owners to run them like trains on private journeyed more than 160 km (100 mi) from Cornwall to London. As early as 1801 successful but very heavy steam automobiles were introduced in England. Manufacturers produced about 125 models of steam-powered automobiles.44 km/h (121. built by American twin brothers Freelan and Francis Stanley.2 km/h (2 mph) and had to stop every 20 minutes to build up a fresh head of steam. British inventor Walter Handcock built a series of steam carriages in the mid-1830s that were used for the first omnibus service in London. By the 1600s small steam-powered engine vehicle was created. including the creation of a wheel that turned under its own power. In the early 15th century the Portuguese arrived in China and In 1769 French Army officer Captain Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built what has been called the first automobile. Horse-drawn stagecoach companies and the new railroad vehicles. A Stanley Steamer established a world land speed record in 1906 of 205. yet VIII HISTORY The history of the automobile actually began about 4. bags when a child or infant is traveling in the passenger seat. The tolls quickly drove the steam coach operators out of business. Automakers continue to effective in collisions. until 1932. Most famous was the Stanley Steamer.573 mph). Cugnot’s three-wheeled.Air bags inflate with great force.000 years ago when the first wheel was the interaction of the two cultures led to a variety of new technologies. but it was another century before a full-sized engine-powered used for transportation in India. including the A Internal-Combustion Engine . Illinois. In 1804 American inventor Oliver Evans built a steampowered vehicle in Chicago. Designed to move artillery pieces. French engineer Onésiphore Pecqueur built one in 1828. Steam power caught the attention of other vehicle builders. models had been developed. steam-powered vehicle carried four persons. it had a top speed of a little more than 3. By the mid-1800s England had an extensive network of steam coach lines. companies pressured the British Parliament to approve heavy tolls on steam-powered road During the early 20th century steam cars were popular in the United States. Stanley. Some newer automobile models are equipped with switches to disable the passenger-side air research ways to make air-bag systems less dangerous for frail and small passengers. which occasionally endangers a child or infant passenger. tracks.
or underlying structure of the car. In France. in 1885. and in stroke four the pistons move up to push exhaust gases out of the cylinder after the other instead of in all at once. French bicycle manufacturer Armand Peugeot saw the Panhard-Levassor car and designed an automobile using a similar Daimler engine.4 km/h (about 4 mph). Other French (Fabbrica Italiana Automobili di Torino) began building cars in 1899. Instead of installing the engine under the seats. but less efficiently and with more exhaust emissions. creating a motorcycle. In Italy. Fiat . Two years later. including Renault. In 1860 French inventor Jean-Joseph-Étienne Lenoir patented a one-cylinder engine that used kerosene for fuel. Engines with two or more cylinders are designed so combustion occurs in one steps. a carriage propelled by a two-cylinder gasoline engine. In 1864 Austrian inventor Siegfried Marcus built and drove internal-combustion engine that was displayed at the 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia. down the cylinders. In a four-stroke engine the pistons move down to draw fuel vapor into the cylinder during stroke one.046-km (650-mi) professional bicycle race between Paris and Brest. automobile manufacturers opened shop in the late 1800s. Because the newer engines burned fuel in cylinders inside the engine. the most direct ancestor to today’s automobile engines. American George Brayton patented an In 1876 German engineer Nikolaus August Otto built a four-stroke gas engine. Panhard-Levassor also introduced a clutch and gears. Another German engineer.Development of lighter steam cars during the 19th century coincided with major developments in engines that ran on gasoline or other fuels. in stroke two. In 1887 they manufactured their first car. and the car body. the company introduced the design of a front-mounted engine under the hood. which eventually merged with Benz’s manufacturing firm in 1926 to create Daimler-Benz. a vehicle powered by Lenoir’s engine reached a top speed of about 6. Benz. and separate construction of the chassis. German engineer onto a bicycle. The joint company makes cars today under the Mercedes-Benz nameplate (see DaimlerChrysler AG). as other car designers had done. In 1890 Daimler and Maybach started a Gottlieb Daimler and German inventor Wilhelm Maybach mounted a gasoline-powered engine which included a steering tiller and a four-speed gearbox. In 1891 this first Peugeot automobile paced a 1. in stroke three the vapor explodes and the hot gases push the pistons cylinders. Pennsylvania. Two-stroke engines accomplish the same Automobile manufacturing began in earnest in Europe by the late 1880s. Karl successful car manufacturing company. produced his first gasoline car in 1886. The company’s first model was a gasoline-powered buggy steered by a tiller. The Daimler Motor Company. a company called Panhard-Levassor began making cars in 1894 using Daimler’s patents. the pistons move up to compress the vapor. they were called internal-combustion engines.
Selden sued when Ford refused to pay 1911 that Selden’s patent applied only to two-stroke engines. Although Selden did not manufacture engines or automobiles. In 1900 more than 2. After eight years of court battles. 1. Henry Ford believed Selden’s patent was invalid.300 automobiles were registered in New York City. In 1896 he used an engine to power a vehicle mounted on bicycle wheels and steered by a tiller. and only 400 were gasoline cars. looked much like a Panhard-Levassor model. the courts ruled in manufacturers were using four-stroke engines. Frank Duryea built several gas-powered vehicles between 1893 and 1895. In 1893 magazine. electric car designed and driven by Belgian inventor Camille Jenatzy set a record of 105. he collected royalties from those who did. a American industrialist Henry Ford built an internal-combustion engine from plans he saw in a B Early Electric Cars For a few decades in the 1800s. Most electric cars had needed recharging. Ford and most other royalties for Ford-manufactured engines. and electric motors. connected the batteries to a motor between the front and rear axles. . The first Duryea. Illinois. Selden. electric engines enjoyed great popularity because they were quiet and ran at slow speeds that were less likely to scare horses and people. Electric automobiles were manufactured in quantity in the United States IX AUTOMOBILES IN THE 20TH CENTURY For many years after the introduction of automobiles. Of these.170 were steam cars. so Selden could not charge them royalties. Selden saw a gasoline engine at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition in 1876. By 1899 an km/h (65. gasoline engines. four-horsepower model.8810 Early electric cars featured a large bank of storage batteries under the hood. Boston. but could go only 80 km (50 mi) before their batteries until 1930. Gasoline-powered engines eventually became the nearly universal choice for automobiles because they allowed longer trips and faster speeds than engines powered by steam or electricity. and Chicago. But development of gasoline cars in the early 1900s was hindered in the United States by legal battles over a patent obtained by New York lawyer George B.American automobile builders were not far behind. Heavy cables top speeds of 48 km/h (30 mph). Brothers Charles Edgar Duryea and James one-cylinder. He then designed a similar one and obtained a broad patent that for many years was interpreted to apply to all gasoline engines for automobiles. three kinds of power sources were in common use: steam engines. 800 were electric cars. Massachusetts.79 mph).
windshield wipers. front-mounted gasoline engine. in that same year. along with weather resistant tops and side curtains. which made the big cars more braking systems. the assembly-line method of building it. and mechanically operated From 1930 to 1937. and higher-compression engines. Cars had fenders that covered the wheels and step-up platforms called running boards. four-wheel hydraulic brake systems. which helped passengers get in and out of the vehicles usually sat on the right. a hood covered the front-mounted engine. which was hardly surprising since Ford had designed cars the previous year for the Cadillac Motor Car with a letter of the alphabet. The passenger compartment was behind the engine. when models R and S appeared. Company. more reliable Mercedes introduced the world’s first diesel car in 1936. very similar in design to most cars today. In 1906 gasoline-powered cars were produced that had a style all their own. Automobiles on both sides of the . Many 12- and 16-cylinder cars were built. improved carburetors. Improvements in engine-powered cars during the 1920s contributed to their popularity: synchromesh transmissions for easier gear shifting. Although drivers of horse-drawn In 1903 Henry Ford incorporated the Ford Motor Company. An electric self-starter was introduced in 1911 to replace the hand crank used to start the engine turning. the Model A. automobile engines and bodies became large and luxurious. Built-in baggage compartments appeared in 1906. Ford’s share of the domestic automobile market had soared to 35 percent. Independent front suspension. Two kerosene or acetylene lamps mounted to the front served as headlights. Ford sold more than 15 million before stopping the cars was widely adopted in the automobile industry. automotive steering wheels were on the left in the United States. Electric headlights were introduced at about the same time. shatterproof glass. which developed more horsepower. The company’s innovative assembly-line method of building By 1920 more than 8 million Americans owned cars. By 1907. T’s and offered nine body styles. vehicle.771 Model the biggest-selling automobiles of all time. watercooled. and each model was named Ford’s famous Model T debuted in 1908 but was called a 1909 Ford. and the affordability of cars for the ordinary wage earner. In these new models. appeared in 1933. balloon tires. It closely resembled the 1903 Cadillac. Ford built 17. comfortable. Major reasons for the surge in automobile ownership were Ford’s Model T.Improvements in the operating and riding qualities of gasoline automobiles developed quickly after 1900. heaters. Ford’s company rolled out new car models each year. Most automobiles at the turn of the 20th century appeared more or less like horseless carriages. Also introduced during the 1930s were stronger. which introduced its first automobile. Popularly known as the Tin Lizzy. The 1902 Locomobile was the first American car with a four-cylinder. the Model T became one of production of the model in 1927.
selling more than 3 million. sealed-beam headlights. advertised as the Beetle. Only two were sold that year. Styling sometimes prevailed over practicality—some cars were built in even the least expensive models. During the 1940s. The Buick Motor Car Company. light cars weighing less than 1. and the automatic transmission were introduced. Introduced in 1950. Two schools of styling emerged in the 1950s. The 1949 Ford was a landmark in this respect. it did not attract buyers on a large scale until 1958. Automatic transmissions. Heating and ventilating systems became standard equipment on became widespread. More the United States in 1949. and pontoon-shaped fenders. Some of the first vehicles to fully incorporate the fender into the bodywork came along just after World War II. including air conditioning and electrically operated car windows and seat adjusters. arrived in the United States in 1956. That prompted a downsizing of some American-made vehicles. The Europeans continued to produce small. but American consumers soon began compacts. 16 compact trucks. but the majority of designs still had separate fenders with pontoon shapes holding headlight assemblies. Automobiles were produced that had more space. but with increased engine size and horsepower. one on each side of the Atlantic.800 lb). including tailfins and portholes. offered postwar designs that merged fenders into the bodywork. Introduction of power steering and power brakes made bigger cars easier to handle. Creative artistry merged with industrial design to produce appealing. aerodynamic automobiles. some weighing as much as 2. smaller in overall size than a standard car but with virtually the same interior body dimensions. European sports cars of that era featured hand-fashioned aluminum bodies over a steel chassis and framework. Manufacturers changed from the 6-volt to the 12-volt ignition system. emerged from the factories of many major manufacturers.495 kg (5. arrived in buying the Beetle and other small imports by the thousands. Ford. Nash.300 kg (2. In the 1950s new automotive features were introduced. long hoods. By 1960 sales of foreign and domestic compacts accounted for about one-third of all passenger cars sold in the United States. American cars were built smaller. The first American car called a compact was the Nash Rambler. Cadillac Automobile Company. The first import by German manufacturer Volkswagen AG.500 lb). The first Japanese imports. and power steering . which gave better engine performance and more reliable operation of the growing number of electrical accessories. and Ford all built enormous cars.Atlantic were styled with gracious proportions. and Hudson Motor Car Company. automobile designers borrowed features for their cars that were normally found on aircraft and ships. and smoother riding capability. more power. In America. Olds Motor Vehicle Company (Oldsmobile). and its new styling was so well accepted the car continued in production virtually unchanged for three years. Three companies. power brakes. tubeless tires.
Catalytic converters were introduced to help reduce exhaust emissions. Hydrogen combustion produces only a trace of harmful emissions. driving up the price of gasoline. Large cars were getting as little as 8 miles per gallon (mpg). no carbon dioxide. 1980s. and less pollution. while imported imports. In 1981 Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW) introduced an on3. the EV1. more fuel-efficient Digital speedometers and electronic prompts to service parts of the vehicle appeared in the cars and family minivans surged in popularity. The allelectric cars introduced so far have been limited by low range. and produce fewer pollutants. compacts were getting as much as 35 mpg. Popular in trucks and heavy vehicles. but they are noisy. the auto industry was hurt by the energy crisis. a cartel of oil-producing countries. A redesigned. Back seats were designed with no legroom. to California buyers. quieter diesel engine introduced by Volkswagen in 1996 may pave the way for more diesels. A solar-powered vehicle. However. but Japanese and European compacts continued During this period. long recharges. and a water-vapor by-product. The California Air Resources Board required companies with the largest market shares to begin selling vehicles that were pollution free—in other words.000 km (1. sporty Advances in automobile technology in the 1980s included better engine control and the use of innovative types of fuel. created when the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). More buyers chose the smaller. electric. In the 1970s American manufacturers continued to offer smaller. At the same time. cut back on sales to other countries.which the engines had to be lifted to allow simple service operations. the bigger sedans that led their product lines. In 1996 General Motors became the first to begin selling an all-electric car. board computer to monitor engine performance. technical problems related to the gas’s density and flammability remain to be solved. and weak consumer interest. Japanese manufacturers opened plants in the United States.864 mi) in Australia in six days. . lighter models in addition to to sell well. The price of crude oil skyrocketed. Diesel engines burn fuel more efficiently. traveled X NEW TECHNOLOGIES Pollution-control laws adopted at the beginning of the 1990s in some of the United States and in Europe called for automobiles that produced better gas mileage with lower emissions. in passenger cars. diesel engines are only a small portion of the automobile market. like changing the spark plugs. Engines that run on hydrogen have been tested. SunRaycer.
After being told the destination. promised to double the fuel efficiency of conventional gasoline-powered cars while significantly reducing toxic emissions. Insight debuted in North America in late 1999. ignition timing. The onboard navigation system uses an electronic satellite-aided global positioning system (GPS). and other data. The central processing unit (CPU) in modern engines manages overall engine performance. known as hybrid electric vehicles Computer control of automobile systems increased dramatically during the 1990s. and carbon composites.000 models in its first two years of production. The Honda (HEVs). The Prius became available for sale in North America in 2000. map its location. computers also control the air dashboard. and a display screen showing where the vehicle is relative to the and directs the driver to it.While some developers searched for additional alternatives. Further reductions plastics. and exhaust-emission levels. Cars equipped with computers and cellular telephones can link to the Internet to obtain constantly updated traffic reports.000 lb) from the weight of the typical car by making cars smaller. Future built-in computer systems may be used to automatically obtain business information During the 1980s and 1990s. By using the vehicle’s location within a few meters. offering alternative routes if needed. the sound system. notion that a car would “talk” to its driver was science fiction. route directions. weather information. Both vehicles. In many models. “smarter” automobiles. by the 1990s it had become Onboard navigation was one of the new automotive technologies in the 1990s. coupled with more efficient engines. became available in the late 1990s. the computer locates it Some cars now come equipped with GPS locator beacons. aluminum alloys. and the information displayed in the vehicle’s Expanded use of computer technology. over the Internet and manage personal affairs while the vehicle’s owner is driving. such as . others investigated ways to combine electricity with liquid fuels to produce low-emissions power systems. a computer in the automobile can pinpoint the compass. the Toyota Prius and the Honda Insight. Two automobiles with such hybrid engines. enabling a GPS system operator to locate the vehicle. doubled the gas mileage obtained by the average new car between 1974 and 1995. Prius hit automobile showrooms in Japan in 1997. manufacturers trimmed 450 kg (1. so the emphasis has shifted to using lighter materials. and if necessary. direct repair or emergency workers to the scene. selling 30. destination the driver wants to reach. They adjust the antilock conditioning and heating. Computers manage fuel braking and traction control systems. and air mixture ratios. and research on pollution control will produce better. development of stronger and lighter materials. In the 1980s the reality. Microprocessors regulating other systems share data with the CPU. in the engine and the rest of the vehicle. digitized maps. in vehicle size are not practical. Less weight.
At one time various mechanisms were collectively called gearing. Gear I INTRODUCTION Gear. or heat the converters more rapidly.” vehicle if it is following another vehicle too closely. however. Systems already exist in some locales to prevent intoxicated drivers from starting their vehicles. If . with suitably rotating motion. New infrared sensors or radar systems may Catalytic converters work only when they are warm. the driven shaft revolves in the opposite direction to the driving shaft. Spur gears transmit rotating motion between two shafts or other parts with parallel axes. the word gearing is used only to describe systems of wheels or cylinders with constitute a gear train. and vice versa. Two or more gears. meshing teeth. so most of the pollution they emit occurs in the first few minutes of operation. Engineers are working on ways to keep the converters warm for longer periods between drives. The technology may be expanded to new vehicles. transmitting motion from one shaft to another. In simple spur gearing. a wheel with teeth cut across its edge parallel to the axis.Looking ahead. In some. Gearing is chiefly used to transmit rotating motion. but can. toothed wheel or cylinder used to transmit rotary or reciprocating motion from one part of a machine to another. Now. designed gears and flat-toothed sectors. engineers are devising ways to reduce driver errors and poor driving habits. Anticollision systems with sensors and warning signals are being developed. the car’s brakes automatically slow the warn drivers when another vehicle is in their “blind spot. be employed to transform reciprocating motion into II SIMPLE GEARS The simplest gear is the spur gear.
Helical gearing used to transmit Another variation of helical gearing is provided by the worm gear. This thrust can be avoided by using double helical. Worm gears . gears are variations of the spur gear in which the teeth are cut on the driven by a pinion. One of the most common uses of hypoid gearing is to rotation between shafts that are not parallel is often incorrectly called spiral gearing. The idler revolves in the opposite direction to the driving gear and therefore turns the driven gear in the same direction as the driving gear.rotation in the same direction is desired. III HELICAL GEARS These have teeth that are not parallel to the axis of the shaft but are spiraled around the shaft in the form of a helix. with a large reduction in speed. driving a gear with 20 teeth will revolve twice as fast as the gear it is driving. which have V-shaped teeth composed of half a right-handed helical tooth and half a left-handed helical tooth. Worm gears differ from helical gears in that the teeth of the worm slide are used chiefly to transmit rotation. When the angle between the rotating shafts is 90°. an idler gear is placed between the driving gear and the driven gear. A worm gear is a long. Such gears are suitable for heavy loads because the gear teeth come the disadvantage of producing a thrust that tends to move the gears along their respective together at an acute angle rather than at 90° as in spur gearing. across the teeth of the driven gear instead of exerting a direct rolling pressure. Hypoid gears are helical bevel gears employed when the axes of the two shafts are perpendicular but do not intersect. In any form of gearing the speed of the driven shaft depends on the number of teeth in each gear. These gears have cone-shaped bodies and straight teeth. A rack. gears. operates like a gear wheel with an infinite radius and can be used to transform Bevel gears are employed to transmit rotation between shafts that do not have parallel axes. the ratio of driving to driven speed may be varied within wide limits. thin cylinder that has one or more continuous helical teeth that mesh with a helical gear. or annular. a flat. also called the screw gear. connect the drive shaft and the rear axle in automobiles. toothed bar that moves in a the rotation of a pinion to reciprocating motion. By using a train of several gears. Internal gears usually drive or are straight line. from one shaft to another at a 90° angle. and a 20-tooth Internal. A gear with 10 teeth gear driving a 10-tooth gear will revolve at half the speed. Simple helical gearing has shafts. or vice versa. inside of a ring or flanged wheel rather than on the outside. or herringbone. the bevel gears used are called miter gears. a small gear with few teeth.
is usually intended to be kept in one place. devices used to measure or indicate the passage of time. as well as indicators to register the lapse of time units.Clocks and Watches I INTRODUCTION Clocks and Watches. which is larger than a watch. a watch is designed to be carried or worn. II MECHANISMS . Both types of timepieces require a source of power and a means of transmitting and controlling it. A clock.
The high-frequency oscillation is converted to an alternating current. periodic adjustments. the time may be reported audibly by the striking of a gong or chime hands on a dial. and thus made to . In electric or electronic clocks. The motive force generated by the power source in a mechanical clock is transmitted by a gear train and regulated by a pendulum or a balance and is registered visually by the rotation of wheels bearing numerals or by the position of wheel. are needed. The quartz-crystal clock developed in 1929 for precision timekeeping employs a ring of quartz that is connected to an electrical circuit and made to oscillate between 10. As in spring-powered clocks. A mechanical watch uses a coiled spring as its power source. reduced to a frequency more convenient for time measurement. or an electric current. In such a clock. such as lifting the weight or tightening the spring. a mainspring. the watch conserves energy by means of a gear train. the mainspring is tightened automatically by means of a weight III ELECTRIC TIMEPIECES In the electric clocks used in homes today. In self-winding watches. which is regulated to deliver an alternating current of precisely 60 cycles per second. force.000 and 100.000 hertz (cycles per second).In a clock. a small motor runs in unison with the power- station generator. time may be shown by a display of numbers. the source of power may be produced by weight. Except in electric or electronic clocks. with a balance wheel regulating the motive on a rotor that responds to the arm movements of the wearer. Electric currents may also be used to keep the movements of several “slave” clocks synchronized with the pendulum in a master clock.
These portable instruments are mounted on a box chronometer is a precision watch regulated in different positions and at various temperatures Another precision timekeeper is the chronograph. Various forms of chronographs exist. or stopwatch. which indicates the number of products made in a given time. in 1761 by English horologist John Harrison. The battery may drive the balance wheel of an otherwise mechanical clock. The modern wrist and certified by testing bureaus in Switzerland. The V ATOMIC CLOCKS .drive the motor of a synchronous clock or a digital display. The electric or electronic watch is powered by a small battery that functions for about one year without replacement. shows elapsed time without providing the time of day. and the production counter. timer. including the telemeter. which not only provides accurate time but also registers elapsed time in fractions of a second. IV CHRONOMETERS Carefully constructed mechanical timepieces known as chronometers are precision devices used by navigators in the determination of their longitude at sea and by astronomers and jewelers for calibrating measuring devices. a form of chronograph used in athletic contests. The first successful chronometer was constructed on gimbals so as to maintain the delicate movements in a level position. the tachometer. The maximum error of the most accurate quartz-crystal clocks is plus or minus one second in ten years. which determines pulse rate. which measures speed of rotation. or it may be used to drive the oscillations of either a small tuning fork or a quartz crystal. which measures the distance of an object from the observer. the pulsometer.
Because the frequency of these waves is unaffected by external forces. time. and aiding navigational certain atoms or molecules make the transition between two closely spaced. Their uses include measuring the systems such as the global positioning system in computing distances. and when the correct frequency is reached. which may vary by 4 to 5 milliseconds per day. the basic unit of time of the International System of Units. The microwave frequency is adjusted.770 periods of radiation. In this clock. or hyperfine. corresponding period of the waves can be used as a standard to define time intervals.192. Atomic clocks are tuned to the frequency of the electromagnetic waves that are emitted or absorbed when rotation of the earth. many atoms make the transition to the new energy state. The frequency of the microwave radiation is then used to determine the period of the microwave. cesium-133 atoms in one hyperfine energy state are subjected to microwave radiation that is near the resonant frequency of the transition to another hyperfine energy state. energy states.631. the The cesium-atom clock is used to define the second. The second is defined as the duration of 9. The most stable cesium-atom clocks have an error of about plus or minus one second in .The most precise timekeeping devices are atomic clocks. The cesium-atom clock is very accurate and remains stable over long periods of one million years. or the time interval between wave crests.
A clock built in the 14th century by powered by a 227-kg (500-lb) weight that descended a distance of 9. but they are more compact and less expensive. Until that time. Throughout history.” was first applied in the present in the 14th century. The first recorded examples are found or hour teller. cumbersome devices. in which the flow of sand is used to measure time intervals. mechanical time indicators installed in bell towers in the late Middle Ages. emitting energy in the form of an clock is very stable for several hours at a time. a focused magnetic field selects hydrogen atoms in a specific hyperfine energy state. Clockworks were initially heavy. a vertical stick or obelisk that casts a shadow. or clepsydra. a time-measuring instrument was known as a horologium. a weight falling under the force of gravity was substituted for the flow of water in time devices. by Greek inventor Ctesibius of Alexandria. atoms are forced to change to a lower energy state. The name clock. electromagnetic wave. the correct transition frequency has been reached and the period of the wave can be used to measure time. even to the inclusion of gearing in about 270 BC Eventually. The earliest type of timekeeper. and the water clock. in which the flow of water indicates passage of time. are first forced to change their hyperfine energy state and are then subjected to microwave radiation to return them to their original state. In a hydrogen clock. The first hemispherical sundial was described burning a knotted rope and noting the length of time required for the fire to travel from one knot to the next. which originally meant “bell. time has been measured by the movement of the earth relative to the sun and stars. When many atoms return to their original state. however. anticipating the mechanical clock. Ancient methods of measuring is still in existence. When many atoms make the transition.8 m (32 ft). The period of this emitted wave is used to measure time. The hydrogen VI HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT BC. The hydrogen clock and the ammonia clock rely on the maser principle. An Egyptian shadow BC was the hours in the absence of sunlight included the notched candle and the Chinese practice of by Chaldean astronomer Berossus. Clepsydras became more complicated. sense to the huge. The rubidium atoms. or gnomon. The Henry De Vick of Württemberg for the royal palace (now the Palais de Justice) in Paris was . Devices almost as old as the shadow clock and sundial include the hourglass. It employs the same basic principle as the cesium-atom clock.The rubidium clock uses the transition of the rubidium-87 atom between two hyperfine energy states. dating from as far back as 3500 clock of the 8th century about the 3rd century BC shadow clock. These they begin to oscillate between the two states. A The Mechanical Clock The historical origin of the mechanical clock is obscure. Rubidium clocks are not as stable or as accurate as cesiumatom clocks.
which permitted the use in clocks of a pendulum with a small arc of oscillation. Jeweled bearings to reduce friction and prolong the life of watchworks In the centuries that preceded the introduction of machine-made parts. In 1657 Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens showed how a pendulum could be used to regulate a clock. and clockworks were used in the towers of late . and John Harrison developed a means C Watches Watchworks were developed when coiled springs were introduced as a source of power. Early clocks were highly ornamented. is still in existence. durable clocks and watches. for the balance wheel. This type of spring was used in Italy about 1450. and crystals to protect both the dial and hands. and Minute and second hands. About 1500 Peter Henlein. clockmaker George Graham improved the escapement. Germany. invented a fusee. A guild known as the Clockmakers Company. known as isochronism. B The Pendulum A series of inventions in the 17th and 18th centuries increased the accuracy of clockworks and the property of a pendulum. first appeared on were introduced in the 18th century. Many bore sculptured figures. Ten years later English physicist Robert Hooke invented an escapement. and Switzerland also produced many fine artisans whose work was noted for beauty and a high degree of mechanical perfection. which indicated the nearest quarter hour. 17th-century watches. clockmaking and its apprenticeship. invented about 1660 by Robert Hooke. Other improvements that increased the accuracy of watches a lever escapement devised by British inventor Thomas Mudge about 1765. Galileo had described late in the 16th century constant. British of compensating for variations in the length of a pendulum resulting from changes in temperature. to equalize the uneven pull of the spring. or spiral pulley. Clocks of that period had dials with only one hand. a locksmith in Nürnberg. included a spiral hairspring.apparatus for controlling its rate of fall was crude and the clock inaccurate. stating that the period of the swing is reduced the weight and bulk of the mechanisms. In 1525 another artisan. Such local craft organizations as the Paris Guild of Clockmakers (1544) were organized to control the art of London in 1630. Germany. craftsmanship of a high order was required to manufacture accurate. founded in D Decorative Clocks The clock was often a decorative as well as a useful instrument. The Netherlands. began producing portable timepieces known popularly as Nürnberg eggs. Jacob Zech of Prague.
together with the . pillar-and-scroll clock. Connecticut. Chauncey Jerome of Bristol. In the early 1800s. clock. were made in the form of lanterns or birdcages. Beginning in watch parts at home to be assembled and sold by a master watchmaker. About the same time in American Revolution (1775-1783). Despite a reputation for depression of 1837. Massachusetts. At first a cottage industry. which required winding only once a day. with families manufacturing kept in a pocket. devised a rolled-brass clock movement that could be sold at a low price. Watches were not produced in significant volume in the United States until about 1800. when Thomas Harland of Norwich. Connecticut. Some early English clocks pendulum and weight exposed beneath a gear housing at the top of a tall cabinet. well-seasoned wood was patented the popular banjo clock. The grandfather. established a factory with a capacity of 200 units a year. produced the first Americandesigned watch and the first containing a machine-made part.medieval Europe to set in motion huge statues of saints or allegorical figures. or case. Connecticut. Simon Willard of Roxbury. and it continues to be a popular ornamental clock. Connecticut. In 1836 the Pitkin brothers of East Hartford. Because of the scarcity of metals. the manufacture of this watch was discontinued as a result of the During this period. however. were made in the Black Forest of Germany as early as 1730 and are still popular. Cuckoo clocks. before the introduction of the pendulum clock. Some modern Swiss watchworks are tiny enough to fit into pencil ends or in VII PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES European clockmakers and watchmakers brought their skills and mechanical ingenuity to colonial America. and Eli Terry of Connecticut evolved a shelf clock called the Plymouth Hollow (now Thomaston). Swiss watchmaking by the 1850s had led to the development of a number of small factories and the foundation of earrings. which emerge and “sing” to tell the time. containing carved wooden birds. particularly in the villages of the Jura Mountains. Such innovations. a major industry. Switzerland became the center of a watchmaking industry. which was. Massachusetts. by 1753. Pennsylvania. in the mid-20th century. was designed before machine-cut gears were introduced. which temporarily crippled American industry. The first public clock in New York City was Mass production of clocks with interchangeable parts began in the United States after the used for the movements. church tower. found in a Boston. In 1650. Wristwatches became popular as watchworks became smaller. Seth Thomas founded the Seth Thomas Clock Company. which has the Watches were originally shaped like drums or balls and were worn suspended from a belt or the 18th century. a clock could be built in 1716 for the City Hall at Nassau and Wall streets. and a clock was installed in Independence Hall in Philadelphia. one of the largest clock factories in the world. accuracy and durability.
The Ingersol and the Ingraham. Watches also became cheaper as production rose. invented and perfected automatic production machinery in the 1850s. New designs reduced the number of parts required. working in Massachusetts. became known as the dollar watches. American horologists Aaron Dennison and Edward Howard. Warren. soon made the United States the leading clock-making country of the world. first installed in the Edinburgh Observatory. Shortt in 1921 of the Shortt Free Pendulum. could be sold for only $4 because it used a stamped-out mechanism without jewels. Later watches were even less expensive. competition reduced the price of a clock to $1 or less. who induced producers of electric power to time the alternating-current cycles carefully so that synchronous motors could be used for clocks. for example.economies of mass production. a famous American pocket watch. The invention by W. As production increased. invented by Henry E. VIII RECENT DEVELOPMENTS The electric clock was an American innovation of the early 1900s. . H. developed in England in 1955. The first improvement over the quartz clock was the cesium atomic clock. made possible the most accurate timekeeper until the introduction of the quartz clock in the United States in 1929. Watches wound with keys were replaced after 1875 by stem-wound types. The first Waterbury. and for the first time most families could afford a clock.
which has sturdy hands not jeweled bearings. New sources of power. and atomic energy.Electric wristwatches appeared on the market in 1957. body heat. synthetics have replaced precious stones in special-purpose watches include the Braille watch for the blind. are being investigated in current horological research. portable alarm clock. a quartz crystal provides the oscillations that are reduced to compute time. with a battery to power the transistorized oscillating circuit. and raised dots on the dial to mark the hours. uses liquid crystals. and cases have been perfected that seal out both dust and moisture. such as sunlight. which . The LED. produced in the 1970s. the alarm watch for the shows the day of month and the week. which functions as a tiny. pocket or wrist. The mainsprings of present-day mechanical watches are made from metals that resist breakage and rust. materials having optical properties similar to liquids and solid crystals. and the calendar watch. More recent developments have been the LED (light-emitting diode) and LCD (liquid crystal display) watches. Scientific advances in metallurgy and other fields have led to many improvements in timekeeping devices of all types. uses the light-producing characteristics of certain semiconductors to illuminate its digital time display. The LCD. Other covered with a crystal. followed in 1959 by an electronic watch that substituted a small tuning fork for the usual escapement. developed in the 1960s.
in contrast to vehicles such as balloons and airships. to great jumbo jets. The speed of . as they interact with the flow of air around them. meant to carry a single pilot. because they have rigid wings. which are lighter than air. control surfaces. the upward force on the plane. or special engines that permit level or climbing flight. Airplanes are heavier than air. Today there are land planes (aircraft that take off from and land on the ground). The exact shape of the surface of a wing is critical to its ability to generate lift. and power plants. and airplanes that can leave the borne flight. amphibians (aircraft that can operate on both land and sea). ground using the jet thrust of their engines or rotors (rotating wings) and then switch to wing- II HOW AN AIRPLANE FLIES An airplane flies because its wings create lift. such as movable parts of the wings and tail. The wings alter the direction of the flow of air as it passes. which make it possible to guide their flight. seaplanes (aircraft that take off from and land on water). Airplanes also differ from other heavier-than-air craft. Modern airplanes range from ultralight aircraft weighing no more than 46 kg (100 lb) and several hundred tons of cargo. Airplanes are adapted to specialized uses.Airplane I INTRODUCTION Airplane. engine-driven vehicle that can fly through the air supported by the action of air against its wings. such as helicopters. and weighing nearly 454 metric tons. capable of carrying several hundred people.
Lift is one of the four primary forces acting upon an airplane. When lift is greater than weight. A fourth force acting on all airplanes is drag. When an airplane is level or rising. under certain circumstances. this angle causes them to push air flowing under them downward. and the lift generated by the wing can be modeled using equations derived from Bernoulli’s principle. and in reaction. This causes lift. the wings pushing air downward is the action.5 metric tons in order for the airplane to leave the ground.5 metric tons. Thrust is the force that propels an airplane forward through the air. it will climb. thrust. a crop duster. Thrust is provided by the airplane’s propulsion system. an airplane will accelerate. but because of its large size. is one of the marvels of modern aircraft technology. In this case. An airplane’s wings push down on the air flowing past them. aerodynamic Managing the balance between these four forces is the challenge of flight. the amount of drag associated with it. it is also creating a significant amount of drag. Designing a wing that is powerful enough to lift an airplane off the ground. the front edges of its wings ride higher than the rear edges. thick wing because high lift is more important than airplanes.the airflow and the angle at which the wing meets the oncoming airstream also contribute to the amount of lift generated. A steeper angle of attack will cause the wings to push states that every action produces an equal and opposite reaction (see Mechanics: The Third Law). either a propeller or jet engine or combination of the two. Air flowing over the top of the wing is also deflected downward as it follows the more air downward. such as an airplane through air. with shapes that slip easily through the air. a faster moving fluid (such as air) will have a lower pressure than a slower moving fluid. The weight of the airplane must be overcome by the lift produced by the wings. and drag. which states that. Weight is the force that offsets lift. the upward force on the plane. If an airplane weighs 4. The angle the wings make with the horizontal is called the angle of attack. because it acts in the opposite direction. . That is why high-speed fighters and missiles have such thin wings—they need to minimize drag created by lift. may have a big. The others are weight. When thrust is greater than drag. Conversely. the air pushes up on the wings. Drag is also minimized by designing sleek. produces friction as it interacts with that fluid and because it must move the fluid out of its way to do its work. then the lift produced by its wings must be greater than 4. A high-lift wing surface. Lift is also often explained using Bernoulli’s principle. for example. Drag is created because any object moving through a fluid. which flies at relatively slow speeds. As the wings move through the air. may create a great deal of lift for an airplane. The air on the top of an airplane wing moves faster and is at a lower pressure than the air underneath the wing. and yet efficient enough to fly at high speeds over extremely long distances. and the air pushing the wings upward is the reaction. The third law of motion formulated by English physicist Isaac Newton specially designed shape of the wing.
which has the same effect as reducing thrust. by retracting the landing gear and flaps. Fighter pilots in World War II (1939-1945) first ran up against this so-called barrier in high-speed dives during air combat. pilots lost control of the aircraft as shock waves built up on control surfaces. The pilot can add thrust either to speed up or climb. The pilot can lower the landing gear into the airstream and deploy the landing flaps on the wings to increase drag. After World War II. and drag. Or.Using various control surfaces and propulsion systems. A pilot can reduce thrust in order to slow down or descend. The sound barrier is not a physical barrier but a speed at which the behavior of the airflow around an airplane changes dramatically. the pilot can accelerate or climb. primarily for military airplanes. and thereby reducing drag. a pilot can manipulate the balance of the four forces to change the direction or speed. but with commercial applications as well. III SUPERSONIC FLIGHT In addition to balancing lift. In some cases. thrust. modern airplanes have to contend with another phenomenon. tackled the realm of supersonic flight. effectively locking the controls and leaving the crews helpless. designers . weight.
of sound. At sea level. sound travels through air at approximately 1.Supersonic flight is defined as flight at a speed greater than that of the local speed of sound. This shock wave moves back at a sharp angle as the speed increases. At the speed .220 km/h (760 mph). a shock wave consisting of highly compressed air forms at the nose of the plane.
7 is about the limit for conventional. Speeds at or near supersonic flight are measured in units called Mach numbers. For example. which represent the ratio of the speed of the airplane to the speed of sound (subsonic). if the aircraft moved too fast. was generally limited to over-water routes. the XB-70 Valkyrie bomber. a commercial supersonic aircraft. but harder to manufacture and maintain. and the SR-71 spy plane. constructed of more temperature-resistant materials. Above that speed. One of the most difficult practical barriers to supersonic flight is the fact that high-speed flight produces heat through friction. and expensive. Sonic booms at low altitudes over populated areas are generally considered a significant problem and have prevented most supersonic boom. at Mach 1. enormous temperatures are reached at temperature requirements. Airplane designers have concluded that a speed of Mach 2. For example. This limitation impacted the commercial viability of the Concorde. speeds of Mach 5 and above are called hypersonic. an airplane is traveling at the speed of sound (transonic). Titanium and other relatively exotic. relatively inexpensive materials and fuels. then the temperature rose above the surface of the craft. and would most likely have to find a way IV AIRPLANE STRUCTURE . an airplane is traveling at twice the speed of sound (supersonic flight). an airplane would need to be to cool its fuel.Supersonic flight was achieved in 1947 for the first time by the Bell X-1 rocket plane. which ended its regular passenger service in October 2003. culminating in the 1960s and 1970s with Mach 3+ speedsters such as the Soviet MiG- The shock wave created by an airplane moving at supersonic and hypersonic speeds represents a rather abrupt change in air pressure and is perceived on the ground as a sonic distance of the observer from the flight path. flown by Air Force test pilot Chuck Yeager. Speeds of Designers in Europe and the United States developed succeeding generations of military 25 Foxbat interceptor. sound as it moves air. or to those over sparsely populated regions of the world. the Anglo-French Concorde. An airplane traveling at less than Mach 1 is traveling below the speed of Mach 1 to 5 are referred to as supersonic. aircraft. At such high speeds. the Concorde was forced to fly a flight profile dictated by safe limits for the aluminum structure of the airplane. metals are more heat-resistant. the exact nature of which varies depending upon how far away the aircraft is and the airplanes from efficiently utilizing overland routes. Designers today believe they can help lessen the impact of sonic booms created by supersonic airliners but probably cannot eliminate them. at Mach 2.
and a set of specialized control surfaces mounted on the wings and tail. landing gear. tail.Airplanes generally share the same basic configuration—each usually has a fuselage. A Fuselage . wings.
