Engineering

I
INTRODUCTION
Engineering, term applied to the profession in which a knowledge of the mathematical and the materials and forces of nature. The term engineer properly denotes a person who has natural sciences, gained by study, experience, and practice, is applied to the efficient use of received professional training in pure and applied science, but is often loosely used to describe

the operator of an engine, as in the terms locomotive engineer, marine engineer, or stationary

engineer. In modern terminology these latter occupations are known as crafts or trades.
individuals known as subprofessionals or paraprofessionals, who apply scientific and inspectors, draftsmen, and the like.

Between the professional engineer and the craftsperson or tradesperson, however, are those engineering skills to technical problems; typical of these are engineering aides, technicians,

Before the middle of the 18th century, large-scale construction work was usually placed in the hands of military engineers. Military engineering involved such work as the preparation of topographical maps, the location, design, and construction of roads and bridges; and the

building of forts and docks; see Military Engineering below. In the 18th century, however, the term civil engineering came into use to describe engineering work that was performed by civilians for nonmilitary purposes. With the increasing use of machinery in the 19th century, engineering was similarly recognized.

mechanical engineering was recognized as a separate branch of engineering, and later mining

The technical advances of the 19th century greatly broadened the field of engineering and socioeconomic environment in the 20th century have widened the scope even further.

introduced a large number of engineering specialties, and the rapidly changing demands of the

II

FIELDS OF ENGINEERING

The main branches of engineering are discussed below in alphabetical order. The engineer who works in any of these fields usually requires a basic knowledge of the other engineering fields, because most engineering problems are complex and interrelated. Thus a chemical engineer designing a plant for the electrolytic refining of metal ores must deal with the design of structures, machinery, and electrical devices, as well as with purely chemical problems. Besides the principal branches discussed below, engineering includes many more specialties than can be described here, such as acoustical engineering (see Acoustics), architectural transportation engineering, and textile engineering. engineering (see Architecture: Construction), automotive engineering, ceramic engineering,

A

Aeronautical and Aerospace Engineering

Aeronautics deals with the whole field of design, manufacture, maintenance, testing, and use of aircraft for both civilian and military purposes. It involves the knowledge of aerodynamics, structural design, propulsion engines, navigation, communication, and other related areas.

See Airplane; Aviation.

Aerospace engineering is closely allied to aeronautics, but is concerned with the flight of

vehicles in space, beyond the earth's atmosphere, and includes the study and development of rocket engines, artificial satellites, and spacecraft for the exploration of outer space. See Space Exploration.

B

Chemical Engineering

This branch of engineering is concerned with the design, construction, and management of factories in which the essential processes consist of chemical reactions. Because of the diversity of the materials dealt with, the practice, for more than 50 years, has been to analyze chemical engineering problems in terms of fundamental unit operations or unit processes such as the grinding or pulverizing of solids. It is the task of the chemical engineer to select and appropriate equipment for the new applications. specify the design that will best meet the particular requirements of production and the most

With the advance of technology, the number of unit operations increases, but of continuing

importance are distillation, crystallization, dissolution, filtration, and extraction. In each unit operation, engineers are concerned with four fundamentals: (1) the conservation of matter; (2) the conservation of energy; (3) the principles of chemical equilibrium; (4) the principles of chemical reactivity. In addition, chemical engineers must organize the unit operations in their continuous, or assembly-line, operation is more economical than a batch process, and is frequently amenable to automatic control, chemical engineers were among the first to incorporate automatic controls into their designs. correct sequence, and they must consider the economic cost of the overall process. Because a

C

Civil Engineering

Civil engineering is perhaps the broadest of the engineering fields, for it deals with the

creation, improvement, and protection of the communal environment, providing facilities for living, industry and transportation, including large buildings, roads, bridges, canals, railroad lines, airports, water-supply systems, dams, irrigation, harbors, docks, aqueducts, tunnels,

and other engineered constructions. The civil engineer must have a thorough knowledge of all types of surveying, of the properties and mechanics of construction materials, the mechanics of structures and soils, and of hydraulics and fluid mechanics. Among the important subdivisions of the field are construction engineering, irrigation engineering, transportation and coastal and ocean engineering.

engineering, soils and foundation engineering, geodetic engineering, hydraulic engineering,

D

Electrical and Electronics Engineering

The largest and most diverse field of engineering, it is concerned with the development and design, application, and manufacture of systems and devices that use electric power and signals. Among the most important subjects in the field in the late 1980s are electric power

and machinery, electronic circuits, control systems, computer design, superconductors, solidfiber optics.

state electronics, medical imaging systems, robotics, lasers, radar, consumer electronics, and

Despite its diversity, electrical engineering can be divided into four main branches: electric power and machinery, electronics, communications and control, and computers.