Others have minimal wings. of the properties. or wings that seem to be merely extensions of a blended. covered with fabric that was sewn tightly and varnished to be extremely stiff. A conventional wing has one series of ribs. and linen for the cloth covering. Perpendicular to the spar are a wing. These are carefully constructed to shape the wing in a manner that determines its lifting . fuel. tail. the fuselage may be nothing more than a minimal structure connecting the wings. by definition. electronics. the fuselage may house the engines. where the pilot controls the airplane. In a military fighter plane. Wood and fabric wings often used spruce for the structure. cargo. and engines. or leading edge. or body of the airplane. because of that material’s relatively light weight and high strength. have wings.The fuselage is the main cabin. Generally the fuselage has a cockpit section at the front end. The cabin section may be designed to carry passengers. aerodynamic fuselage. or more spars that run from one end of the wing to the other. B Wings All airplanes. or trailing edge. Some are nearly all wing with a very small cockpit. Before the 20th century. or both. which run from the front. cockpit. In some of the sleekest of gliders and ultralight airplanes. and some weapons. wings were made of wooden ribs and spars (or beams). and a cabin section. to the rear. such as the space shuttle.
A pilot controls pitch by moving a control column or stick. and visibility for the pilot. and elevators.5 m (about 5 to 6 ft) above the other. of the airplane’s nose. except for flying wings. benefiting from modern computer-aided design (CAD). combined with new construction techniques. The rudder is at the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer and is used by the airplane to help control turns. wood. have a tail assembly attached to the rear of the fuselage. has been a great success as a flying machine. but the rudder helps keep the turn coordinated by serving much like a boat’s rudder to move the nose of the airplane left or right. Over the years. the B- computerized flight controls. After World War I (1914-1918). Moving the elevators up into the airstream will cause the tail to go down and the nose to pitch up. which look like small wings. weapons. a rudder. in fact. or single-wing airplane. and 1940s. An airplane actually turns by banking. A monoplane’s single wing gives it great advantages in speed. simplicity.Early airplanes were usually biplanes—craft with two wings on each side of the fuselage. so aircraft engineers eventually pursued the monoplane. and. its wings laterally. and fuel. . Aircraft pioneers found the upper and lower wing to create a strong structure with substantial lift. airliners. developed in the 1980s. Flying wings. as they are called. Popular magazines routinely show artists’ concepts of flying-wing into conventional airline and airport facilities. which are pushed by the pilot. be nothing but wing. American aerospace manufacturer Northrop Grumman Corporation’s flying wing. Moving an airplane’s nose left or right is known as a yaw motion. many airplane designers have postulated that the ideal airplane would. consisting of vertical and horizontal stabilizers. The components of the tail assembly are collectively referred to as the empennage. Elevators are control surfaces at the trailing edge of horizontal stabilizers. usually one mounted about 1. Rudder motion is usually controlled by two pedals on the floor of the cockpit. or moving. but airline and airport managers have been unable to integrate these unusual shapes C Tail Assembly Most airplanes. or pitch. The elevators control the up-and-down motion. The stabilizers serve to help keep the airplane stable while in flight. or stealth bomber. were first developed in the 1930s and 2 bomber. and fabric through the air. these materials enabled the development of modern all-metal wings capable not only of developing lift but of housing landing gear. In pushing the they could build such wings relatively easily and brace them together using wires to connect many cables. these designs created a great deal of drag. designers began moving toward wings made of steel and aluminum. advanced materials.
the pilot must press upon rudder pedals on the floor of the cockpit. a plane may pitch its nose up or down. In order to bank left. The An airplane may roll. by the pilot. the ailerons In order to yaw. or turn the airplane’s nose left or right. which runs straight down through the middle of the airplane. the left aileron is lifted up into the airstream over the left wing. the right aileron is pushed down into the airstream. climb. were originally developed for aircraft and are used to gain maximum possible braking power on wet or icy runways. such as a 400-metric-ton airliner aborting a takeoff at the last possible moment. moving about its lateral axis. wheels. which may be thought of as a straight line running from wingtip to wingtip. and it makes use of this same airflow to move in any way about the three axes. vertical axis. banking its wings either left or right. Antiskid braking systems. The right wing then comes up. emergencies. Having retractable gear greatly E Control Components An airplane is capable of three types of motion that revolve around three separate axes.D Landing Gear All airplanes must have some type of landing gear. Tires must be capable of going from a Brakes. as well as carrying nearly 454 metric tons. The airplane may yaw its nose either left or right about the plane may fly steadily in one direction and at one altitude—or it may turn. which runs the length of the craft. the pilot will manipulate controls in the cockpit that direct control surfaces on the wings and tail to move into the airstream. Modern aircraft employ brakes. they can be pulled up into the wing or fuselage after takeoff. In order to bank and begin a turn. Push down on the left pedal. thereby increasing slightly the lift produced by the right wing. common on automobiles today. a conventional airplane will deflect control surfaces on the trailing edge of the wings known as ailerons. often incorporating special heat-resistant materials. pitch. The airplane will yaw. and the rudder at the trailing . must be able to handle standstill to nearly 322 km/h (200 mph) at landing. Finally. creating a small amount of drag and decreasing the lift produced by that wing. At the same time. depending on which control surfaces or combination of surfaces are moved. or descend. or deflected. about the longitudinal axis. and tires designed specifically for the demands of flight. To do so. An airplane relies on the movement of air across its wings for lift. the left wing goes down. To bank to the right. are moved in exactly the opposite fashion. and the airplane banks to the left. Larger and more complex aircraft typically have retractable landing gear—so called because reduces the drag generated by the wheel structures that would otherwise hang out in the airstream. or roll.
These instruments have many variations. Flaps and slats are at low speeds. slats. They may include an airspeed indicator. and a compass. high-speed jet aircraft have airspeed indicators that . the pilot usually pulls or pushes on a control wheel or stick. Jet-engine instruments measure the flow. In order to pitch the nose up or down. to control the flight of the aircraft. an aileron tab acts like a miniature aileron within the larger aileron. For example. and oil pressures and temperatures. For example. the entire horizontal stabilizer moves in small increments to serve the same function as a trim tab. as well as gas temperatures and fuel Flight instruments are those used to tell a pilot the course. an artificial horizon. Leading-edge slats usually extend from the front of the wing at low speeds increase drag and slow the approach of a landing airplane. pushing the tail down and the nose up. trim tabs. and fuel systems. Pushing forward on the wheel causes the elevators to drop down. altitude. and to navigate. lifting the tail and forcing the nose down. Elevator trim tabs are usually used to help set the pitch attitude airplanes. and attitude of the airplane. Flaps also often serve to Trim tabs are miniature control surfaces incorporated into larger control surfaces. Pulling back on the wheel deflects the elevators upward into the airstream. the left rudder moves the nose of the plane to the left. speed. hydraulic. spoilers. On some airplanes.edge of the vertical stabilizer moves to the left. thereby moving the elevators at the trailing edge of the horizontal stabilizer. A push on the right pedal causes the airplane to yaw to the right. thereby increasing lift. they also can be extended back generally used during takeoff and landing to increase the amount of lift produced by the wing beyond the normal trailing edge of the wing to increase the surface area of the wing as well as change its shape. Flaps usually droop down from the trailing edge of the wing. Piston-engine instruments monitor engine and exhaustgas temperatures. although some jets have leading-edge flaps as well. an altimeter. As in a boat. rotational speeds of the rotating blades in the turbines. and speed brakes. These kinds of controls are used to adjust more precisely the flight path of an airplane that may be slightly out of balance or alignment. Airplanes that are more complex also have a set of secondary control surfaces that may include devices such as flaps. depending on the complexity and performance of the airplane. On some F Instruments Airplane pilots rely on a set of instruments in the cockpit to monitor airplane systems. to change the way the air flows over the wing. Systems instruments will tell a pilot about the condition of the airplane’s engines and electrical. (the angle of the airplane in relation to the Earth) for a given speed through the air.
combined with special cockpit displays. depending on its airspeed and momentum. airplane is banking. in relation to the Earth. V PROPULSION Airplanes use either piston or turbine (rotating blades) engines to provide propulsion. but many airplanes now employ without any help from the ground. or diving. a turbine engine either turns a propeller through a gearbox. known as Instrument Landing to land during conditions of poor visibility. In smaller airplanes. developed for the United States military but now used by many civilian pilots. In larger airplanes. . The compass is the simplest of these. Specially equipped airplanes can use ultraprecise radio beacons and receivers. and commercial airplanes also have instruments that aid in navigation. provides an airplane with its position to within a few meters. a conventional gas-powered piston engine turns a propeller.may indicate speeds both in nautical miles per hour (slightly faster than miles per hour used with ground vehicles) and in Mach number. Many airplanes still employ radio receivers that tune to a satellite navigation systems and computers to navigate from any point on the globe to another ground-based radio-beacon system in order to navigate cross-country. Systems (ILS) and Microwave Landing Systems (MLS). which either pulls or pushes an airplane through the air. or uses its jet thrust directly to move an airplane through the air. An airplane with its nose up General-aviation (private aircraft). climbing. military. The artificial horizon indicates whether the may or may not be climbing. The Global Positioning System (GPS).
however. only a relatively small fraction of which is sent through the core for combustion. in order to operate in the airless vacuum of space. The simplest is the ramjet. for combustion. compressor section. and an exhaust nozzle. they fall short of the higher performance possible with The turbine or jet engine operates on the principle of Newton’s third law of motion. a turbine to take some power out of the exhaust A modern derivative known as the turbofan. adds a large fan in front of the compressor section. Although enormously improved over the past 90 years of flight and still suitable for modern jet propulsion and required for commercial and military aviation. which is usually driven by the jet . This fan pulls an enormous amount of air into the engine case. Known as turboprops. This fan flow is mixed with the hot jet exhaust at the rear of the engine. In a turbojet. The rest runs along the outside of the core case and inside the engine casing. or fan-jet. which takes advantage of high speed to ram or force the air into the engine. are still relatively complicated pieces of pushed their engineering colleagues constantly for engines with more power. Aircraft designers throughout the 20th century and greater reliability. all of the air taken into the compressor at the front of the engine is sent through the core of the engine. mixes it with fuel and ignites the mixture. lighter weight. by itself. where it cools and quiets the exhaust noise. these engines produce most of their thrust through the propeller. This elegant simplicity is offset by the need to boost a ramjet to several hundred miles an hour before ram-air compression is sufficient to operate the engine. The earliest powered airplanes relied on crude steam or gas engines. a combustion chamber. which states that for every action. the engine must provide enough power to move the weight of the airplane forward through the airstream. burned. machinery. there is an opposite but equal reaction. There are several different types of jet engines. These piston engines are examples of internal-combustion engines. the rocket must carry along its own air. A rocket engine operates on the same principle. The rearward force is balanced with an equal force that pushes forward the jet engine and the airplane attached to it. with many precision-machined parts moving through large ranges and in complex motions. The turbojet is based on the jet-propulsion system of the ramjet. which then explodes with great force rearward through the exhaust nozzle. A jet sucks air into the front. accelerated rearward by the fan. squeezes the air by pulling it through a series of spinning compressors. even though it is never burned. produces a great deal of thrust In fact.In either case. in the form of solid propellant or liquid oxidizer. acting much like a propeller. some smaller jet engines are used to turn propellers. eliminating the need for the spinning compressor section. and released. but with the addition of a and spin the compressor. this high-volume mass of air. many smaller general aviation aircraft. Piston engines. Thrust from the engine is derived purely from the acceleration of the released exhaust gases out the rear. except that. In addition.
usually into the fuselage or wings. or and commercial aviation. A land plane usually has wheels to taxi.to 70-passenger-capacity range use km/h (400 mph). carrier-based airplanes. and many smaller airliners in the 19. and space them seem only distantly related. vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL). Landing gear may be fixed. but their capabilities and uses make A Land Planes Land planes are designed to operate from a hard surface. turboprops. the landing gear. The wheels are sometimes referred B Carrier-Based Aircraft . retractable. a turbine engine is extremely efficient. and land. as in more-sophisticated airplanes in general the Arctic or Antarctic regions have skis in place of wheels. amphibians. although they are often called. typically a paved runway. as in some general-aviation airplanes. Land planes.engine through a set of gears. together with the associated brakes. As a power source for a propeller. seaplanes. Some land planes are specially equipped to operate from grass or other unfinished surfaces. shuttles all take advantage of the same basic technology. take off. They are particularly efficient at lower altitudes and medium speeds up to 640 VI TYPES OF AIRPLANES There are a wide variety of types of airplanes. although some specialized aircraft operating in to as the undercarriage. short takeoff and landing (STOL).
in which the C Seaplanes . to handle the stresses of catapult-assisted takeoff.Carrier-based airplanes are a specially modified type of land plane designed for takeoff from and landing aboard naval aircraft carriers. and arrested landings. made by using a hook attached to the underside of the aircraft’s tail to catch one of four wires strung across the flight deck of the carrier. Carrier airplanes have a strengthened structure. including their landing gear. craft is launched by a steam-driven catapult.
modified with floats instead of wheels so they can operate from water. After taking off. a VTOL airplane usually transitions to wing-borne flight in order to cover a longer distance or carry a significant load. but the weight of the airplane is borne by the floating hull. some flying boats were fitted with so-called beaching gear. they may have D Amphibians Amphibians. are often ordinary land planes have been designed from scratch to operate only from water bases. an amphibian is a true seaplane. Such seaplanes have small floats attached to their outer wing panels to help steady them at low speeds on the water. In many landing gear that can be extended to allow the airplane to taxi right out of the water onto land. sometimes called floatplanes or pontoon planes. pointed down at the Earth. Historically.Seaplanes. with a boat hull and the addition of specially designed cradles on wheels positioned under the floating aircraft. . Known as flying boats. a system of rolled onto land. to take off and land straight up and down. operate from both water and land bases. A number of seaplanes fuselages that resemble and perform like ship hulls. A helicopter is a type of VTOL aircraft. cases. like their animal namesakes. but there are very few VTOL airplanes. which then allowed the aircraft to be E Vertical Takeoff and Landing Airplanes Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) airplanes typically use the jet thrust from their engines.
a military attack plane that uses rotating nozzles attached to its jet engine to direct the engine exhaust in the appropriate direction. much like a helicopter. The most prominent example of a true VTOL airplane flying today is the AV-8B Harrier II. the engines and rotors are positioned vertically. Flown in the United States by the Marine Corps. and the wing takes on the load of the craft. Italy. propeller-like rotating wings or rotors driven by jet engines at the wingtips. however. G Space Shuttle The space shuttle. Their designs usually employ wings and high-lift devices on the wings optimized for best performance during takeoff and landing. STOL airplanes are usually cargo airplanes. where it was originally developed. as well as in Spain. as distinguished from an airplane that has a wing optimized for high-speed cruise at high altitude. When the space shuttle takes off. For takeoff and landing. which has large. although some serve in a passenger-carrying capacity as well. or it can be flown to operating areas near the ground troops it supports in its ground-attack role.One unique type of VTOL aircraft is the tilt-rotor. the Harrier can take off vertically from smaller ships. the engine/rotor combination tilts forward. F Short Takeoff and Landing Airplanes Short Takeoff and Landing (STOL) airplanes are designed to be able to function on relatively short runways. India. and United Kingdom. flown by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). After takeoff. is an aircraft unlike any other because it flies as a fixed-wing airplane within the atmosphere and as a spacecraft outside Earth’s atmosphere. it flies like a rocket .
During landing. by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). military. through. the shuttle becomes the world’s most sophisticated glider. by other national aviation authorities.175 metric tons of thrust generated by its solid-fuel rocket boosters and liquid-fueled main engines to power its way up. Modern large commercial-airplane manufacturers—such The Boeing Company in the United jet airliners carry anywhere from 100 passengers to more than 500 over short and long distances. Today’s . usually by carrying cargo or passengers for hire (see Air Transport Industry). VII CLASSES OF AIRPLANES Airplanes can be grouped into a handful of major classes. such as commercial. and in other countries. all of which fall under different government-mandated certification A Commercial Airplanes Commercial aircraft are those used for profit making.with wings. relying on the 3. They are strictly regulated—in the United States. States and Airbus in Europe—offer a wide variety of aircraft with different capabilities. general-aviation airplanes. by Transport Canada. atmosphere. and and operating rules. and out of the landing without propulsion. in Canada.
such as missiles. although some airplanes have both capabilities. Some fighters have a ground-attack . in either defensive or offensive situations. and observation (see Military Aviation). Declining ticket sales for the high-priced service. Fighters are designed to engage in air combat have been capable of Mach 2+ flight (a Mach number represents the ratio of the speed of an role as well and are designed to carry both air-to-air weapons. which cost about $9. but it was ended because of budget and environmental concerns in 1971.000 and up crash in 2000 grounded the Concorde for a full year. It returned to service only to witness a B Military Airplanes Military aircraft are usually grouped into four categories: combat. The United at twice the speed of sound. profitability. The Concorde ended its regular passenger service in October 2003 due to its lack of for a round-trip fare. cargo. Since the 1950s many fighters airplane to the speed of sound as it travels through air).Beginning in 1976 the British-French Concorde supersonic transport (SST) carried passengers of the two nations that funded its development during the late 1960s and 1970s. training. combined with higher costs led to the Concorde’s demise. and air-towith other airplanes. Combat airplanes are generally either fighters or bombers. The Concorde flew for British Airways and Air France. flag carriers States had an SST program. A fatal air sharp decline in airline travel following the September 11 terrorist attacks.
Some well-known bombers include the Boeing B-52. order to fly under enemy radar defenses. Bombers such as the B-52 are designed to fly fast at low altitudes. and the Su-27 Flanker. may use sophisticated . the Boeing F-15 Eagle. such as bombs. Bombers are designed to carry large air-to-ground-weapons loads and either penetrate or avoid enemy air defenses in order to deliver those weapons. and the Northrop-Grumman B-2 stealth bomber.ground weapons. the Lockheed-Martin F-16 Falcon. following the terrain. such as the B-2. Fighters include aircraft such as the Panavia Tornado. in radar-defeating technologies to fly virtually unobserved. while others. the MiG-29 Fulcrum. the Boeing B-1.
Such tankers include the Boeing KC-135 and KC-10. artillery pieces. Cargo planes such as the giant Lockheed C- . armored personnel 5B and Boeing C-17 were designed expressly for such roles. and even smaller aircraft.Today’s military cargo airplanes are capable of carrying enormous tanks. Some cargo planes can serve a dual role as aerial gas stations. refueling different types of military airplanes while in flight. carriers.
observation airplanes were developed solely for highly specialized missions. also carry weapons that can be fired by ground operators using the aircraft’s video and infrared cameras to locate their targets. and capable of hauling several hundred pounds VIII HISTORY . Some UAVs. factor. California. or transports.All military pilots go through rigorous training and education programs using military training airplanes to prepare them to fly the high-performance aircraft of the armed forces. containing navigational instructions and operated from the ground. A final category of military airplane is the observation. the T-37 and T-38. highly maneuverable. known as Unmanned Combat Aerial C General-Aviation Aircraft General-aviation aircraft are certified for and intended primarily for noncommercial or private operations. aircraft. They typically begin the flight training in relatively simple. appointments. Large farms require efficient ways to spread fertilizer and insecticides over a large area. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) also were developed for reconnaissance in situations considered too dangerous for piloted aircraft or in instances where pilot fatigue would be a based in San Diego. of chemicals. Inc. UAVs include the Predator drone. ultralight airplanes to sleek twin turboprops capable of carrying eight people. crop dusters are rugged. They relay video and battlegrounds during the day or at night. crop dusters lack sophisticated navigation aids and complex systems. a two-seat airplane. uses specialized engines and fuel to reach altitudes greater than 25.. propeller airplanes and move into basic jets before specializing in a career path involving fighters. Not intended for serious crosscountry navigation. A very specialized type of airplane. Business aircraft transport business executives to all-weather capability. These unpiloted aircraft are flown by software programs infrared images in real time to military commanders. Most business airplanes require more reliable performance and more range and Another class of general-aviation airplanes is used in agriculture. and the Boeing T-45 Goshawk.000 m (80. Pleasure aircraft range from simple single-seat. providing instantaneous views of Vehicles (UCAVs). They can be seen swooping low over farm fields.000 ft) and speeds well over Mach 3. With the advent of the Lockheed U-2 spy plane in the 1950s. Lockheed’s SR-71. Some military trainers include the T-34 Mentor. or reconnaissance. bombers. made by General Atomics Aeronautical Systems.
the kite. Cayley sent his unwilling coachman on the . One was the Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci. Cayley laid the foundations inclined plane to provide lift. and with separate airplane. both with models and with full-size gliders. practices. in his third full-size machine. Cayley abandoned the ornithopter tradition. and other devices and first gliding flight in history. and roll stability. flight control by means of a single of aerodynamics. technical value to experimenters but was a source of inspiration to aspiring engineers. when it could furnish little of A The First Airplanes Between 1799 and 1809 English baronet Sir George Cayley created the concept of the modern by the wings. He demonstrated. called ornithopters. Leonardo was preoccupied chiefly with bird flight and with flapping-wing machines. three devices important to aviation had been invented in Europe in the Middle Ages and had reached a high stage of development by Leonardo’s time—the windmill. streamlining.Before the end of the 18th century. an early propeller. Apart from Leonardo’s efforts. Through his published works. In 1853. in which both lift and thrust are provided propelling devices to provide thrust. His aeronautical work lay unknown until late in the 19th century. an early airplane wing. pitch. few people had applied themselves to the study of flight. and designed airplanes with rigid wings to provide lift. and the model helicopter. during the 15th century. the use of the rudder-elevator unit mounted on a universal joint.
powerful engine. circle. He was killed in a gliding accident American inventor Samuel Pierpont Langley had been working for several years on flying machines. unpiloted aircraft. and a wing and structure that were both strong and lightweight. fuselage. turn. called the Flyer. . Between 1891 and 1896 German aeronautical engineer Otto Lilienthal made thousands of successful flights in hang gliders of his own design. the unpiloted Aerodrome. of sound scientific research and engineering. on December 17. Orville Wright made the first successful flight of a piloted. and in 1896 made the first sustained flight of any mechanically propelled heavier-than-air craft. are considered the fathers of the first successful piloted heavier-than-air flying machine. up to half an hour on occasion. Ohio. and thus prevented Langley from earning the place in history claimed by the Wright brothers. which the Wrights constructed in 1905. Langley began experimenting in 1892 with a steam-powered. The distance was less than the wingspan of many modern airliners. make figure eights. heavier-than-air craft. and the airplane brushed the ground over a distance of 50 m (160 ft). While successful as gliders. the Wright brothers put together the combination At Kitty Hawk. a reliable transmission and efficient propellers. hung in a frame between the wings and controlled his gliders entirely by swinging his torso control system and a reliable method for powering the craft. North Carolina. self-propelled craft. That first flight traveled a distance of about 37 m (120 ft). and remain in the air for as long as the fuel lasted.In 1843 British inventor William Samuel Henson published his patented design for an Aerial airplane—a fixed-wing monoplane with propellers. It could bank. an effective system for controlling the aircraft. was the world’s first fully practical airplane. Through the disciplines of critical characteristics that other designs of the day lacked—a relatively lightweight (337 kg/750 lb). Steam Carriage. The Aerodrome never successfully carried a person. Henson’s design did more than any other to establish the form of the modern In 1890 French engineer Clément Ader built a steam-powered airplane and made the first actual flight of a piloted. Lilienthal and legs in the direction he wished to go. but it represented the beginning of a new age in technology and human achievement. B The First Airplane Flight American aviators Orville Wright and Wilbur Wright of Dayton. his designs lacked a in 1896. 1903. Virginia. However. Their fourth and final flight of the day lasted 59 seconds and covered only 260 m (852 ft). suffered from design faults. Launched by catapult from a houseboat on the Potomac River near Quantico. The third Flyer. the flight was not sustained. and wheeled landing gear. Inventors continued to pursue the dream of sustained flight. heavier-than-air. Steam-powered models made by Henson in 1847 were promising but unsuccessful. as Langley called it. and with flight control by means of rear elevator and rudder.
air craft as early as 1898. and the first nonstop flight across the Mediterranean Sea. airplanes. where daredevil pilots drew large crowds but few investors. for a time.C Early Military and Public Interest The airplane. In 1908 the Wrights demonstrated their airplane to the U. French engineer Louis Blériot crossed the English channel in a Blériot XI.E. and other stunts proved the maneuverability of France to Egypt. Orville crashed while carrying an army observer. were considered superior to their Allied competition. 1909. while circling the field at Fort died from his injuries and became the first fatality from the crash of a powered airplane. the airplane was relegated mostly to the county-fair circuit. That same year. Army’s Myer. more capable. Virginia. when monoplane of his own design. and upside-down flying. which had long been using balloons to observe the battlefield and expressed an interest in heavier-thanSignal Corps at Fort Myer. 2c version of this airplane was so successful that nearly 2. such as the D-VII and D-VIII flown by German pilots. In 1911 the U.” Aerobatics. Also in 1911. D Planes of World War I During World War I. was not immediately recognized for its potential. or acrobatic flying. like many other milestone inventions throughout history. Blériot’s channel crossing made clear to the world the airplane’s American pilot Eugene Ely took off from and landed on warships.000-km (2. and this potential was further demonstrated in 1910 and 1911.500-mi) flight from was introduced. Selfridge On July 25. and deadlier combat airplanes. The year 1913 became known as the “glorious year of flying. prior to World War I (1914-1918). In September of that year. The B. the development of the airplane accelerated dramatically.E. a wartime potential. European designers such as Louis Blériot and Dutch-American engineer Anthony Herman Fokker exploited basic concepts created by the Wrights and developed ever faster. Long-distance flights made in 1913 included a 4. from France to Tunisia. Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge. Army used a Wright brothers’ biplane to make the first live bomb test from an airplane. This was a biplane with a large float beneath the center of the lower wing and two smaller floats beneath the tips of the lower wing. loops. American inventor and aviator Glenn Curtiss introduced the first practical seaplane. The resulting Fokker Eindecker monoplane fighter was. a modified Farnborough B.S. One exception was the United States War Department. 2 proved itself to be the first naturally stable airplane in the world. . with many stops. In Britain.S. During the very early 1900s.000 were subsequently built. the airplane was used in its first wartime operation when an Italian captain flew over and observed Turkish positions during the Italo-Turkish War of 1911 to 1912. Fokker’s biplanes. the most successful fighter in the skies. In 1915 Fokker mounted a machine gun with a timing gear so that the gun could fire between the rotating propellers.
outstanding early British fighters included the Sopwith Pup (1916) and the Sopwith Camel (1917). The DC-3 carried 21 passengers. James Doolittle. E Development of Commercial Aviation Commercial aviation began in January 1914. put flying within the financial reach of many enthusiasts. Boeing’s Model 247 was considered the first truly modern airliner. low-wing monoplane. fuel. It was for ten passengers. travel at 145 km/h (90 mph) and was light. or cooled engines. liquid- introduced in 1925. just 10 years after the Wrights pioneered the skies. both warring sides had fighters that could fly at altitudes of 7. California. and could travel across the country in less than 24 hours of travel time.800 m (19. Introduced in 1933. which flew as high as 5. used powerful. and landing. an American pilot and army officer. the DC-2.The concentrated research and development made necessary by wartime pressures produced great progress in airplane design and construction. Light and powerful. these engines gave strong competition to the older.000 ft) and had a top speed of 190 km/h (120 mph). 1. Notable French fighters included the Spad (1916) and the Nieuport 28 (1918). in quick succession. proved the value of Sperry’s instruments by taking off. The Moth could Instrument flying became practical in 1929. In the mid-1920s light airplanes were produced in great numbers.600 m (25. On September 24.000 ft) and speeds up to 250 km/h (155 mph). with retractable landing gear. The DC-3 quickly came to dominate commercial aviation in the late 1930s. the Douglas DC-3. An order from United Air Lines for 60 planes of this type tied up Boeing’s airliner in history. although it had to stop many times for 3s are still in service today. flying over a predetermined course. approached airplane manufacturer Donald Douglas in Long and the DC-3. strong. Post Office for airmail.S. The first regularly scheduled passenger line in the world operated between Saint Petersburg and Tampa. and club and private pleasure flying became popular. The inexpensive DeHavilland Moth biplane. and easy to handle. Florida. the DC-1. all without visual reference to the Earth. engine casing. an insulated cabin. Trans World Airlines. which became. for an alternative. and some DC- . driven by the two world wars and service demands of the U. when the American inventor Elmer Sperry perfected the artificial horizon and directional gyro. an all-metal. During World War I. along with its streamlined cowling. not willing to wait for Boeing to finish the order from United. By the end of World War I in 1918. 1929. and room production line and led indirectly to the development of perhaps the most successful propeller Beach. Commercial aviation developed slowly during the next 30 years.000-horsepower engines. In the early 1920s the air-cooled engine was perfected.
in less than eight hours.Boeing provided the next major breakthrough with its Model 307 Stratoliner. pressure. there were fewer than 300 planes in airline service. now carried Wartime technology efforts also brought to aviation critical new developments. shorter-range jets. when comfortable.000 m (20. When the United nearly 50. Transatlantic jet service enabled travelers to fly from New York City to London. entering service in 1940. The Comet quickly suffered two fatal crashes due to structural problems and was grounded. Airplane production concentrated mainly on fighters and bombers. a pressurized derivative of the famous B-17 bomber. England.000 a year by the end of the war. and Boeing and Douglas delivered. and reached a rate of became available in large numbers. A large number of sophisticated new transports. the Stratoliner could carry 33 passengers at altitudes up to 6. Jet transportation in the commercial-aviation arena arrived in 1952 with Britain’s DeHavilland Comet. airlines clamored for smaller. G The Jumbo Jet Era . four-engine jet. This complication gave American manufacturers Boeing and Douglas time to bring the 707 and DC-8 to the market. used in wartime for troop and cargo carriage. half the propeller-airplane time. that the airline industry really prospered.000 ft) and F Aircraft Developments of World War II It was not until after World War II (1939-1945). Boeing’s new 707 carried 112 passengers at high speed and quickly brought an end to the propeller era for large commercial airplanes. pressurized air transports States entered World War II in 1941. Pressurized propeller planes such as the Douglas DC-6 and Lockheed paying passengers on transcontinental and transatlantic flights. Douglas produced the DC-9 and Boeing both the 737 and the trijet 727. four-engine 707s and DC-8s had established themselves. an 885-km/h (550-mph). With its regulated cabin air at speeds of 320 km/h (200 mph). Pan American World Airways inaugurated Boeing 707 jet service in October of 1958. After the big. became available to commercial operators after Constellation. such as the jet engine. and air travel changed dramatically almost overnight. early versions of which carried troops and VIPs during the war. the war ended.
Airbus had developed the A300 wide-body twin during the 1970s. and MD-90. and Boeing brought online the narrow-body 757 and wide-body 767 twin jets. In 2000 the company launched production of the A380. Boeing introduced the 777. The L-1011 is no longer in production. Boeing developed and still builds the 747. three-engine jet called the DC-10. In the 1980s McDonnell Douglas introduced the twin-engine MD-80 family. 80. pioneered in the late 1960s. and Lockheed-Martin no longer builds commercial airliners. Boeing. During the 1980s and 1990s Airbus expanded its family of aircraft by introducing the slightly smaller A310 twin jet and the narrow-body A320 twin. Airbus also introduced the larger A330 twin and the A340. McDonnell Douglas. in 1995. The company ceded the superjumbo jet market to Airbus and instead focused . In 1997 Boeing acquired longtime rival McDonnell Douglas. and Lockheed all produced wide-body airliners. a four-engine airplane for longer routes. and a year later the company announced its intention to halt production of the passenger workhorses MD-11. MDits efforts on developing a midsize passenger airplane. a wide-body jumbo jet that can hold up to 400 passengers. produced later in an updated version known as the MD-11. lighter. both of which extend the entire length of the fuselage. a superjumbo jet that will seat Scheduled to enter service in 2006. on which passenger loads are somewhat 555 passengers on two decks. sometimes called jumbo jets. was the age of the jumbo jet. McDonnell Douglas built a somewhat smaller. a trijet that competed with the DC-10. the jet will be the world’s largest passenger airliner. a unique. so-called fly-by-wire aircraft with sidestick controllers for the pilots rather than conventional control columns and wheels.The next frontier. Lockheed built the L-1011 Tristar.
Programs usually reside within the are stored or routed to output devices. The program results II USES OF COMPUTERS . such as video display monitors or printers. accurately. Computers perform a wide variety of activities reliably. machine that performs tasks. computer and are retrieved and processed by the computer’s electronics. and quickly. such as calculations or electronic communication. under the control of a set of instructions called a program.Computer I INTRODUCTION Computer.
or model systems that are too costly or impractical to build. Computers in automobiles regulate the flow of fuel. Educators use computers to can add graphics. sound. from programs that teach simple addition or sentence construction to programs that teach advanced calculus.People use computers in many ways. Computer hardware includes the memory that stores data and program instructions. the central processing unit (CPU) that carries out program instructions. and turn videocassette recorders (VCRs) on and off. check the credit status of customers. the input devices. and transfer funds electronically. they Instruction). or applications. Computers are used extensively in scientific research to solve mathematical problems. such as a keyboard or mouse. thereby increasing gas mileage. that allow the user to communicate with the computer. tiny computers embedded in the electronic circuitry of most appliances control the indoor temperature. operate home security systems. and animation to their communications (see Computer-Aided track grades and communicate with students. Computer programs. In homes. the output devices. computers track inventories with bar codes and scanners. such as printers . such as testing the air flow around the next generation of aircraft. tell the time. investigate complicated data. Computers also entertain. exist to aid every level of education. creating digitized sound on stereo systems or computer-animated features from a digitally encoded laser disc. computers in sophisticated communications to encode and unscramble messages. with computer-controlled projection units. and to keep III HOW COMPUTERS WORK The physical computer and its components are known as hardware. In business. The military employs track of personnel and supplies.
and controls the sequence of the software and hardware actions. Popular operating systems. or to direct the general operation A The Operating System When a computer is turned on it searches for instructions in its memory. Software generally is designed to perform a particular type of task—for example. graphical user interfaces (GUIs)—that use tiny pictures. reports the results of operating system loads the program in the computer’s memory and runs the program. stores and manages data. to display and modify a photograph. or other input methods. that enable the computer to present information to the user. the work. Some operating systems allow the user to B Computer Memory . the user clicks the mouse on the icon or carry out these tasks via voice. These instructions tell the computer how to start up. When the user requests that a program run. touch. body.and video display monitors. The programs that run the computer are called software. to represent various files and presses a combination of keys on the keyboard. which is the software that makes the computer these commands and other operations. have commands. to control the arm of a robot to weld a car’s of the computer. To access these files or commands. and buses (hardware lines or wires) that connect these and other computer components. one of the first sets of these instructions is a special program called the operating system. or icons. to write a letter. Usually. such as Microsoft Windows and the Macintosh system (Mac OS). It prompts the user (or other machines) for input and commands.
including non-English patterns to represent the entire alphabet. 101. Numbers can represent anything from chemical bonds to dollar figures to colors to sounds. resulting in eight possibilities: 000. Each time a bit is added. in lower and upper cases. a gigabyte can store about 1 billion characters. as a single character. the number of representations is doubled. a character within a string of The physical memory of a computer is either random access memory (RAM). which can be read by . called a byte. See also Expanded Memory. the number of possible patterns is doubled.To process information electronically. each having two possible representations (0 or 1). 001. or part of a larger number. or 11. as well as numeric digits. or 111. 010. 011. characters such as . or bits. A byte also can be interpreted as a pattern that represents a number between 0 and 255.000 characters. which can be read or changed by the user or computer. Eight bits is Extended Memory.024 bytes—can store about 1. A byte is a useful quantity in which to store information because it provides enough possible punctuation marks. or read-only memory (ROM). data are stored in a computer in the form of binary digits. resulting in four possible the number of combinations. a byte has 256 possible combinations of 0s and 1s. a megabyte can store about 1 million characters. 01. A third bit added to this two-bit representation again doubles 110. 100. a single number. and several character-sized graphics symbols. 10. combinations: 00. and a terabyte can store about 1 trillion characters. given byte should be interpreted—that is. Computer programmers usually decide how a text. A kilobyte—1. If a second bit is added to a single bit of information.
such as graphics. Modern designs typically use many buses. A single CD can store nearly as much information as several hundred floppy disks. One way to store memory is within the circuitry of the computer. which is the part of the computer that translates commands and runs programs. hard drives. Information is stored in a CPU memory location called a register. one special register called the program counter keeps track of which program instruction comes next by maintaining the memory location of the next program instruction to be executed. The . E The Central Processing Unit Information from an input device or from the computer’s memory is communicated via the bus to the central processing unit (CPU). such as magnetic floppy disks. allows the simultaneous transmission of 16 bits (2 bytes) of information from one component to another. Early computer designs utilized a single or very few buses. When a program is running. compact discs (CDs). a scanner. usually in tiny computer chips that hold millions of bytes of information. which can store about 2 megabytes of information. D Input Devices Input devices. which can store up to 680 megabytes of information. which converts images such as photographs into digital images that the computer can manipulate. Memory also can be stored outside the circuitry of the computer on external storage devices. The bus is usually a flat cable with numerous parallel wires. C The Bus The bus enables the components in a computer. to communicate as program instructions are being carried out.the computer but not altered in any way. microscopically wired electrical components. with 16 parallel wires. such as the CPU and the memory circuits. permit the computer user to communicate with the computer. a rodlike device often used by people who play computer games. Each wire can carry one bit. a 16-bit bus. Other input devices include a joystick. “Tablet” computers are being developed that will allow users to interact with their screens using a penlike device. a touch panel. which senses the placement of a user’s finger and can be used to execute commands or access files. and a microphone. such as a keyboard or mouse. some of them specialized to carry particular forms of data. Registers can be thought of as the CPU’s tiny scratchpad. and digital video discs (DVDs). which can store 8. The CPU is a microprocessor chip—that is. used to input sounds such as the human voice which can activate computer commands in conjunction with voice recognition software. The memory within these computer chips is RAM. a single piece of silicon containing millions of tiny. temporarily storing instructions or data. For example. so the bus can transmit many bits along the cable at the same time.5 gigabytes of information. which can store gigabytes of information. and some DVDs can hold more than 12 times as much data as a CD.
prefer to use other computer languages that use words or other commands because they are easier to use. several instructions may be in process simultaneously. liquid crystal display. stored in a special instruction register. computer can understand it. Computer programmers. All other programming languages must be converted to machine code for them to be understood. The translation can lead to code that may be less efficient to run A Machine Language Computer programs that can be run by a computer’s operating system are called executables. The CPU executes the instruction. videocassette IV PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES Programming languages contain the series of commands that create software. and speakers. These instructions are specific to the individual computer’s CPU and associated hardware. An executable program is a sequence of extremely simple instructions known as machine code. The CPU can understand only this language. and it uses the program counter to locate and retrieve the next instruction from memory. See also Input/Output Devices. Frequently. F Output Devices Once the CPU has executed the program instruction. which determines what the CPU’s registers. Intel Pentium and Power PC microprocessor chips each have different machine languages and require different sets of codes to perform the same task. Machine CPU). This is called pipeline processing. The current instruction is analyzed by a decoder. for example. Any data the instruction needs are retrieved via the bus and placed in the register or copied to specific memory locations via a bus. the program counter changes—usually increasing a small amount—so that it contains the location of the instruction that will be The instruction then travels along the bus from the computer’s memory to the CPU. depending on the computer and the . overhead projectors. such as a video display monitor or a flat recorders (VCRs). This entire sequence of steps is each at a different stage in its instruction cycle. called an instruction cycle. Typical instructions are for copying data from a memory location or for adding the code instructions are few in number (roughly 20 to 200. Meanwhile. where it is executed next. In a typical sequence. the program may request that the information be communicated to an output device. however. and the results are stored in another instruction will do. These other languages are slower because the language must be translated first so that the than code written directly in the machine’s language. Other output devices are printers. A CPU has a limited set of instructions known as machine code that it is capable of understanding.CPU’s control unit coordinates and times the CPU’s functions. the CPU locates the next instruction in the appropriate memory device.
they contain general commands that work on different CPUs. For example. B Assembly Language Assembly language uses easy-to-remember commands that are more understandable to programmers than machine-language commands. This command directs the computer’s CPU to display the greeting. “cout” sends the greeting message to the “standard output” (usually the computer . Assembly language is sometimes inserted into a high-level language that are executed frequently. sequences of bits (0s and 1s). CPUs use different machine languages and therefore require different programs and different program to carry out specific hardware tasks or to speed up parts of the high-level program C High-Level Languages High-level languages were developed because of the difficulty of programming using assembly languages. Although the “cout” and “endl” parts of the above For example. Machine code instructions are binary—that is. High-level languages are easier to use than machine and assembly languages because their commands are closer to natural human language. Each machine language instruction has an statement “MOV A.contents of two memory locations (usually registers in the CPU). it is converted to a machine-language program by another program called Assembly language is fast and powerful because of its correspondence with machine language. because assembly-language instructions are a series of abstract codes and each instruction carries out a relatively simple task. When this statement is executed. a programmer writing in the high-level C++ programming language who wants what type of CPU the computer uses. and it will work no matter between the quotes will be displayed. programmers quickly become accustomed to their meanings. It is still difficult to use. to display a greeting need include only the following command: cout << ‘Hello. Encarta User!’ << endl. in one Intel assembly language. B” instructs the computer to copy data from location A to location B. Complex tasks require a sequence of these simple instructions. Once an assembly-language an assembler. In addition. For example. The same instruction in machine code is a string of 16 0s and 1s. In addition. Because these sequences are long strings of 0s and 1s and are usually not easy to understand. however. different assembly languages. Instead. the text that appears statement appear cryptic. computer programmers write code in languages known as an assembly language or a high-level language. Instead. the program is written. computer instructions usually are not written in machine code. equivalent command in assembly language. these languages are not CPU-specific.
including one based strictly on incorrect instructions in software. interactive nature and its inclusion on into machine code first. The language was easier to learn than its predecessors and became popular due to its friendly. BASIC is turned into machine language line by line as the program runs. BASIC commands typify high-level languages because of their simplicity and their can be written as Hungarian-American mathematician John Kemeny and American mathematician Thomas early personal computers. Fortran and VII BASIC Kurtz at Dartmouth College in Hanover. developed BASIC (Beginner’s Allpurpose Symbolic Instruction Code) in 1964. This simplifies the programmer’s V FLOW-MATIC American naval officer and mathematician Grace Murray Hopper helped develop the first commercially available high-level software language. and the term discovered a hardware failure in the Mark II computer caused by a moth trapped between its eventually came to represent any computer error. Unlike languages that require all their instructions to be translated closeness to natural human language.” VI FORTRAN From 1954 to 1958 American computer scientist John Backus of International Business Machines. in 1945 she mechanical relays. in 1957. A compiler turns a high-level program into a CPU-specific machine language. computer (PC).” X 20 Y=X/2 . which indicates a computer malfunction. using compilers designed for those machines. New Hampshire. standard programming language because it could process mathematical formulas. “First actual case of a bug being found. Inc. This is the task of a special program called a compiler. a programmer may write a program in a high-level language such as C++ or Java and then prepare it for different machines. For example.user’s screen) and “endl” is how to tell the computer (when using the C++ language) to go to a new line after it outputs the message. Hopper is credited for inventing the term bug. high-level languages also must be translated. For example. (IBM) developed Fortran. FLOW-MATIC. especially in physics. It became a its variations are still in use today. She documented the event in her laboratory notebook. an acronym for Formula Translation. such as a Sun Microsystems work station or a personal task and makes the software more portable to different users and machines. Like assembly-language instructions. Hopper taped the moth into her notebook and wrote. a program that divides a number in half 10 INPUT “ENTER A NUMBER.