D1

Electric Power and Machinery

The field of electric power is concerned with the design and operation of systems for

generating, transmitting, and distributing electric power. Engineers in this field have brought about several important developments since the late 1970s. One of these is the ability to transmit power at extremely high voltages in both the direct current (DC) and alternating

current (AC) modes, reducing power losses proportionately. Another is the real-time control of power generation, transmission, and distribution, using computers to analyze the data fed system while it is in operation. back from the power system to a central station and thereby optimizing the efficiency of the

A significant advance in the engineering of electric machinery has been the introduction of

electronic controls that enable AC motors to run at variable speeds by adjusting the frequency

engineers rely heavily on various Engineers work on control systems ranging from the everyday. task of manufacturing these chips uses the most advanced technology.of the current fed into them. such as design branches of advanced mathematics. and in robotics. environments. signals. to the exotic. Much of the research in electronics is directed toward creating even smaller D3 Communications and Control Engineers in this field are concerned with all aspects of electrical communications. linear algebra. Electric Power Systems. Control transmission and distribution. adding binary numbers. in military fire-control systems. and there is every indication that the explosive rate of growth in this field will continue Electronic engineers design circuits to perform specific tasks. as in television. Information is now generated. and vacuum tubes—assembled on a chassis and connected by wires to form a bulky devices on a single tiny chip of silicon or some other semiconductive material. See also Electric Motors and Generators. as systems for keeping spacecraft on course. and demodulating radio signals to recover the information Prior to the 1960s. capacitors. differential equations. there has been a revolutionary trend toward integrating electronic inductors. Probability. ion-beam implantation. package. micro-manipulators. complex variables. transmitted. from fundamental questions such as “What is information?” to the highly practical. design. history. Since then. See also Electronics. in power Engineers have been working to bring about two revolutionary changes in the field of communications and control: Digital systems are replacing analog ones at the same time that . and ultraclean chips. linear systems theory. as in telecommunications. as those that run an elevator. DC motors have also been made to run more efficiently this way. received. The complex electron-beam lithography. Circuits are also used to generate waveforms useful for synchronization and timing. integration. In designing communication systems. See also Mathematics. faster switching of components. and for correcting errors in digital information. such as Fourier analysis. Matrix Theory and Linear Algebra. including computers. and stored electronically on a scale unprecedented in unabated. circuits consisted of separate electronic devices—resistors. and probability theory. of telephone systems. D2 Electronics Electronic engineering deals with the research. in automated manufacturing. such as amplifying electronic they carry. and three-dimensional integrated circuits. systems are used extensively in aircraft and ships. passenger-actuated. and application of circuits and devices used in the transmission and processing of information.

electrical noise. and the most advantageous deployment of automatic . paleontology. engineers continue to work to squeeze greater and greater numbers of circuit elements onto smaller and smaller chips. however. production. The mining engineer is trained in historical geology. It is particularly important from the viewpoint of costs and economics of machinery. superconducting materials. and marketing of crude minerals and mineral products. operation. development. The employs such tools as the seismograph and the magnetometer for the location of ore or surveying and drawing of geological maps and sections is an important part of the work of the of a given location is suitable for the building of such large structures as dams. Fiber optics are likewise immune to interference. computer engineering is now among the most rapidly growing fields. development of higher level machine languages or other means. labor. Another trend is toward increasing the speed of computer operations through use of parallel processors. who is also responsible for determining whether the geological structure F Industrial or Management Engineering This field pertains to the efficient use of machinery. Using VLSI. mineralogy.fiber optics are superseding copper cables. recovery. the task of making computers more “intelligent” (artificial intelligence. and petroleum deposits beneath the surface of the earth (see Petroleum. and raw materials in industrial production. through creation of sophisticated programs or being in the realm of computer science. they also have tremendous D4 Computers Virtually unknown just a few decades ago. construction. E Geological and Mining Engineering This branch of engineering includes activities related to the discovery and exploration of mineral deposits and the financing. The field of computer science is closely related to computer engineering. Foremost among the avenues now being pursued are the design of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) and new computer architectures. purification. safety of human operators. The electronics of computers involve engineers in design and manufacture of memory systems. engineering geologist. and of peripheral devices (see Computer). and the like. Seismology). of central processing units. and geophysics. is generally regarded as One current trend in computer engineering is microminiaturization. processing. Digital systems offer far greater immunity to carrying capacity. and are extremely light and inexpensive to manufacture.).