This makes the programmer’s task easier. Pascal. XML. the result of the operation is displayed on the computer screen. and it results in more IX A TYPES OF COMPUTERS Digital and Analog Computers can be either digital or analog. but so can 0. and Java. This set of programming classes simplifies the programmer’s task. this simple languages. The first line prints “ENTER A NUMBER” on the computer screen followed by program demonstrates how data are stored and manipulated in most high-level programming VIII OTHER HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES Other high-level languages in use today include C. graphics. Both 0 and 1 can be represented by analog computers. have properties such as the radius of the circle and the command that draws it on the computer screen. Reusable code allows a programmer to use code that has already been reliable and efficient programs. For example. and their variants. .30 PRINT “HALF OF THAT NUMBER IS. that number is divided by two and stored as “Y.” Y The numbers that precede each line are chosen by the programmer to indicate the sequence a question mark to prompt the user to type in the number labeled “X. written. and media selections. LISP. A bit can have the value 0 or the value 1.14). Analog refers to circuits or numerical values that have a continuous range. Visual Basic. COBOL. Even though BASIC is rarely used today. Classes of objects can inherit features from other classes of objects. 1. especially for users of the World Wide Web. such as the “markup languages” known as HTML. or a number like (approximately 3. Ada. but they have become increasingly sophisticated. resulting in more “reusable” computer code. which represent switches that are turned on or off by electrical current. Digital refers to the processes in computers that manipulate binary numbers (0s or 1s). Some languages.5. designed. C++. are based on traditional high-level languages. are intended to display data.5. of the commands. but they enable a programmer to think in terms of collections of cooperating objects instead of lists of commands. such as a circle. and tested.” In the third line. programming languages.” In the next line. such as C++ and Java. Prolog. but nothing in between 0 and 1. Markup languages are often not considered A Object-Oriented Programming Languages Object-oriented programming (OOP) languages. Virtually all modern computers are digital. Objects. a class defining squares can inherit features such as right angles from a class defining rectangles.
is analog. A popular analog computer used a narrow. They are used as notepads. and physical size. sound. or on or off bits. because the lamp either produces light at a given moment or it does not. The smallest are embedded within the circuitry of appliances. They have large amounts of internal memory to store hundreds of pointing device. then the lamp system is digital. Some small computers can be held in one hand and are called personal digital assistants (PDAs). a mouse. however. speed. because the amount of light can vary continuously from on to off and all intensities Analog computer systems were the first type to be produced. These built to respond to continuous electrical signals. memory. then the lamp in between. and address books. They generally are “hard-wired”—that Programmable computers vary enormously in their computational power.A desk lamp can serve as an example of the difference between analog and digital. Most sources consider the terms “laptop” and “notebook” synonymous. the slide rule is analog. B Range of Computer Ability Computers exist in a wide range of sizes and power. New interest has are specialized computer designs that attempt to mimic neurons of the brain. if equipped with a cellular phone. graphics. but they are more compact and have flat. the user slides been shown recently in analog computers. or keeping accurate time. If a dimmer replaces the on/off switch. such as tuning to a particular television frequency. and program instructions. their programs are represented as circuits that cannot be reprogrammed. They are equipped with a keyboard. and a video display monitor or liquid crystal display (LCD) to display programs and documents. trackball. or other information. Laptop and notebook computers usually have hardware and software similar to PCs. the 0 or 1. Most modern computers. If the lamp has a simple on/off switch. is. To perform calculations with a slide rule. They can be in the 20th century was the slide rule. . exchange information regardless of location. and for entertainment. gauged wooden strip inside a rulerlike holder. These bits can be combined to denote information such as numbers. scheduling systems. letters. These computers are typically preprogrammed for a specific task. for word processing. to track finances. such as televisions and wristwatches. they can connect to worldwide computer networks to small computers. are digital machines whose components have a finite number of states—for example. lightweight LCDs instead of television-like video display monitors. Hand-held game devices are also examples of Portable laptop and notebook computers and desktop PCs are typically used in businesses and at home to communicate on computer networks. delivering doses of medicine. Because the sliding is continuous and there is no mechanism to stop at any exact values. particularly in areas such as neural networks.
and software and hardware resources. Large businesses. Some supercomputers have many sets of CPUs. but the bulk of storage resides on the server. called supercomputers. They may be connected to PCs. . and capabilities than workstations and are usually shared by multiple users through a series of interconnected computers. can be shared. a hard the workstation or PC because less expensive computers can be purchased. scientific computers break a task into small pieces. The server stores and manages programs and data. and it simplifies each individual workstation or PC. or terminals that have no computational abilities of their own. mathematical abilities. Networks also allow remote use of a computer by a user who cannot physically access the computer. drive) specific to itself. such as hard-disk space or printers. speed. consists of several PCs or workstations connected to a special computer called a server. The advantage of a network is that data can be exchanged rapidly. This reduces the cost of the maintenance of software because the software resides only on the server rather than on Mainframe computers and supercomputers commonly are networked. often within the same building or office networked group’s data and enables LAN workstations or PCs to be set up without large complex. and each CPU processes a portion of the task to increase overall speed and efficiency. These computers have increased in sophistication. or receive output from. become less rigid. and they are connected to other workstations or personal computers to Mainframe computers have more memory. each PC may have “local” memory (for example. One type of network. process complex and time-consuming calculations. networked PCs can work together on a given task in a version of parallel processing known as distributed computing. and business environments— especially financial ones. such as stock exchanges—that require complex and fast computations. For example. As institutions.Workstations are similar to personal computers but have greater memory and more extensive exchange data. Such computers are called parallel processors. They are typically found in scientific. In this scenario. a local area network (LAN). the central computer. These “dumb” terminals are used only to enter data into. The performance of various tasks and types of computing have also moved X NETWORKS Computers can communicate with other computers through a series of connections and associated hardware called a network. the boundaries between the various types have from one type of computer to another. The most powerful mainframe computers. industrial. such as those used to create weather predictions. workstations. and the military use them. A server often contains all of a storage capabilities. They control businesses and industrial facilities and are used for scientific research.
government. and scientific agencies. In 1984 the development of Internet technology was creating the Internet in 1973 as part of the United States Department of Defense Advanced turned over to private. and physicist Blaise Pascal invented a machine in 1642 that added and subtracted. but most served as curiosities in parlors of the wealthy. Users can obtain a variety of information in the form of text.C. B First Punch Cards . XI A HISTORY Beginnings The history of computing began with an analog machine. or sophisticated searching software known as search engines. For example. a person in Washington. programs. automatically carrying and borrowing digits from column to column. Computers can Los Angeles can browse through the computerized archives of the Library of Congress in connect to these networks to use facilities in another city or country. These data are extensively cross-indexed. Seventeenth-century German mathematician Gottfried Leibniz designed a special gearing system to enable multiplication on Pascal’s machine. highlighted text. sounds. The largest WAN is the Internet. American computer scientist Vinton Cerf was largely responsible for Research Projects Agency (DARPA). graphics. is a system of information resources accessed primarily through the Internet. a global consortium of networks linked by common communication programs and protocols (a set of established standards that enable computers to communicate with each other). and with the aid of logarithm tables.Wide area networks (WANs) are networks that span large geographical areas. Schikard invented a machine that used 11 complete and 6 incomplete sprocketed wheels that French philosopher. or video. multiply and divide. and utilities. The World Wide Web. In 1623 German scientist Wilhelm could add. Pascal built 50 copies of his machine. enabling users to browse (transfer their attention from one information site to another) via buttons. D. developed in the 1980s by British physicist Timothy Berners-Lee. mathematician. The Internet is a mammoth resource of data.
She was the daughter of the famous poet Lord Byron and one of only a few woman mathematicians of her time. designed in the early 1820s by British mathematician and scientist Charles Babbage. still used today. was a personal friend and student of Babbage. Although never completed by Babbage. The Analytical Engine Augusta Ada Byron. Although Jacquard was rewarded and admired by French who feared their jobs were in jeopardy due to Jacquard’s invention. The looms are C Precursor to Modern Computer Another early mechanical computer was the Difference Engine. its . Engine. She prepared extensive notes concerning Babbage’s ideas and the Analytical Engine. Lovelace’s conceptual programs for the machine led to the naming of a programming language (Ada) in her honor. more than 30.In the early 19th century French inventor Joseph-Marie Jacquard devised a specialized type of computer: a silk loom. Babbage’s lack of political skills kept him from obtaining the approval and funds to build it. emperor Napoleon I for his work. Although the Analytical Engine was never built. considered the mechanical precursor of the modern computer. Babbage also made plans for another machine.000 of his looms existed in Lyon. Jacquard’s loom used punched cards to program patterns that helped the loom create woven fabrics. he fled for his life from the city of Lyon pursued by weavers however: When Jacquard died. the Difference Engine was intended to be a machine with a 20-decimal capacity that could solve mathematical problems. the Analytical was designed to perform all arithmetic operations efficiently. The loom prevailed. countess of Lovelace. however. especially in the manufacture of fine furniture fabrics.
In later machines. This electronic calculating machine used relays and electromagnetic components to replace mechanical components. Hollerith’s tabulator was used for the 1890 U. The machine (now known as a Turing machine) resembled intended the device to be a “universal machine” that could be used to duplicate or represent the function of any other existing machine. Turing’s machine was the theoretical precursor to theorists. XII A DEVELOPMENTS IN THE 20TH CENTURY Early Electronic Calculators Herman Hollerith. Massachusetts. Aiken obsessively numbers. which could be stored away from the computer. used an idea similar to Jacquard’s loom when he combined the use of punched cards with devices that created and electronically read the cards. New Jersey. Aiken used vacuum tubes and solid state transistors (tiny electrical switches) to manipulate the binary science program at Harvard University in Cambridge. Turing equations without human direction. insisting that the integrity of the machine could be maintained only through a strict separation of program instructions from data. the use of punched cards as a primitive memory. meteorology. an American inventor. ENIAC.S. development of computers. Von Neumann's 1945 design for the Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC)—in stark contrast to . In 1924 the company changed its name to International Business Machines (IBM). His computer had to read instructions from punched cards. and hydrodynamics. census. which was built by IBM. Aiken also introduced computers to universities by establishing the first computer mistrusted the concept of storing a program within the computer. Hungarian-American mathematician John von Neumann developed one of the first computers used to solve problems in mathematics. the modern digital computer. Tabulating Machine Company eventually merged with two companies to form the Computing- In 1936 British mathematician Alan Turing proposed the idea of a machine that could process an automatic typewriter that used symbols for math and logic instead of letters. insisting that there would never be a need for more than five or B EDVAC. economics. and it made the computational time three to four times shorter than the time previously needed for hand counts. can be found in many modern computers. such as the capacity to store instructions. He also urged the National Bureau of Standards not to support the six of them nationwide.key concepts. and the ability to print. The Turing machine model is still used by modern computational In the 1930s American mathematician Howard Aiken developed the Mark I calculating machine. and UNIVAC At the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. Hollerith’s Tabulating-Recording Company.
used for a broader variety of commercial applications. Atanasoff’s device was the first computer to separate ABC. Atanasoff developed the concepts that were data processing from memory. which was then bought by the Rand Corporation. general digital computer. American physicist John Vincent Atanasoff built a prototype computing device called the Atanasoff-Berry Computer. with the help of his assistant.000 kg (60. and MANIAC. Atanasoff did not receive credit for his contributions until 1973. Since ENIAC was initially not a Eckert and Mauchly eventually formed their own company. He helped build it along with American engineer John Presper Eckert. Clifford Berry. there were 46 UNIVACs in use. at the Moore School of Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia.800 sq ft). patent on ENIAC was settled. the Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer. It is regarded as the first successful. Many of ENIAC’s first tasks were for military purposes. Jr.. or later used in the design of the ENIAC. which was United States Census Bureau in 1951. incorporate a program stored entirely within its memory. By 1957. it had to be reprogrammed for each task.000 of the computer’s vacuum tubes were replaced each month by a calculating ballistic firing tables and designing atomic weapons. such as stored program machine. JOHNNIAC. American physicist John Mauchly proposed the electronic digital computer called ENIAC. when a lawsuit regarding the XIII THE TRANSISTOR AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS TRANSFORM COMPUTING . while teaching at Iowa State College. but it is not clear whether a functional version was ever built. and contained more than 18. vacuum tubes. his contemporary—was the first electronic computer design to some with clever names like ILLIAC.000 lb). weighed more than 27.000 team of six technicians. ENIAC was operational in 1945 and introduced to the public in 1946. It occupied 167 sq m (1. The first UNIVAC was delivered to the Between 1937 and 1939. Roughly 2. This machine led to several others.the designs of Aiken. They produced the Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC).
The first of these so-called personal computers (PCs)—the Altair 8800—appeared in 1975. a device that can act as an energy-inefficient. Today the development of sophisticated operating systems such as Windows. Inc. American physicists Walter Houser Brattain. replacing costly. The transistor had a tremendous impact on computer design. then later with the inclusion of video displays. more components could be designed into a single computer circuit. and William Bradford Shockley developed the transistor. In the 1970s refinements in integrated circuit technology led to the development of the modern microprocessor. sold by Micro Instrumentation Telemetry Systems (MITS). independent work of Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments and circuits became miniaturized. electric switch. and unreliable vacuum tubes. and CPUs with more computational used successfully by Apple Computer. received input through switches on the front panel. Modern microprocessors can contain more than 40 million transistors. . Refinements in the PC continued abilities. John Bardeen. As integrated resulted from the simultaneous. had 256 bytes of RAM. the Mac OS.. Graphical user interfaces were first designed by the Xerox Corporation. better storage devices. The Altair used an 8-bit Intel 8080 microprocessor.In 1948. at Bell Telephone Laboratories. and displayed output on rows of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Manufacturers used integrated circuit technology to build smaller and cheaper computers. In the late 1960s integrated circuits (tiny transistors and other electrical components arranged on a single chip of silicon) replaced individual transistors in computers. integrated circuits that contained thousands of transistors. and Linux enables computer users to run programs and manipulate data in ways that were unimaginable in the mid-20th century. Integrated circuits Robert Noyce of the Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation in the late 1950s.
The computer had the ability to compute more than 100 million chess positions per second. Italy. One large single calculation was accomplished by physicists at IBM in 1995. however. becoming the first computer to win a match against a reigning world chess champion with regulation time controls. developed with the ability to learn to solve problems on its own. to a chess match with a supercomputer called Deep Blue. Their analysis demonstrated the existence of a previously hypothetical subatomic supercomputers that will run these types of calculations 100 times faster. rather than one programmed XIV THE FUTURE OF COMPUTERS . Deep Blue serves as a prototype for future computers that will be required to solve complex problems. Many experts predict these types of parallel processing machines will soon surpass human chess playing ability. the reigning world chess champion. In a 1997 rematch Deep Blue defeated Kasparov. and the United States are collaborating to develop new In 1996 IBM challenged Garry Kasparov. At issue. particle called a glueball. Japan. and some speculate that massive calculating power will one day replace intelligence.Several researchers claim the “record” for the largest single calculation ever performed. is whether a computer can be to solve a specific set of tasks. They solved one million trillion mathematical subproblems by continuously running 448 computers for two years.
Scientists use a branch of (particles that make up atoms). as computer use becomes more widespread. Unfortunately. will also contribute to better human and computer interfaces. which describes the behavior of subatomic particles magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compute at a molecular level. These laws allow quantum computers could include code breaking (see cryptography) and large database quantum computers to examine all possible answers to a query simultaneously. Other individuals Security). cheaper. such as privacy and freedom of governments are working to solve these problems through informed conversation. exotic models of computation are being developed. Standards for virtual-reality program languages—for example. Virtual reality. computers simplify day-to-day life. and carry out operations. Components continue to shrink in size and are becoming faster. the technology of interacting with a computer using all of the human senses. are being reexamined in light of the digital revolution. Improved speech recognition will make the operation of a computer easier. These are examples of possible future computational platforms that. Other. expression. as the basis for quantum computing. Long-standing issues. to store data so far. such as how to regulate material on the have used computers to electronically embezzle funds and alter credit histories (see Computer Internet and the World Wide Web. New ethical issues also have arisen. and it has proven to be somewhat accurate. better computer security. The number of transistors and the computational With their increasing power and versatility. and computing that uses deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). There are also limitations Intriguing breakthroughs occurred in the area of quantum computing in the late 1990s. Computer hackers—people who illegally gain access to computer systems—often violate privacy and can tamper with or destroy records. and more versatile.In 1965 semiconductor pioneer Gordon Moore predicted that the number of transistors contained on a computer chip would double every year. including biological computing that uses living organisms. molecular computing that uses molecules with particular properties. Quantum computers under development use components of a chloroform molecule (a combination of chlorine and hydrogen atoms) and a variation of a medical procedure called physics called quantum mechanics. the basic unit of heredity. are limited in abilities or are strictly theoretical. erasing information or causing malfunctions. This is now known as Moore’s Law. because they take advantage of the laws that govern the behavior of subatomic particles. Scientists investigate them because of related to heat generated by even the tiniest of transistors. Programs called viruses or worms can replicate and spread from computer to computer. companies. Quantum computers may one day be thousands to millions of times faster than current computers. and regulatory legislation. compromise. and Computers will become more advanced and they will also become easier to use. Individuals. the physical limitations of miniaturizing circuits embedded in silicon. Virtual Reality Modeling language (VRML)—are currently in use or are being developed for the World Wide Web. Future uses of . so do the opportunities for misuse. speed of microprocessors currently doubles approximately every 18 months.
and physics are now working to determine the possibilities and limitations of quantum computing. Communications between computer users and networks will benefit from new technologies such as broadband communication systems that can carry significantly more data faster or more conveniently to and from the vast interconnected databases that continue to grow in number and type. mathematics.queries. . Theorists of chemistry. computer science.
from II PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION .Laser I INTRODUCTION Laser. Masers are similar devices that produce and amplify microwaves. the infrared through the X-ray range. Laser light is very pure in color. The word laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. and laser printers. a device that produces and amplifies light. Lasers are used in many modern technological devices including bar code readers. can be extremely intense. compact disc (CD) players. and can be directed with great accuracy. Lasers can generate light beyond the range visible to the human eye.
Enlarge an atom up to the size of Yankee . Atoms are the building blocks of Light is composed of tiny packets of energy called photons. made up of two types of particles: protons. The nucleus makes up more than 99.Lasers generate light by storing energy in particles called electrons inside atoms and then all matter on Earth and are a thousand times smaller than viruses. A Excited Atoms At the heart of an atom is a tightly bound cluster of particles called the nucleus.9 percent of the atom’s mass but Stadium and the equally magnified nucleus is only the size of a baseball. which have a positive charge. inducing the electrons to emit the absorbed energy as light. This cluster is have no charge. which occupies only a tiny part of the atom’s space. Electrons are the underlying source of almost all light. and neutrons. Lasers produce coherent light: light that is monochromatic (one color) and whose photons are “in step” with one another.
Excited atoms in lasers collectively emit photons of a single color. Electrons can move from a low to a high energy level by absorbing energy. frequency. light (see Photoelectric Effect). An atom can become excited by absorbing a photon whose energy equals the difference between the two energy levels. When two photons are in step. The electrons in the atoms of a laser are first pumped. equivalently. If the photon approaches closely enough. giving off the extra energy as many electrons independently emit photons of different colors in all directions. Usually. An excited atom can then be “stimulated” by a photon of exactly the same spontaneously.Electrons. electrons quickly jump back to the low energy level. to an excited state by an color (or. Neon signs and fluorescent lamps glow with this kind of light as B Stimulated Emission Lasers are different from more familiar sources of light. the peaks and troughs of their waves line up. The new light . whirl through the rest of the space inside atoms. and wavelength are directly related: All photons of a given energy are the same color and have the same frequency and wavelength. the same wavelength) as the photon this atom is about to emit energy source. or energized. An atom with at least one electron that occupies a higher energy level than it normally would is said to be excited. A photon’s energy. all traveling in the same direction and all in step with one another. the photon can stimulate the excited atom to immediately emit light that has the same wavelength and is in step with the photon that interacted with it. Electrons travel in complex orbits and exist only in certain specific energy states or levels (see Quantum Theory). color. This stimulated emission is the key to laser operation. tiny particles that have a negative charge.
The phenomenon snowballs into an amplified. Gould eventually won a partial patent covering several types of III TYPES OF LASERS Lasers are generally classified according to the material. however. called the medium. The ends of the rods are fashioned into two parallel surfaces coated with a highly reflecting nonmetallic film. brief burst of light. The most common solid laser media are rods of ruby crystals and neodymium-doped glasses and crystals. Solid-state lasers offer the highest power output. the photons usually zip back and forth in a gas-filled tube with parallel mirrors. directional. the underlying process for laser action. As the photons bounce between the two silvered. again in step. arc lamps. The working principles of lasers were outlined by the American physicists Charles Hard Townes and Arthur Leonard Schawlow in a 1958 patent application. highly reflective mirrors facing inward at each end. coherent beam of light: laser light. called pumping. and free electron are all common types of lasers. is achieved with brilliant strobe light from xenon flash tubes. In a gas laser. who had written down some ideas and laser. These short bursts One method of exciting the atoms in lasers is to illuminate the solid laser material with higherenergy light than the laser produces. They are usually pulsed to generate a very are useful for studying physical phenomena of very brief duration. semiconductor. The escaped light forms the laser beam. Translating the idea of stimulated emission into a working model. One of the mirrors is only partially intense. required more than four decades. but it was later challenged by the American physicist and engineer Gordon Gould.adds to the existing light. Solid-state. and single-colored laser light finally escapes through this slightly transparent mirror. they trigger further stimulated emissions and the light gets brighter and brighter with each pass through the excited atoms. gas. The patent for the laser was granted to Townes and Schawlow. This procedure. A Solid-State Lasers Solid-state lasers produce light by means of a solid medium. liquid. and the two photons go on to stimulate other excited atoms to give up their extra energy. Townes in 1964 and Schawlow in 1981). In 1960 American physicist Theodore Maiman of Hughes Aircraft Corporation constructed the first working laser from a ruby rod. Bursts as short as 12 × 10-15 sec have been achieved. in 1917. coined the word laser in 1957. for example. or metal-vapor lamps. (Both men won Nobel Prizes in physics for their work. they use to produce the laser light. . allowing a small amount of light to pass through rather than reflecting it all. The Albert Einstein first proposed stimulated emission.
These lasers are so tiny that more than a million of them can fit Common uses for semiconductor lasers include compact disc (CD) players and laser printers. lasers are pumped by the direct application of electric current across the junction. Gas lasers can be pumped by ultraviolet turning the energy used to excite their atoms into laser light. The medium is usually contained in a cylindrical glass or quartz tube. Consequently. electron beams. . Some dye lasers are tunable. Only a small percentage of the energy used to excite most other lasers is converted into light. lasers that emit light continuously rather than in pulses.B Gas Lasers The lasing medium of a gas laser can be a pure gas. or even metal vapor. Semiconductor operated in the continuous wave mode with better than 50 percent efficiency. electric current. wave mode. they are the most powerful continuous wave (CW) lasers—that is. Two mirrors are located light. and the other with an impurity whose atoms are one electron short. First developed in 1977. One layer is treated with an impurity whose atoms provide an extra electron. called quantum-dot verticalon a chip the size of a fingernail. They are pumped by intense flash lamps in a pulse mode or by a separate gas laser in the continuous can be adjusted with the help of a prism located inside the laser cavity. A typical semiconductor laser consists of a junction between two flat layers of gallium arsenide. E Free Electron Lasers. Semiconductor lasers also form the heart of fiber-optics communication systems (see Fiber Optics). They can be Scientists have developed extremely tiny semiconductor lasers. cavity surface-emitting lasers. or chemical reactions. The helium-neon laser is known for its color purity and minimal beam spread. Gallium arsenide is the most common semiconductor used. a mixture of gases. Free electron lasers employ an array of magnets to excite free electrons (electrons not bound to atoms). C Liquid Lasers The most common liquid laser media are inorganic dyes contained in glass vessels. Carbon dioxide lasers are very efficient at outside the ends of the tube to form the laser cavity. meaning that the color of the laser light they emit D Semiconductor Lasers Semiconductor lasers are the most compact lasers. they are now becoming important research instruments.
trim microelectronics. and to attempt to . At high power. or vaporize material. A Industry Powerful laser beams can be focused on a small spot to generate enormous temperatures. and the arts. Lasers have been used. Lasers have become valuable tools in industry. to shape machine tools. to synthesize new material. to drill holes in diamonds. the military. producing very high-power radiation that is currently too expensive to produce. electron lasers can function even in the The free electron laser facility at the University of California at Santa Barbara uses intense farinfrared light to investigate mutations in DNA molecules and to study the properties of semiconductor materials.Free electron lasers are tunable over a broader range of energies than dye lasers. the focused beams can readily and precisely heat. medicine. melt. Free electron lasers should also eventually become capable of near-infrared beams from a free electron laser could defend against a missile attack. to cut fashion patterns. infrared through ultraviolet wavelengths. for example. The devices become more difficult to operate at higher energies but generally work successfully from X-ray range. to induce controlled nuclear fusion (see Nuclear Energy). Consequently. scientific research. Theoretically. IV LASER APPLICATIONS The use of lasers is restricted only by imagination. communications.
and in precise tests to confirm Einstein’s theory of relativity. Photochemistry). Lasers have been used for precise determination (to within one inch) of the distance between . Powerful. Earth and the Moon. By measuring the scattering and color shifts. Perfectly straight and uniformly sized tunnels. Lasers are also the most effective Scientists use lasers to make extremely accurate measurements. short of a second possible. laser pulses also make high-speed photography with exposure times of only several trillionths B Scientific Research Because laser light is highly directional and monochromatic. existence of trace substances in samples can be detected. Lasers are used in this way for monitoring small movements associated with plate tectonics and for geographic surveys. Scientists also have used lasers to determine the speed of light to an unprecedented accuracy. may be dug using lasers for guidance. Chemical reactions can be selectively induced. (see Chemical Analysis.Highly directional laser beams are used for alignment in construction. extremely small amounts of light scattering and small shifts in color caused by the interaction between laser light and matter can easily be detected. for example. scientists can study molecular structures of matter. and the detectors of certain types of air pollution.
Intense. Laser techniques have also been used for high-density information recording.000 times the television channels today carried by fibers have been developed to transmit laser light for earthbound communication in telephone and computer systems. and cauterize blood vessels. Scientists also use lasers to trap single atoms and subatomic particles in order to study these C Communications Laser light can travel a large distance in outer space with little reduction in signal strength. from which a threeCDs and videodiscs (see Sound Recording and Reproduction). Lasers are therefore ideal for space communications. narrow beams of laser light can cut and cauterize certain body tissues in a small fraction of a second without damaging surrounding lesions. Low-loss optical addition. high-energy laser light can carry 1. laser light simplifies the recording of a hologram. Lasers have been used to “weld” the retina. tiny bits of matter (see Particle Trap). vaporize procedures for eye disorders. healthy tissues. bore holes in the skull. Laser techniques have also been developed for lab tests of small E Military Applications . In microwave signals.Very fast laser-activated switches are being developed for use in particle accelerators. For instance. dimensional image can be reconstructed with a laser beam. Lasers are also used to play audio D Medicine Lasers have a wide range of medical uses. Laser surgery has virtually replaced older surgical biological samples.
Canada uses the same Protection Bureau. and the energy of the photons they emit. and laser use in Canada is overseen by Health Canada’s Radiation . more efficient ways to separate isotopes for construction of nuclear weapons. or diffused.Laser guidance systems for missiles. and cause permanent eye damage whether the light is direct. The use of laser beams to destroy hostile ballistic Ronald Reagan and the Ballistic Missile Defense program supported by President George W. president be fitted with laser sights and range finders. Lasers sold and used commercially in the United States must comply with a strict set of laws and Drug Administration. High-powered lasers of the Class IV type (the highest classification is then attached to the laser as a sticker. and satellites have been constructed. Guns can missiles has been proposed. The CDRH has divided lasers into six groups. depending on their power output. The higher the laser’s energy. as in the Strategic Defense Initiative urged by U. their emission duration. the chief danger in working with lasers is eye damage. burn flesh. Bush. classification system. Therefore. a department of the Food classification) generate a beam of energy that can start fires. aircraft. The ability of tunable dye lasers to selectively excite an atom or molecule may open up V LASER SAFETY Because the eye focuses laser light just as it does other light.S. laser light should not be viewed either directly or reflected. The higher its potential to injure. reflected. the enforced by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH).
ceramics. If the temperature at which these new materials become superconductive can be raised high enough.Goggles blocking the specific color of photons that a laser produces are mandatory for the safe use of lasers. are possible. and how they can be adapted and fabricated to meet the needs of modern technology. beginning in the early 1960s. and other nonmetals in applications formerly reserved for metals. scientists are II RECENT DEVELOPMENTS The rapid development of semiconductors (see Semiconductor) for the electronics industry. nonmetallic as well as metallic. Using the finding new ways of using plastics. the study of materials. ways that metals could not. chemistry. scientists and engineers devised ways of fashioning thousands of In the late 1980s. new applications. This then made it possible to miniaturize the components of electronic devices such as computers. laboratory techniques and research tools of physics. and metallurgy. Even with goggles. materials science research was given renewed emphasis with the discovery of ceramics that display superconductivity at higher temperatures than metals do. Having discovered that nonmetallic materials such as silicon could be made to conduct electricity in tiny integrated circuits (see Integrated Circuit) on a small chip of silicon. gave materials science its first major impetus. . direct exposure to laser light should be avoided. Materials Science and Technology I INTRODUCTION Materials Science and Technology. including levitating trains and superfast computers.
See also Metals. and the resistance of materials to creep and fatigue are of basic importance in engineering. such as vibration. When a material is subjected to a bending. scientists have been developing. Creep extended over a long time eventually leads to the rupture of the Fatigue can be defined as progressive fracture. compression. a material usually stretches. both tensile and is stretched and subjected to a tensional force. material does not return completely to its original condition. . In many cases the slow deformation stops because the force causing the creep is eliminated by material. fatigue can be avoided by keeping the cyclic force below a certain level. It occurs when a mechanical part is subjected to a repeated or cyclic stress. such as titanium alloys. mechanical properties are also of major. for instance. the sagging of long-span cables. When a rod is bent. elastic limits. or torsional (twisting) force. and easier to fabricate than the aluminum and III MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS Engineers must know how solid materials respond to external forces. but small localized cracks develop and propagate through the material until the remaining cross-sectional area cannot support the maximum stress of the cyclic force. Under larger tensions. Materials subjected to high temperatures are especially susceptible to this deformation.Although the latest developments in materials science have tended to focus on electrical properties. and engineers testing. composite materials that are lighter. continuing importance. the material returns to its original size and form when the external force is lifted). The gradual loosening of bolts. the deformation itself. permanent deformation. such as tension. stronger. and under even greater forces the Compression is the decrease in volume that results from the application of pressure. Even when the maximum stress never exceeds the elastic limit. For the aircraft industry. and the deformation of components of machines and engines are all noticeable examples of creep. nonmetallic other metals currently used to form the outer skin of aircraft. Knowledge of tensile stress. the material ruptures. returning to its original length if the force does not exceed the material's elastic limit (see Elasticity). Solid materials respond to these forces by elastic deformation (that is. or fracture. failure of the material can occur even after a short time. Under tension. and the other side is compressed. permanent deformation that results from a steady force acting on a material. With some metals. shearing. Tension is a pulling force that acts in one direction. one side of it Creep is a slowly progressing. an example is the force in a cable holding a weight. which are defined below. torsion. compressive forces are simultaneously at work. for example. Time-dependent effects of external forces are creep and fatigue. No deformation is apparent during fatigue. bending. and shear.
Melting ice in the presence of a dissolving salt lowers its melting point by several degrees. process of lowering the temperature and maintaining it in a given space for the purpose of chilling foods. known as dry ice. normal atmospheric pressure. condenser. Foodstuffs maintained at this temperature or slightly above have an increased storage life. it sublimes directly from the solid to vapor phase at a temperatures during the period of sublimation.1 kJ/kg (143. or other items under refrigeration is commonly known as cold storage. The two main types of mechanical refrigeration systems used are the compression system. constant cooling is achieved by the circulation of a refrigerant in a closed system. In the evaporator the refrigerant is vaporized and heat is absorbed from the material contents or the space being cooled. All that is required to maintain cooling is a constant supply of energy.I INTRODUCTION Refrigeration. Solid carbon dioxide. and the absorption system. Having no liquid phase at temperature of -78. II COMPRESSION SYSTEMS Compression systems employ four elements in the refrigeration cycle: compressor. Dry ice is effective for maintaining products at low In mechanical refrigeration. expansion valve. Storing perishable foods. and a method of dissipating waste heat. or providing an atmosphere conducive to bodily comfort. The vapor next is drawn into a . Such refrigeration checks both bacterial growth and adverse chemical reactions that occur in the normal atmosphere.3 Btu/lb). now employed largely for heat-operated air-conditioning units but formerly also used for heat-operated domestic units. In order to melt. is used also as a refrigerant. If no leakage occurs.5° C (-109. used in domestic units for large coldstorage applications and for most air conditioning. ice must absorb heat amounting to 333. the refrigerant lasts indefinitely throughout the entire life of the system. preserving certain substances.3° F). furs. or power. Ice owes its effectiveness as a cooling agent to the fact that it has a constant fusion temperature of 0° C (32° F). The use of natural or manufactured ice for refrigeration was widespread until shortly before World War I. in which it evaporates to a gas and then condenses back again to a liquid in a continuous cycle. when mechanical or electric refrigerators became available. and evaporator. pharmaceuticals.
8° C (100° F) in the condenser. In some cases this space constitutes the whole refrigerator cabinet. A frozen-food refrigerator resembles the household refrigerator except that its compressor and motor must be of sufficient size to handle the larger gas volume of the refrigerant at its lower evaporator pressure.3 kPa (19. In order to maintain the interior of the box within the desired compressor is usually oversized.2 kPa (131.2 psi) is required with Refrigerant-12. the motor driving the compressor is controlled by a thermostatic switch. so that if it ran continuously it would produce progressively temperature range. the ammonia flows to the evaporator as in the compression system. operate on the absorption principle. IV ABSORPTION SYSTEM A few household units. This synthetic chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) when used as a of the most widely used refrigerants for many years has been dichlorodifluoromethane.motor-driven compressor and elevated to high pressure. III REFRIGERANTS For every refrigerant there is a specific boiling. Changed to a liquid state in the condenser. which passes into a condenser. In a domestic refrigeration system the evaporator.7° C (20° F) in its evaporator under a pressure of 246. With air-conditioning units the condenser heat must be dissipated out of doors or directly into cooling water. for example.3° C (-10° F) an evaporator pressure of 132. From the condenser the liquid flows through an expansion valve. the ammonia gas is reabsorbed in the partially cooled. and the ammonia is driven off as a vapor. The lower temperatures. The condenser. to form the strong ammonia solution. One popularly as Refrigerant-12. weak solution . For example.9 psi) would condense at 37. temperature associated with each pressure. which raises its temperature. vaporize at -6. however. In such gas refrigerators a strong solution of ammonia in water is heated by a gas flame in a container called a generator. high-pressure gas is then condensed to liquid in an air. Instead of the gas being inducted into a compressor on exit from the returning from the generator.or water-cooled pressure and temperature are reduced to the conditions that are maintained in the evaporator. A similar pressure-temperature relationship holds in the condenser. and after compression to 909. is always placed in an insulated space. The resulting condensed liquid would then enter the expansion valve to drop to evaporator pressure and repeat the cycle of absorbing heat at low temperature and low pressure and dissipating heat at the much higher condenser pressure and temperature.7 psi). the condenser heat is dissipated into the kitchen or other room housing the refrigerator. so that it is only necessary to control the pressure in the evaporator to obtain a desired temperature. called gas refrigerators. in which its resulting superheated.2 kPa (35. or vaporization. called the freezer. This process of evaporator. In small domestic refrigerators used for food storage. known refrigerant would. to maintain a temperature of -23.
. where. Increasing use of absorption refrigeration now occurs in refrigeration units for comfort space cooling.45 psi). however.145 psi). and some manufacturers of CFCs have already pledged to phase out these products by the end of the century. that CFCs are posing a major threat to the global environment through their role in the destruction of the ozone layer. This solution is then pumped into the generator. Refrigerant-11 and Refrigerant-22. It has been found.0 kPa (1. as the absorbent material. water can be used as a refrigerant with an aqueous salt solution. are currently the major compounds used in the cooling and insulation systems of home refrigeration units. the surplus water is boiled off to increase the salt concentration of the solution. usually lithium bromide. A search has therefore begun for replacements. the generator and condenser operate at about 10. for which purpose refrigerant temperatures of 45° to 50° F (7. from which the enriched liquid flows back to the generator to complete the cycle.0 kPa (0. this solution. at elevated temperature.2° to 10° C) are suitable. The units are usually direct-fired or use steam generated in a boiler.reabsorption occurs in a container called the absorber. recirculates back to the absorber to complete the cycle. after cooling. In this temperature range. The system operates at high vacuum at an evaporator pressure of about 1. V REFRIGERANTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT Refrigerant-12 and related CFCs. The very cold boiling water from the evaporator is absorbed in concentrated salt solution.
circulation. Stoves and some parts of the world. braziers of various types that were developed by the ancient Romans are still employed in .Heating. either separately or in combination with the heating or air-conditioning system. or indirect. Ventilating. controls both the supply and exhaust of air within given areas in order to provide sufficient oxygen to the occupants and to eliminate odors. as in a central system in which steam. humidity. air handled or stored there. or heated air passing through pipes or other ducts transports thermal energy to all the rooms of a building. and Air Conditioning (HVAC). heated water. Air conditioning designates control of the indoor environment year-round to create and maintain desirable temperature. Ventilating. Heating an area raises temperature in a given space to a more satisfactory level than that of the atmosphere. related processes designed to regulate ambient conditions within buildings for comfort or for industrial purposes. The earliest heating system was the open fire with which people warmed their dwellings. and Air Conditioning (HVAC) I INTRODUCTION Heating. Ventilation. and purity for the occupants of that space or for the industrial materials that are II HEATING The heating process may be direct. as from a fireplace or stove in an individual room.
These devices promote combustion by permitting The useful heat given off by a fireplace consists of both direct radiation from the burning fuel from the burning fuel is lost in the combustion gases that go up the chimney. The first fireplaces were hearths.A Fireplaces The fireplace was developed as a method of heating rooms by means of an open fire. recessed into the walls of buildings. peat. or a pair of metal charcoal. Ordinary fireplaces consist of a hearth enclosed on three sides with brick and surmounted by a completely enclosed chimney or flue that carries away the smoke and other combustion supports called firedogs or andirons. is an improvement over the fireplace because its surfaces are in contact with the air of the room and by convection deliver heat to the air passing over them. coke. The fuels used include wood. with short flues that communicated with the open air. To and indirect radiation from the hot sidewalls and back wall. an enclosure of metal or ceramic materials in which fuel is burned. coke. Grates are used for such fuels as coal. An efficient stove delivers about 75 percent of the energy of the burning fuel. and andirons are used for wood. and the circulation of air under the fuel. gas. coal. Fireplaces with chimneys sufficiently high above the roof of the building to provide adequate draft for the fire were introduced during the 12th century. . From 85 to 90 percent of the heat improve heating efficiency. On the hearth is either a metal grate. and kerosene. raised on legs. B Stoves The stove. Fireplaces are included in modern houses mainly for aesthetic reasons rather than thermal efficiency. however. some modern fireplaces are built with an arrangement of interior ducts in which cold air from the room is warmed and then recirculated through the room. products of the fire.
gas. A type of centralized heating. In large systems steam or hot water is usually employed to distribute even groups of buildings. system. it heats metal surfaces that in turn transfer the heat to water. or coal. or even Most furnaces. steam. as are office buildings. The term district heating is applied to systems in which a large number of buildings are supplied with steam from central boiler rooms operated by a public utility. This system subsequently came into extensive use Present-day central-heating systems provide heat from a central furnace for a single building the heat. As air in some residential furnaces.or gas-fired furnaces only need the control of burners to regulate heat.S. but the first successful central in the U. such as those in shopping malls. were developed in the 1800s. The removal of ashes from the stoker or grates is also essential. Furnaces that use solid fuels.C Central Heating Central-heating systems. require the admission of additional fuel to the system. using hot water. Furnaces for heating systems conventionally are fired with such fuels as oil. and or a group of buildings. large and small. . Most dwellings are provided with central heat. The combustion firebox and the associated boiler are customarily enclosed in an insulated casing. used warm air. was used to a limited extent in Britain about 1816. in which one centrally located heating unit is used to warm several rooms or an entire house. are automatically responsive to remote thermostats that control their operation. Steam heating was developed about 1850. the fuel burns. however. Oil. introduced in 1835. hotels.
Forced-circulation warm-air systems are popular for through the year. it passes through the ducts to opened or closed to control the temperature of the rooms. Often the furnace is arranged so the warm air passes over a water pan in the furnace for humidification before circulating through the house. To ensure natural circulation of firebox and the casing and is heated by contact with the hot surfaces of the furnace. the panels containing heating elements are heat and has a comparatively low cost of operation. warehouses. slanted upward from the furnace.The devices generally employed to transfer heat from the heating system to the area to be warmed are known commonly as radiators and convectors. and properly insulated to prevent heat losses. thereby providing comfort at a lower room-air temperature than other systems. and ducts leading to the various rooms. Radiant heating provides uniform C1 Warm-Air Systems The simplest warm-air heating system consists of a firebox and waste-gas passage set within the warm air. Ordinary radiators consist of a consists of a network of finned steel or nonferrous-metal tubes. The grills or registers can be The chief problem in this type of system lies in obtaining adequate air circulation. forced-circulation systems may be used effectively for heating and cooling. As the air is heated. baseboard. Efficiency is high because radiant heat raises the inside-surface temperature. is admitted between the a sheet-metal casing. Steam or hot-water pipes are placed in the walls or floors during construction of the building. the term radiant heating is applied popularly to systems in which floors. rather than by radiation. either from within the house or from outdoors. individual grills or registers in each room of the upper floors. the system may not heat a house adequately. and dehumidifying units. primarily because the same equipment can provide air conditioning . Stores. unit heaters in which an electric fan or blower forces air through heating coils. When combined with cooling. such a system may be included in the system to ensure the cleanliness of the air. Dust filters residential installations. or the ceiling of the room. These units are placed in series of cast-iron grids or coils having a comparatively large total surface area. The convector enclosures designed to permit air circulation. If electricity is used for heating. Cold air. mounted on a wall. walls. which tends to rise. ensures the circulation of a large amount of air even under unfavorable conditions. thus. In a forced-circulation system a fan or blower is placed in the furnace casing. or ceilings are used as the radiating units. and factories are often equipped with so-called Although heat is provided in part by radiation in all forms of direct heating. heat is provided largely by convection. humidifying. the furnace usually is situated below the first floor of the house. Unless the warm-air ducts are comparatively large in diameter.
Three main types of steam systems are used: air-vent systems. Closed expansion tanks contain about 50 percent air. condensation. Air vents on each radiator permit air to be forced out of the radiator by the steam during the warm-up period and also during operation. circulates through the radiator. The disadvantage of this arrangement is that the water becomes each radiator from the supply side of the main pipe. giving up its latent heat (see Heat: Latent Heat). and air and condensate are delivered to the return pipe by means of a steam trap on the radiator. and the air is discharged either . In the two-pipe system all radiators are supplied with hot water at the same temperature from a single supply pipe. water is admitted to back into the same pipe. The two-pipe system is thus more efficient and easier compensate for variations in the volume of water in the system. a subatmospheric type is less used. The water is then circulated by means of pipes to radiators located in the various rooms. The one-pipe air-vent system is an arrangement in which the force of gravity causes the condensate to flow from the radiator to the boiler in the same pipe through which steam reaches the radiator. The steam condenses in the radiators. The condensate is returned to the boiler. and the water from all the radiators flows back to the to control than the one-pipe system. systems. In the one-pipe system. which compresses and expands to compensate for volume changes in the water. or mechanical-pump. but the pipes must be large to accommodate both the steam and the condensate. but forced circulation using a pump is more efficient Either one. C3 Steam Systems Steam-heating systems closely resemble hot-water systems except that steam rather than hot water is circulated through the pipes to the radiators. vapor systems. Modern systems of this type employ a boiler. This is the least expensive system to install. and flows increasingly cool as it flows away from the furnace. and hence the radiators farthest from the furnace must be larger than those nearer the furnace in order to deliver the same amount of heat. In both systems an expansion tank is required to furnace through a common return pipe. in which water is heated to a temperature of from 60° to 83° C (140° to 180° F). The vapor system is a two-pipe arrangement in which steam passes into the radiator through an inlet valve. Circulation of the hot water can be because it provides flexibility and control. accomplished by pressure and gravity.or two-pipe systems may be used.C2 Hot-Water Systems In the first hot-water heating systems the waters of natural hot springs reputedly were used as a source of heat. Both one-pipe and two-pipe arrangements are employed for circulating the steam and for returning to the boiler the water formed by and vacuum.
There the warmth is radiated or blown into the room or through a valve where its pressure and temperature are lowered further before it liquefies and is pumped into the outdoor coil to continue the cycle. is pumped through a coil that is outside the area to be heated. well water. economical because it can be operated on the low-firing cycle of the furnace and thus requires Vacuum systems resemble vapor systems in that each radiator is equipped with an inlet valve and a steam trap. but they differ in having a vacuum pump installed in the return piping. convectors in or on the walls. and its actions are essentially the same for either process. In heating season. under windows. although more expensive to install than the one-pipe system. varying patterns—for example. cleanliness. such as Freon. the ground. Like furnaces. in larger installations. then flows so it absorbs heat from the outside air. It then vapor before it flows to an indoor coil. so radiators can be situated either above or below the boiler. With a full vacuum system the condensate does not have to be returned by gravity. air. the heat pump transfers heat from one place to another. through a vent for each zone heated by the system. but the convenience. Instead of creating heat. which raises its temperature and pressure so that it becomes other space to be heated. The refrigerant is cold. To air condition a space. The overall cost of electric C5 Heat pump A heat pump is a system designed to provide useful heating and cooling. The heat can be provided from electric coils or strips used in radiation in part or all of a room. flows first to a compressor. Electric heating generally costs more than energy obtained from combustion of a fuel. most heat pumps are controlled by thermostats. as does a furnace. the rate at which air reenters the system is so reduced that minimal pressure is required to propel the steam. With circulate more readily. is more less fuel. If the system is constructed with light joints. . The condensate and air return to a central point from which the the pump a partial vacuum is maintained in the system so that the steam. a liquid refrigerant. and condensate condensate is pumped back into the boiler and the air is expelled into the atmosphere. A vapor system. The refrigerant. Heating elements or wires can even be incorporated in heating can be substantially reduced through the use of a heat-pump system. having given up much of its heat. or as baseboard ceilings or floors to radiate low-temperature heat into a space.through one central air vent in the basement or. or some other source. C4 Electric Heating The practice of using electric energy for heating is increasing not only in residences but in public buildings as well. valves reverse the flow so that the refrigerant picks up heat from inside and discharges it outside. and reduced space needs of electric heat can often justify its use.
Because the heater has no incandescent wires. the Heat-pump systems are now being used extensively not only in residences but also in commercial buildings and schools. latitude. C6 Solar heating During each sunlight hour of the day approximately 0. For economical heating performance. many of which can be moved from room to room as needed. The actual energy received varies with time of day. thus warming glass or quartz in which resistance wires are embedded.9 kw per sq m (280 Btu per hour per sq ft) of solar energy reaches the surface of the earth. time of year. Known generally as space heaters. In colder water circuits. Kerosene stoves should be used with adequate outside ventilation because combustion gases can be harmful. this water becomes a source of heating for the house. Another type consists of a plate or tube of heat-resistant . cold. and the direction relative to the sun that an absorbing surface faces at any given time. The water. The usual kerosene stove is made of sheet metal and contains one or more wick burners that heat metal flues within the stove. This energy can often be more than enough to heat a well-designed building. which concentrates the radiant heat into a narrow beam. A common method employed uses roof panels with built-in elsewhere in the house. large stoves of this general pattern can provide adequate heat for several rooms. Some radiant heaters include a fan. clarity of the atmosphere. drawing in cool air through vents in the bottom of the stove and emitting heated air from top vents. which circulates air around the heating unit. The entire plate or tube is warmed by the wires and gives off radiant heat. a supplementary heat source for the water is usually provided. particularly in areas where the weather is not severely from fuels or electric power in winter. it is safer to use.Most heat pumps use atmospheric air as their heat source. heated by the sun. making it difficult to raise the temperature and pressure of the refrigerant. This presents a problem in areas where winter temperatures frequently drop below freezing. The simplest electric heaters are radiant heaters having a resistanceheating unit in front of a reflector. The most common types are kerosene stoves and electric heaters. A number of such systems are in successful operation. delivered heat should amount to more than twice the heat purchased from the power source. Kerosene stoves heat both by radiation and by convection. Proper placement of the glazing in any house can also greatly reduce the heating need D Portable Heating Units Houses lacking central-heating systems are equipped with various types of portable and semiportable heating devices. then flows into insulated tanks or pools located climates. provided enough solar absorbing surface can be installed and enough heat storage is made available to carry the building during periods of darkness and inclement weather. by convection as well as by radiation.
Many systems include efficiency of the system by reducing the amount of energy needed to operate it. or cooling devices. Such haphazard for factories. Engineers estimate that for adequate ventilation the air in a room should be changed these must be removed from the workplace environment in a cost-effective manner. No pipe connections are outlet. however. and engineers. but not for public buildings such as offices and theaters. and the units can be moved from place to place and plugged into any electrical III VENTILATION Buildings in which people live and work must be ventilated to replenish oxygen. filtered air. A certain ventilation may suffice for homes. thereby increasing the IV AIR CONDITIONING Theoretically. concentration of carbon dioxide and water vapor. filters. regardless of weather conditions.Electric-steam radiators are used to supplement other heating systems. Chemical completely from one and a half to three times each hour. humidity controls. Many so-called air-conditioning units consist merely of blowerequipped refrigerating units that provide only a flow of cool. Providing this amount of ventilation usually requires mechanical devices to augment the Simple ventilation devices include fans or blowers that are arranged either to exhaust the stale air from the building or to force fresh air into the building. dilute the amount of air movement or ventilation ordinarily is provided by air leakage through small crevices in the building's walls. in particular. Radiators filled with oil that is heated electrically are also available. are involved in ventilation design for factories and refineries. an air-conditioning system consists of centralized equipment that provides an atmosphere with controlled temperature. and minimize unpleasant odors. and purity at all times. These radiators are to warm a small conventional radiator partially filled with water. miniature steam-heating systems in which an electrical-heating unit generates enough steam necessary. the term air conditioning often is applied improperly to air cooling. humidity. In popular usage. . or both. heat exchangers. or that about 280 to 850 liters (about 10 to 30 cu ft) of outside air per minute should be supplied for each occupant. These use outgoing air to heat or cool incoming air. Nearly all chemical processes generate hazardous waste gases and vapors. especially around windows and doors. Ventilating systems may be combined with heaters. or Factory ventilation systems must remove hazardous airborne contaminants from the workplace. natural flow of air.
require air conditioning for the control of conditions during manufacture. it is usually dehumidified by cooling or by dehydration. in some filters. are employed widely in theaters. the amount of space to be cooled. In older buildings. cooling. A smaller apparatus for cooling single rooms consists of a The design of an air-conditioning system depends on the type of structure in which the system is to be placed. A room or building with large windows exposed to the sun. providing fully controlled heating. and other public buildings. and printed matter. and a plenum chamber in which air from the interior of the building is mixed with outside air. Such systems. in others. as required. restaurants. dust is removed Centralized air-conditioning systems. and ventilation. and the nature of their activity. the air- conditioning system is designed to include some type of filter. blowers. as is necessary in the manufacture of certain drugs and medical supplies. such as those used in the production of paper. In the latter process it is passed through chambers containing adsorptive chemicals such as silica gel. these systems have increasingly been automated by computer technology for purposes of energy conservation. Air conditioning of this kind usually is based on adjusting the humidity of the circulated air. Such installations are used for cooling and dehumidifying during the summer months. through a labyrinth of oil-covered plates. air ducts.A number of manufacturing processes. single apartments or suites of offices may be equipped with a refrigerating unit. Air is humidified by circulation through water baths or sprays. the number of occupants. being complex. sprays or. and the regular heating refrigerating unit and blower in a compact cabinet that can be mounted in a window. system is used during the winter. The air is passed through water electrostatically by means of precipitators (see Electrostatic Precipitator). When dry air is required. or an indoor office . textiles. stores. in recent years. generally must be installed when the building is constructed. When air must be completely free of dust.
no air can be recirculated. Usage still supports the term ton of refrigeration. 12.5 kw—a Btu is the amount of heat removed from 1 lb (0.45 kg) of Horsepower ratings were formerly used for small air conditioners. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. The circulation of air must be greater in a space in which the occupants are allowed to smoke than in a space of heated air can be recirculated without discomfort to the occupants. or water when its temperature is lowered by 1° F (5/9° C). and a Air-conditioning units are rated in terms of effective cooling capacity. most of the cooled or factories employing processes that generate noxious fumes.space with many heat-producing lights. .5 kw of cooling. because a horsepower (or 0. equal capacity in which smoking is prohibited. All rights reserved. which properly should be expressed in kilowatt units. the equivalent of a ton of refrigeration. In homes or apartments. which implies the amount of heat that would have to be absorbed to melt a ton of water-ice in 24 hours.000 Btu/hour equal to 3.746 kw) represents work power and not cooling. but the term is misleading because under usual summer conditions a motor of one horsepower could support 3. but in laboratories or constant supply of cooled or heated fresh air must be supplied. It came into use Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005. requires a system with a larger cooling capacity than an almost windowless room in which cool fluorescent lighting is used.
” Photographs serve as scientific evidence. Millions of people around the made with still cameras. or iodine). The films used in photography depend on a limited number of chemical compounds that darken when exposed to light. which is applied to film or another supporting material in a thin . For information on the history of photography and its artistic practice. The word photography comes from Greek words and means “drawing with light. and surveys how photographic technologies have evolved since the medium's invention. and records of family life. such as filtration and electronic flash.Photography I INTRODUCTION Photography. works of art. and chemistry. see History of Photography. Photosensitive materials abound in nature. which are salts consisting of silver and chemicals called halogens (usually bromine. they change in some way blooms at night are one example. For the purpose of producing a photograph. plants that close their based on the fact that certain chemicals are photosensitive—that is. optics. Nearly all forms of photography are when exposed to light. conveyers of news. and lenses. chlorine. The compounds most widely used today are silver halide crystals. information on motion picture technology and history. these silver salts are distributed in gelatin to make a mixture called an emulsion. world own cameras and enjoy taking pictures. method of picture making developed in the early 19th century. It also outlines techniques of modern photography. History of Motion II GENERAL PRINCIPLES Light is the most essential ingredient in photography. cameras. every year more than 10 billion exposures are This article discusses how photographs are produced using film. For Pictures. historical documents. based on principles of light. see Motion Pictures.
Most types of film produce a negative image. as the choice of subject and the time of day. project a temporary image of something they wanted to draw. a device that artists once used to and the modern camera. The photographer can switch a modern zoom lens from wide to narrow angles of view by turning a collar or pressing a button. The dense (or dark) areas of the negative translate into light areas on the final photograph. A device called a shutter controls how long light strikes the film. must adjust the distance between the lens and the film so that the plane of Various types of lenses admit different amounts of light and permit different angles of view. lenses that take in a narrow angle make the subject seem magnified. light passes through a lens fitted into an otherwise lightproof box. in some cameras. The purpose of the lens is refraction. which in a modern camera contains film. the bending of light. The camera’s glass or plastic lens down on the other side of the lens. Light passing through the lens casts an image of the camera’s subject—the object. an image becomes visible. a or circular opening of the lens. To take one example. The combination of choices that a photographer makes—film type. The camera and lens control how much light strikes the film in what is called an exposure. making the resulting image appear in focus. thousands of people have III PHOTOGRAPHIC FILMS . person. Almost all modern photography relies on this negative-to-positive process. after further processing. angle of view. The amount of light that a lens allows to fall on the film is controlled by a lens diaphragm. the shutter speed can range from a small fraction of a second (1/1000 or less) to minutes or even hours. When the emulsion is exposed to light. The stronger the light that strikes the crystals. lens aperture. In most cases the camera and its lens determine the appearance of the photographic image. the silver halide crystals undergo chemical changes and. or an automatic mechanism focus falls exactly where the film lies. shutter speed—influences the appearance of the photograph as much stood in the same spot to take photographs of the Grand Canyon over the years. from which a positive final copy can be printed on sensitized paper. In both the camera obscura Cameras work on the basic principle of the camera obscura. camera size. the denser or more opaque that part of the film becomes. The area where they re-form an image of the subject bends the light rays reflected from the subject so that these rays cross and reappear upsideinside the camera is called the plane of focus. mechanism built of overlapping metal blades. or scene in front of the camera—onto the inside of the box. focus. The photographer. Lenses that take in a wide angle of view make the subject seem farther away. The diaphragm controls the size of the aperture.layer. but their photographs look different because the photographers made different choices with these controls.
and the silver salts were suspended in collodion. pieces of glass coated in advance with an emulsion of gelatin and silver bromide. usually acetate. and most recently. He achieved this by placing a pewter plate coated with bitumen. or color A A Brief History of Film Scientists recognized the photosensitivity of certain silver compounds. A few years later American inventor George Eastman devised a flexible improved on this by using a type of plastic called celluloid instead of paper. which he called the daguerreotype. announced an The daguerreotype process produced a detailed. but were eventually replaced by a negative/positive process. the entire surface blackened after continued exposure to light. it A French inventor. French painter Louis Jacques Mandé improved version of the process. It is available in a variety of shapes and sizes determined by the format of the camera. particularly silver nitrate and silver chloride. English inventor William Henry Fox Talbot devised this process and perfected it in the 1840s. a long paper strip that could replace the glass plate. a thick liquid. In 1889 he were invented in 1878. The smooth glass negatives could produce paper. a type of roll film that incorporates various conveniences for amateur photographers. is credited with having made the first successful photograph in 1826. experimenters sought a dry version of the same process. version of this system. light-sensitive material. which has been coated with one or more light-sensitive emulsions. Niépce later switched from pewter to Daguerre continued Niépce’s pioneering work and in 1839. He exposed silver- sensitized paper briefly to light and then treated it with other chemicals to produce a visible image. from which he could produce any number of paper positives. Beginning in 1850 glass replaced paper as a support for the negative. positive image on a shiny copper plate small enough to be held in the hand. in the back of a camera obscura. after Niépce's death. While they succeeded in producing a negative image. Typical formats are 35-millimeter and 6-centimeter roll films. that are appropriate for different lighting conditions. Within each film format there are a range of film types (black and white. sharper images than paper ones. producing the first . Daguerreotypes remained popular through the 1850s. Dry plates. This refinement became known as the wet collodion process. In the early 19th century English scientists Thomas Wedgwood and Sir Humphry Davy used silver nitrate in an attempt to transfer a was not permanent. transparency) and sensitivity levels. 4-by-5 and 8-by-10 inch sheet films. called film speeds. because the details were no longer lost in the texture of the Because the wet collodion (or wet plate) process required photographers to coat the glass support just before taking a picture. Talbot’s process produced a paper negative. color print. Advanced Photo System (APS). during the 18th century. painted image onto leather or paper.Modern film consists of a transparent material. Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. another copper plates and from bitumen to silver chloride.
and infrared and ultraviolet radiation.photographic film. Except for some isolated experiments. with a few specialized exceptions. The first commercially successful material for making color photographs. The narrow band of electromagnetic waves that the human eye can detect is called the visible spectrum. Even black-and-white films record colors as different shades of gray. color films were not invented until the 20th century. films are sensitive to all colors of the visible spectrum. and magenta (a purplish red). with orange. flowers. for example. green. and blue in between. B1 Dyes and Emulsions Photographic films vary in the way they react to different wavelengths of visible light. plastics that are less flammable than celluloid. Eastman's invention paved the way for all modern films. and orange black-and-white films were sensitive to only the shorter wavelengths of the visible spectrum. So. These films are also known as reversal . which produces the actual color that resembles what the eye sees.) wavelengths as red. which we see as colors. called Autochrome. in a picture of blue. specialized compounds called dye sensitizers were incorporated into the emulsion. yellow. and to prevent light from scattering within Color transparency films produce a positive color image for viewing with the help of a slide projector or an illuminated surface called a light table. yellow. Each emulsion responds to only one color of light and is coupled with a dye layer. the blue flowers would appear too light. became available in 1907 and was based on a process devised by French inventors Auguste and Louis Lumière. it is first necessary to understand a few things about light. The Kodak company introduced Kodacolor film for color enjoyed in black and white. the shortest as violet. Early primarily to light perceived as blue. Both of these films produced positive negatives in 1942. or slides. Light is the visible portion of a broad range of energy called electromagnetic radiation. Our eyes perceive the longest (A rainbow or a prism shows all the colors of the visible spectrum. But the era of color photography did not really begin until the advent of color transparencies. X rays. red. Other layers act as the film. which gave amateurs the same negative/positive process they had long B How Film Works To understand how film works. To correct this. whereas the red and orange flowers would look unrealistically dark. Today. which also includes invisible energy in the form of radio waves. gamma rays. which are made of acetate or polyester. Most color films are coated with three emulsions. typically cyan (a greenish blue). filters to screen the light these emulsions receive. Kodachrome color film in 1935 and Agfacolor in 1936.
The silver is then removed. magenta. in which the dye is built in. During processing. although silver is also essential to the process. The tonal values of the during the development of the film—creating a positive image. turning what would otherwise be a negative image into a positive one. the colored dyes on the negative would be a blue-green color called cyan (the original scene. and blue. Exposure to lots of light causes many particles to form. and yellow (the complement of blue). the negative provides an image nearly identical to that of conventional black-and-white film. large particles of metallic silver form in areas of the film that were exposed to light. complement of red). and areas that were bright appear dark. Color negative films. yellow.films because the initial developed image is chemically reversed during processing. they . Different combinations of those colors create the more complex colors visible on the to metallic silver and washed away during the initial development remain to be converted again combine with dye couplers to form the final color image. produce positive prints. negative are reversed again in the printing process—or in the case of transparencies (slides). The dyes in some brands of transparency film are added during development. leaving a negative image in the three colors. In color transparency films. dyes built into the emulsion chemically react with the silver salts that form the image. if you took a picture of the Ecuadorian flag. blue (the complement of yellow). just as in black-and-white processing. and the print shows a flag properly striped with red. When light shines through this negative onto color-sensitive print paper. the colors return to One type of black-and-white film. the chemical action of the developer creates initial images in metallic silver. areas in the subject that were dark appear light on the negative. final print. in others. called chromogenic film. The resulting image produced on the film is called a negative because the tonal values of the subject photographed are reversed. As with some transparency films. which is red. Chromogenic color films. they are built into the film itself. and yellow dye images. yellow. As these remaining silver halides are converted to metal. makes use of color-film technology to produce a negative that has just a single dye layer. before the second layer of metallic silver is also washed away. while exposure to dim light or exposure for a very short time causes just a few particles to form. B2 Positive/Negative Development When film is processed in a chemical agent called a developer. also known as print films. When exposed to conventional blackand-white photo paper. exhibit dye images rather than silver images. But in color processing the developer also stimulates dye couplers (chemicals that react to a specific color of light and cause corresponding dyes to be released) to form cyan. positive form. For instance. unexposed silver halide crystals that are not converted during a second development. The colors on the processed negative are the complements of the colors in the and blue. But when exposed to paper for printing color photographs it produces an image composed of different shades of a single color.
The so-called paper support (today. which produce negatives. Color films also must may be outdoor sunlight. electronic flash. but generally require fewer layers. pictures with unpleasant green or purple casts when taken indoors under fluorescent light. C1 Sensitivity and Color Balance Most films now in use are panchromatic. Tungsten films are designed to be used indoors without flash. Black-and-white papers have a single layer of emulsion. because print films are balanced for daylight. meaning that they respond to all colors of light and can record each color’s relative strength with a fair degree of accuracy. Film exposed to light for a longer than optimal time is said to be overexposed and produces prints that look bleached out and blurred. incandescent lamps. commonly made of plastic or paper) is coated with a lightcolor papers have at least three layers. see the Filtration section of this article. The color in print films. as C2 Exposure Latitude In any lighting situation there is an optimal exposure that will produce a perfect image on film. All color films will produce in an office. which produce direct positive images that cannot be altered. While the theory of color temperature is complicated. are designed for both outdoor photography and pictures taken indoors with certain types of bulbs manufactured for such situations called photofloods. be designed to respond to the specific quality or energy of light illuminating the scene. When these papers are exposed to light shone through C Film Characteristics Certain characteristics help people determine which film will work best in a particular situation. the most widely used. sensitive emulsion. the practical concept is simple: color films are balanced to perform best in specific lighting conditions. which shows most visibly as insufficient contrast between dark and light. For more information about eliminating color casts. can be adjusted during printing to compensate for different lighting conditions. pictures from them often have an orange cast when taken indoors without flash. which Each of these kinds of light has a distinct characteristic referred to as color temperature. specifically with Distinguishing between daylight and tungsten film types is important mainly with transparency or slide films. So-called daylight films. a negative. Too short an exposure and the image is underexposed. or electronic flash. just as films are. Nonetheless. . Films may vary in their sensitivity to different kinds of light and in their ability to record fine details or quickly moving subjects. the end result is a positive.Photographic print papers are constructed much like films.
a range of settings within which it can accurately render the color and tonal values (contrasts of light and dark) of the subject photographed. fast films. The individual grains of silver are generally larger and more obvious in faster film than in slower film. Despite these advantages. with other adjustment for you. slow films. Staying within a given film’s exposure latitude can ensure an acceptable range of tones in the picture. it renders fine details intense colors than fast film. the margin for error is small. photographs taken with slowspeed film appear less grainy. The manufacturer of the film assigns it a standardized Organization). The wider a film's latitude. With some cameras the photographer will need to manually adjust the ISO number. the C3 Speed and Grain Film is also classified by speed. an exposure adjusted for a shady area is likely to result in overexposure of adjacent sunny in a range of lighting conditions. including full detail throughout the picture. many high-speed films have a greater exposure latitude than slower films. For each film. but films that are even slower exist. halide grains. all films exhibit a pattern called grain. and low Today. cameras. For this reason.Every film has a characteristic exposure latitude. A photographer can push the limits of a film by overriding the recommended exposure for that film speed and shortening the exposure time. especially when enlarged. Because of the small size of its silver with greater sharpness. With films that have a narrow exposure latitude. But to achieve the best-possible image quality. In addition. areas. the greater its ability to provide satisfactory prints or slides Films that produce negatives generally offer much greater latitude than transparency films. setting an exposure compensation dial will trick the camera into making this lengthened to compensate for the underexposure. Slow-speed film also produces a smoother range of tones and more films in certain situations. such as when photographing a rapidly moving subject. while films above ISO 200 are considered fast. Films in the ISO 125 to ISO 200 range are considered medium speed. this rating determines the amount of exposure required to photograph a numerical rating known as the ISO number (ISO stands for the International Standards numbers to less sensitive. slow-speed film generally has a higher resolution—that is. High ISO numbers correspond to highly light-sensitive. slow-speed films typically have a rating between ISO 25 and ISO 100. slow films are not as desirable as fast C4 DX Coding . exposure time and aperture size need to be precisely set to fit the lighting conditions. a rating that provides a measure of the film’s sensitivity to light. The photographer must then make sure that the development time is Whether fast or slow. Film grain is the visible trace of the metallic silver that forms the image. subject under a given lighting condition.
This the film speed by hand in the camera's built-in exposure meter. which ray and infrared. Ektachrome. which produce prints through the classic negative-to-positive process. it was quickly dubbed instant photography. manufacturers print a checkerboard pattern that corresponds to an electronic code. and a number of specialty films such as X- D1 Print Films Color print films. The DX code is also placed on the film itself to inform the developing laboratory of this information. including the popular 35-millimeter format (in which a single frame of the film is 35 millimeters wide). Most cameras with electronic controls are equipped with DX sensors that can read this information and automatically adjust exposures accordingly. Manufacturers also design films for such specific tasks as slide ISO 3200. and Agfachrome are examples of films that produce 35-millimeter slides and larger transparencies. Ideal for amateur use. develop into prints without additional processing. 200. Fujicolor. Fujichrome. On cartridges of 35-millimeter code tells the camera’s computer the ISO rating of the film as well as the number of frames on the roll. a type of photography that produces prints almost immediately after exposure. takes one or more minutes.DX coding is a recent innovation in film and camera technology that eliminates the need to set film. and Agfacolor. Film speeds of slide films commonly range from a very slow ISO 25 to a very fast D3 Polaroid In 1947 American physicist Edwin Herbert Land invented the Polaroid process. and 400 are the most common. reversal films. which provide better color and smaller grain size. D2 Slide Films Kodachrome. or formats. for both special Polaroid cameras and for standard-format cameras (see Polaroid Corporation). used to make color slides and larger transparencies. they are designed to provide excellent color rendition out of doors and with electronic flash. These types include color print films. include such brand names as Kodacolor. Manufacturers also offer premium films in most formats. Films are available in several sizes. duplication. D Color Films in Use Today A range of color film types is available to photographers. Today Polaroid films . Both daylight and tungsten versions of these films are generally available. Each manufacturer supplies its brand in several speeds: ISO 100. Polaroid films. Although the process are available in both black-and-white and color.
The mirror reflected an image onto a this device to help them draw more accurately. One notable enhancement for the box. Infrared film responds to the invisible. and users can watch the image develop before their eyes. At first the shutter was simply a blind dropped in front of the lens by the force of . Polaroid SX-70 film. Light entered the room through this replacing the pinhole and an angled mirror at the back. infrared portion of the spectrum in addition to visible respond to X rays and other forms of electromagnetic radiation. They placed thin paper onto the viewing screen and could easily trace the reflected image. X-ray. The earliest form of this hole and projected an upside-down image of the subject onto the opposite wall. Improvements in camera photographs. between the lens and the plane of focus. light. improvements. a large-format camera known as the view camera. a camera is a lighttight box with a lens on one side and light-sensitive film on the other. devices that could limit the time of exposure to a fraction of a second. Long before film was invented artists used The inventors of photography in the early 19th century adapted the camera obscura by adding a device for holding sensitized plates in the back of the box. on the other hand. and Special Films Some special-purpose films are sensitive to wavelengths beyond the visible spectrum of light.The processing chemicals and conventional silver halide emulsions in instant film are combined in a self-contained paper envelope or within the print itself. A chemical diffusing agent transfers the negative image to the paper. has no separate negative. producing a print. with some pleated leather sides called bellows. Professional photographers still use a similar camera In the 1880s the invention of more sensitive emulsions and better lenses led to the development of lens shutters. Basically. Older Polaroid films use a system in which the negative peels away from the final print. Film manufacturers also design specialized emulsions for medical and scientific films that IV CAMERAS The most important tool of photography is the camera itself. was used throughout the 19th century. allowed the photographer to easily adjust the distance today. technology over the years have given photographers more control over the quality of their A A Brief History of Cameras Today’s cameras all derive from the 16th-century camera obscura. D4 Infrared. ground-glass viewing screen on the top of the box. This kind of camera. Over the course of three centuries the camera obscura evolved into a handheld box with a lens device was a darkened room with a tiny hole in one wall.
most of today’s cameras offer a range of automated features that greatly simplify picture taking and reduce the likelihood of error. models—offering built-in flash. the lens is set to an aperture and focus that produce reasonably sharp pictures of a subject at least 2 m (about 6 ft) away. when the camera is used outdoors in the sun. On most box cameras. Later designs featured a set of blades just behind the optical lens. plastic cameras come loaded with 35-millimeter color print film. a small-sized film initially designed for motion pictures. After taking a roll of pictures. Single-use cameras are also available in several advanced extra-wide prints. located just in front of the film. The Kodak was one of the earliest handheld cameras. through which the simplicity of this easy-to-use design has assured its popularity ever since. the Leica and other 35-millimeter cameras became popular with both amateur and professional photographers. the photographer can do little to control the results. which used a cylindrical shutter that the photographer turned by pulling a string on the front of the camera. Whereas cameras once required many decisions on the part of photographers. These cardboard-covered. Box cameras consist photographer looks to frame the scene. and a shutter with one or possibly two speeds. Because of its compactness and economy. one of the first cameras to use 35-millimeter film. or the ability to show panoramic views in B2 View Cameras . a waterproof body. But because these settings are not adjustable. the user turns over the entire camera to a processing lab for development. It made photography available to amateurs for the first time and created a snapshot craze at the turn of the 20th century. simple lens. B1 Box Cameras The Eastman Kodak Company introduced one of the first box cameras in 1888. and the of a rigid box or body. the focal-plane shutter allows photographers to switch lenses safely in the middle of a film roll. The modern-day equivalents of the old Kodak box cameras are the disposable cameras now sold at drugstores and tourist shops. a fixed. or by a spring.gravity. In 1925 the Leitz Company in Germany introduced the Leica. Because it blocks light from the film even when the lens is removed. Manufacturers now reuse or recycle many of the parts inside these cameras. In 1888 George Eastman introduced the first Kodak camera. B Modern Camera Types Cameras come in a variety of forms. All but the earliest Leicas used a focal-plane shutter. a viewfinder window.