ventilating. test. hydraulics. mechanisms. and thermodynamics and must be fully grounded in such subjects as metallurgy and machine design. and the body. which entails not only the design of the engine that drives the car but also all its attendant accessories such as the steering and braking systems. heating. the lighting system.G Mechanical Engineering Engineers in this field design. The field is divided into (1) machinery. materials. and pneumatics. The mechanical engineer. therefore. A mechanical engineer designs not only the machines that make products but the products themselves. and (2) heat as applied to engines. build. the gearing by which the engine's power is delivered to of seat upholstery. hydraulics. Some mechanical engineers specialize in particular types of machines such as pumps or steam turbines. work and energy. and must design for both economy and efficiency. they also work on a variety of manufactured goods and certain kinds of structures. including such details as the door latches and the type H Military Engineering . must be trained in mechanics. the wheels. and operate machinery of all types. and air conditioning. A typical example of the complexity of modern mechanical engineering is the design of an automobile. the controls.

radio. In the U. In war.This branch is concerned with the application of the engineering sciences to military purposes.. It is generally divided into permanent land defense (see Fortification and Siege Warfare) and field engineering. telephone. army engineer battalions have been used to construct ports. national monuments. which applies mechanical engineering to the Signal Corps. and dams (see Army Corps of Engineers). depots. works. harbors. and the I Naval or Marine Engineering . military engineers also construct some public Military engineering has become an increasingly specialized science. development of guns and chemical engineering to the development of propellants. which applies electrical engineering to all problems of telegraph. resulting in separate engineering subdisciplines such as ordnance. and airfields.S. and other communication.

both mechanical and electrical. as well as the projected costs of fuel and maintenance. and the manner in which nuclear fission may find practical applications. and architect must be familiar with the variety of techniques of modern shipbuilding. In doing so. a naval Regardless of size. needed to propel a ship. the naval architect design ships. such as a speed required. such as the production of commercial power from the energy generated by nuclear reactions and the use of nuclear reactors for propulsion and of nuclear radiation to induce chemical and biological changes. the marine engineer must choose a propulsion unit. To accomplish this. that provides enough power to move the ship at the and fuel bunkers will weigh and how much space they will occupy. such as fluid mechanics. The ships they design range in size from ocean-going supertankers as much as 1300 feet long to small tugboats that operate in rivers and bays. strong. See also Ships and Shipbuilding.Engineers who have the overall responsibility for designing and supervising construction of ships are called naval architects. ships must be designed and built so that they are safe. nuclear engineers develop the special materials necessary to withstand the high . In addition to designing nuclear reactors to yield specified amounts of power. stable. that bear directly on Marine engineering is a specialized branch of mechanical engineering devoted to the design and operation of systems. fast enough to perform the type of work intended for them. the engineer must take into consideration how much the engine J Nuclear Engineering This branch of engineering is concerned with the design and construction of nuclear reactors and devices. and must how ships move through water. In helping diesel engine or geared steam turbine. have a thorough grounding in applied sciences.

and roads. but because of its great importance for a healthy environment. especially in dense urban-population areas. L Sanitary Engineering This is a branch of civil engineering. with pure water and for the disposal of sewage and other wastes are described separately. and to eliminate dangerous projecting parts. Modern engineering is characterized by the broad application of what is known as systems engineering principles. See III MODERN ENGINEERING TRENDS Scientific methods of engineering are applied in several fields not connected directly to manufacture and construction. It chiefly deals with problems involving water supply. rural and recreational-site sanitation. See Nuclear Energy. The systems approach is a methodology of decision-making in design. Water Pollution. control of atmospheric pollution.temperatures and concentrated bombardment of nuclear particles that accompany nuclear fission and fusion. See Industrial Safety. Safety engineers develop methods and procedures to safeguard workers in hazardous occupations. The methods used for supplying communities Plumbing. industrial hygiene. and toxic materials in work areas. control of pollution of surface waterways. Water Supply and Waterworks. Sewage Disposal. radiation produced by nuclear reactions and to ensure safe storage and disposal of fissionable K Safety Engineering This field of engineering has as its object the prevention of accidents. and other fields concerned with the control of environmental factors affecting health. and insurance companies engaged in the field of National Safety Council. for example. or construction that adopts (1) the formal process . housing and institutional sanitation. ships. today maintain safety engineering departments. In recent years safety engineering has become a specialty adopted by individuals trained in other branches of engineering. machinery. noise. groundwaters. In designing roads the safety engineer seeks to avoid such hazards as sharp turns and blind intersections. factories. In the design of from accidental contact with the operator. and soils. milk and food sanitation. and distribution. workers compensation. Solid Waste Disposal. insect and vermin control. Nuclear engineers also develop methods to shield people from the harmful materials. They also assist in designing machinery. to put cutoff switches within reach of the operator. operation. known to result in traffic accidents. the safety engineer seeks to cover all moving parts or keep them suggesting alterations and improvements to reduce the likelihood of accident. vibration. including control of light. treatment. it has acquired the importance of a specialized field. Many large industrial and construction firms. disposal of community wastes and reclamation of useful components of such wastes.