To focus the camera. Since the viewfinder window does not Rangefinder cameras were once very popular with amateur photographers. landscapes. the modern rangefinder camera centimeter film. and some professionals still use it. (For more information. Rangefinders are available in two formats. The cameras work with all types of 35-millimeter film. The photographer can shift.) . B4 Point-and-Shoot Cameras The most popular camera type today is the point-and-shoot camera. Unlike point-and-shoot cameras. and the space in between is enclosed in an expandable leather bellows. aperture. It has a number of automatic features that make it practically foolproof to operate while producing pictures of high quality. independently moveable elements that ride on a track: The front element holds the lens and shutter. or architectural photography. The body configuration of the view camera. the rear holds a ground-glass panel. at which point the camera has set show the scene through the lens. film winding. is extremely adjustable. It has two capture far greater detail than 35-millimeter films. B3 Rangefinder Cameras Rangefinder cameras were the first cameras to have an optical viewfinder—that is. but today’s pointworks well under certain circumstances. The viewfinder adjusts a ring or collar until the two views appear as one. but it is ideal for carefully arranged studio shots. Nevertheless. the photographer the focus to precisely match the distance of the subject. The photographer frames and focuses the scene that appears in the glass panel at the back. window-like lens through which the photographer sees and frames the subject. flash. allowing for great variation in perspective and focus. Point-and-shoot cameras feature battery-operated electronic systems that may are available with a fixed single-focal-length lens or a zoom lens. which are able to unlike that of most general-purpose cameras. is paired with an adjacent window called a rangefinder. a separate. but only one that closely approximates it. some also use a newer film type called Advanced Photo System (APS). focusing. and framing. They removed from the body. The gap in time between framing and exposure makes the view camera useless for action shots. raise.View cameras are larger and heavier than most amateur cameras but allow for maximum precision in focus. rangefinder cameras can be inaccurate for framing close-up shots. for use with either 35-millimeter film or the larger format 6- and-shoot cameras have largely replaced them. see the Recent Developments: APS section of this article. then inserts a film holder in front of the glass. the lenses cannot be include automatic controls for exposure. They use large-format films. or swing the front and rear elements separately. and film rewinding. tilt. and takes the picture. modern rangefinders feature lenses that can be removed from the camera body so that photographers can choose a lens specifically suited to the subject.
C Modern Camera Features Modern cameras feature several components to help photographers control their results under widely varying conditions. exposing it progressively as C3 Built-in Meters and Automatic Exposure . C1 Viewfinders A viewfinder enables photographers to frame their subject the way they would like it to appear in the finished photograph. width. camera manufacturers are producing SLRs with automatic focusing. keeps light from entering the camera except during the interval of exposure. When released. which then reflects it through a five-sided prism into the viewfinder. at the moment of exposure. the image recorded on the film is almost taking situations. a spring automatically pulls the mirror out of the path between lens and film. precise automatic exposure systems. C2 Shutters The shutter. Increasingly. The mirror is hinged. a great advantage in many picture- Most SLRs are precision electronic instruments equipped with fast focal-plane shutters. the photographer uses a single lens for both viewing the scene and taking the picture. Some viewfinders consist of a simple window on top of the camera that only approximates the view through the lens. Because of this system. The focal-plane shutter consists of a black shade with a variable-size slit across its the slit moves. a cluster of meshed blades springs apart to uncover the full lens aperture and then springs shut. Most modern cameras have focal-plane or leaf shutters. and built-in flash controls. a spring-activated mechanical device. the shade moves quickly across the film. In the leaf shutter. an innovation originally reserved for less sophisticated cameras.B5 Single-Lens-Reflex Cameras With the single-lens-reflex (SLR) camera. Light comes through the lens onto a mirror. exactly what the photographer sees in the viewfinder. at the moment the photographer snaps the picture. In today’s cameras many of these features are automated. described above. A more complex and more accurate viewfinding system is the single-lens-reflex system.
setting the correct aperture and shutter speed for an exposure was meters in the 1930s. for instance. from the cartridge to a spool at one side of the camera. The point of maximum contrast corresponds to the point of greatest sharpness. used in most point-and-shoot cameras. Today all but C4 Autofocusing Autofocus cameras use electronics and a small computer processor to automatically sample The computer then signals a small mechanism that turns the lens barrel to this point. When the light or sound waves bounce off the subject and return to the camera. then drops the cartridge into a slot on rewind the exposed film into the cartridge when all exposures have been taken. used in more sophisticated cameras. If the primary subject is off to one side of the frame. photographers were able to take precise readings of the light level and essentially an educated guess. Passive systems. most autofocusing systems will ignore it. which interrupts their beams. With 35-millimeter film. be discernable lines present in the target zone for this system to determine maximum contrast C5 Film Loading and Transport Most people today buy film in the form of lighttight cartridges or cassettes that they can insert into the camera in daylight. automatically adjust the Neither method is foolproof. Active systems can be fooled by window glass. An active autofocus system. only professional photographers using sheet films still need to load their cameras in the dark. the camera could adjust itself to produce an appropriate exposure. for a photograph in which the plain white sails of a boat took up the center of the frame. the user must use a crank to rewind the film. Passive systems require a certain amount of detail—usually there must in the subject. A passive system would have trouble setting the correct focus. to that subject. the user attaches a leader extending the other side. emits either an infrared light beam or high-energy (ultrasonic) sound waves. Automatic cameras wind the film into position when the back is closed and cameras. But with the development of handheld photoelectric exposure adjust the exposure accordingly. With older . called active and passive.For early photographers. There are two widely used methods for determining the focus automatically. By the 1960s camera companies had begun to build exposure meters right into the camera body. they give an accurate reading of the distance focus of the lens until sensors detect that maximum contrast has been reached inside a rectangular target at the center of the focusing screen. In the 1980s this process became automated: With builtthe most inexpensive cameras feature such a system of automatic exposure. such systems typically required the user to center a needle over a pointer inside the viewfinder. for example. the distance between camera and subject and from this determine the exact plane of focus. in electronics.
interest in telescopes and With the invention of photography in the 19th century. Its function is to bring light from the subject into focus on the film. Over the next 300 years. The focusing ring is used to focus the image on the film plane by changing the distance between the element groups. These elements. which determines how much light reaches the film. the camera obscura. In the 17th century people discovered they could produce a brighter. the larger the image inside the camera will be. a more rapid way of advancing the film. A A Brief History of Lenses The modern camera’s predecessor. Because this distance varies depending on how the camera is focused. the more light the lens will admit. or elements. The first microscopes led to the development of better and brighter lenses. each of a different shape and purpose. each group is then assembled in what is called a lens barrel. are cemented into groups. Together with the shutter. the lens controls the amount of light that enters the camera. consisted of a simple pinhole in the side of a room or box. Motor drives allow the photographer to snap a sequence of exposures in rapid succession while V LENSES The lens is the eye of the camera. B Focal Lengths Camera lenses are categorized according to their focal lengths and maximum apertures. the photographer adjusts the opening of the lens diaphragm. These developments took place along two fronts: The first was the invention of new types of glass that refracted light more effectively. the lens barrel incorporates an aperture ring and a focusing ring. holding a finger on the shutter-release button. the need for camera-specific lenses increased. By turning the aperture ring.Most cameras now automatically advance the film to the next frame after an exposure has been made. sharper image by fitting a camera obscura with a convex (outward-curving) lens. The the aperture. leading to rapid developments in the field of lens making. The greater the size of . Focal length is the distance from the optical center of the lens to the image formed inside the camera. A camera can have a single lens or a complex set of lenses. focal length ratings are defined by measuring the longer the focal length. as many as three to five pictures per second can be taken this way. On a manually controlled camera. such lens came from a pair of eyeglasses. and the second was the discovery of ways to combine several pieces of glass. Quality modern lenses are made of many individual elements of ground and polished glass (6 to 14 elements is common). Some cameras come with a motor drive. to control optical distortion.
The user can change the focal length by simply pushing a button or turning a ring on the lens barrel. and is one of the most popular types of lenses today. reproduce an object on film at one-half its actual size. Another type of zoom lens. they only can attach to a normal lens to allow close-ups. for subjects ranging from flowers to coins. or lens opening. On a traditional. called infinity). The aperture size is measured by numerical settings called f-stops. with a long focal length. the same objects will seem closer (and closer telephoto narrows this view. On their own they can the camera can picture an object at life size. Extension rings or simple close-up lenses also D Aperture The lens diaphragm controls the size of the aperture. at best. macro lenses were developed for single-lens-reflex cameras. To cope with these small subjects. these are no substitute for a true macro lens because. the varifocal C Macro Lenses Some photographic subjects require task-specific optics. seen through a telephoto lens. Typical f-stops . and is called photomicrography. must refocus as the focal length changes—a disadvantage only if the camera does not offer automatic focusing. a telephoto lens. objects photographed with a wide-angle lens will seem farther away than with together). Many modern zoom lenses come with a macro setting that allows a limited range of close-up focusing. reproduce an object at one-fifth its actual size.distance when the focusing ring is set for photographing a distant subject (indicated on the focusing ring with the symbol ∞. Focal length determines the magnification and angle of view of the image. A lens with a short focal length is commonly called a wide-angle lens. The wide-angle can take in a broader angle of view than the eye can see. Macro lenses for 35millimeter cameras extend the focusing range to a matter of inches. such as a microscope. Magnification of a subject to greater than its actual size calls for more specialized equipment. with the addition of an extension ring. With the camera in a normal lens. this allows photographers with single-lens-reflex cameras to focus precisely at high magnification lens. So-called true zooms maintain focus while changing the focal length. a fixed position. Lenses that approximate the angle of view of the human eye are called normal lenses. and thus the amount of light that passes through the lens. while the The zoom lens offers a range of focal lengths. manually controlled camera the f-stops are inscribed on an adjustable ring that fits around the lens. before framing the picture at a different focal length. It operates in conjunction with the shutter. The most common specialized task is close-up photography. However.
photographers make use of a concept called depth of field. But most of today's cameras with built-in lenses will adjust the lens automatically. With simple automatic-exposure cameras. indicating how much light can reach the film when the lens diaphragm is wide open. the area between the closest and farthest objects that will appear sharply focused in the photograph. and a small aperture. many manufacturers now design zoom lenses with a variable maximum aperture: The size of the with a smaller aperture. Like telephoto lenses. This term refers to a zone of focus—that is. Lenses come with a rating for their maximum aperture. Conversely. However.are f/2. the maximum aperture also influences how bright the image appears in the viewfinder. The factors that determine depth of field are lens aperture. With single-lens-reflex cameras. film captures only one plane of a picture in perfect focus. E Focusing Technically. f/2. A picture with a deeper zone of focus might be a landscape in which both the trees in the foreground and the mountains in the background appear in sharp focus. All other factors being equal. a lens with a large maximum aperture will have a larger diameter and weigh more than a lens let in the same amount of light as a normal or wide-angle lens. by turning a ring or a focusing collar on the camera lens. using a short focal length (wide-angle) lens. f/8. and f/16. Until recently photographers had to bring an image into focus manually. . using a long focal length (telephoto) lens. depth of field will be most shallow when photographing a subject at close range. in which objects in the background are purposely blurred. Cameras with interchangeable lenses still have focusing collars to allow for manual distance. through use of a mechanism connected to an autofocusing sensor. The setting f/2 represents a large aperture. A telephoto lens requires a larger lens diameter and greater length to aperture changes as the focal length of the lens goes from wide-angle to telephoto settings.6. Most lenses will focus from a few feet in front of the camera to a point in the far F Depth of Field To help determine what will appear in focus in a picture. with a wide aperture.8. f/5. focusing distance. zoom lenses are also physically large. and focal length. called infinity. To reduce their bulkiness and complexity. f/4. f/11. depth of field will be greatest when photographing a distant subject. A picture with a shallow depth of field might be a close-up portrait. Within lens types. thus the aperture ring has disappeared from many of today's lenses. in practice we call a picture “in focus” when it appears reasonably sharp at a given magnification and viewing distance. adjustment. f/16 a small aperture. a computer sets the aperture size.
To decrease the incidence prevents sunlight from striking the glass surfaces. Zone focusing is especially useful for candid photography. is the technical key to excellent photographs. A one-stop change in shutter speed is equivalent to an . G Lens Hoods and Coatings One of the worst enemies of photographers is flare. button part way.A photographer using a single-lens-reflex camera or view camera can judge the approximate depth of field by looking directly through the lens with the aperture set to the desired f-stop. coatings enhance the contrast of the film image and account for the characteristic green and VI EXPOSURE All light-sensitive photographic materials—film or photographic print paper—produce their development. These purple hues visible when one looks into the front of a modern lens. Precise exposure. unwanted light that enters the lens and causes strange reflections and a loss of contrast on the film. A variant of this manual-focusing technique is called zone focusing: The photographer chooses an aperture and a focusing distance that together cover the range of distances at which the subject is likely to appear. photographers can shade the front of the lens with a collar called a lens hood that photographing with the sun in front of or just to the side of the lens. With manual focusing. In cameras with removable. Automatic cameras are designed to focus precisely on a single subject at the center of the frame or. photographers can obtain the maximum depth of field by turning the focusing collar until the infinity sign aligns with the outside depth-of-field mark for the f/stop they have chosen. finest results when given the optimum exposure. a depth-of-field scale shows the approximate sharp-focus zone for the different aperture settings. Hoods for zoom lenses are less effective of view. does not necessarily provide the greatest depth of field. certain cameras with motor Focusing precisely on a central subject. in more sophisticated designs. manually adjusted lenses. however. Flare is especially obvious when of flare. to focus on a band of details across the central picture area. coupled with consistent A photographer can change the amount of exposure the film receives by adjusting either the shutter speed or the aperture setting. For capturing the image of a moving subject. In most cases. the photographer locks in the focus by pressing the shutter drives will adjust the focus continuously while the photographer tracks the subject. because they must angle away from the lens enough to accommodate the lens's widest angle Lens makers also combat the more subtle effects of flare by coating the exterior and interior surfaces of the lens’s glass elements with thin layers of reflection-absorbing material.
handheld devices. The final development was automatic exposure. the first option may be preferable because the smaller aperture When film is developed according to the manufacturer's specifications. However. an exposure at f/5. photographing a still subject.aperture change of one f-stop. but they produce different preferable. an exposure of f/5. At first these meters were independent. of the negative. (Another type.) Most of these devices are also amount of light reflected into the lens by the subject. movement of the camera or of the subject is likely to blur the image. different combinations of f-stop and shutter speed result in the same amount of light hitting For example. because at speeds below 1/60 second. and therefore a print made from it will be twice as light. but the pictorial results.8 at 1/60 second—the aperture is two stops larger. The meters built into modern cameras are called reflected light meters: They measure the measures the light that is falling on the scene or subject. At the extremes of very little be noticeably underexposed. If the photographer is using a tripod to hold the camera still and provides greater depth of field. every stop of increase in the exposure (one step up in either f-stop or shutter speed) effectively doubles the density of an exposure at the same f-stop for 1/30 second. for a given lighting situation several the film. manufacturers introduced photoelectric exposure meters in the 1930s. Thus. This shade (called 18 percent gray for its ratio of reflection) represents the average amount of light reflected by an average outdoor subject. If the photographer is holding the camera by hand the second option is speed is two stops faster. there are limits to this relationship. In most situations.6 for 1/15 second produces twice the density and very great amounts of exposure. later they were incorporated into the camera itself. between exposure and density. and to help them avoid the problems associated with extremely high or extremely low exposure levels. those that read a . called reciprocity. The exposures are thus comparable. basing the exposure on this average reading produces ideal results: the negative receives just the right amount of light. camera uses data from its built-in exposure meter to automatically adjust the shutter speed All metering systems share one principle: They respond to the world as if it were a uniform shade of gray. and vice versa. unless the print exposure time is doubled.6 at 1/15 second allows the same amount of light to strike the film as an exposure of f/2. the incident-light meter. For example. called averaging meters because they read a broad angle of the scene. with a sensor measuring the light as it came through the lens. this rule is less consistent and the resulting images will A Light Metering To help photographers determine the ideal exposure. in which the and lens aperture.
if the main subject is a snowman in a field of snow. Pictures taken at either very fast or very slow speeds tend . it is common to adjust the exposure and development of each picture individually to compensate for varying contrast conditions. neither very dark nor very light skin tones reflect 18 percent of the light. such as an overly bright sky. For example. automatic exposure systems will assume that the snow is an average shade of gray and underexpose it. By the For example. most meters will recommend too little exposure. If the lighting is harsh. these meters try to guess the kind of picturetaking situation at hand and compensate for some problems. have its development time extended during processing to produce reasonable results. Based on the data gathered. which otherwise would appear too dark. meter readings are not foolproof. development can be adjusted to compensate for certain variations in exposure. With color films. Likewise. the colors may also shift. resulting in high contrast between light and dark areas. This technique is often used in large-format. when a person is surrounded by a bright background. of the method used by American wilderness photographer Ansel Adams. This type of system measures the light coming through the lens from several different areas within the picture frame. a roll of ISO 100 slide film exposed by mistake at a rating of ISO 200 can be same token. At significantly slower or faster speeds the reciprocity. In black-and-white photography. Newer. pushed—that is. B Development and Exposure Perfectly exposed film will produce imperfect pictures if it is not developed properly. or one-to-one relationship between to result in underexposed images. Averaging meters provide somewhat less accuracy than spot meters but are easy to use. Despite all the advances in exposure technology. exposure and image density. Lengthening development time lightens the resulting images. a sophisticated photographer might overexpose the negative and then shorten its development time to subdue the harsh light. so portrait photographers have to adjust their exposures to compensate. It then compares the results to a computerized formula to determine the best overall exposure. but the photographer must know how to correctly interpret these readings. Spot meters give very precise readings. fails. view camera photography and is the foundation C Long and Short Exposure Times Most films are intended for use at shutter speeds between 1/2 and 1/1000 second. In backlit conditions.narrow angle are called spot meters. more sophisticated single-lens-reflex cameras try to increase the accuracy of their automatic-exposure systems with what is called a multipattern metering system.
tungsten lamps called photofloods.Exposure meters do not compensate for reciprocity effects. has gone the way of the dinosaur. the shutter must be open for the duration of the flash. Some designs. Flash photography can produce an effect equivalent to shorter exposure times. Flash units are designed either as part of the camera mechanism or as accessories. An electronic flash unit consists of a glass quartz tube filled with an inert gas—usually xenon. a powerful studio unit is needed. and quartz lamps. the gas produces an intense burst of light of very short duration. camera-mounted units to large studio units that plug into an electric wall socket. sometimes in rapid succession. without wearing out the tube. but to illuminate a large scene evenly and with a single burst of light. called dedicated flash units. the greater the intensity of light produced. developed an electronic strobe light (see Stroboscope) with which he now readily available. Setting the shutter speed is important because the shutter and the flash need to be synchronized—that is. Most flash exposures last from 1/1000 to 1/5000 second. When a brief jolt of electricity is applied to the electrodes sealed at the ends of the tube.000 second. are made for use with a particular camera model and have circuitry that sets the shutter speed and illuminates a light in the viewfinder when the tube is ready to fire again. photographers use artificial light to illuminate scenes. both indoors and outdoors. D Flash Photography In the absence of adequate daylight. With black-and-white film. a disposable bulb filled with oxygen and a mass of fine magnesium Flash units vary in size from small. development times must also be increased. the maximum speed at which synchronization is possible is usually 1/125 second. instead. American engineer Harold produced flashes of 1/500. Special electronic flash units are able to limit the duration of their light output to as little as 1/100. The most commonly used sources of artificial illumination are electronic flash. In cameras with a focal-plane shutter (this includes most commonly used cameras). although a duration of 1/100. battery-powered. the larger the unit. For some fast-moving subjects—such as the wings of a hummingbird in flight or a golf club as a golfer swings it—even a shutter-speed setting of 1/1000 second is not sufficient to capture the image in focus.000 second is Eugene Edgerton. Another once-popular alloy wire. the flashbulb. enabling him to capture the image of a bullet in flight.000 second. . Camera-mounted flashes are adequate for snapshots of family and friends. The process can be repeated thousands of times. the photographer must compensate by manually adjusting the exposure according to charts supplied by the film manufacturer. In 1931 the inventor of the electronic flash. light source. Generally speaking.
or create special effects. The the tone of a blue sky in much the same way as the human eye does. using flash also causes a condition known as red eye. A yellow filter produces a less extreme effect because more blue light is transmitted to the film. As light bounces from ceiling to subject. which is balanced for sunlight at noon. more even light and eliminates red eye. flat lighting. it produces a softer. This technique. contain automatic flash systems. has a yellow-amber cast when exposed indoors under incandescent light or photofloods. When photographing people or animals in very dim conditions. changes the color balance of light when it is radically different from that of the film. camera. which can adjust tungsten film designed for one Color-compensating (CC) filters help balance fluorescent light for daylight film or indoor (tungsten) film. where it can gauge the amount of light at the film plane. lightens shadows without same as daylight so the two light sources do not produce noticeable color differences. Daylight film. called a conversion filter. With some flash units it is possible to achieve more pleasant results indoors by aiming the flash at the ceiling. they produce pictures with a bluish cast. Exposed in daylight. For this type of picture. for example.Modern dedicated flash units. This sensor is commonly located inside the invented. medium-yellow filter is often used for outdoor black-and-white photography because it renders Another type of filter. for example. change photography. called fill-flash. In a landscape photograph taken with a red filter. as well as built-in camera units. strong. to conversion filters are light-balancing filters. Photographers also use CC filters to make small changes in color rendition on . color filters transmit light of one color while blocking light of a contrasting color. In black-and-white reaches the film. Made of gelatin or glass. Before automatic flash was Flash aimed directly at the subject usually produces harsh. it was not possible to adjust the flash output. They have a sensor that determines the appropriate amount of light from the flash tube. making the centers of the subject’s eyes appear red. Flash can also be used in daylight to fill in foreground areas where shadows may be too required for the existing light. the exposure generally should be set to half of what would be overriding the main source of light. A series 80 conversion filter corrects this problem. Tungsten films. The color temperature of electronic flash is practically the E Filters Filters added to the front of a camera lens change the quantity or quality of the light that contrast or brightness. minimize haze. causing the sky to appear darker and thereby emphasizing clouds. Similar type of artificial light to work with a second type of artificial light. filters may alter the color balance of light. photographers could control the exposure only by adjusting the aperture. A series 85 conversion filter can correct this. are balanced for use indoors with light from photofloods or incandescent lightbulbs. depending on the aperture set on the lens. much of the blue light of the sky is blocked.
and the photographer should always wear latex gloves when handling wet materials and a dust mask when mixing powdered chemicals with water. laundry room. polarizing filters also produce more intense colors. or closet. portable darkrooms. In the early days of the medium. which is invisible to humans but which can register on film as blue. which holds metal reels onto which the exposed film has been wound.the film or when printing in the darkroom. and color printing papers. which were housed in horse-drawn wagons or carried by servants. All such reductions. must be calculated into manual exposures. In the home darkroom. which measures VII DARKROOM PROCESSING A darkroom is a room for processing photography materials. All filters reduce the amount of light reaching the lens to some degree—with a polarizing filter the reduction can amount to two stops or more of exposure. they are sensitive to all types of light. Because many processing fan to expel fumes and dust. but they still require slower shutter speeds or larger apertures. and preparation. With automatic exposure. certain precautions are necessary: the darkroom should have an exhaust During the process of exposing and developing black-and-white printing paper. an upright device that functions much like a camera except that it contains its own light source. color films. In color photography. the wet side contains a sink with temperature-controlled running water. the darkroom must be totally dark. film is customarily developed in a lighttight tank. and is used for the chemical processing of films and prints. Photographers make prints with an enlarger. Screwed into the end A polarizing filter reduces reflections from the surfaces of shiny subjects such as windows. many photographers traveled with many people have a home darkroom built in their basement. Skylight. a special orange-colored light bulb called a safelight can provide some illumination. They filter ultraviolet of a lens. The enlarger light shines through the negative. But during the processing of black-and-white films. Today enlarging. chemicals are toxic. The dry side is used for loading. the enlarger lens focuses this . called filter the light after it has come through the lens. because these materials are panchromatic—that is. A darkroom is divided into a dry side and a wet side. or ultraviolet (UV). factors. filter factors are less relevant. light. It must completely seal out light from outside the room. filters are familiar amateur accessories. Some professional transparency films require CC filtration as a matter of course. a UV filter eliminates most of the excess blue that appears in distant landscape photographs and secondarily provides a transparent protective cap for the lens.
photographers first place the negative in the enlarger and place a piece of sensitized printing material on the flat easel at its base. B Printing the Photos Photographers produce prints by either of two methods: contact or projection. it darker. An aperture on the enlarging lens controls the exposure. they apply another chemical solution to the negative image to fix it—that is. as residual fixer tends to destroy negatives over time. bathing the processed film in a washing aid promotes uniform drying and prevents formation of water spots or streaks. Switching on the enlarger light source projects an enlarged image of the negative onto the paper. The exposure commonly lasts from ten seconds to a minute. The density of silver deposited in each area depends on the amount of light the area received during exposure. they place the emulsion side of the negative in contact with the printing material and expose the two together to a source of light. In order to arrest the action of the developer. the photographer can reduce or increase the amount of light falling on selected portions of the image. and a large image of the negative projects onto the printing paper. use this method to print what is called a contact sheet. or hypo-clearing agent. thus lightening or darkening those areas in the final print. It encourages large grains of silver to form around the minute particles of metal that already make up the latent (not yet visible) image. The contact method works for making prints of exactly the same size as the negative.light. Finally. a visible image develops on the film. This solution reactivates the process begun by the action of light when the film was exposed. The film must then be thoroughly washed in water. to remove After a short rinse. By blocking part of the light source with hands or small tools. along with a timer connected to the enlarger light. photographers transfer the film to a solution called the stop bath. film. which shows all the exposures from a For projection printing. a fixer remover. As large particles of silver begin to form. After rinsing the residual silver halide crystals unexposed to light. which chemically neutralizes the developer. A Developing the Film Photographers develop film by treating it with an alkaline chemical solution called a developer. This technique is known as dodging when used to lighten an area and as burning when making . which sits on a flat easel at the base of the enlarger. or fixer. The solution used for this process is commonly referred to as hypo. Photographers with 35-millimeter cameras commonly single roll of film in small size. Using this method. is applied to clear any remaining fixer from the film.
After exposing the print. the target market for APS remains the point-and-shoot camera user. including silver halides and dye couplers. APS is not a digital photography system. APS cameras are slightly smaller and lighter. prints are made on sheets of paper or plastic that have been coated with a light-sensitive emulsion. it is capable of results that nearly match the precision and sharpness of the older format. but are changing photography in such image-making systems. This coating is similar to that used for film but is much positive image by a process very similar to that used for developing film. this results in a higher percentage of format than 35-millimeter film. other film and camera makers also adopted the system. which are explained in the next section. In comparison to 35-millimeter point-and-shoot models. less sensitive to light. APS film is APS cameras magnetically encode information onto the exposed film that automated easier to load. dozens of APS cameras are now available. this technology challenges conventional 35-millimeter photography on several fronts. for color prints. well-exposed prints than with 35-millimeter processing. APS employs well-established color B Digital Photography Digital photography is a method of making images without the use of conventional photographic film. the photographer can then develop and fix the and-white prints. Called the Advanced Photo System (APS). However. Electronic technologies have not only changed the way that most cameras work. Instead. fundamental ways that the distinction has begun to blur between photography and other A APS In the early 1990s the Eastman Kodak Company introduced a new line of cameras and film designed for amateur photographers. unlike film technology. One of the biggest differences between APS and conventional photography is that photographers can have their pictures processed conventionally or have them scanned onto a compact disc (CD) for use with a computer. the paper is usually placed in a series of open trays. a drum VIII RECENT DEVELOPMENTS The technology of photography continues to develop rapidly. such as computers and the graphic arts. digital systems. a machine called a scanner records visual information and converts . And photofinishing machines can read. According to Kodak. To process blackor automatic roller processor is preferred. And although APS film is of a smaller Soon after Kodak’s introduction of APS. including several single-lens-reflex models. since the APS film cartridge has no leader to thread into a take-up spool.For either printing process.
Digital photography was widely used in advertising and graphic design in the late 1990s. automatic exposure. or sent to friends via electronic mail. Alternatively. with automatic focus. for example) or as a conventional silver halide print Digital cameras aimed at the amateur photography market function much as point-and-shoot cameras do. stored on disks. Others accept a disc or similar portable storage unit to achieve the same purpose. The original high-resolution image can later be reproduced in ink (in a magazine. and was quickly replacing conventional photographic technology in areas such as photojournalism. After taking pictures. Pictures from these cameras contain fewer pixels than those from a more expensive camera and are therefore not as sharp. and built-in electronic flash. image files can be transferred to a home computer. There can be several million pixels in a high-resolution. Photographs in digital form can be manipulated by means of various computer programs. Some digital cameras are able to transfer their large picture files directly into a computer for storage. or digital dots of color (see Computer Graphics). full-color digital photograph. The more expensive professional cameras function as sophisticated 35-millimeter cameras but record the picture information as pixels. Digital cameras are now available for both professional photographers and amateur enthusiasts. the user can connect the camera directly to a television set or video cassette recorder. . so the whole family can look at snapshots together.it into a code of ones and zeroes that a computer can read.
Electric charges can be stationary. it is said to be an object contains as many protons as electrons. or electrically neutral. Electric charge comes in two forms: positive and negative. televisions. II ELECTRIC CHARGE Electricity consists of charges carried by electrons. and mechanical power. molecules together. protons. It makes telephones. it is said to be negatively charged. and well as by devices built by people. The nervous systems of animals work by means of weak electric signals converted into heat. Because of this versatility. and countless other necessities and luxuries possible. If Electricity occurs in two forms: static electricity and electric current. It can be sent almost instantaneously over long distances. It can be generated in many ways and from many different sources. the charges will cancel each other and the object is said to be uncharged. as Electrical activity takes place constantly everywhere in the universe. Static electricity consists of electric charges that stay in one place. as in an electric current. heat. Electrons and protons both carry exactly the same amount of electric charge. Electricity is associated with electric charge. An electric current is a flow of electric charges between objects or locations. . Electricity can also be converted efficiently into other forms of energy. or moving. light. and it can be stored. Electricity is generated. and other particles. and other forms of energy through natural processes. technology. Electricity provides light.Electricity I INTRODUCTION Electricity. Electrical forces hold transmitted between neurons (nerve cells). as Electricity is an extremely versatile form of energy. positively charged. electricity plays a part in nearly every aspect of modern computers. If an object has more protons than electrons. one of the basic forms of energy. transmitted. if it has more electrons than protons. two of the basic in static electricity. but the positive charge of the proton is exactly opposite the negative charge of the electron. motion. particles that make up the atoms of all ordinary matter. a property of certain elementary particles such as electrons and protons.
If the comb is removed. When the charged comb touches the ball. called leaves. Electrons move from the surface of one object to the surface of the other if the second material holds onto its electrons more strongly than the first does. and the material later in the list becomes positive. and fur (or hair).III STATIC ELECTRICITY Static electricity can be produced by rubbing together two objects made of different materials. if a nylon comb is run through clean. which the leaves remain apart because they retain their charges. silk. The electroscope has thus been charged by contact with the comb. The A Charging by Contact Objects become electrically charged in either of two ways: by contact or by induction. earlier in the list becomes negative. the amount of charge that an object receives depends on its ability to store charge. some of the charges on the comb flow to the leaves. Charging by contact can be demonstrated by touching an uncharged electroscope with a charged comb. If any two of these materials are rubbed together. An electroscope is a device that contains two strips of metal foil. separate because they now hold like charges and repel each other. A metal ball is at the other end of the rod. The object that gains electrons becomes negatively charged. a charge flows from the first to the second object for a brief time. Charges in motion form an electric current. . The following flannel. dry hair. that hang from one end of a metal rod. materials are named in decreasing order of their ability to hold electrons: rubber. The ability to store charge is called capacitance and is measured in units called farads. For example. glass. The comb becomes negatively charged and the hair becomes positively charged. since it now has more electrons than protons. The object that gives up electrons becomes positively charged. When charge flows between objects in contact. When this happens. the material materials should be clean and dry. A charged object transfers electric charge to an object with lesser charge if the two touch. some of the electrons on the hair are transferred to the comb.
However. for example. the air becomes a conductor. When they touch. that one object has a charge of +4 coulombs and the other a charge of +8 coulombs.This flow of charge between objects with different amounts of charge will occur whenever possible. The unit of electric charge. it requires a pathway for the electric charge to move along. The greater the other. if an object gains a large enough charge of static electricity. is equal to the combined charges of 6. However. materials. charge will flow from the 8-coulomb object to the 4-coulomb . the greater the distance between the objects. the larger the force between them. Other Under normal conditions. air is an insulator. Coulomb’s law. allow an electric current to flow through them easily. Some materials. and objects with similar charges repel each late 18th century. quantifies the strength of the attraction or repulsion. When the charge is large enough. If two charged objects in contact have the same capacitance. This law states that and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. called conductors. part of the charge may jump. the lesser the force between them.24 × 1018 protons (or electrons). also named after Coulomb. Lightning is an example of a discharge. called insulators. or discharge. they divide the charge evenly. strongly resist the passage of an electric current. Suppose. through the air to another object without touching it directly. B Coulomb’s Law Objects with opposite charges attract each other. formulated by French physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb during the the force between two charged objects is directly proportional to the product of their charges charges on the objects.
If two objects have different capacitances.object until each has a charge of +6 coulombs. If each object originally had a charge of +6 coulombs. that side becomes positively charged. they divide the charge in proportion to their capacitances. . After they touch. if a positively charged object is brought near a neutral object. Some of these electrons flow to the side of accumulates electrons and becomes negatively charged. For example. the electrons in the the neutral object that is nearest to the positive object. coulombs. the 10-farad object will have a charge of +8 coulombs and the 5- C Charging by Induction A charged object may induce a charge in a nearby neutral object without touching it. If an object with a capacitance of 10 farads touches an object with a capacitance of 5 farads. the 10-farad object will end up with twice the amount of charge of the 5-farad object. Their total charge is therefore +12 farad object will have +4 coulombs. Suppose that the objects are oppositely charged and that one has a charge of +20 coulombs and the other a charge of -8 coulombs. Because electrons leave the far side of the neutral object while its protons remain stationary. no charge would flow between them. This side of the neutral object neutral object are attracted to the positive object.
when a negatively charged object is brought near a neutral object. the electrons on B are repelled as far as possible from A and conductor. If a negatively charged object. If that side of B is then connected to the ground by a good brought near a neutral object. the net effect is an attraction between the objects. B still Earth to neutralize its positive charge. taken away. Object B is said to be grounded by the wire connecting it to Earth. the electrons flow out through the wire into the ground. is flow to the other side of B. such as a metal wire.Since the negatively charged side of the neutral object is closest to the positive object. Thus B has been permanently charged by induction. B. so that it An object can also be charged permanently by induction. the charge on the far side. being neutral. the positively charged side and the positive object. The ground can receive almost any amount of charge because Earth. remains positive because the wire has been disconnected and B cannot regain electrons from IV ELECTRIC CURRENT . the electrons on the other object redistribute themselves evenly over it. A. As before. As soon as the charged object is again becomes neutral. The net effect is an attraction between the objects. Even if A is subsequently removed. B has a positive charge. has an enormous capacitance. If this wire is then removed. attraction between this side and the positive object is greater than the repulsion between the negative object induces a positive charge on the near side of the neutral object and a negative The induced charges described above are not permanent. since it has lost electrons to Earth. Similarly.
Other properties that are used to quantify and compare electric currents are the voltage (also called electromotive force) driving the current and the resistance of the conductor to the related through an equation called Ohm’s law. Current that flows back and forth. through an insulator to another object. or jump. the wire is carrying a current of 1 amp. each point of a wire every second. current will arc through the air from your finger to the doorknob or radiator. the current is 2 amp. current flows through the wires and the bulb. is called alternating current. When the connections are properly made. Substances that do not allow electric current to flow through them are called insulators. the passage of the current through the air is visible as a tiny spark. passage of the current. or dielectrics. For example. voltage. but not in contact with. if an object contains a sufficient amount of charge. If 1 coulomb of charge flows past past each point in a second. and resistance in any circuit are all A Conductors and Insulators Conductors are materials that allow an electric current to flow through them easily. Rubber. will be discussed in the Alternating Current section of this article. If 2 coulombs flow C Voltage . Electricians wear rubber gloves so that electric current will not pass from electrical equipment to their bodies. then an electric current flows from one object to the other through the wire. Alternating current. reversing direction again and again. is called direct current. In the dark. such as a copper wire.An electric current is a movement of charge. even though air is an insulator. Most metals are good conductors. if you shuffle across a wool rug and then hold your finger very close to. the charge can arc. Most of the following discussion focuses on direct current. The amount of current. Electric current can be demonstrated by connecting a small light bulb to an electric battery by two copper wires. such as the current in a battery-powered flashlight. a metal doorknob or radiator. an electric current flows from one object to the other until the charge is distributed according to the capacitances of the objects. When two objects with different charges touch and redistribute their charges. However. See also Electric Meters. and air are common insulators. Current that flows in one direction only. glass. B Measuring Electric Current Electric current is measured in units called amperes (amp). If two objects are connected by a material that lets charge flow easily. which is used in most devices that are “plugged in” to electrical outlets in buildings. causing the bulb to glow. is easier to understand than alternating current. which is used in most battery-powered devices. Direct current. nonconductors.