A small change in the location of the controls of a machine or of its position with relation to other machines or equipment. principles of operations research. complicated control panels Among various recent trends in the engineering profession. using specialists from not only the various engineering disciplines. It is also concerned with setting up efficient and safe schedules. sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs. encourages new research. (3) a formal sequence of procedure employing the In effect. human-factors engineering. also known as ergonomics. and the interaction of the system with the community and the environment. how machines can be operated most efficiently by the workers. (2) an interdisciplinary. are licensed by the state. A related field of engineering. Human-factors engineering seeks to establish criteria for the that monitor and govern nuclear reactor operations. the large. but from legal. The trend in modern engineering offices is overwhelmingly toward computerization. Computers are increasingly used for solving complex problems as well as for handling. aesthetic. and generating the enormous volume of data modern engineers must work with. The National Academy of Engineering. among other things. human-centered design of. design failures. like doctors and lawyers. for example. Today. received wide attention in the late 1970s and the '80s when the safety of nuclear reactors was questioned following serious accidents that were caused by operator errors. often results in greatly increased production. or team. founded in 1964 as a private organization. and behavioral fields as well. Engineers in industry work not only with machines but also with people. transportation engineering in its broadest sense includes not only design of the traffic requirements of the route followed. many engineers. therefore. especially installations where public and worker safety is a consideration. storing. approach. licensing and computerization are the most widespread. and is concerned with the relationship of engineering to society. or a change in the muscular movements of the operator. This type of engineering work is called time-study engineering. but also determination determine. social. to of the transportation system and building of its lines and rolling stock. Approvals by professionally licensed engineers are required for construction of public and commercial structures. and malfunctioning equipment. . efficient.included in what is known as the scientific method.

The English mathematician and physicist Sir Isaac Newton improved this analysis by defining force and mass and relating these to acceleration. Regarding the size or weight of the moving object.Mechanics I INTRODUCTION Mechanics. This acceleration is the same for heavy objects as for light ones. however. branch of physics concerning the motions of objects and their response to forces. miles per hour. causes motion. Velocity may be measured in such units as kilometers per hour. Acceleration may be measured in such units as meters per second per second or feet per second per second. or meters per second. the sun. scientists reasoned that a cannonball falls down because its natural position is in the earth. If the object is large. time. however. mass. and force. it is frequently convenient to describe its rotation about an axis that goes through the center of mass. Velocity (the time rate of change of position) is defined as the distance traveled divided by the time interval. provided air friction (air resistance) is discounted. no mathematical problems are presented if the object is very small compared with the distances involved. the center of mass. called If the object is rotating. which is the study of what II KINETICS Kinetics is the description of motion without regard to what causes the motion. For everyday phenomena. it contains one point. Newton’s laws were superseded by Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity. motion was explained from a very different point of view. the moon. Newton’s three laws of motion remain the cornerstone of dynamics. For example. stars travel in circles around the earth because it is the nature of heavenly objects to travel in The Italian physicist and astronomer Galileo brought together the ideas of other great thinkers of his time and began to analyze motion in terms of distance traveled from some starting position and the time that it took. Acceleration is defined as the time rate of change of velocity: the change of velocity divided by the time interval during the change. For atomic and subatomic particles. Modern descriptions of such behavior begin with a careful definition of such quantities as displacement (distance moved). Newton’s laws were superseded by quantum theory. He showed that the speed of falling objects increases steadily during the time of their fall. and the perfect circles. the motion of which can be described as characteristic of the whole object. acceleration. . velocity. For objects traveling at speeds close to the speed of light. Until about 400 years ago. following the ideas of Greek philosopher and scientist Aristotle.

a (uninfluenced by air friction) near the surface of the earth undergoes constant acceleration. the direction of the displacement must be given. acceleration is constant. If velocity. or the velocity at a given instant.8 m/sec (32 ft/sec). has both magnitude (a scalar quantity measured. meters per second) and direction (measured. v. in point). starting with zero velocity ( v = 0) at t = 0. For an object traveling at speed. a. end of the second second. At the 19. position would not change during the time interval. is v = at The distance traveled during this time is d = at2 An important feature revealed in this equation is the dependence of distance on the square of the time (t2. traveled at constant d = vt In the second special type of motion. the instantaneous velocity at time. t. the ball would have fallen 19.6 m/sec (64 ft/sec). the velocity might be zero. At the end of the first second. Velocity. t. Because of gravitation.” is the short way of notating t × t). must be defined. for example. Because the velocity is changing. Meanwhile the horizontal component of the original velocity remains . the ball undergoes a constant downward acceleration that first slows its original upward speed and then increases its downward speed as it falls back to earth. in a circle of radius. For constant acceleration. In the simplest case. the centripetal acceleration is acceleration is directed toward the center of the circle and is called centripetal acceleration Another simple type of motion that is frequently observed occurs when a ball is thrown at an angle into the air. for example. in degrees of arc from a reference Several special types of motion are easily described. r. velocity may be constant. First. is measured with a clock starting at t = 0.9 m (16 ft) and would have a speed of 9. the average velocity is equal to the velocity at any particular time. instantaneous velocity. A heavy object falling freely this case the acceleration is 9. then the distance. for example.To fully describe the motion of an object. it will travel in a circle.8 m/sec/sec (32 ft/sec/sec). is equal to the product of velocity and time. time. With constant velocity. In ball would have fallen 4. The magnitude of velocity is called speed. or “t squared. If an object has constant speed but an acceleration always at right angles to its velocity. The required (see Centripetal Force). v. d.6 m (64 ft) and would have a speed of Circular motion is another simple type of motion.

It can be measured in terms of either of two first effect can be used in the calibration of a spring scale. or accelerate an object. The measure the amplitude of a force: the greater the force. the stretch is proportional to the force effects. x. The vertical and horizontal components of the motion are shape of a parabola. At the intuitive level. independent. See Ballistics. such as a spring. a force is just a push or a pull. which can in turn be used to many springs. For F = kx where k is a constant that depends on the nature of the spring material and its dimensions. making the ball travel at a constant speed in the horizontal direction until it hits the earth. force and mass must be defined. and they can be analyzed separately. A force can either distort something. The resulting path of the ball is in the III DYNAMICS To understand why and how objects accelerate.constant (ignoring air resistance). IV VECTORS . F. over a limited range. the greater the stretch.

If the door were VI NEWTON’S THREE LAWS OF MOTION Newton’s first law of motion states that if the vector sum of the forces acting on an object is zero. at the greatest distance from the hinges. if a person stands a book up on a table and pushes on the book equally hard with one hand in one direction and with the other hand in the other direction. If the force exerted on an object is zero. repulsion of the tabletop. it is necessary to add the forces as vectors. edge on). A book lying on a table is being pulled down by the earth’s gravitational attraction and is being pushed up by the molecular the net force. and all the vertical components must cancel one another as well. If. and the book will fall on be zero. one hand is near the top of the book and the other hand near the bottom. Therefore. its side. then the object will remain at rest or remain moving at constant velocity. When a force is applied to a heavy door to open it. Without any . For an object to be in equilibrium. This condition is necessary for equilibrium. If the force were applied parallel to the door (that is. the clockwise torques about any axis must be canceled by the counterclockwise torques about that axis. Thus. For equilibrium to exist it is also necessary that the sum of the torques about any axis A torque is the product of a force and the perpendicular distance to a turning axis. the book is in equilibrium. When calculating V TORQUE For equilibrium. The net force is zero. the force is exerted perpendicularly to the door and shoved with the same force at a point halfway between handle and hinge. one could prove that if the torques cancel for any particular axis. the torque would be zero. the torque would be only half of its previous magnitude.If an object is motionless. a maximum torque is created. they cancel for all axes. For example. however. See Vector. (The net result is that the book is being squeezed). all the horizontal components of the force must cancel one another. but not sufficient. the net force on it must be zero. the object does not necessarily have zero velocity. the book will remain motionless if the person’s hands are opposite each other. a torque is produced.