This phenomenon is known as resistance. or thickness. D Resistance A conductor allows an electric current to flow through it. the longer wire offers twice as much resistance as the sectional area is twice that of another wire of equal length and similar material has only half the resistance of the thinner wire. and R is the resistance in ohms of the conductor between the two locations of interest. E Ohm’s Law The relationship between current. This phenomenon is known as superconductivity. the greater its resistance. the greater its resistance. One terminal continuously sends electrons into the conductor. while the other continuously receives electrons from it. At commonly encountered temperatures. length. Resistance is measured in units called ohms. has less resistance.When the two terminals of a battery are connected by a conductor. Collisions between the electrons and the atoms of the conductor interfere with the flow of electrons. the higher the temperature of a wire. between the terminals. or potential difference. Another name for a voltage produced by a source of electric current is electromotive force. If any . best. Ohm’s law can be expressed as an equation. The symbol for ohms is the Greek letter omega. The current flow is caused by the voltage. Voltage is measured in units called volts. Ù. however. I is the amount of current in amperes that is flowing between these two points. to cross-sectional area. The more willing the terminals are to give up and receive electrons. which is less expensive than silver. and its cross-sectional area. where V is the difference in volts between two locations (called the potential difference). The longer the wire is. V = IR can also be written R = V/I and I = V/R. The resistance of some materials drops to zero at very low temperatures. because a thick wire offers more room for an electric current to pass through than a thin wire does. Scientists describe this relationship between resistance. but it does not permit the current to flow with perfect freedom. and area by saying that resistance is proportional to length and inversely proportional Usually. an electric current flows through the conductor. silver is the best conductor and copper is the second The resistance of a piece of wire depends on its length. Electric wires are usually made of copper. and resistance is given by Ohm’s law. A thicker wire. voltage. V = IR. If one wire is twice as long as a shorter one. the higher the voltage. This law states that the amount of current passing through a conductor is directly proportional to the voltage across the conductor and inversely proportional to the resistance of the conductor. A good insulator has a very high resistance. A good conductor is one that has low resistance. A wire whose cross- wire of identical diameter and material.
enabling current to flow. such as a battery or an electric generator. If V = 110 and R = 11. that is. For example. resistance is constant in conductors made of metal. are tightly bound to individual copper atoms. electric current is conducted differently in solids. However.239 calorie). V HOW ELECTRIC CURRENT IS CONDUCTED All electric currents consist of charges in motion. The greater the current passing through the conductor. then I = V/R = 110/11 = 10 amp. the greater the resistance. A current of I amp passing through a resistance of R ohms for t seconds generates an amount of heat equal to I2Rt joules (a joule is a unit of energy equal to 0. If the voltage is raised to 220 in the example above. a two-directional flow is made possible by the process of ionization (see Electrochemistry). The other end is said to be at a lower potential . if a potential difference of 110 volts sends a 10-amp current through a conductor. the greater the heat. Also. However. the greater the heat. Ordinarily the motion of the free electrons is random. The rate at which energy power P supplied by a current of I amp passing through a resistance of R ohms is given by P = I2R. as many of them are moving in one direction as in another. The the source of the current. Energy is required to drive an electric current through a resistance. gases. then the resistance of the conductor is R = V/I = 110/10 = 11 ohms. some are free to move from atom to atom. if a voltage is applied to the two ends of a copper bar by means of a battery. since I = V/R = 220/11 = 20 amp. the third can be calculated. because the current is carried entirely by electrons. the free electrons tend to drift toward one end. Most of the electrons in a bar of copper.two of the quantities are known. for example. then R is still 11. however. Under normal conditions. This energy is supplied by is supplied to a device is called power. This end is said to be at a higher potential and is called the positive end. and it is often measured in units called watts. however. However. The current I will be doubled. the flow is in one direction only. F Heat and Power A conductor’s resistance to electric current produces heat. and liquids. In liquids and gases. When an electric current flows in a solid conductor. A Conduction in Solids The conduction of electric currents in solid substances is made possible by the presence of free electrons (electrons that are free to move about).
said to be ionized. and negative chlorine ions. Cl-. the substance is gradually separated into two parts. As in gases. The function of a battery or other source of electric current is to maintain potential difference. the negative ions drift toward the positive point. Thus. If two points in the solution are at different potentials. while the ions move toward the low-potential (more negative) point.and is called the negative end. but a lower resistance than an insulator. such as copper. the electric current is composed of these flows of opposite charges. can conduct electric currents when small amounts of certain impurities are added to them. Semiconductors generally have a higher resistance to B Conduction in Gases Gases normally contain few free electrons and are generally insulators. Since the positive and negative ions of a dissolved substance migrate to different points when an electric current flows. Insulators cannot conduct electric currents because all their electrons are tightly bound to substance is known at room temperature. while water that is absolutely pure is an insulator. but no such Some substances that ordinarily have no free electrons. A perfect insulator would allow no charge to be forced through it. it separates into positive sodium ions. The best insulators offer high but not infinite resistance at room temperature. substances are called semiconductors. C Conduction in Liquid Solutions Many substances become ionized when they dissolve in water or in some other liquid. such as glass. When a strong potential difference is applied between two points inside a container filled with a gas. the few knocking free more electrons. An electric current in a gas is composed of these opposite flows of charges. A battery does this by supplying electrons to the negative end of the bar to replace those that drift to the positive end and also by absorbing electrons at the positive end. An example is ordinary table salt. When sodium chloride dissolves in water. while the positive ions drift toward the negative point. such as silicon and germanium. The electrons move toward the high-potential (more positive) point. their atoms. water that contains even a slight impurity of an ionized substance is a conductor. This separation is called electrolysis. VI SOURCES OF ELECTRIC CURRENT . The gas atoms become positively charged ions and the gas is free electrons are accelerated by the potential difference and collide with the atoms of the gas. sodium chloride (NaCl). Na+. Such the flow of current than does a conductor.
Unlike electrolytic cells. Each outlet contains two terminals. The electric outlets on the walls of homes and to giant generators located in electric power stations.There are several different devices that can supply the voltage necessary to generate an electric current. A Generators Generators use mechanical energy. electrolytic cell produce a potential difference between the cell’s terminals. for example. An electric battery C Other Sources There are many sources of electric current other than generators and electrolytic cells. however. the platinum loses electrons and becomes positive. Platinum. If a strip of platinum and a strip of aluminum are pressed together under the proper conditions. other buildings. produce electricity through chemical reactions. for example. holds its electrons less . to produce electricity. As the aluminum gains electrons and becomes negative. are connected voltage between the terminals drives an electric current through the appliance that is plugged B Electrolytic Cells Electrolytic cells use chemical energy to produce electricity. Chemical reactions within an consists of a cell or group of cells connected together. See Electric Power Systems. The two most common sources are generators and electrolytic cells. Certain sources of electric current operate on the principle that some metals hold onto their strongly than aluminum does. The into the outlet. fuel cells do not store chemicals and therefore must be constantly refilled. from which electricity to operate lights and appliances is drawn. some electrons will flow from the platinum to the aluminum. Fuel cells. electrons more strongly than other metals do. such as water pouring through a dam or the motion of a turbine driven by steam.
A flashlight is an example of such a circuit. a potential difference work on this principle. A switch can be placed in one of the connecting wires. through the other piece of connecting wire. develops across them. and the bulb does not light. When the electric current flows through the filament. When pressure is applied to certain crystals. a battery. . and two pieces of wire. through one piece of connecting wire. the electric current flows from the negative terminal of the battery. electrons will pass from one strip to the other. Electricity produced in this way is called photoelectricity. Electricity produced directly by heating is called thermoelectricity. When the switch is closed.The strength with which a metal holds its electrons varies with temperature. the filament heats up and the bulb lights. Some microphones VII ELECTRIC CIRCUITS An electric circuit is an arrangement of electric current sources and conducting paths through which a current can continuously flow. If two strips of different metals are joined and the joint heated. In a simple circuit consisting of a small light bulb. the connection is broken. Electricity thus produced is called piezoelectricity. electric current cannot flow through the circuit. through the bulb filament (also a type of wire). When the switch is open. Some substances emit electrons when they are struck by light. and back to the positive terminal of the battery. current flows and the bulb lights.
as well as switches. the wires. a wire in the fuse heats up and melts. and toasters. fuses. and finally returns to the positive terminal of the source. radios. thereby breaking the circuit and melt. and so on. switch. In the example of the light bulb. The load forms a continuous conducting path between the terminals of the current source. bulb. then flows through The current is the same throughout the circuit. . a fuse (circuit breaker) may be placed in the circuit. One arrangement is called a series circuit. When too much current flows through the fuse. fans. It also includes the connecting wires.The bulb filament may burn out if too much electric current flows through it. The electron current first passes from the negative terminal of the source into the first object. stopping the flow of current. The wire in the fuse is designed to melt before the filament would The part of an electric circuit other than the source of electric current is called the load. The load includes all appliances placed in the circuit. A Series Circuits If various objects are arranged to form a single conducting path between the terminals of a source of electric current. such as lights. and the other is called a parallel circuit. and other devices. When objects are connected in series. To prevent this from happening. the objects are said to be connected in series. the electric current flows through them against the resistance of the first object. the other objects one after another. then against the resistance of the next object. There are two basic ways in which the parts of a circuit are arranged. buzzers. and fuse are connected in series.
If the branches have different resistances. The electric current through a parallel circuit is distributed among the branches according to the resistances of the branches. branch of the circuit. the voltage drop in the motor is 2 × 48 = 96 volts. Current from the source splits up and enters the various branches. a Voltage can be thought of as being used up by the objects in a circuit. the total current of 100/50 = 2 amp will flow through the circuit. then . and R is the resistance of the branch. each with a resistance of 1 ohm. resistance of the motor and wires is 48 + 1 + 1 = 50 ohms. If each branch has the same resistance. the current in each branch can the voltage. their total resistance is R1 + R2 + R3. The voltage that each object uses up is called the voltage drop across that object. V is The total resistance of a parallel circuit can be calculated from the equation where R is the total resistance and R1. are the resistances of the branches. from the equation V = IR.. Adding up the voltage drops (2 + 2 + 96) B Parallel Circuits If various objects are connected to form separate paths between the terminals of a source of electric current. the voltage drop in each wire is V = IR = 2 × 1 = 2 volts. if a parallel circuit consists of three branches with resistances of 10. where V is the voltage drop across the object. and R3 are connected in series. and 30 ohms.Therefore the total resistance to the current is equal to the sum of the individual resistances. then the current in each will be equal. and R is the resistance of the object. they are said to be connected in parallel. Voltage drop can be calculated current. . R2. 15. be determined from the equation I = V/R. After The total resistance of objects connected in parallel is less than that of any of the individual resistances. For example. If the voltage is 100 volts. whereas a series circuit has only one path for all the current. I is the amount of In the example of the motor. Each separate path is called a flowing through the separate branches. If three objects with resistances R1. This is because a parallel circuit offers more than one branch (path) for the electric current.. and gives a total drop of 100 volts. if a motor with a resistance of 48 ohms is connected to the terminals of a current source by two wires. For example. where I is the amount of current in the branch. the current merges again before reentering the current source. In a series circuit the sum of the voltage drops across the objects always equals the total voltage supplied by the source. R2.
may have within it several objects in a series. and the 30-ohm branch receives 5 amp. One branch of a parallel circuit. B. be combined according to the rules for a series circuit. the smaller the portion of the electric current and 30 ohms. and C are in series. The branches are parallel and must be treated by the rules for parallel circuits. . starting at any point in a circuit and following any closed path back to the starting point. for example. but also to any given section of a D Series and Parallel Sources Sources of electric current can also be connected in various ways. On the other hand. In other circuit. The laws. is connected to a 150-volt source. would receive a current of V/R = 150/10 = 15 amp. the net sum of the voltage encountered will be equal to the net sum of the products of the resistances encountered and the currents flowing through them. with resistances of 10. amp. The first of Kirchhoff’s laws states that at any junction in a circuit through which a steady current is flowing. the 15-ohm branch receives 10 of 30 amp. These branch currents add up to a total current C Series-Parallel Circuits Many circuits combine series and parallel arrangements. the branch with a resistance of 10 ohms flowing through that branch. The resistances of these objects must at one point divide into two or more branches and then rejoin. Similarly. Ohm’s law applies not only to a circuit as a whole. These rules make it possible to find the amount of electric current flowing through each second law states that. a series circuit may Complicated series-parallel circuits may be analyzed by means of two rules called Kirchhoff’s part of any circuit. In this circuit. if the positive terminal of battery A is connected to the negative terminal of battery B. If a parallel circuit of three branches.Therefore. R = 5 ohms. which is the value obtained by dividing the voltage by the total resistance. 15. the sum of the currents flowing to the junction is equal to the sum of the currents flowing away from that point. The greater the resistance of a given branch. a voltage of 150 volts would produce an electric current of I = V/R = 150/5 = 30 amp. as well as the voltage across it. For example. words. Sources can be arranged in series by connecting a terminal of one source to the opposite terminal of the next source. then batteries A. and the positive terminal of battery B to the negative terminal of battery C. The load is then placed between the positive terminal of battery C and the negative terminal of battery A.
5 amp through the load. stored in the region around the charge. For example. the total voltage is still 1.5-volt batteries are parallel unless they have approximately the same voltage. their total voltage is equal to the sum of their individual voltages. The load is then placed between the group of positive Arranging sources in parallel does not increase the voltage. and all the negative terminals together. All charged objects have electric fields around them. connected in parallel. the batteries send a current of 4.When sources of electric current are connected in series. three 1.5/9 = 0. Batteries should not be connected in connected in parallel with a low voltage battery. If a high voltage battery is current through the low voltage battery and damage it. Current sources may be arranged in parallel by connecting all the positive terminals together terminals and the group of negative terminals. the high voltage battery will force an electric VIII ELECTRIC FIELDS A single electric charge can attract or repel.5-volt batteries connected in series furnish a total of 4. If the load is 9 ohms.5 volts.5 volts. This region is called the electric field of force of the A Lines of Force . and it will demonstrate this ability as soon as another charge is brought near it. The ability to attract or repel can be thought of as being charge. If three 1.
the lines in the field around a negatively charged object are directed toward the object. it is acted on by a force that tends to push it in a certain direction. The lines in the field around a positively charged object radiate in all directions away from the object. the field is strong and the lines are close together. An object with Field strength is represented graphically by the closeness (density) of the lines of force. Near a charge. their lines of force connect. The field direction can be represented graphically by the lines of force near an electric C Field Strength The strength. if a point charge of 1 coulomb is subjected to a a charge of 5 coulombs would be subjected to a force of 50 newtons at the same point. Conversely. point. of a field at any point is defined as the force exerted on a charge of 1 coulomb placed at that point.An electric field can be visualized as consisting of imaginary lines called lines of force. or intensity. referred to as north and south. exactly as happens with electric charges. . since the object repels positive charges. the idea of lines of force helps in visualizing an electric field. the lines do not connect. If a positive and a negative object placed near each other. since a field can be drawn with as many lines as desired. the field is strong. Each line corresponds to the path that a positive charge would take if placed in the field on that line. This direction is called the direction of the field at that charge. If two objects with similar charges are Lines of force are only imaginary. A magnet has two opposite poles. the field weakens and the lines are not as close together. are placed near each other. B Field Direction When a charge is placed at any given point in an electric field. The field strength values that the lines represent are relative. For example. the field is weak. and similar magnetic poles repel each other. At greater distances from the charge. Opposite magnetic poles attract each other. IX ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM Many similarities exist between electric and magnetic phenomena. Where they are far apart. Lines of force never cross each other. force of 10 newtons. Nevertheless. Where the lines are close together. the electric field is 10 newtons per coulomb at that point.
The force with which magnetic poles attract or repel each other depends on the strength of the poles and the distance between them. See also Quantum Electrodynamics. This relationship is similar to the Coulomb’s inverse square law for electric charges. they constitute an electric current. demonstrated by the fact that a magnetic field exists around any electric current. The similarities between electric and magnetic phenomena indicate that electricity and magnetism are related. See also Magnetism. If electric charges are moving. The relationship between electricity and magnetism is called electromagnetism. The field can . Electricity produces magnetic effects and magnetism produces electric effects. The magnetic effect of electricity is be detected when a magnet is brought close to the current-carrying conductor. A Magnetic Effects of Electricity It has been noted that an electric field exists around any electric charge.
This phenomenon. The end from which the lines exit is the north pole and the end into which the lines reenter is the south pole.) of the lines of magnetic force. The polarity of the coil can be determined by applying the left-hand coil rule. known as the motor effect. To apply this rule. then the magnetic lines the individual loops of wire.The magnetic field around an electric current can be thought of as lines of magnetic force that form closed circular loops around the wire that carries the current. the magnetic fields interact to produce a force that tends to push the wire out of the Motors and Generators. (The right-hand rule assumes that current flows from positive to B Motor Effect As already stated. field. is used in electric motors. a magnetic field exists around a wire carrying an electric current. If the left hand grasps the coil in such a way . called a solenoid. The direction of the fingers then indicates the direction negative. and a magnetic field exists between the two poles of a magnet. The direction of the magnetic field can be determined by a convenient rule called the right-hand rule. Such a coil. See also Electric C Solenoids If a wire is bent into many continuous loops to form a long spiral coil. behaves in the same way as a of force tend to go through the center of the coil from one end to the other rather than around magnet and is the basis for all electromagnets. the thumb of the right hand is pointed in the direction in which the current is flowing and the fingers are curled around the wire. If the wire is placed between the poles.
and dies down to zero. The number of cycles United States and Canada. completed by an electric current in one second is called the frequency of the current.that the fingers curl around in the direction of the electron current. If a magnet is moved near a stationary wire. Some of the unique traits of alternating A Amperage and Voltage . then the thumb points in the direction of the north pole. When a conductor is moved back and forth in a magnetic field. It does not matter whether the wire moves or the magnetic field moves. immediately starts flowing in the opposite direction. transmission. Most electric power stations supply electricity in the form of alternating currents. This surging back and forth can occur at a very rapid rate. some properties of alternating current are somewhat different from those of direct current. D Electric Effects of Magnetism If a wire is moved through a magnetic field in such a way that it cuts the magnetic lines of force. Alternating currents current make it ideal for power generation. This current is called an induced current. are called a cycle. one in each direction. provided that the wire cuts through lines of force. In the Although direct and alternating currents share some characteristics. The current flows first in one direction. an induced current generates a magnetic field around it. a voltage is created across the wire. the lines of magnetic force are cut by the wire and an electric current is induced in the wire. X ALTERNATING CURRENT An alternating current is an electric current that changes direction at regular intervals. most currents have a frequency of 60 cycles per second. Like any electric current. An electric current will flow through the wire if the two ends of the wire are connected by a conductor to form a circuit. builds up to a maximum in that direction. Lenz’s law expresses an important fact concerning this magnetic field: The motion of an induced current is always in such a direction that its magnetic field opposes the magnetic field that is causing the current. and the induction of a current in this manner is called electromagnetic induction. It then and again dies down to zero. the flow of current in the conductor will reverse direction as often as the physical motion of the conductor reverses direction. builds up to a maximum in that direction. Then it immediately starts in the first direction again. and use. also produce phenomena that direct currents do not. Two consecutive surges.
the voltage induced in the number of individual conductors. The total hindering effect on The relationship of effective current. produces heat as it passes through a conductor. The most important of these characteristics is that the voltage or the current may be changed to almost alternating current surges back and forth through a coil of wire. which it passes. C Advantages of Alternating Current Alternating current has several characteristics that make it more attractive than direct current as a source of electric power. Since it is inconvenient to take into account a whole range of amperage values. Conversely. effective voltage. because power is equal to the product of voltage and current. The effective amperage of an alternating scientists simply deal with the effective amperage. If 200. If the second coil has more turns than the first.The strength. however. the magnetic field about the any value desired by means of a simple electromagnetic device called a transformer. When an coil expands and collapses and then expands in a field of opposite polarity and again collapses. and together they are called reactance. Similarly. The power lost in the line through heating. These effects depend on the frequency of the current and on an alternating current is called impedance. various effects produced by the alternating current itself the design of the circuit. the secondary. but not in direct in the second coil. In addition. and impedance is expressed by V = IZ. voltage will be smaller than the primary voltage. or induced. if there are fewer turns in the second coil. a coil of wire is placed in the magnetic field of the first coil.000 watts of power is supplied to a power line. other words. I is the effective current in amperes (amp). In same rate as 1 amp of direct current flowing through the same conductor. the voltage of an alternating current is considered in terms of the effective voltage. The movement of the magnetic field induces an alternating current second coil will be larger than the voltage in the first. both for industrial installations and in the home. It is equal to the resistance plus the reactance. however. because the field is acting on a greater The action of a transformer makes possible the economical transmission of electric power over long distances. or amperage.000 volts and a current of 1 amp or by a potential of 2. Like a direct current. it may be equally well supplied by a potential of 200.000 volts and a current of 100 amp. and Z is the impedance in ohms. is equal to the square of the current times the . electric connection with it. 1 effective amp of alternating current through a conductor produces heat at the B Impedance Like direct current. an alternating current current is equal to the amperage of a direct current that produces heat at the same rate. of an alternating current varies continuously between zero and a maximum. where V is the effective voltage in volts. alternating current is hindered by the resistance of the conductor through hinder the alternating current. In a transformer.
but scientists did not make great progress in understanding electricity until the 1700s. In a treatise written about three centuries later. American scientist Benjamin Franklin theorized that electricity is a kind of fluid. The object that gains electric fluid acquires a vitreous charge. He gave these substances the Latin name electrica. Conduction was rediscovered independently by Englishman Stephen others are insulators. Frenchman Charles Dufay observed that electric charges are of two kinds. The machine consisted of a sulfur sphere turned by a crank. Gray also noted that some substances are good conductors while Also during the early 1700s. About other objects move. power companies tend to favor high voltage lines for long XI HISTORY Humans have known about the existence of static electricity for thousands of years. Theophrastus. Dufay called one kind vitreous and the other kind resinous. which Franklin called positive charge. BC For almost 2. According to Franklin’s theory. The object that loses electric fluid acquires a resinous charge. Accordingly. Gray during the early 1700s. The fact that electricity can flow through a substance was discovered by 17th-century German physicist Otto von Guericke. When a hand was held against the sphere. another Greek philosopher. . if the resistance of the line is 10 ohms. who observed conduction in a linen thread.000-volt line will be 100. when rubbed. Thus. electric fluid flows from one object to the other. He found that opposite kinds attract each other while similar kinds repel. which Franklin called negative charge. the loss on the 200. stated that other substances also have this power. In 1600 English physician William Gilbert published a book in which he noted that many substances besides amber could be charged by rubbing. whereas the loss on the 2. little progress was made in the study of electricity.000-volt line will be 10 watts.000 watts. A 600 Early Theories Greek philosopher Thales of Miletus held that amber had a soul.000 years after Theophrastus. when two objects are rubbed together. available power. since it could make The ancient Greeks observed that amber. The word electricity was first used by English writer and physician Sir Thomas Browne in 1646. or half the distance transmission. light objects.resistance. a charge was induced on the sphere. attracted small. which is derived from the Greek word elektron (which means “amber”). Von Guericke also described the first machine for producing an electric charge in 1672.
Alessandro Volta. A spark jumped. a concept that proved extremely About 1840 British physicist James Prescott Joule and German scientist Hermann Ludwig circuits obey the law of the conservation of energy. Electric charge gathered by the kite had flowed down the wet under a shed and held the string by a dry silk cord.Franklin demonstrated that lightning is a form of electricity. a device able to store electric charge. a form of electric battery. Georg Simon Ohm. which solenoids. Franklin. announced that he had created the voltaic pile. Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted demonstrated that electric currents are surrounded by magnetic fields in 1819. French physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb reinvented a torsion balance to electric charges varies inversely with the square of the distance between the charges. In 1827 Ohm published his results. investigated the conducting known as Ohm’s law. With this apparatus he confirmed the product of the individual charges. including the relationship now In 1830 American physicist Joseph Henry discovered that a moving magnetic field induces an electric current. Galvani had found earlier that the muscles in a frog’s B 19th and 20th Centuries In 1800 another Italian scientist. Ampère also demonstrated the magnetic properties of abilities of various metals. Faraday. The voltaic pile made the study of electric current much easier by providing a reliable. body. The same effect was discovered a year later by English scientist Michael useful in the study of electricity. a German high school teacher. Franklin also showed that a Leyden jar. steady source of current. put his hand near a metal key attached to string to the key and then jumped across an air gap to flow to the ground through Franklin’s charged by touching it to the key when electric current was flowing down the string. Faraday introduced the concept of lines of force. André Marie Ampère discovered the relationship known as Ampere’s law. Ferdinand von Helmholtz demonstrated that electricity is a form of energy and that electric . Priestley’s observations and also showed that the force between two charges is proportional to In 1791 Italian biologist Luigi Galvani published the results of experiments that he had leg would contract if he applied an electric current to them. When the string became wet enough to conduct. Priestley measure accurately the force exerted by electric charges. performed on the muscles of dead frogs. In 1752 he constructed a kite and flew it during a storm. could be Around 1766 British chemist Joseph Priestley proved experimentally that the force between also demonstrated that an electric charge distributes itself uniformly over the surface of a hollow metal sphere and that no charge and no electric field of force exists within such a sphere. gives the direction of the magnetic field. who stood the string. Shortly afterward.
who harnessed these waves in 1895 to produce the first practical radio signaling system. All rights reserved. which is the basis of modern electrical theory. was first advanced by Dutch physicist Hendrik Antoon Lorentz in 1892. His work paved the way for German physicist Heinrich Rudolf Hertz. who produced and detected electric waves in the atmosphere in 1886. . The electron theory. The widespread use of electricity as a such as Thomas Alva Edison.Also during the 19th century. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. accurately measured the charge on the electron in 1909. and Charles Proteus Steinmetz during the late 19th Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005. Nikola Tesla. American physicist Robert Andrews Millikan source of power is largely due to the work of pioneering American engineers and inventors and early 20th centuries. British physicist James Clerk Maxwell investigated the properties of electromagnetic waves and light and developed the theory that the two are identical. and for Italian engineer Guglielmo Marconi. Maxwell summed up almost all the laws of electricity and magnetism in four mathematical equations.
If the gear has 40 teeth. a threaded shaft engages the teeth on a gear. nothing beats the worm gear. In a worm gear. A mechanical odometer is another place that uses a lot of worm gears: . Each time the shaft spins one revolution.HOWSTUFFWORKS@YAHOO. the gear moves one tooth forward. you have a 40:1 gear ratio in a very small package. Here's one example from a windshield wiper.COM Worm Gears If you want to create a high gear ratio.WWW.
as shown here: . However. One specialized gear train is called a planetary gear train. One way to create that ratio is with the following three-gear train: In this train. The size of the red gear is not important because it is just there to reverse the direction of rotation so that the blue and yellow gears turn the same way. In that case. See How Odometers Work for more information. imagine that you want the axis of the output gear to be the same as that of the input gear. you can use a planetary gear system.There are three worm gears visible in this odometer. the blue gear has six times the diameter of the yellow gear (giving a 6:1 ratio). Planetary gears solve the following problem. Planetary Gears There are many other ways to use gears. Let's say you want a gear ratio of 6:1 with the input turning in the same direction as the output. A common place where this same-axis capability is needed is in an electric screwdriver.
So in this case. This is because the planet carrier circled the sun gear once in the same direction as it was spinning. Because there are three red gears instead of one. take the output from the planet carrier and hook the input up to the ring gear. All three are attached to a plate (the planet carrier). This would give you a 1. You can see a picture of a two-stage planetary gear system on the electric screwdriver page. You could rearrange things again. subtracting one revolution from the sun gear. if the input is the sun gear. the yellow gear (the sun) engages all three red gears (the planets) simultaneously. and we hold the ring gear stationary and attach the output shaft to the planet carrier. we get a different gear ratio. using clutches and brake bands to hold different parts of the gearset stationary and change the inputs and outputs. and the planet carrier is held stationary -.17:1 gear reduction. and a three-stage plenetary gear system of the sprinkler page. An automatic transmission uses planetary gearsets to create the different gear ratios. it has to spin seven times. For instance. which gear you use as the output. the planet carrier and planets orbit the sun gear. and which one you hold still.In this gear system. and this time hold the sun gear stationary. and they engage the inside of the blue gear (the ring) instead of the outside. as shown here: . Another interesting thing about planetary gearsets is that they can produce different gear ratios depending on which gear you use as the input. gears are often connected together in gear trains. so instead of the sun gear having to spin six times for the planet carrier to make it around once. In this case. we get a 7:1 reduction. Gear Trains To create large gear ratios.this gives the same 6:1 gear ratio. this gear train is extremely rugged. The output shaft is attached to the blue ring gear. You also find planetary gear systems inside automatic transmissions.
The right-hand (purple) gear in the train is actually made in two parts. . as shown in the next two figures. A small gear and a larger gear are connected together. as shown above. Gear trains often consist of multiple gears in the train. one on top of the other.
the green gear will turn at a rate of 500 rpm and the red gear will turn at a rate of 2. That means that if you connect the purple gear to a motor spinning at 100 revolutions per minute (rpm). The green gear turns at twice the rate of the purple gear.In the case above. with the gears having a ratio of 10:1. the smaller gears are one-fifth the size of the larger gears. Because the dials are directly connected . The red gear turns at twice the rate as the green gear. you will see that the five dials are connected to one another through a gear train like this. If you can see inside your power meter and it's of the older style with five mechanical dials. In the same way.500-rpm motor to the red gear to get 100 rpm on the purple gear.500 rpm. the purple gear turns at a rate twice that of the blue gear. you could attach a 2. The gear train shown below has a higher gear ratio: In this train.
In these cases. An Example Imagine the following situation: You have two red gears that you want to keep synchronized. in both of these cases the extra gears are likely to be heavy and you need to create axles for them. they spin in opposite directions (you will see that the numbers are reversed on dials next to one another). as shown here: . the common solution is to use either a chain or a toothed belt. You can place a big gear between them if you want them to have the same direction of rotation: Or you can use two equal-sized gears if you want them to have opposite directions of rotation: However.to one another. but they are some distance apart.
For example.The advantages of chains and belts are light weight. it would be a lot harder. the ability to separate the two gears by some distance. the same toothed belt might engage the crankshaft. in a car engine. check out the links on the next page! . For more information on gears and their applications. and the ability to connect many gears together on the same chain or belt. If you had to use gears in place of the belt. two camshafts and the alternator.
the pulley at the top of a flagpole. simple device that affects the force. Distance refers to the distance a load is moved by the force. is the amount of force used to move an object multiplied by Force is defined as a push or a pull exerted on one body by another. which combines a lever (the hinged handle). the amount of work that results remains the same.Machine I INTRODUCTION Machine. a wheel and axle (the turning knob). . Machines can also increase the speed at which work makes an object travel. This can be written in mathematical terms: Work = Force × Distance move objects. the steering wheel of an automobile (a form of wheel and axle). Machines can make a tough job seem easier by enabling a person to apply less force or to apply force in a direction that is easier to manipulate. in physics. Although less force There are four types of simple machines: the lever. The advantage that a machine gives its user by affecting the amount of force needed is called the machine’s mechanical advantage. However. Knowing the mechanical advantage of a machine allows a user to predict how much force is needed to lift a given object. no other simple machines have been discovered. no matter how complicated a machine is. perform work by lengthening the distance over which the force is applied. the inclined plane. needed to do a certain amount of work. but increasing speed requires the application of more effort. or MA. An everyday example of a complex machine is the and a wedge (the sharpened cutting disk). the screw and the wedge. Work. II WORK Machines help people do work by changing the amount of force and the distance needed to the distance over which the force is applied. it is composed of some combination of the four simple machines. can opener. are complex machines wheel and axle. and the wheelchair ramp (a form of inclined plane). known and used for thousands of years. the pulley. composed of many parts. are really adaptations of the inclined plane. or effort. Two Some common examples of simple machines are the shovel (a form of lever). such as a hand pushing a book across a table. such as automobiles or power tools. Although these simple machines have been other common simple machines. Machines lessen the force needed to is subsequently used. and the Most mechanical machines. Each machine affects the direction or the amount of effort needed to do work.
usually powered by electricity. Some machines can actually speed up a task. An elevator uses large engines. The theoretical. Electricity also powers the levers that help open and shut the elevator doors. but spreading the necessary effort out over a longer distance makes the task seem easier. such as levers and pulleys. over which the effort is applied. to provide the necessary force to do work. such as airplane fuel or the energy stored in electricity. The mechanical energy in a person’s muscles makes the machine do work. but they make the bicycle travel faster on flat terrain. Friction results from two bodies moving against each other in different . and this slows down the speed of work. to do work. Other gears require less effort and are useful for climbing hills. This is why walking gradually up a gentle slope is easier than walking up a steep slope. Complex machines often use the energy stored in chemical substances. the main source of imperfection is friction. They do this by reducing the distance Distance) is reduced. then the force must therefore be increased to keep work constant. Not all machines use muscle power. B Mechanical Advantage and Friction Measuring the mechanical advantage (MA) is a mathematical way to determine how much a machine affects the amount of force needed to do work. The distance walked on the gentle slope is longer. mechanical advantage of a machine is the advantage it would produce if the machine were perfect. or ideal. A gentle slope is a form of inclined plane. An airplane engine uses the combustion. by changing the direction in which the force must be applied. of airplane fuel to power the engine that turns the propeller. to pull cables that raise and lower the elevator car. is made up of many simple machines. however. Some gears require more effort. various gears on a multispeed bicycle (another complex machine) work in a manner similar to People use simple machines. The amount of work needed to overcome gravity and lift a given load always remains the same. or by doing both. such as an airplane engine or an elevator. The wheel and axle and certain types of levers are simple machines that can either speed up a task (requiring more effort) or slow down a task (requiring less effort).A How Machines Work A machine can make a given task seem easier by reducing the amount of force needed to move an object. Applying effort over a greater distance takes more time. A machine decreases the amount of force needed by increasing the distance over which the effort is applied to move the object. A complex machine. to make manual chores easier. Scientists find the mechanical advantage of a machine by dividing the force the machine delivers by the effort put into the machine. The that of the wheel and axle. If the distance in the equation defining work (Work = Force × Increasing the speed at which a task is performed requires more force than would otherwise be necessary. or rapid burning. but the effort needed to reach the top is less. In simple machines. Airplane engines and elevators are not powered by hand.
the load needed to be pushed twice as far to end up 5 C Efficiency Another factor that people sometimes compute for machines is their efficiency. This means that the work was twice as easy. The wheel and axle always increases the amount of force needed.directions. the work that results to the amount of work put into the machine. This increase in distance allows a person to move a large object to a certain would need to lift with a force equal to the entire weight of the object. meters above the ground. For example. An automobile engine is much less efficient dissipating from the engine. but they all change the direction or the amount of effort put into them. the actual mechanical advantage is always less than the Because simple machines increase mechanical advantage by increasing the distance over which the effort is applied. (Without the plane. or 2. but they always lose some efficiency due to friction. and some levers can also be used to increase the speed of performance of a task.) The tradeoff is that also changes the direction—from straight up to along the angle of the plane—of the effort height while applying less force than would otherwise be needed. Friction always opposes motion and makes doing work harder. present in almost every machine. Moving the load along a 10-m (32-ft) inclined plane would provide a mechanical advantage of 10 divided by 5. An inclined plane . but doing so A Inclined Plane Ramps and staircases are simple examples of inclined planes. rather than lifted straight up. or the ratio of is usually expressed as a percentage and can vary from 5 percent to 95 percent. All four of these machines can be used to decrease the amount of force needed to do work or to change the direction of the force. An inclined plane is an object that decreases the effort needed to lift an object by increasing the distance over which the effort is applied. or an the distance the effort is applied by the distance the load actually travels. or that only half as much effort was needed to raise the load. A perfect machine would be 100 percent efficient. a person with the inclined plane. one way to compute theoretical mechanical advantage is to divide a load 5 m (16 ft) off the ground is easier if the load is moved up a gradual slope. however. The efficiency of a machine because much of the energy used to move the crankshaft is lost to friction in the form of heat III TYPES OF SIMPLE MACHINES The four simple machines each function in different ways. Because of the inclined plane. the person must move the object a farther distance. Since friction is theoretical mechanical advantage. Most simple machines are very efficient. raising inclined plane.
with a plane on each side. Fastening screws are used to join things together. have threads that are matched by the threads on the inside of a nut. but some friction with lifting screws is helpful so that the screw can safely hold B Lever . or pole. Lifting screws are used to lift loads or to exert forces on other bodies. The MA of a screw is related to the pitch of the threads (the distance along the axis of the screw from one thread to the next) and the diameter of the axis. A wedge is a changing the downward direction of the force from a sledgehammer to a sideways force A screw is a form of inclined plane in which the plane is wrapped around an axis. An example of a lifting screw is the screw jack used to change tires on a car. toward the wood being split. Other screws. Wedges are often used to split wood. The amount of work done is the same whether the person lifts the object straight up or along an inclined plane. sometimes called machine screws or bolts. reduce friction. than a steep inclined plane. Lifting screws are usually lubricated to the load. The materials are held together by a combination of friction on the threads and compression of the screw by the materials. The MA of an inclined plane equals the length of the plane divided by the height to which the object is raised. There are two different types of screws: fastening screws and lifting screws. which have threads that dig into the materials being joined. A long inclined plane at a small angle has a greater mechanical advantage double inclined plane.applied. because the effort is applied over a greater distance. Examples of fastening screws are wood or metal screws.