of F = ma In the International System of Units (also known as SI. is also a measure of the gravitational attraction that the object gravitational property are determined by the same thing. m. this is equivalent to about 0. force and in the same direction as the force. which is the currently accepted theory of gravitation. A The Second Law Newton’s second law relates net force and acceleration. after the initials of Système International). A net force on an object will accelerate it—that is.2248 lb. which is a measure of the inertia of an object (inertia is its exerts on other objects. is that it is impossible to distinguish at a point whether the point is in a gravitational field or in B Friction . an object in motion will continue to travel at constant velocity. is measured in meters per second per second. The implication of this phenomenon an accelerated frame of reference. The proportionality constant is the mass. It is surprising and profound that the inertial property and the reluctance to change velocity). including friction. light object.forces acting on it. force. Mass is measured in kilograms. What is remarkable is that mass. F. in newtons. change its velocity. acceleration. a. A massive object will require a greater force for a given acceleration than a small. A newton is defined as the force necessary to impart to a mass of 1 kg an acceleration of 1 m/sec/sec. Einstein made this one of the cornerstones of his general theory of relativity. The acceleration will be proportional to the magnitude of the the object.

If the object is pushed at an angle the weight of the object. The actual contact area—that is. Newton’s second law is expanded to to the horizontal. Frequently this force is just the weight of the sliding object. Newton’s second law then becomes water or air (at subsonic speeds). the friction force is almost independent of velocity. however. For dry sliding friction. in effect. where no lubrication is present. Where friction is present. the resulting friction is proportional to the square of the . (Acceleration will be constant in the direction of the effective force). the area where the Also. the friction force does not depend on the apparent area of contact between an object and microscopic bumps on the object and sliding surface are actually touching each other—is relatively small. the downward vertical component of the force will. The actual contact area depends on the perpendicular force between the object and sliding surface. The friction force is proportional to the total perpendicular force. add to The left side of the equation is simply the net effective force. and force is required to move the bumps past each other. As the object moves across the sliding surface. however. the tiny bumps on the object and sliding surface collide. the magnitude of the friction depends on the velocity. For most human-size objects moving in speed. the surface upon which it slides. When an object moves through a liquid.Friction acts like a force applied in the direction opposite to an object’s velocity.

thus adding to zero. Another conserved quantity of great importance is angular (rotational) momentum. their initial velocities are zero. the momentum must remain constant. k.The proportionality constant. in addition to the force the adult imparts on the child. the momentum of the system must remain zero. internal forces are at work between adult and child. If. but net external forces equal zero. For an isolated system. and the distance of the mass from the axis. spin. the product of the large mass and small velocity of the adult must equal the product of the small mass and large velocity of the child. Newton’s third law also requires the conservation of momentum. the rotational speed must increase in order to maintain constant angular momentum. and thus the initial momentum of the system is zero. After the adult pushes the child away. The angular momentum of a rotating object depends on its speed of rotation. Part of the mass is therefore at a large radius. At the start of the skater’s arms are lowered. its mass. Therefore. a large adult gently shoves away a child on a skating rink. angular momentum is conserved despite the increasing speed. In the example of the adult and child on the skating rink. The momenta are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. the child imparts an equal but oppositely directed force on the adult. the acceleration of the adult will be smaller. and depends on the area of contact between the two surfaces and the degree of streamlining of the moving object. or the product of mass and velocity. When a skater standing on a friction-free point spins faster and faster. is characteristic of the two materials that are sliding past each other. the skater’s arms are outstretched. During the interaction. for example. Because the mass of the adult is larger. thus decreasing their distance from the axis of rotation. As the . C The Third Law Newton’s third law of motion states that an object experiences a force because it is interacting with some other object. however. with no external forces acting on it. The force that object 1 exerts on object 2 must be of the same magnitude but in the opposite direction as the force that object 2 exerts on object 1.

work is defined as the product of force and the distance an object moves in the direction of the force. its gravitational potential energy is increased. If the ball is then dropped. and mass itself. kinetic energy. If work is done lifting an object to a greater height. When the ball hits the ground. thermal energy. energy must be provided to do work. For instance. the total energy is conserved. for example. compressed gases. This friction is transformed into heat. . it becomes distorted and thereby creates friction between the molecules of the ball material. Energy and work are both measured in the same units—ergs. When a force is exerted on an object but the force does not cause the object to move. In all transformations from one kind of to raise it. energy stored in stretched springs.VII ENERGY The quantity called energy ties together all branches of physics. energy has been stored in the form of gravitational potential energy. or thermal energy. no work is done. In the field of mechanics. if work is done on a rubber ball gravitational potential energy is transformed to kinetic energy. or foot-pounds. Many other forms of energy exist: electric and magnetic potential energy. or molecular bonds. joules. the energy to another.

water. reducing the engine’s efficiency. making walking difficult. Friction allows car tires to grip and roll . such as ice. such as in a running automobile engine. In many cases.Friction I INTRODUCTION Friction. it hinders a process. This force is usually related to the weight of the of an object as it moves through air. On a slick surface. In cases involving fluid friction. along the ground. For example. It can hinder the motion of an object or prevent an object from moving at all. or other fluid. shoes slip and slide instead of gripping because of the lack of friction. friction between the moving parts of an engine resists the engine’s motion and turns energy into heat. Friction also makes it difficult to slide a heavy object. force that opposes the motion of an object when the object is in contact with another object or surface. The strength of frictional force depends on the nature of the surfaces that are in contact and the force pushing them together. In other cases. object or objects. friction is helpful. Friction between people’s shoes and the ground allows people to walk by pushing off the ground without slipping. Friction results from two surfaces rubbing against each other or moving relative to one another. the force depends upon the shape and speed Friction occurs to some degree in almost all situations involving physical objects. such as a refrigerator or bookcase.

along the road without skidding. Friction between nails and beams prevents the nails from Sliding out and keeps buildings standing.

When friction affects a moving object, it turns the object’s kinetic energy, or energy of motion, into heat. People welcome the heat caused by friction when rubbing their hands together to stay warm. Frictional heat is not so welcome when it damages machine parts, such as car brakes.

II

CAUSES OF FRICTION

Friction occurs in part because rough surfaces tend to catch on one another as they slide past each other. Even surfaces that are apparently smooth can be rough at the microscopic level. of the other, effectively creating a type of mechanical bond, or glue, between the surfaces. Two surfaces in contact also tend to attract one another at the molecular level, forming They have many ridges and grooves. The ridges of each surface can get stuck in the grooves

chemical bonds (see Chemistry). These bonds can prevent an object from moving, even when it is pushed. If an object is in motion, these bonds form and release. Making and breaking the bonds takes energy away from the motion of the object.

Scientists do not yet fully understand the details of how friction works, but through

experiments they have found a way to describe frictional forces in a wide variety of situations. The force of friction between an object and a surface is equal to a constant number times the force the object exerts directly on the surface. The constant number is called the coefficient of

friction for the two materials and is abbreviated µ. The force the object exerts directly on the
increasing the amount of force increases the amount of contact that the object has with the calculated from the following formula:

surface is called the normal force and is abbreviated N. Friction depends on this force because surface at the microscopic level. The force of friction between an object and a surface can be

F=µ×N

In this equation, F is the force of friction, µ is the coefficient of friction between the object and the surface, and N is the normal force.

Scientists have measured the coefficient of friction for many combinations of materials.

Coefficients of friction depend on whether the objects are initially moving or stationary and on the types of material involved. The coefficient of friction for rubber sliding on concrete is 0.8 (relatively high), while the coefficient for Teflon sliding on steel is 0.04 (relatively low).

The normal force is the force the object exerts perpendicular to the surface. In the case of a level surface, the normal force is equal to the weight of the object. If the surface is inclined, only a fraction of the object’s weight pushes directly into the surface, so the normal force is less than the object’s weight.

III

KINDS OF FRICTION

Different kinds of motion give rise to different types of friction between objects. Static friction occurs between stationary objects, while sliding friction occurs between objects as they slide against each other. Other types of friction include rolling friction and fluid friction. The coefficient of friction for two materials may differ depending on the type of friction involved. Static friction prevents an object from moving against a surface. It is the force that keeps a up an object without the object slipping through your fingers. In order to move something, you must first overcome the force of static friction between the object and the surface on

book from sliding off a desk, even when the desk is slightly tilted, and that allows you to pick

which it is resting. This force depends on the coefficient of static friction (µs) between the object and the surface and the normal force (N) of the object.