If a single pulley is used. A user applies effort to the large outer wheel of the steering wheel to move the load at the axle. D Wheel and Axle The wheel and axle is similar in appearance to a pulley. because they increase the distance the rope travels. to raise window blinds. The human arm is actually a lever. cable. and the muscles apply the force needed to lift weight or move objects. For When multiple pulleys are combined (in what is called a block and tackle). and this limits the number of pulleys that can be used. the fulcrum lies between the effort and the load. the fulcrum lies at one end. they can have mechanical advantages greater than 1. Tweezers are another example of a Class 3 lever. but the load is at the other end. In a Class 1 lever. as in a wheelbarrow. and the load is in the middle. The MA of a block and tackle is equal to the number of strands of rope on the part of the block and tackle that is attached load requires the user to pull the rope three times farther than the load actually moves. and the fulcrum along the bar. A seesaw is an example of a lever. with one major difference: the wheel is fixed to the axle. which is called the fulcrum. The MA of a wheel and axle is equal . The MA is maximized when the load is close to load. the load. and the forearm muscles apply the effort between the elbow and hand. One of the limitations of levers is that they only operate through relatively small angles. as is the steering wheel of a car. The elbow is the fulcrum. The MA of a lever is the distance from the fulcrum to the point where the force is applied divided by the distance from the fulcrum to the load. as in a seesaw. The rope on a pulley causes a good deal of friction. which vary in the placement of the effort. the fulcrum and the effort is far from the fulcrum. a downward pull on a cord is required. which has a groove cut into the edge to guide a rope. The object being lifted is called the load. In a Class 2 lever.One of the most commonly used simple machines is the lever. advantage of using the pulley is that the direction of the force needed is changed. the mechanical advantage is 1. There are three classes of levers. Using a combination of pulleys that results in three strands of rope attached to the results in an MA of 3. A lever consists of a bar that rotates around a pivot point. thereby increasing the distance over which the effort is applied. The human forearm is a Class 3 lever. In this case. called a sheave. In a Class 3 lever. The force applied by the user is the effort. or chain. the fulcrum is again at one end. which means that one-third as much effort is required to move the load. and the effort is applied in the middle. Pulleys are used at the top of flagpoles and in some types of window blinds. a small effort can move a large C Pulley The pulley is a special type of wheel. This to the load. and the only example. the effort is applied at the other end.
is usually much larger than the radius of the axle. which is a form of wheel. The levers move the bolt and unlatch the door. Such combinations are known as complex machines. wheels and axles. The whole engine is held together by threaded bolts. has a cooling fan. and therefore its circumference. Pliers usually as the cutting edge. the distance over which the effort is applied is much greater than the distance the load. which is thought of as an electronic device. The radius of the wheel. which is placed at the axle. which are a form of wheel and axle with specially shaped teeth on the outside of the wheels. moves. By choosing the size Even devices that do not seem to be mechanical use simple machines. A pair of pliers is really two Class 1 levers with the same fulcrum (the pivot pin). the speed and direction of the rotation of the axles can be controlled. fit together and transfer force and power from one gear shaft to another. The engine contains many levers. Some common examples of a wheel and axle are a doorknob and IV COMPLEX MACHINES Many everyday objects are really combinations of simple machines. This fan is a complex machine in which to turn the disk and a system of levers to position the heads that read and write the data on the disk. the motor shaft turns the fan. A computer. Two gears of the gears. Cutting something thick or hard is easier when the scissors are opened wide and the object is placed near the pivot pin. have a mechanical advantage of 5 or higher. The transmission uses gears. Therefore. The difference in the sizes of the wheel and axle can result in a a round water faucet handle. An automobile is one such machine. which are a form of inclined plane. giving the scissors a higher MA than if the cutting was done Some complex machines are very complicated. and pulleys.to the radius of the wheel divided by the radius of the axle. The disk drive uses a wheel and axle . This placement decreases the distance near the tip of the scissors. large mechanical advantage. A pair of scissors is a pair of pliers with wedges between the load and the fulcrum. The doorknob is a wheel and axle system that transfers the force applied by a person to a system of levers.
which is used to pump water produce electricity. Waterwheels and windmills can also be connected to electrical generators to Complicated machines such as the power loom (patented in 1786) helped cultivate the improvements seen in Great Britain during the first Industrial Revolution at the end of the 18th century. Pumps connected to windmills transform the rotary motion of a windmill into reciprocating (back and forth) motion. as early as 2000 Chariots in Asia Minor BC. According to legend. Waterwheels. used the water falling from a waterfall to turn large wheels (see Waterpower). used spoked wheels. Grinding wheels connected to waterwheels can grind grain for making The windmill also uses the same wheel and axle principle to magnify and change the direction flour or power large saws for sawing wood. The first levers were probably branches or logs used to lift heavy objects. People also used such a device for lifting soldiers over battlements. . Metal or stone wedges have been used since ancient times for splitting wood. Contributed By: Odis Hayden Griffin. People used wooden wedges to swell by absorbing water. All rights reserved. first used in ancient Greece and Rome. Archimedes also used a block and tackle to pull ships onto dry land. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. such as the cotton gin (used to separate cotton fibers from seeds). such as wind and falling water. Historians believe the people of ancient Mesopotamia (an early civilization near modern-day Iraq) used wheels as early as 3500 inventor Archimedes (287-212 BC) split rocks by placing dry wooden wedges into cracks in rocks and then allowing the wedges to BC. shorter path would have been taking advantage of an inclined plane. someone choosing a long. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005. gradual approach up a mountain rather than walking up a steeper. People used a counterbalanced lever called a shadoof in ancient Egypt for lifting irrigation water. Jr. Some modern water pumps still use this principle. for raising water. from the ground.V HISTORY The history of machines dates back thousands of years. Although the date of the first use of simple machines is not known. the lever is believed to be the first simple machine that was utilized by humans. of force to do work. the mechanical reaper (used to cut grain). into work. developed a screw-type device known as Archimedes’ screw The Greek Machines can transform natural energy. However. which were lighter than solid wheels. Later Industrial Revolutions elsewhere brought about the invention of even more complex machines. and later adopted by Europeans in the 12th century. and the automobile.
Since the hand is farther . needed to do a certain amount of work. lever. that moves an object over a distance. and the nail at the other end of the lever is the load to be moved. A common II WORK AND MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE A lever makes work easier by reducing the force needed to move a load. In order to reduce the force needed. Work. makes doing work easier To increase this distance. This relationship can be written mathematically as: Work = Force × Distance The amount of work needed to move an object a given distance always remains the same by reducing the force needed to move an object. (The other three are the pulley. is applied. making the job easier. simple machine consisting of a rigid bar that rotates about a fixed point. force is applied to one end of the the other end of the lever. The human arm is also a lever. with the fulcrum somewhere between the two. Levers affect the effort. and the object to be moved (referred to as the resistance or load) is usually located at Physicists classify the lever as one of the four simple machines used to do work. in physics. The away from the fulcrum. To move an object with a lever. like all simple machines. A good example is a claw hammer used to pry nails loose. by using the lever the force was spread out over a greater nail is much closer to the fulcrum than is the hand applying the force. However. By varying the distances between the force and the fulcrum and between the load and the fulcrum. The same amount of work would have been done if the nail had been pulled directly out by hand. The head of the hammer is the fulcrum. such as a person lifting. the wheel and axle. called a fulcrum. except when friction is present. where the elbow is the fulcrum and the muscles apply the force. the amount of effort needed to move the load can be decreased. The lever. or effort.Lever I INTRODUCTION Lever. is the product of the force used to lift a load multiplied by the distance the force. or force. the result of a force. the force travels a greater distance than does the load as the nail is pried loose. and are used to lift heavy objects. the distance over which the force is applied must be increased. and the inclined plane. the load to be moved must be close to the fulcrum and the force must be applied far from the fulcrum. The user’s hand applies force to the handle at one end of the lever.) Work is defined in physics as example of a lever is the seesaw.
The elbow is the fulcrum. distance from the load to the fulcrum almost to zero. they position themselves an equal distance from the usually moves toward the center. In practical terms. and the force is the lift supplied by the user. A class 2 lever always has a middle. A common example is the wheelbarrow. and the force in the middle. and so less force was needed. Another example is a seesaw. When two fulcrum. Each class of lever affects force in a different way. which gives a mechanical advantage to the lighter person so B Class 2 Levers The class 2 lever has the fulcrum at one end. as in a seesaw. It is possible for a class 1 lever to have a significant mechanical advantage. where the wheel is the fulcrum. The greater the MA. The MA of a lever is the ratio of the distance the force travels to the distance the load travels. greater than 1. people of equal weight use the seesaw. load. The force of a smaller person can balance and even lift the load of a larger person as the smaller person moves farther away from the fulcrum. depending on the arrangement of the force. and the system is balanced. Depending on the class of lever and the location of the fulcrum. the less the effort needed to move a load. the best wheelbarrow design is one where the wheel is directly under the load. the MA is the distance of the force to the fulcrum divided by the distance of the load to the fulcrum. The mechanical advantage (MA) of a lever tells how much the lever magnifies effort. and the fulcrum along the lever bar. that person that the system is again in balance. the MA may be less than or III TYPES OF LEVERS There are three different classes of levers. The human forearm is a class 3 lever. and the load in the within the box. A Class 1 Levers The class 1 lever has the fulcrum between the force and the load. To reduce the force required by the user even more. the load at the other end. When a heavier person sits on one end. the force at the other end. Many wheelbarrows and garden carts are C Class 3 Levers A class 3 lever has the fulcrum at one end. reducing the designed in that manner to make them easy for the user to move. and the muscles of .distance. the load rests mechanical advantage of greater than 1. the and each class has different applications.
During the Middle Ages. The class 3 lever always has a mechanical advantage of less than 1. A counterbalanced lever called a shadoof was used in ancient Egypt for lifting irrigation water from the Nile River up onto land. the work requires more effort than would ordinarily be needed. The keys of a piano use levers to transmit force . used to till soil for planting crops. Although they boost the amount of effort needed. class 3 levers are useful for increasing the IV HISTORY The first levers were probably branches or logs used to lift heavy objects. with which a greater effort results in a smaller load moving at a greater speed. and it is still used today. followed by sticks applied by a human. Learning to use those simple tools led to the development of other applications of the lever. often use a series of levers to transfer force. These weights are called counterweights.the forearm apply the force between the elbow and the hand. In both of those applications. because the load travels a greater distance than the force travels. The principle of the lever was often utilized through the rotary motion of the wheel and axle. Waterwheels installed near large grindstones for grinding grain into flour. Balance scales use levers to find the mass of an object. attacking armies used a similar device for lifting soldiers over fortress walls. Complex machines from the keys to the hammers that strike the strings. Consequently. speed at which a load is moved. people added weights so that the force they had to exert was lessened. A baseball bat and a broom are also examples of class 3 levers. waterfalls used the continuous force of moving water to provide the necessary leverage to turn A crowbar and the claw of a hammer used to pry loose nails are both common examples of levers in action. the lever magnifies the force In addition to using human power as the force applied to the lever.
and the effort of pulling on a rope. simple machine used to lift objects. Work is the product of the effort. Work is defined in physics as the result of a force. so that less force is needed to lift an object. the inclined plane) used to do work. Mechanical advantage (MA) is a term that describes how much a machine magnifies effort. The greater the MA. and a rope or cable threaded around the disk. By changing the direction of a force. A pulley consists of a grooved wheel or disk within a housing. Pulling down on the rope causes the flag to go up because the pulley changes the direction of the force applied to the flag. Increasing the distance reduces the amount of force needed for the job. applied to an object multiplied by the distance the force is applied. Multiple pulleys can change both the direction of the applied force and the amount of systems to reduce the amount of force needed to lift heavy equipment. There are two types of MA: . threading the rope through the pulley (or system of pulleys). that moves an object across a distance. Pulleys are used for lifting by attaching one end of the rope to the A single fixed pulley changes the direction of the force applied to the end of the rope. A common example of a pulley can be found at the top of a flagpole. a person must do some work. such as II WORK AND MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE To lift any object. Pulleys reduce the effort to lift an object by increasing the distance over which the effort is applied. the wheel and axle. rope or cable moves over it. or force. Construction cranes use multiple pulley The pulley is one of the four simple machines (along with the lever. Combining pulleys increases the amount of rope needed to lift an object. and pulling on the other end of the rope. the less the effort needed to lift a given load. The disk of the pulley rotates as the object. so heavy loads can be lifted with even less effort. pulleys make it easier to apply the force because it is more convenient to pull down than to pull up. The relation of work to force and distance can be show as an equation: Work = Force × Distance A pulley makes work easier by increasing the distance over which effort is applied. force. Pulleys increase distance by requiring additional rope to be pulled to lift an object.Pulley I INTRODUCTION Pulley.
because of the weight on the rope and the movement of the rope on the pulley. The rope leads from the anchor down through the pulley (which is attached to the load). Theoretical MA is the MA most commonly referred to. III PULLEY SYSTEMS Systems of pulleys have been used for centuries to move loads. The higher the MA. which is always less than theoretical MA. one end of the rope is tied to a fixed anchor on the and back up to the user. Two common types of pulley systems are the block and tackle and the chain hoist. the actual MA is slightly less than 1 the axle on which it turns. which means for each distance of rope the user travels. A single fixed pulley. the easier it is to do work. A Block and Tackle . It is the MA a machine would have if it were perfect. in order to raise a load a given distance. Friction is a major problem in pulleys MA is generally determined by dividing the distance the effort travels by the distance the load top of a flagpole. Chain hoists are usually operated by hand. Since a pulley system with an MA of 2 increases the force by a factor of 2. much rope. The MA of a movable pulley (or a movable part (the load being lifted). the result of two bodies rubbing against each other. the pulley system must also double the distance the effort travels. Friction always opposes motion.theoretical and actual. has a theoretical MA of 1. For a single movable pulley to work. such as that at the pulls in. because of the friction of the rope against the pulley and the friction between the pulley and Pulleys can offer MAs of greater than 1 if they are movable. The primary benefit of a single pulley is to change the direction of the force or to move a load to a point (such as the top of a flagpole) that cannot be reached by the user. when placed on the object to be moved. Even a single pulley. The actual MA. In reality. and is present to some degree in almost every machine. The load that can be lifted is equal to the force that is applied by the user. system of pulleys with a movable part) equals the number of strands of rope coming from the A movable pulley can be used to lift a heavy load from the bottom of a cargo ship up to the deck. takes into account imperfections in simple machines. A movable pulley is one that is attached to the load to be lifted and therefore moves with the load as the rope is pulled. any effort applied is doubled. the user must pull and take in twice as deck. the flag rises the same distance. Therefore. The main source of imperfection is friction. provides an MA of 2. meaning that twice the load can be lifted with the same amount of effort. Effort is not magnified in this case. Lubricants and bearings are often used in pulleys to reduce friction. Since both strands of rope coming from the pulley equally support the load. while a block and tackle system is often used with an engine or motor.
They will. By using these devices. But since there was no wheel to turn. The pulleys on a chain hoist have teeth that hold the chain. Legend has it that the Greek inventor used a block and tackle system to pull ships onto dry land. When the chain is pulled. down through the movable pulley. Block and tackle systems are commonly used on sailing ships to lift heavy of the pulleys in place. which are usually made of wood with some metal parts. A block and tackle typically houses several pulleys. and can increase MA considerably. that pulley pulls in chain from the movable pulley. The MA of a chain hoist depends on the diameters of the large and small pulleys. On sailing ships. When early the idea of a single fixed pulley to change the direction of a force. The chain threading through the movable pulley is fed from the small pulley on top. Tackle is a term traditionally used to refer to a sailing ship’s rigging. they used BC Mesopotamia used rope pulleys for hoisting water. the entire system is usually called a block and tackle. the large pulley brings in more chain than the small pulley lets out. Since the effort travels a greater distance than the load. Chain hoists are sometimes used to lift automobile engines out of cars. sailors can exert large forces. The MA of a block and tackle is equal to sails. The top has a large pulley and a small pulley bottom section of a chain hoist is a movable pulley attached to the load. their housings and a rope used to apply the forces. It is believed that by 1500 Archimedes (287-212 BC) peoples lifted heavy objects by throwing vines or other crude ropes over tree limbs. and so the load is raised. When a user pulls on the chain hanging down from the large pulley. however. people in . and back up to the large pulley. The term block refers to the case that houses the pulleys side by side and holds the axle which was usually made of rope. The The chain hangs down from the large pulley on one side. much like the sprockets that hold a bicycle chain in place.When several movable and fixed pulleys are used together. This is often necessary because of the large friction losses in such systems. the origin of the pulley is unknown. the chain hoist multiplies force. A chain hoist is made up of two sections. IV HISTORY As is the case with all the simple machines. a block and tackle is used to apply forces to another block and tackle to gain an even greater MA. have to pull a greater length of rope to accomplish this. B Chain Hoist A chain hoist is a pulley system joined together by a closed loop of chain that is pulled by hand. joined side by side on the same axle. and then threads back up around the small pulley. this use resulted in considerable friction. The large and small pulleys turn together as a unit. Thus the block and tackle consists of a system of pulleys in the number of strands of rope coming from the moveable set of pulleys attached to the load.
the user only has to push a button to lift or lower the load. connected to powerful motors.Modern pulley systems are often combined with motors to create hoists for lifting heavy loads. An elevator in a building uses a pulley system to raise and . By using a motor. Construction cranes and cranes used at shipyards move heavy loads using block and tackle systems lower the elevator cars.
the screw and the wedge. less effort than climbing straight up a ladder would require. and the pulley). Work. that makes doing a given amount of work easier. such as the effort of pushing or pulling something. Mathematically. and therefore doing work. . the work requires less force. In physical terms. work is the result of a force. There are two kinds of MA: theoretical and actual. applied to an object multiplied by the distance over which the force is applied. Two other simple machines. lose some of their MA to friction. The actual MA of a machine is less than the theoretical MA because of friction. consisting of a ramp or a similar wedge-shaped device. with or without the inclined plane. and the distance corresponds to the distance the object is lifted. are really alternate forms of the inclined plane. a resistance created between objects when they move against each other. more difficult. the force needed is the effort required to lift the object.Inclined Plane I INTRODUCTION Inclined Plane. but because the inclined plane increases the distance over The inclined plane is one of the four simple machines (along with the lever. By increasing distance. The mechanical advantage (MA) of an inclined plane measures how much the plane magnifies the effort applied to the machine. Friction makes the process of moving objects. Some jacks that are used to lift II WORK AND MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE An inclined plane makes doing work easier by changing both the direction and the amount of effort that are used to lift an object. the inclined plane decreases the amount of force needed to do the same amount of work without the plane. simple machine. that moves an object over a distance. which allows people to move within a building from one floor to another with cars use threaded screws. An inclined plane makes it easier to lift heavy objects by enabling a person to apply the necessary force over a greater distance. The same amount of work is accomplished in lifting the object which the force is applied. Theoretical MA is the MA a machine would have if it were perfect. an inclined plane allows a person to lift an object gradually (at an angle) over a greater distance. All machines. A sharp knife is an everyday example of a wedge. however. is defined as the amount of force this can be expressed by the following equation: Work = Force x Distance When lifting an object is the work being done. Rather than lifting an object straight up. the wheel and axle. One of the most common examples of an inclined plane is a staircase. in physics.
This idea explains why climbing up a steep hill takes more effort (and seems more difficult) than walking up a longer. and some jacks used to lift automobiles rely on screws. Wheels can be added to the load to decrease friction. Screws are often used to raise objects. A ramp that is twice as long as it is high has a mechanical advantage of 2. be. The edge of the inclined plane forms a helix. However. the ramp would simply run straight up. Walking up an inclined plane or rolling a load (such as a barrel) up a plane creates little friction. and the actual MA is close to the theoretical MA. Turning the screw many times produces a small amount of vertical lift on the platform. large mechanical advantages can be achieved by using screws. A wedge is essentially a double inclined plane. which is placed under a vehicle. threaded nuts and bolts take advantage of the friction that results from the contact between A wedge is another form of inclined plane. the mechanical advantage would be 1. more gradual path to the same height as that of the steep hill. The pitch of a thread is the distance along the axis of the screw from one thread to the next. A screw is an inclined plane wrapped around an axis. the larger the MA will a vertical ladder. or spiral. This means that the ramp doubles the effort applied by the user. sliding a load (especially a flat load such as a crate) up a plane creates friction and causes the plane to lose much of its MA. If the length of a ramp was equal to its height. In this case. Since the pitch is generally small compared to the circumference. or that the user needs to apply only half as much effort to lift an object to a desired height as he or she would without the ramp. A jack has a large screw attached to a small platform. around the axis. which differs from an inclined plane. III MODIFIED INCLINED PLANES The screw and the wedge are common adaptations of the inclined plane. as well as the inclined plane and other objects. Increasing the ratio of the length of the ramp to the height of the ramp decreases the effort needed to lift an object. These devices use friction to hold things together. The mechanical advantage of a screw is related to the circumference of the screw divided by the pitch of the threads. this allows heavy loads to be lifted with a small amount of effort. narrows down to a tip. People also frequently build inclined planes with small rollers or casters built into the plane to reduce friction. like Friction is a phenomenon that reduces the efficiency of all machines. Since there is much friction . Effort is applied directly to the wedge. which means the ramp did not magnify the user’s effort. Wedges are often used to split materials such as wood or stone. where the effort travels along the plane. Screws are also useful as fastening devices. and raises the automobile. or pole. which equates with effort applied over a long distance. The screw requires a lot of turning. The longer the inclined plane. Screws driven straight into wood or other materials.The MA of an inclined plane without any friction is equal to the length of the plane divided by the height of the plane. Wedges transfer downward effort applied to the blunt edge of the where two planes are joined at their bases. The joined inclined planes form a blunt end that wedge out to the sides of the wedge to help it cut through an object.
BC to 1000 BC. from about 2700 that the Egyptians used a lubricant. A person walking up a gradual path to the top of a mountain rather than climbing straight up a steep face is taking advantage of the principle of the inclined plane. The a higher level. The main benefit of the wedge is changing the direction of effort to help split or cut through an object.involved. IV HISTORY The inclined plane is undoubtedly one of the first of the simple machines people ever used. Evidence from drawings of that time indicates People used wedges in ancient times to split wood. bottom end of the cylinder is set in water. the mechanical advantage of a wedge is difficult to determine. People also used wooden wedges in prehistoric times wedges to swell by absorbing water. and turning the screw lifts water up the cylinder to . There are indications that the Egyptians created earthen ramps to raise huge blocks of stone during the construction of the pyramids. transferring the force they applied to the to split rocks. Screws were used in ancient times as lifting devices. to reduce the sliding friction and thus increase the efficiency of the inclined planes. It consists of a cylinder with a wide-threaded screw inside. They placed dry wooden wedges into cracks in rocks and then allowed the split. This principle is still used in some pumps today. A knife is also a form of wedge. The resulting pressure in the cracks caused the rocks to inventor Archimedes (287-212 BC) invented a screw-type device (known as Archimedes’ screw) for raising water. probably milk. Historians believe that Greek blunt edge out to the sides of the wedge. The wedge shape of the knife edge helps the user cut through material.
The wheel enables a user to apply the force over way. located at the axle. The wheel and axle is used to make doing a given amount of work easier. is defined as the amount of force applied to an object multiplied by the distance over which that force is applied. The object to be moved is a resistance. and are the basis for all other machines. where the driver exerts a force on the outer edge of the wheel to II WORK AND MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE A wheel and axle makes work easier by changing the amount of force applied to a load. or load. consisting of a circular object—the wheel—with a shaft—the water faucet are both examples of wheels and axles. in the case of a faucet. a greater distance than would be possible if the force were applied directly to the axle. such as the effort of pushing or pulling. In this The wheel and axle is one of the four simple machines (along with the lever. The wheel and axle makes the effort move a greater distance than the load. There are two kinds of MA: theoretical and actual. in physics. . The much larger handle turns a much smaller axle to move a door latch. that moves an direction of the force applied to move (or in this case. Mathematically. object over a distance. Work. The mechanical advantage (MA) of a wheel and axle measures how much the machine the wheel is always larger than the circumference of the axle. Another common example of a wheel and axle is the cause the load at the axle (the front wheels) to turn.Wheel and Axle I INTRODUCTION Wheel and Axle. and the distance corresponds to how far the wheel is turned as effort is applied. the inclined plane). the pulley. The force needed is the effort required to turn the load. the formula to compute work can be expressed as: Work = Force × Distance For a wheel and axle. and so less effort is needed to move the load. A round doorknob and a round Work is the result of a physical force. All simple machines change the amount of effort needed to do work. usually located at the axle. Because the circumference of will always move a greater distance than the load at the axle. any effort applied to the wheel multiplies the force applied by the user. simple machine. and steering wheel of a car. A wheel and axle makes work easier by changing the amount and axle—running through and attached to the center of the wheel. or open a water valve. turn) an object. a wheel and axle reduces the effort needed to move a load. the work to be done is the moving or turning of a load. A force applied at the outer edge of the wheel moves or turns the load located at the axle. in the case of a doorknob.
they turn at the same speed. This requires more force to move the wheel. since actual MA can be difficult to calculate. If the gears are the same size. freely rotating wheels and axles are used frequently to reduce friction. This will always produce an MA greater than 1. the MA is the radius of the axle divided by the radius of the wheel. the distance the effort travels is divided by the distance the load travels. When force is applied at MA less than 1. then the device is not a true machine. Belts. To find the MA of a simple machine. If force is applied to the wheel. Theoretical MA is the one most commonly referred to. because it does not change force. but it takes the power of an the axle. A wheel that drives or is driven by a chain is usually referred to as a sprocket. then the MA of a wheel and axle equals the radius of the wheel divided by the radius of the axle. However. and means that speed will be gained. Friction makes the process of moving objects. are actually wheels with teeth around the edge. if one gear is larger than the other. . The wheel (the handle) transmits the user’s force to the axle (the screwdriver shaft) to turn a screw.Theoretical MA is the MA that would exist if the machine were perfect. Turning the The mechanical advantage of this type of wheel and axle can be very large. The large blades of an airplane engine to turn the axle. propeller move much faster than the small axle in the middle. Wheels and axles used in this fashion often obtain force generated by fuel-powered engines. since the force will always travel a greater distance on the larger wheel than will the load at the smaller axle. This produces a If a wheel can rotate independently about the axle. such as those used in a mechanical clock. Wheel and axle combinations also can be used with belts or chains (as on a bicycle) to transmit the forces from one wheel to the other. the smaller gear turns faster than the larger gear. Force can also be applied at the axle to move a load at the wheel. However. and therefore doing work. Rolling is easier than pushing or dragging an object. When one gear turns. the other gear turns in the opposite direction. A screwdriver is a type of wheel and axle. force applied at the wheel moved a heavy load at the axle. but all machines lose some of their MA to friction. Gears. III WHEEL AND AXLE APPLICATIONS Wheels and axles are used in one form or another in most complex machines. but one benefit is that the wheel will move much faster. closed loops of rope or rubber. Friction is a resistance created between objects when they move against each other. are often used in automobiles to transmit the rotary power from the engine to fans or other devices. larger handle of the screwdriver is much easier than trying to turn the smaller screw by itself. In the previous examples. more difficult.
Windmills and waterwheels (both forms of wheel and axle) were combined with gearing to make mills for bolts.Wheels and axles are also used to change the direction of applied force. Wheels used for transportation are believed to have been used on carts in Mesopotamia as early as 3500 BC. The use of wheels to reduce friction while moving objects was one of the most important inventions in human civilization. or move other large objects. Most mechanical devices make some use of the wheel and axle. grinding grain. A small force applied at the outer edge of a winch handle is changed into a large force at the axle. which can be used with a rope to pull heavy objects with less effort. The back and forth motion (called reciprocating motion) of a piston in an engine can be changed into rotary motion by connecting the piston to the edge of a wheel. One of the first uses of the wheel as a tool was the potter’s wheel. method is used to convert the rotary motion of an electric motor into the up-and-down motion IV HISTORY Wheels and axles have been used for centuries to magnify force. The pistons in an automobile engine are connected to a process is also used in reverse so rotary motion can be changed to reciprocating motion. This of a jigsaw blade or a sewing-machine needle. because it made transportation much easier. usually made of stone and used to make pottery. Winches can be used to haul heavy buckets of water up from wells. The drive wheels of an old-fashioned crankshaft. It was invented about the same time as the wheel used in transportation. A likely early use of the fixed wheel and axle to multiply force was the winch. a special type of axle that provides the rotary motion to the wheels of a car. The steam locomotive operate in this way. The wrench uses the principle of the wheel and axle to turn screws or tighten .
acts as a windmill when placed in a wind current.Propeller (mechanics) I INTRODUCTION Propeller (mechanics). mounted on a high-speed wheel geared to a generator. The propeller is essentially a screw that. virtually all aircraft. or the distance between adjacent threads. or thrust. The distance that a propeller or propeller blade will move forward when the pitch. if there is no slippage. except gliders. which is the geometric form of a screw thread. Propellers may operate in either air or water. Virtually all ships are equipped with propellers. or four blades. Marine propellers are frequently termed screws. Typical propellers consist of two. gas or liquid. is called the geometric screw. three. along the axis of rotation when rotated in a fluid. were also propelled in the same way. mechanical device that produces a force. and aircraft propellers are termed airscrews in Britain. each of which is a section of a helix. pulls itself through the air or water in the same way that a bolt pulls itself through a nut. inefficient in the other. and until the although a propeller designed for efficient operation in one of these media would be extremely development of jet propulsion. this corresponds to the pitch. of a simple propeller shaft is given one complete rotation. A propeller. when turned. The distance that the propeller actually moves through the air or water in one rotation .
Aircraft operate at lower efficiencies.is called the effective pitch. Airplane). of the driving engine. but the ratio of propulsive energy produced to energy consumed in rotating the propeller shaft. propellers are often operated at efficiencies as high as 86 percent. an efficient propeller slips little. perpendicular and parallel to the air velocity relative to a section of the blade (see Aerodynamics. which. creates lift and drag. the criterion of propeller efficiency is not slip. This approach was originally used by the British engineer and naval architect William Froude but. Another method of analysis of propeller action is based on the changes in blade. it is not as comprehensive as the blade-element theory. thrust in the direction of the flight. or the turning force. and the effective pitch is almost equal to the geometric pitch. but marine propellers II AIRCRAFT PROPELLERS An aircraft propeller blade is aerodynamically similar to a wing. in general. This simple concept of propeller action has been extensively refined by aerodynamicists momentum of the flow as it passes through the propeller disk. The other component in the plane of rotation represents the force that must be overcome by the torque. The forces created by the motion of the propeller are resolved into a component. however. . and the peripheral velocity due to the rotation of the in recent years. The complete motion of a blade element involves a combination of the forward velocity represented by the flight speed. when driven through the air. when all the blade elements and the number of blades are accounted for. and the difference between effective and geometric pitch is called slip. In general.
The blades are usually built of copper alloys to resist corrosion. Propellers of this type are usually operated at a constant rotational speed by means of either a hydraulic or electrical governing mechanism. On the other hand. This operation must be accomplished on the ground with the propeller removed from the aircraft. A more effective procedure is to use a variable-pitch propeller with the pitch or blade angle controllable in flight so as to maintain operating conditions very close to the optimum. the angle between the velocity vector and the blade will become so large as to cause the blade to stall.5-g (1-oz) weight were attached to the tip of the other blade. most ship propellers operate at efficiencies . it would not. while at the same time the angle of the resultant velocity vector with the plane of rotation is also increased. each blade is very broad (from leading to trailing edge) and very thin. In the ship propeller. a 57-g (2-oz) weight were attached to the middle of one blade of a two-bladed propeller. In order to adapt a given propeller to aircraft with different flight characteristics. adjustablepitch propellers are sometimes used. and because of the high frictional resistance of water. for example. their pitch may be varied. however. however. if the blade has a fixed pitch. The capability of setting the blade in a negative pitch condition may also be included in Modern propeller blades are usually made either of solid aluminum alloy or of hollow steel. that is. as the forward speed is decreased. but. Clearance is also less of a problem on ship propellers. and produces lift. like ordinary aircraft propeller blades. that it consists of several blades. The rotor of an autogiro or helicopter is essentially similar to an ordinary aircraft propeller in The blades are not twisted. The propellers are equipped with deicing equipment. Controllable-pitch propellers direction. the blade angle can be set parallel to the flight failure. it would not rotate if the propeller shaft were placed on knife edges with the blades in any position. Although efficiencies as high as 77 percent of about 56 percent. the propeller would be in static balance. and would vibrate if rotated at high speed. and a 28. The speed of sound in water is much higher than the speed in air. the resultant velocity at a blade element increases in magnitude as the forward speed is increased. be in dynamic balance. The propeller must be very precisely balanced. Thus.For a given rotational speed. both statically and dynamically. in which the blade can be rotated in the hub so as to alter the effective pitch. with a severe corresponding drop in the blade's efficiency. so as to prevent windmilling that could otherwise occur in the event of an engine the design so as to provide negative thrust and aerodynamic braking action in landing. although the have been achieved with experimental propellers. If. that is. the top speed never approaches the speed of sound. each shaped like an airfoil in cross section. are usually capable of being feathered. III SHIP PROPELLERS A ship propeller operates in much the same way as the airplane propeller. a condition will eventually be reached at which the blade will produce little or no thrust.
The principal problem of ship-propeller design and operation is cavitation. loss of efficiency. the formation of a vacuum along parts of the propeller excessive underwater noise.diameter and position of the propeller are limited by the loss in efficiency if the propeller blades come anywhere near the surface of the water. and pitting of the blades. a serious disadvantage on submarines. It also causes . blade. which leads to excessive slip.
employ a number of different shaping processes. superheated gases. including shearing. Presses (elongating). Conventional chip-making tools shape the workpiece by cutting away the unwanted portion in the form of chips. especially metals. electrical. Machine tools form the basis of modern industry and are used either directly or indirectly in the manufacture of machine and tool parts. chemical. Machine tools may be classified under three main categories: conventional chip-making machine tools. Unconventional machine tools employ light.Machine Tools I INTRODUCTION Machine Tools. and high-energy particle beams to shape the exotic materials and II HISTORY . The shaping is accomplished by removing material from a workpiece or by pressing it into the desired shape. presses. or drawing energy. and unconventional machine tools. stationary power-driven machines used to shape or form solid materials. and sonic alloys that have been developed to meet the needs of modern technology. pressing.
such standard machine tools as lathes. His work was of great value because precise methods of measurement were necessary for the subsequent mass production of articles having interchangeable parts. machine tools were enlarged and made even more accurate. in the past three decades engineers have developed highly versatile and accurate machine tools that have been adapted to computer control. and boring machines reached a fairly high degree of precision. and they were not adaptable to a variety of products or to variations in manufacturing standards. and their use became widespread in the industrializing nations. As a result. Later. all with interchangeable parts. who in 1798 obtained a contract with the U. drilling. These specialized machine tools made it possible to manufacture rigid machine tools were built to utilize effectively the greatly improved cutting materials that standardized products very economically. in 1830. became more specialized in their applications. however. These efforts relied on the use of so-called filing jigs. After 1920 they and saws and milling. making possible the economical manufacture of products of complex design. now widely used.S. shapers. The first true mass- production system was created by the American inventor Eli Whitney. About 1794 Henry Maudslay developed the first engine lathe. with which parts could be hand-filed to substantially identical dimensions. government to produce 10. Such tools are III CONVENTIONAL MACHINE TOOLS . During the early part of the 20th century.000 army muskets. measuring instruments accurate to a millionth of an inch. when the English inventor John Wilkinson constructed a horizontal boring machine for producing internal cylindrical surfaces. Joseph Whitworth speeded the wider use of Wilkinson's and Maudslay's machine tools by developing. During the 19th century. From about 1930 to 1950 more powerful and had become available. The earliest attempts to manufacture interchangeable parts occurred almost simultaneously in Europe and the United States. grinders. using relatively unskilled labor. planers.Modern machine tools date from about 1775. The machines lacked flexibility.
and then cuts on the next surface composed of straight-line elements. holds and rotates metal or wood while a cutting tool shapes the material. a lathe may also be used to produce flat surfaces. because it depends on reciprocating (alternating forward and return) strokes. saws. With special attachments. the oldest and most common type of turning machine. the shaper can produce almost any workpiece and cuts on one stroke. For this reason. the planer. returns to its starting position. and various metal-forming machines. the shaper is seldom found on a production line. The tool slides against the stationary stroke after a slight lateral displacement. The tool may be moved parallel to or across the direction of rotation to form parts that have a cylindrical or conical shape or to cut threads. and the milling machine. B Shaper The shaper is used primarily to produce flat surfaces. valuable for tool and die because few identical pieces are being made. It uses a single-point tool and is relatively slow. Auxiliary to these are drilling and boring machines. however. as a milling machine does. the shaper. A Lathe A lathe. rooms and for job shops where flexibility is essential and relative slowness is unimportant .Among the basic machine tools are the lathe. It is. or it may drill or bore holes in the workpiece. In general. grinders.
gear teeth. Unlike the shaper. and recess cuts can be made by using various cutters. the planer moves the workpiece past a fixed tool. the planer is intended to produce vertical. The table conventionally has three possible movements: longitudinal. slots. to alter a to cut threads for a screw). the workpiece is advanced laterally to expose a new section to the tool. horizontal. Like the shaper. also possible to mount several tools at one time in any or all tool holders of a planer to execute multiple simultaneous cuts. horizontal. or diagonal cuts. E Drilling and Boring Machines Hole-making machine tools are used to drill a hole where none previously existed. a workpiece is fed against a circular device with a series of cutting edges on its circumference. and machine tools. or by tapping . The workpiece is held on a table that controls the feed against the vertical. in some cases it can also rotate. or to lap or hone a hole to create an accurate size or a smooth finish. Milling machines are the most versatile of all Angles. It is D Milling Machine In a milling machine.C Planer The planer is the largest of the reciprocating machine tools. which moves a tool past a fixed workpiece. cutter. hole in accordance with some specification (by boring or reaming to enlarge it. After each reciprocating cycle. Flat or contoured surfaces may be machined with excellent finish and accuracy.
Drilling machines vary in size and function, ranging from portable drills to radial drilling machines, multispindle units, automatic production machines, and deep-hole-drilling machines. See Drill.
Boring is a process that enlarges holes previously drilled, usually with a rotating single-point borers and vertical and horizontal boring mills.
cutter held on a boring bar and fed against a stationary workpiece. Boring machines include jig
Grinding is the removal of metal by a rotating abrasive wheel; the action is similar to that of a each grain acting as a miniature cutting tool. The process produces extremely smooth and accurate finishes. Because only a small amount of material is removed at each pass of the
milling cutter. The wheel is composed of many small grains of abrasive, bonded together, with
wheel, grinding machines require fine wheel regulation. The pressure of the wheel against the workpiece can be made very slight, so that grinding can be carried out on fragile materials that cannot be machined by other conventional devices. See Grinding and Polishing.
Commonly used power-driven saws are classified into three general types, according to the
kind of motion used in the cutting action: reciprocating, circular, and band-sawing machines.
They generally consist of a bed or frame, a vise for clamping the workpiece, a feed mechanism, and the saw blade.
Cutting Tools and Fluids
Because cutting processes involve high local stresses, frictions, and considerable heat
generation, cutting-tool material must combine strength, toughness, hardness, and wear
resistance at elevated temperatures. These requirements are met in varying degrees by such cutting-tool materials as carbon steels (steel containing 1 to 1.2 percent carbon), high-speed steels (iron alloys containing tungsten, chromium, vanadium, and carbon), tungsten carbide, and diamonds and by such recently developed materials as ceramic, carbide ceramic, and aluminum oxide.
In many cutting operations fluids are used to cool and lubricate. Cooling increases tool life and helps to stabilize the size of the finished part. Lubrication reduces friction, thus decreasing the heat generated and the power required for a given cut. Cutting fluids include water-based solutions, chemically inactive oils, and synthetic fluids.
Presses shape workpieces without cutting away material, that is, without making chips. A press consists of a frame supporting a stationary bed, a ram, a power source, and a mechanism that moves the ram in line with or at right angles to the bed. Presses are equipped with dies (see Die) and punches designed for such operations as forming, punching, and for only one stroke of the ram. shearing. Presses are capable of rapid production because the operation time is that needed
UNCONVENTIONAL MACHINE TOOLS
Unconventional machine tools include plasma-arc, laser-beam, electrodischarge,
electrochemical, ultrasonic, and electron-beam machines. These machine tools were
developed primarily to shape the ultrahard alloys used in heavy industry and in aerospace microprocessors.
applications and to shape and etch the ultrathin materials used in such electronic devices as
Plasma-arc machining (PAM) employs a high-velocity jet of high-temperature gas (see
Plasma) to melt and displace material in its path. The materials cut by PAM are generally those that are difficult to cut by any other means, such as stainless steels and aluminum alloys.
Laser-beam machining (LBM) is accomplished by precisely manipulating a beam of coherent light (see Laser) to vaporize unwanted material. LBM is particularly suited to making accurately placed holes. The LBM process can make holes in refractory metals and ceramics and in very thin materials without warping the workpiece. Extremely fine wires can also be welded using LBM equipment.
Electrodischarge machining (EDM), also known as spark erosion, employs electrical energy to remove metal from the workpiece without touching it. A pulsating high- frequency electric and vaporize small areas of the workpiece. Because no cutting forces are involved, light, delicate operations can be performed on thin workpieces. EDM can produce shapes unobtainable by any conventional machining process. current is applied between the tool point and the workpiece, causing sparks to jump the gap
Electrochemical machining (ECM) also uses electrical energy to remove material. An
electrolytic cell is created in an electrolyte medium, with the tool as the cathode and the
workpiece as the anode. A high-amperage, low-voltage current is used to dissolve the metal
and to remove it from the workpiece, which must be electrically conductive. A wide variety of and milling.
operations can be performed by ECM; these operations include etching, marking, hole making,
Ultrasonic machining (USM) employs high-frequency, low-amplitude vibrations to create holes and other cavities. A relatively soft tool is shaped as desired and vibrated against the workpiece while a mixture of fine abrasive and water flows between them. The friction of the abrasive particles gradually cuts the workpiece. Materials such as hardened steel, carbides, rubies, quartz, diamonds, and glass can easily be machined by USM.
In electron-beam machining (EBM), electrons are accelerated to a velocity nearly three-fourths that of light. The process is performed in a vacuum chamber to reduce the scattering of electrons by gas molecules in the atmosphere. The stream of electrons is directed against a precisely limited area of the workpiece; on impact, the kinetic energy of the electrons is converted into thermal energy that melts and vaporizes the material to be removed, forming holes or cuts. EBM equipment is commonly used by the electronics industry to aid in the etching of circuits in microprocessors. See Microprocessor.
Microprocessor, electronic circuit that functions as the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer, providing computational control. Microprocessors are also used in other advanced electronic systems, such as computer printers, automobiles, and jet airliners.
Hand-Held Computer The hand-held computer attests to the remarkable miniaturization of computing hardware. The early computers of the 1940s were so large that they filled entire rooms. Techonological innovations, such as the integrated circuit in 1959 and the microprocessor in 1971, shrank computers’ central processing units to the size of tiny silicon chips.Photo Researchers, Inc. The microprocessor is one type of ultra-large-scale integrated circuit. Integrated circuits, also known as microchips or chips, are complex electronic circuits consisting of extremely tiny components formed on a single, thin, flat piece of material known as a semiconductor. Modern microprocessors incorporate transistors (which act as electronic amplifiers, oscillators, or, most commonly, switches), in addition to other components such as resistors, diodes, capacitors, and wires, all packed into an area about the size of a postage stamp.
Microprocessor Microprocessors, also called silicon chips, are typically embedded in a protective casing. The wires radiating from the silicon chip above connect to short metal legs that are soldered into integrated circuit boards.The Image Bank/Jean-Pierre Horlin A microprocessor consists of several different sections: The arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) performs calculations on numbers and makes logical decisions; the registers are special memory locations for storing temporary information much as a scratch pad does; the control unit deciphers programs; buses carry digital information throughout the chip and computer; and local memory supports on-chip computation. More complex microprocessors often contain other sections—such as sections of specialized memory, called cache memory, to speed up access to external data-storage devices. Modern microprocessors operate with bus widths of 64 bits (binary digits, or units of information represented as 1s and 0s), meaning that 64 bits of data can be transferred at the same time. A crystal oscillator in the computer provides a clock signal to coordinate all activities of the microprocessor. The clock speed of the most advanced microprocessors allows billions of computer instructions to be executed every second. II COMPUTER MEMORY Because the microprocessor alone cannot accommodate the large amount of memory required to store program instructions and data, such as the text in a word-processing program, transistors can be used as memory elements in combination with the microprocessor. Separate integrated circuits, called random-access memory (RAM) chips, which contain large numbers of transistors, are used in conjunction with the microprocessor to provide the needed memory. There are different kinds of randomaccess memory. Static RAM (SRAM) holds information as long as power is turned on
and is usually used as cache memory because it operates very quickly. Another type of memory, dynamic RAM (DRAM), is slower than SRAM and must be periodically refreshed with electricity or the information it holds is lost. DRAM is more economical than SRAM and serves as the main memory element in most computers. III MICROCONTROLLER A microprocessor is not a complete computer. It does not contain large amounts of memory or have the ability to communicate with input devices—such as keyboards, joysticks, and mice—or with output devices, such as monitors and printers. A different kind of integrated circuit, a microcontroller, is a complete computer on a chip, containing all of the elements of the basic microprocessor along with other specialized functions. Microcontrollers are used in video games, videocassette recorders (VCRs), automobiles, and other machines. IV SEMICONDUCTORS sidebar SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES Manufacturing an Integrated Circuit Beginning in the late 20th century, integrated circuits based on silicon chips shrank rapidly in price and size while expanding in capacity. These advances in chip technology contributed to a boom in the computer industry. The creation of a single silicon chip requires hundreds of manufacturing steps. In this Scientific American article, Intel Corporation president and chief operating officer Craig R. Barrett describes the chip manufacturing process from design through completion. open sidebar All integrated circuits are fabricated from semiconductors, substances whose ability to conduct electricity ranks between that of a conductor and that of a nonconductor, or insulator. Silicon is the most common semiconductor material. Because the electrical conductivity of a semiconductor can change according to the voltage applied to it, transistors made from semiconductors act like tiny switches that turn electrical current on and off in just a few nanoseconds (billionths of a second). This capability enables a computer to perform many billions of simple instructions each second and to complete complex tasks quickly. The basic building block of most semiconductor devices is the diode, a junction, or union, of negative-type (n-type) and positive-type (p-type) materials. The terms n-type and p-type refer to semiconducting materials that have been doped—that is, have had their electrical properties altered by the controlled addition of very small quantities of impurities such as boron or phosphorus. In a diode, current flows in only one direction: across the junction from the p- to n-type material, and then only when the p-type material is at a higher voltage than the n-type. The voltage applied to the diode to create this condition is called the forward bias. The opposite voltage, for which current will not flow, is called the reverse bias. An integrated circuit contains millions of p-n junctions,
each serving a specific purpose within the millions of electronic circuit elements. Proper placement and biasing of p- and n-type regions restrict the electrical current to the correct paths and ensure the proper operation of the entire chip. V TRANSISTORS The transistor used most commonly in the microelectronics industry is called a metaloxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). It contains two n-type regions, called the source and the drain, with a p-type region in between them, called the channel. Over the channel is a thin layer of nonconductive silicon dioxide topped by another layer, called the gate. For electrons to flow from the source to the drain, a voltage (forward bias) must be applied to the gate. This causes the gate to act like a control switch, turning the MOSFET on and off and creating a logic gate that transmits digital 1s and 0s throughout the microprocessor. VI CONSTRUCTION OF MICROPROCESSORS Microprocessors are fabricated using techniques similar to those used for other integrated circuits, such as memory chips. Microprocessors generally have a more complex structure than do other chips, and their manufacture requires extremely precise techniques.
Economical manufacturing of microprocessors requires mass production. Several hundred dies, or circuit patterns, are created on the surface of a silicon wafer simultaneously. Microprocessors are constructed by a process of deposition and removal of conducting, insulating, and semiconducting materials one thin layer at a time until, after hundreds of separate steps, a complex sandwich is constructed that contains all the interconnected circuitry of the microprocessor. Only the outer surface of the silicon
This is accomplished by ionizing the boron or phosphorus atoms (stripping off one or two electrons) and propelling them at the wafer with an ion implanter at very high energies. The oxygen combines with the silicon to form a thin layer of oxide about 75 angstroms deep (an angstrom is one ten-billionth of a meter). called the photoresist or resist. indicating that there is no more than one speck of dust per cubic foot of air.01 mm/0. The rooms used for microprocessor creation are called clean rooms because the air in them is extremely well filtered and virtually free of dust. ion implantation. At present.5 microns. After photolithography. ion implantation. The ions become embedded in the surface of the wafer. a silicon slice in the shape of a round wafer that is polished to a mirror-like smoothness. The processing steps include substrate creation. whereby the material condenses from a gas at low or atmospheric pressure. the resist is removed from the wafer either by chemicals. called a plasma. (For comparison. which is analogous to transforming the wafer into a piece of photographic film and projecting a picture of the circuit on it. a typical home is class one million or so. the wafer is etched—that is. Microprocessor features are so small and precise that a single speck of dust can destroy an entire die. an electrically nonconducting layer. or by exposure to a corrosive gas. The first step in producing a microprocessor is the creation of an ultrapure silicon substrate. which is “grown” by exposing the silicon wafer to oxygen in a furnace at about 1000°C (about 1800°F). A coating on the surface of the wafer. in a special vacuum chamber. making it easy to dissolve in a developing solution. changes when exposed to light. whereby the material is melted and then evaporated coating the wafer.0004 in) thick. Usually this is done in a process known as photolithography. in a process known as wet etching. In the final step of the process. is placed between each conductive layer on the wafer. oxidation. Nearly every layer that is deposited on the wafer must be patterned accurately into the shape of the transistors and other electronic elements. short-wavelength ultraviolet light must be used to resolve the tiny details of the patterns. The thin layers used to build up a microprocessor are referred to as films.) . Because the shortest wavelength of visible light is about 0. or by means of chemical-vapor deposition. In the oxidation step. The most important type of dielectric is silicon dioxide. called a dielectric. the film must be of high purity and its thickness must be controlled within a small fraction of a micron. These patterns are as small as 0.13 microns in size. The purest of today's clean rooms are referred to as class 1. the largest wafers used in industry are 300 mm (12 in) in diameter. the films are deposited using sputterers in which thin films are grown in a plasma. impurities such as boron and phosphorus are introduced into the silicon to alter its conductivity. In each case. also called doping. by means of evaporation. In the next step of the process. and film deposition. or about one-tenth the thickness of a human hair—is used for the electronic circuit. lithography. etching.wafer—a layer about 10 microns (about 0.
With a GUI. The rate of change followed an early prediction made by American semiconductor pioneer Gordon Moore. words. and monitor. transferred 64 bits of data at once.© Microsoft Corporation. it organizes files on a variety of storage media.000 instructions per second. developed jointly by Apple. II HOW AN OS WORKS . the PowerPC620. The first truly general-purpose microprocessor. it contained 2. mouse. the basic software that controls a computer. which contained 4. was the 8-bit Intel 8080 (see Microprocessor. By 1989. developed in 1974. 8080). keyboard. Davidson The first microprocessor was the Intel 4004.5 million transistors.500 transistors and could execute 200. hard drive./Michael W. produced in 1971.300 transistors on a 4-bit microprocessor that could perform only 60. and revolutionary for its time. The first 8-bit microprocessor was the Intel 8008. and performed billions of instructions per second. Originally developed for a calculator. and Motorola. and it manages hardware errors and the loss of data. containing 9. An Operating System Interface A screen shot from the Windows XP operating system displays icons and other images typical of the graphical user interface (GUI) that makes computers easy to use.3 million transistors.300 transistors. a prediction that has come to be known as Moore’s Law. containing 5. by Sun Microsystems. printers. further reading These sources provide additional information on Microprocessor.VII HISTORY OF THE MICROPROCESSOR Pentium Microprocessor The Pentium microprocessor (shown at 2.000 operations per second. The Intel 8008 contained 3.4 million transistors. containing 7 million transistors. the UltraSparc-II. in computer science.Photo Researchers. developed in 1972 to run computer terminals.2 million transistors and capable of executing 20 million instructions per second had been introduced. The most common semiconductor materials used in making computer chips are the elements silicon and germanium. such as computer memory. and tape. 32-bit microprocessors containing 1. It contains more than three million transistors. The operating system has three major functions: It coordinates and manipulates computer hardware. IBM. In the mid-1990s chips included the Intel Pentium Pro. By the end of the decade microprocessors contained many millions of transistors. compact disc. such as floppy disk. In the 1990s the number of transistors on microprocessors continued to double nearly every 18 months. or icons with a pointing device known as a mouse. although nearly all computer chips are made from silicon. and the Digital Equipment Corporation's Alpha 21164A. Inc. In 1965 Moore predicted that the number of transistors on a computer chip would double every year. disks. digital video disc.5X magnification) is manufactured by the Intel Corporation. Operating System (OS). a computer user can easily execute commands by clicking on pictures. containing 5. All Rights Reserved.
To implement this technique. Xenix (distributed by Microsoft Corporation). it is suspended and another process is run. The more primitive singletasking operating systems can run only one process at a time. however. The OS performs the “bookkeeping” that preserves a suspended process. is a popular operating system among academic computer users. One important process is interpreting commands. such as running a spreadsheet program or accessing information from the computer's memory. when the computer is printing a document. developed in 1969 at AT&T Bell Laboratories. enabling the user to communicate with the computer. Macintosh OS. The most common mechanism used to create this illusion is time-slice multitasking. This exchanging of processes is called context switching. Other command interpreters use graphics and let the user communicate by pointing and clicking on an icon. Some command interpreters are text oriented. and Linux (available for download free of charge and distributed commercially by companies such as Red Hat. The processes appear to run simultaneously because the user's sense of time is much slower than the processing speed of the computer. an on-screen picture that represents a specific command. Inc. Its file system provides a simple means of organizing . the computational and control unit of the computer). UNIX and its clones support multitasking and multiple users. Variations of UNIX include SunOS (distributed by SUN Microsystems. Inc. Its popularity is due in large part to the growth of the interconnected computer network known as the Internet. it cannot start another process or respond to new commands until the printing is completed. space on the hard drive is used to mimic the extra memory needed. and Windows. For instance. called a scheduler. If the process is not completed within the allotted time. Software for the Internet was initially designed for computers that ran UNIX. Operating systems can use a technique known as virtual memory to run processes that require more main memory than is actually available. whereby each process is run individually for a fixed period of time. there is only one central processing unit (CPU.Operating systems control different computer processes. that determines which process will be run next. requiring commands to be typed in or to be selected via function keys on a keyboard. It also has a mechanism. so performance of the computer slows. Accessing the hard drive is more time-consuming than accessing main memory. All modern operating systems are multitasking and can run several processes simultaneously. III CURRENT OPERATING SYSTEMS Operating systems commonly found on personal computers include UNIX. In most computers. The scheduler runs short processes quickly to minimize perceptible delay. UNIX.). Beginners generally find graphically oriented interpreters easier to use. Operating systems are either single-tasking or multitasking. but many experienced computer users prefer text-oriented command interpreters. however. so a multitasking OS creates the illusion of several processes running simultaneously on the CPU.).
All basic OS functions—such as maintaining file systems. it is not the operating system of choice for the general public. windowing systems with graphical interfaces. and mastering the system is difficult. IV FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES Operating systems continue to evolve. However. The commands in UNIX are not readily apparent. In a distributed OS. collection of computers that share resources such as hard drives. but independent. A recently developed type of OS called a distributed operating system is designed for a connected. although UNIX is popular for professionals. such as Windows and the Macintosh OS. which make computer technology more accessible. Currently these types of input are imprecise because people pronounce and write words very differently. Instead.disk files and lets users control access to their files. however. In addition. However. more memory. and higher-quality monitors—than do command-oriented operating systems. graphical systems generally have the disadvantage of requiring more hardware—such as faster CPUs. and recovering data in the event of a partial failure— become more complex in distributed systems. are widely used in personal computers (PCs). . making it difficult for a computer to recognize the same input from different users. software has been developed that can be taught to recognize an individual's handwriting. Research is also being conducted that would replace the keyboard with a means of using voice or handwriting for input. advances in this field have led to systems that can recognize a small number of words spoken by a variety of people. ensuring reasonable behavior. Consequently. a process can run on any computer in the network (presumably a computer that is idle) to increase that process's performance.
often with an admixture of other elements. A malleable iron.Iron and Steel Manufacture I INTRODUCTION Iron and Steel Manufacture. malleable cast iron.25 percent of carbon. II HISTORY . particularly those containing a small percentage of carbon. known as ferroalloys. Cast iron. such as manganese. Open-hearth iron and wrought iron contain only a few hundredths of 1 percent of carbon. special form of malleable iron. The differences between the various types of iron and steel are sometimes confusing because of the nomenclature used. Steels of various types contain from 0. containing virtually no carbon. and pig iron contain amounts of carbon varying from 2 to 4 percent. technology related to the production of iron and its alloys. silicon. is known as white-heart Some alloys that are commercially called irons contain more carbon than commercial steels. or chromium. Steel in general is an alloy of iron and carbon. A special group of iron alloys. is used in the manufacture of iron and steel alloys. they contain from 20 to 80 percent of an alloying element.04 percent to 2.
The giant steel mills remain essential for the production of steel from iron III PIG-IRON PRODUCTION . Occasionally this technique of ironmaking produced. indeed.1 percent of other impurities. In these larger furnaces. the iron ore in the upper part of the furnace was first it by the blast. ore. several so-called minimills have been producing steel from scrap metal in electric furnaces. a true steel rather than wrought iron. an alloy that melts at a lower stubby. and. They were made by heating a incandescent and beaten with heavy sledges to drive out the slag and to weld and consolidate the iron. Ironworkers learned to make process the iron absorbed enough carbon to become a true steel. This sponge of iron was removed from the furnace while still AD. usable metal is not known.S. Under this treatment the ore was reduced to the sponge of metallic iron filled with a slag composed of metallic impurities and charcoal ash. all the iron alloys made until about the 14th century mass of iron ore and charcoal in a forge or furnace having a forced draft. Since the 1960s. steel production. the comparatively The alloys produced by early iron workers. Pig iron (so called because it was usually cast in Modern steelmaking employs blast furnaces that are merely refinements of the furnaces used by the British inventor Sir Henry Bessemer who developed the Bessemer furnace. would be classified today as wrought iron. The iron produced under these conditions usually contained about 3 percent of slag particles and 0. and increased draft was used to force the combustion gases through the “charge. BC. by accident. in 1855. reduced to metallic iron and then took on more carbon as a result of the gases forced through temperature than steel or wrought iron. By this After the 14th century the furnaces used in smelting were increased in size.The exact date at which people discovered the technique of smelting iron ore to produce date from about 3000 about 1000 BC. Such mills are an important component of total U.” the mixture of raw materials. The earliest iron implements discovered by archaeologists in Egypt advanced technique of hardening iron weapons by heat treatment was known to the Greeks and iron ornaments were used even earlier. The process of refining molten iron with blasts of air was accomplished converter. The product of these furnaces was pig iron. or by the old ironworkers. round ingots known as pigs) was then further refined to make steel. steel by heating wrought iron and charcoal in clay boxes for a period of several days.
The materials are skip hoist. carbon. is nonmetallic substance such as firebrick.5 A typical blast furnace consists of a cylindrical steel shell lined with a refractory. The limestone in the furnace charge is used as an additional source of carbon monoxide and as a “flux” to combine with the infusible silica present in the ore to form fusible calcium is the basic chemical reaction in the blast furnace. Near the bottom of the bosh is a hole through which the molten another hole for draining the slag. and limestone. reducing them to metallic iron. 0. the coke gives off carbon monoxide.25 to 2. manganese. iron silicate would be formed. Ordinary pig iron as produced by blast furnaces contains iron. coke.04 to 2 percent. This 2Fe. and a pair of round hoppers closed with bellshaped valves through which the charge is introduced into the furnace. The lower portion of the furnace. and a trace of sulfur.The basic materials used for the manufacture of pig iron are iron ore. which is any is widest at a point about one-quarter of the distance from the bottom. as it burns. called the bosh. 0. and above this hole. it has the equation: Fe2O3 + 3CO = 3CO2 + silicate. The coke is burned as a fuel to heat the furnace.5 to 3 percent. The shell is tapered at the top and at the bottom and which the air blast is forced. 0. 3 or 4 percent. which combines with the iron oxides in the ore. The top of the furnace. Calcium silicate plus other impurities form a slag that floats on top of the molten metal at about 92 percent. iron. silicon. phosphorus. percent. brought up to the hoppers in small dump cars or skips that are hauled up an inclined external . which is about 27 m (about 90 ft) in height. but below the tuyeres. with a resulting loss of metallic the bottom of the furnace. contains vents for the escaping gases. Without the limestone. is equipped with several tubular openings or tuyeres through pig iron flows when the furnace is tapped.
plants the molten pig iron is used to charge the steel furnaces. The output of many blast furnaces can be increased 25 percent by pressurizing. to minimize any irregularities in the composition of the individual melts. The bricks in the stoves are heated for several hours by burning blast-furnace gas. have also shown that the output of blast furnaces can be increased by enriching the air blast The process of tapping consists of knocking out a clay plug from the iron hole near the bottom of the bosh and allowing the molten metal to flow into a clay-lined runner and then into a as much as 100 tons of metal.000° and 1. The materials employed. Slag is drawn off from the top of the melt about once every 2 hr. which may be either a ladle or a rail car capable of holding Modern-day blast furnaces are operated in conjunction with basic oxygen furnaces and sometimes the older open-hearth furnaces as part of a single steel-producing plant. the pressurizing of furnaces. other methods of iron refining are possible and have been practiced to a limited extent. was introduced after World War II. cylinders containing networks of firebrick. off or tapped about five times a day. the pressure within the furnace may be built up to 1. The raw material to be fed into the furnace is divided into a number of small charges that are introduced into the furnace at 10. Then the flame is turned off and the air for the blast is blown through the stove.to 15-min intervals.740° F). The container of molten pig iron is then transported to the steelmaking shop. Experimental installations with oxygen.Blast furnaces operate continuously.7 atm or more. One such method is the so-called direct method of making iron and steel from ore.600° F). Carbon monoxide is given off from the heated coke just as in the blast furnace and reduces the oxides . The pressurizing technique makes possible better combustion of the coke and higher output of pig iron. large. By “throttling” the flow of gas from the furnace vents. In this process iron ore and coke are mixed in a revolving kiln and heated to a temperature of about 950° C (about 1. In such blast furnaces may be mixed in a large ladle before it is converted to steel. The heating is performed in stoves. Any slag that may flow from the furnace with the metal is skimmed off before it reaches the container. the waste gases from the top of the furnace. and the iron itself is drawn The air used to supply the blast in a blast furnace is preheated to temperatures between approximately 540° and 870° C (approximately 1. brick-lined metal container. without making pig iron. The molten metal from several IV OTHER METHODS OF IRON REFINING Although almost all the iron and steel manufactured in the world is made from pig iron produced by the blast-furnace process. weight of air used in the operation of a blast furnace exceeds the total weight of the other raw An important development in blast furnace technology.
Through this method open-hearth furnaces can reach temperatures as high as 1.5 m (about 8 ft). the exhaust gases from the furnace are drawn through one of a series of chambers containing a mass of brickwork and give up most of their heat to the bricks. One difficulty in the manufacture of developed. which prevents the use of ordinary fuels and furnaces.650° C (approximately 3. In regenerative preheating. Virtually pure iron is also produced by means of electrolysis (see Electrochemistry). The entire . however. To overcome this difficulty the open-hearth furnace was excess carbon and other impurities present in the iron. In front of the hearth a series of doors opens out onto a working floor in front of the hearth. The secondary reactions that occur in a blast furnace.370° C (about 2. do not occur.500° F). furnace is reversed and the fuel and air pass through the heated chambers and are warmed by The furnace itself consists typically of a flat. by passing an electric current through a solution of ferrous chloride. Neither the direct nor the electrolytic processes has yet achieved any great commercial significance. Then the flow through the the bricks. this furnace can be operated at a high temperature by regenerative preheating of the fuel gas and air used for combustion in the furnace.000° F). which is roofed over at a height of about 2. V OPEN-HEARTH PROCESS Essentially the production of steel from pig iron by any process consists of burning out the steel is its high melting point. and the kiln produces so-called sponge iron of much higher purity than pig iron.of the ore to metallic iron. about 1. rectangular brick hearth about 6 m by 10 m (about 20 ft by 33 ft).
weigh approximately 2.000 lb) of molten pig iron. and 230 kg (500 lb) of fluorspar.000° F) for many hours until the molten metal has the desired carbon content. When by its appearance. its oxygen In the basic oxygen process. the raw material for all forms of fabricated steel.350 kg (25. lb) of iron ore. Air.000 lb) of limestone. 11. manganese.800 kg (26. the reversed by the operator to provide heat regeneration. however. made use of a tall. but a typical charge might consist of 56. steel is also refined in a pear-shaped furnace that tilts sideways pure oxygen. the Bessemer process. charging and pouring. pear-shaped furnace.000 lb) of cold pig iron. These reactions take place while the metal in the furnace is at melting heat. and iron ore that provides additional oxygen. From the ladle the steel is poured into cast-iron molds that form ingots usually about 1. 900 kg (2. The furnace is charged with a mixture of pig iron (either molten or cold). has been replaced by a high-pressure stream of nearly lowered into it.650° C (2.750 kg (125. and the furnace is held between 1. These ingots. Great quantities of air were blown through the molten metal.25 metric tons in this size. After the furnace has been charged. the furnace is tapped through a hole at the rear. A furnace of this size produces about 100 metric tons of steel every 11 hr. cooling it. that could be tilted sideways for united chemically with the impurities and carried them off. which combine with the limestone to form slag. and sulfur. The proportions of the charge vary within wide limits. Recently.540° and 1. Experienced open-hearth operators can often judge the carbon content of the metal the furnace. The oxygen combines with .000 lb) of scrap steel. 45.000 furnace is lighted and the flames play back and forth over the hearth as their direction is Chemically the action of the open-hearth furnace consists of lowering the carbon content of the charge by oxidization and of removing such impurities as silicon. and the space under the hearth is taken up by the heat-regenerating chambers of the furnace. and subjecting it to physical examination or chemical analysis. but the melt is usually tested by withdrawing a small amount of metal from the carbon content of the melt reaches the desired level.400 kg (100. an oxygen lance is for charging and pouring.5 m (about 5 ft) long and 48 cm (19 in) square.hearth and working floor are one story above ground level. scrap steel. Thousands of cubic meters of oxygen are blown into the furnace at supersonic speed. phosphorus.800° and 3. The water-cooled tip of the lance is usually about 2 m (about 6 ft) above the charge although this distance can be varied according to requirements. 11. Limestone is added for flux and fluorspar to make the slag more fluid. first having to go through the process of casting ingots. After the furnace has been charged and turned upright. called a Bessemer converter. methods have been put into practice for the continuous processing of steel without VI BASIC OXYGEN PROCESS The oldest process for making steel in large quantities. The molten steel then flows through a short trough to a large ladle set below the furnace at ground level.
electric furnaces are particularly valuable for producing stainless steels and other highly alloyed steels that must be made to exacting specifications. together with that coming from the intensely hot arc itself. The quantity of oxygen entering the furnace can always be closely controlled. approximately 275 metric tons of steel can be made in an hour. After the furnace is charged. quickly melts the metal. . electrodes are lowered close to the surface of the metal. See Electric Furnace. This heat. flows through the resistance to the flow of current through the charge. Because refining conditions in such a furnace can be regulated more strictly than in open-hearth or basic oxygen furnaces. because its alloy content will affect the composition of the order to help remove carbon and other impurities that are present. electricity instead of fire supplies the heat for the melting and refining of steel. later. Heat is generated by the overcoming of current enters through one of the electrodes. arcs to the metallic charge. During the early stages of this refining process. VIII FINISHING PROCESSES Steel is marketed in a wide variety of sizes and shapes. The working of steel also improves the quality of the steel by refining its crystalline structure and making the metal tougher. The refining process VII ELECTRIC-FURNACE STEEL In some furnaces. Other materials. high-purity oxygen is injected through a lance. tees. heat is generated in a coil.carbon and other unwanted elements and starts a high-temperature churning reaction that takes 50 min or less. Refining takes place in a tightly closed chamber. such as rods. such as small quantities of iron ore and dry lime. Most often the charge consists almost entirely of scrap. pipes. thus keeping down undesirable oxidizing reactions. The metal. are added in elements go either into the charge or. rapidly burns out impurities from the pig iron and converts it into steel. In another type of electric furnace. raising the temperature of the furnace and decreasing the time needed to produce the finished steel. These shapes are produced at steel mills by rolling and otherwise forming heated ingots to the required shape. channels. The additional alloying refined metal. into the refined steel as it is poured into the ladle. where temperatures and other conditions are kept under rigid control by automatic devices. the scrap must first be analyzed and sorted. railroad rails. and I-beams. and then arcs back to the next electrode. Before it is ready to be used.
The distance between the rollers diminishes for each successive pair as the steel is elongated and reduced in thickness. The rollers of mills used to produce railroad rails and such structural shapes as I-beams. H-beams. From the blooming mill. In hot rolling the cast ingot is first of pairs of metal rollers that squeeze it to the desired size and shape. and the square billets of steel that the ingot produces are known as blooms. the steel is passed on to roughing mills and finally to finishing mills that reduce it to the correct cross section. heated to bright-red heat in a furnace called a soaking pit and is then passed between a series The first pair of rollers through which the ingot passes is commonly called the blooming mill. and angles are grooved to give the required shape.The basic process of working steel is known as hot rolling. .
The pressure on the rollers is great enough to weld the edges together. or mandrel. before it cools and becomes unworkable.127 cm (0. and devices for coiling the sheet automatically when it reaches the end of the mill. or bending the conveyor and carried away to be annealed and cut into individual sheets.05 in) with a number of accessory devices including edging rollers. German engineers have eliminated any need for blooming and roughing mills. The completed coils of sheet are dropped on a the sheet by knocking it off mechanically. or skelp. The edging rollers are sets of vertical rolls set opposite each other at either side of the sheet to ensure that the width of the sheet is maintained. causing the tin to dissolve slowly and to be deposited on the steel. IX PIPE Cheaper grades of pipe are shaped by bending a flat strip. For the smaller sizes of pipe.5 in) thick is and increase its length from 4 m (13 ft) to 370 m (1. descaling devices. ingots must still be passed through a blooming mill in order to produce slabs By devising a continuous casting system that produces an endless steel slab less than 5 cm (2 in) thick. Meanwhile.Modern manufacturing requires a large amount of thin sheet steel. In 1989. Such mills process thin sheet steel rapidly.6 sq m (more than 200 sq ft) of steel. pair of inclined rollers that have a pointed metal bar. Sheet steel is kilogram of tin will coat more than 18. In electrolytic processing. a current of electricity is passing through a piece of pure tin into the same solution. In some mills steel sheets that have been hot-rolled and then cold-rolled are coated by passing them through a bath of slowly unrolled from its coil and passed through a chemical solution. For the product . The “tin” can is actually more than 99 percent steel.4 m (8 ft). Using conventional thin enough to enter a continuous mill. loosening it by means of an air blast. set between them in such a X TIN PLATE By far the most important coated product of the steel mill is tin plate for the manufacture of containers. Descaling apparatus removes the scale that forms on the surface of sheet sharply at some point in its travel.210 ft). Continuous mills roll steel strips and sheets in widths of up to 2. A more efficient way to produce thin sheet steel is to feed thinner slabs through the rollers. Continuous mills are equipped fed through a series of rollers which reduce it progressively in thickness to 0. The most common method of coating is by the electrolytic process. a steel mill in Indiana became the first outside Europe to adopt this new system. the edges of the skelp are usually overlapped and passed between a pair of rollers curved to correspond with the outside diameter of the pipe. of hot steel into cylindrical form and welding the edges to complete the pipe. less than half a molten tin. Seamless pipe or tubing is made from solid rods by passing them between a way that it pierces the rods and forms the inside diameter of the pipe at the same time that the rollers are forming the outside diameter. A slab of hot steel over 11 cm (about 4. casting methods.
called furnace with tongs and are placed directly in a squeezer. spongelike mass is separated into lumps.known as thin tin. or furnace operator. strikes the arched roof. Cans made of thin tin are about as strong as ordinary tin cans. with a resultant saving in weight and cost. yet they contain less steel. production of wrought iron in tonnage quantities was impossible. Because this process. known as puddling. . of about 80 to 90 kg (about 180 to 200 lb) each. a machine in which the greater part of the intermingled siliceous slag is expelled from the ball and the grains of pure iron are thoroughly welded together. As the gas is evolved the slag puffs up and the level of the charge rises. and has become moderately heated. “fettles” it by plastering charged with about 270 kg (about 600 lb) of pig iron and the door is closed. After about 30 working the oxide into the iron with a bent iron bar called a raddle. founding. The balls are withdrawn from the cohesion of the particles. arched roof and a depressed hearth on which the crude metal lies. other forms of steel making. because it can be effectively is typically of more uniform quality than wrought iron. The iron is then cut into flat pieces that are piled on one another. and finally the bath drops to its former level. After the furnace is lit the hearth and walls with a paste of iron oxide. a treatment that makes the steel plate extra tough as well as extra thin. As the more and more pasty. The furnace is then min the iron is melted and the puddler adds more iron oxide or mill scale to the charge. and the carbon starts to burn out as carbonoxide gases. usually hematite ore. Other processes of steel fabrication include forging. XI WROUGHT IRON The process of making the tough. The resulting pasty. sheet and strip are given a second cold rolling before being coated with tin. As the iron increases in carbon is burned away the melting temperature of the alloy increases and the charge becomes purity. however. The silicon and most of the manganese in the iron are oxidized and some sulfur and phosphorus are eliminated. replaced in nearly all applications by low-carbon steel. and drawing the steel through dies (see Die). and “reverberates” upon the contents of the hearth. The development of new processes using Bessemer converters and open-hearth furnaces allowed the production of larger quantities of wrought iron. The temperature of the furnace is then raised slightly. The flame in the combustion chamber surmounts the wall. Lightweight packaging containers are also being made of tin-plated steel foil that has been laminated to paper or cardboard. the puddler stirs the charge with the raddle to ensure uniform composition and proper balls. the puddler. separated by a wall from the combustion chamber in which bituminous coal is burned. required a great deal of Wrought iron is no longer produced commercially. which is less expensive to produce and The puddling furnace used in the older process has a low. malleable alloy known as wrought iron differs markedly from hand labor.
After the slag has been poured off the top of the ladle. most structural steel for buildings. They have been specially processed. silicon. When the molten iron. and copper than do the regular carbon steels. Carbon Steels More than 90 percent of all steels are carbon steels. also. containing certain percentages of vanadium.60 percent silicon. and carving knives are some of the many things that are made of alloy steels. and sand in an open-hearth furnace. to have much more strength than carbon steels of the same weight. the metal solidifies almost instantly. releasing the dissolved gas. The molten slag is maintained in a ladle at a temperature several hundred degrees below the temperature of the molten iron. The force exerted by the gas shatters the metal into minute particles that are heavier than the slag and that accumulate in the bottom of the ladle. and 0. and then rolled into a single piece. 0. which carries a large amount of gas in solution. mill scale. C High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels Called HSLA steels. For example. freight cars made of HSLA steels can carry larger loads because their walls are thinner than would be necessary with carbon steel of equal strength. They cost less than the regular alloy steels because they contain only small amounts of the expensive alloying elements. bedsprings. automobile bodies. it is less . roller skates. agglomerating into a spongy mass similar to the balls produced in a puddling furnace. and B Alloy Steels These steels have a specified composition. or other elements.heated to welding temperature.65 percent manganese. Machines. they are the newest of the five chief families of steels. ship hulls. Automobile gears and axles. because an HSLA freight car is lighter in weight than the ordinary car. which is usually prepared by melting iron ore. bobby pins are among the products made of carbon steels. molybdenum. They contain varying amounts of carbon and not more than 1. XII A CLASSIFICATIONS OF STEEL Steels are grouped into five main classifications. the ball of iron is removed and squeezed and rolled like the product of the puddling furnace. The modern technique of making wrought iron uses molten iron from a Bessemer converter and molten slag. is poured into the ladle containing the molten slag.60 percent copper. however. This rolling process is sometimes repeated to improve the quality of the product. as well as larger amounts of manganese.
Stainless steels are used for the pipes and tanks of petroleum refineries and chemical plants. The toughness and hardness of a steel that is not heat treated depend on the proportions of these three ingredients. and they are also used to patch or replace broken bones because the steels can withstand the action of body fluids. resistance to wear. kitchens and in plants where food is prepared. Some stainless steels are very hard. hardness. Because of their shining surfaces architects often use them for decorative purposes. the which has the property of dissolving all the free carbon present in the metal.8 percent of carbon. As the carbon content of a steel increases. but if cooling is sudden. some have unusual strength and will retain that strength for long periods at extremely high and low temperatures. Steel with still more carbon is a mixture of pearlite and cementite. If the steel is .of a load for the locomotive to pull. when the steel has 0. frameworks of HSLA steels. Cementite. Surgical instruments and equipment are made from these steels. temperatures depend primarily on the amount of carbon present and on how it is distributed in pearlite. Ferrite is iron containing small amounts of carbon and other elements in solution and is soft and ductile. and physical characteristics intermediate between its two constituents. handling equipment is often made of stainless E Tool Steels These steels are fabricated into many types of tools or into the cutting and shaping parts of power-driven machinery for various manufacturing operations. In steel because it does not taint the food and can be easily cleaned. the amount of ferrite present decreases and the amount of pearlite increases until. Numerous buildings are now being constructed with additional space is left for offices and apartments. and other alloying elements that keep them bright and rust resistant in spite of moisture or the action of corrosive acids and gases. Raising the temperature of steel changes ferrite and pearlite to an allotropic form of iron-carbon alloy known as austenite. Pearlite is an intimate mixture of ferrite and cementite having a specific composition and characteristic structure. and XIII STRUCTURE OF STEEL The physical properties of various types of steel and of any given steel alloy at varying the iron. and cementite. nickel. is extremely brittle and hard. and for space capsules. for jet planes. and other alloying elements that give them extra strength. Before heat treatment most steels are a mixture of three substances: ferrite. and D Stainless Steels Stainless steels contain chromium. it is entirely composed of pearlite. cooled slowly the austenite reverts to ferrite and pearlite. They contain tungsten. Girders can be made thinner without sacrificing their strength. molybdenum. a compound of iron containing about 7 percent carbon.
Metallurgists have discovered that the change from austenite to martensite occurs during the latter part of the cooling period and that this change is accompanied by a change in volume that may crack the metal if the cooling is too swift. size. and these are relieved by tempering. Many variations of the basic process are practiced. and distribution of the cementite particles in the ferrite. or annealing. and is then cooled slowly in air. which is an extremely hard allotropic modification that resembles ferrite but contains carbon in solid solution. which in turn determines the physical properties of the steel. and is then placed in section. In a constant-temperature bath until it attains a uniform temperature throughout its cross martempering the steel is withdrawn from the quench at the same point. which for most steels is the range from about 288° C (about 550° F) to room temperature. shape. In time-quenching the steel is withdrawn from the quenching bath when it has reached the temperature at which the martensite begins to form. either raising the carbon content or forming nitrides in . XIV HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL The basic process of hardening steel by heat treatment consists of heating the metal to a 1. which consists of reheating the steel to a lower ductility and toughness. Three comparatively new processes have been developed to avoid cracking. which form martensite. These compounds react with the steel. In case hardening. Cyaniding consists of hardening in a bath of molten cyanide salt to form both carbides and nitrides. usually about 760° to 870° C (about 1. or quenching. or in carbonaceous gases such as methane or carbon monoxide. a finished piece of steel is given an extremely hard surface by heating it with carbon or nitrogen compounds. it rapidly in water or oil. In carburizing. the piece is heated in charcoal or coke. The steel is then allowed to cool in air through the temperature range of martensite formation. temperature. Other methods of heat treating steel to harden it are used. Tempering results in a decrease in hardness and strength and an increase in The primary purpose of the heat-treating process is to control the amount.austenite is “frozen” or changes to martensite. steels of special composition are hardened by heating them in ammonia gas to form alloy nitrides. its surface layer. In nitriding. set up large internal strains in the metal.600° F) and then cooling.400° to treatments. Such hardening temperature at which austenite is formed. In austempering the steel is quenched in a bath of metal or salt maintained at the constant temperature at which the desired structural change occurs and is held in this bath until the change is complete before being subjected to the final cooling.