A book sliding off a desk or brakes slowing down a wheel are both examples of sliding friction, It prevents the book or wheel from moving as fast as it would without friction. When sliding friction is acting, another force must be present to keep an object moving. In the case of a book sliding off a desk, this force is gravity. The force of kinetic friction depends on the

also called kinetic friction. Sliding friction acts in the direction opposite the direction of motion.

coefficient of kinetic friction between the object and the surface on which it is moving (µk) and the normal force (N) of the object. For any pair of objects, the coefficient of kinetic friction is book sliding than it does to keep the book sliding. usually less than the coefficient of static friction. This means that it takes more force to start a

Rolling friction hinders the motion of an object rolling along a surface. Rolling friction slows rolling along the ground. Another force must be present to keep an object rolling. For

down a ball rolling on a basketball court or softball field, and it slows down the motion of a tire example, a pedaling bicyclist provides the force necessary to the keep a bike in motion. Rolling friction depends on the coefficient of rolling friction between the two materials (µr) and the normal force (N) of the object. The coefficient of rolling friction is usually about  that of than they will slide along it.

sliding friction. Wheels and other round objects will roll along the ground much more easily

Metals
I

INTRODUCTION

Metals, group of chemical elements that exhibit all or most of the following physical qualities: they are solid at ordinary temperatures; opaque, except in extremely thin films; good electrical and thermal conductors (see Conductor, Electrical); lustrous when polished; and

have a crystalline structure when in the solid state. Metals and nonmetals are separated in the periodic table by a diagonal line of elements. Elements to the left of this diagonal are metals, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, polonium, and astatine—have both metallic and nonmetallic properties (see Periodic Law). The common metallic elements include the cobalt, copper, gold, iridium, iron, lead, lithium, magnesium, manganese, mercury, following: aluminum, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, chromium, molybdenum, nickel, osmium, palladium, platinum, potassium, radium, rhodium, silver, and elements to the right are nonmetals. Elements that make up this diagonal—boron, silicon,

sodium, tantalum, thallium, thorium, tin, titanium, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. Metallic elements can combine with one another and with certain other elements, either as compounds, as solutions, or as intimate mixtures. A substance composed of two or more alloys. Alloys of mercury with other metallic elements are known as amalgams.

metals, or a substance composed of a metal and certain nonmetals such as carbon are called

Within the general limits of the definition of a metal, the properties of metals vary widely. Most metals are grayish in color, but bismuth is pinkish, copper is red, and gold is yellow. Some metals display more than one color, a phenomenon called pleochroism. The melting

points of metals range from about -39° C (about -38° F) for mercury to 3410° C (6170° F) for tungsten. Osmium and iridium (specific gravity 22.6) are the most dense metals, and lithium (specific gravity 0.53) is the least dense. The majority of metals crystallize in the cubic system, but some crystallize in the hexagonal and tetragonal systems (see Crystal). Bismuth has the lowest electrical conductivity of the metallic elements, and silver the highest at ordinary temperatures. (For conductivity at low temperatures, see Cryogenics;

Superconductivity.) The conductivity of most metals can be lowered by alloying. All metals expand when heated and contract when cooled, but certain alloys, such as platinum and iridium alloys, have extremely low coefficients of expansion.

II

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

Metals are generally very strong and resistant to different types of stresses. Though there is considerable variation from one metal to the next, in general metals are marked by such the resistance to breakage; elasticity, the ability to return to the original shape after properties as hardness, the resistance to surface deformation or abrasion; tensile strength, deformation; malleability, the ability to be shaped by hammering; fatigue resistance, the breaking. See Materials Science and Technology.

ability to resist repeated stresses; and ductility, the ability to undergo deformation without

III

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Metals typically have positive valences in most of their compounds, which means they tend to donate electrons to the atoms to which they bond. Also, metals tend to form basic oxides. Typical nonmetallic elements, such as nitrogen, sulfur, and chlorine, have negative valences in most of their compounds—meaning they tend to accept electrons—and form acidic oxides (see Acids and Bases; Chemical Reaction).

Metals typically have low ionization potentials. This means that metals react easily by loss of carbonates, for example) by serving as reducing agents (electron donors).

electrons to form positive ions, or cations. Thus, metals can form salts (chlorides, sulfides, and

IV

ELECTRON STRUCTURE

In early attempts to explain the electronic configurations of the metals, scientists cited the consist of ionized atoms in which the free electrons form a homogeneous sea of negative

characteristics of high thermal and electrical conductivity in support of a theory that metals charge. The electrostatic attraction between the positive metal ions and the free-moving and atoms. Free movement of the electrons was then held to be responsible for the high thermal then have higher specific heats than they do.

homogeneous sea of electrons was thought to be responsible for the bonds between the metal and electrical conductivities. The principal objection to this theory was that the metals should

In 1928 the German physicist Arnold Sommerfeld proposed that the electrons in metals exist in a quantized arrangement in which low energy levels available to the electrons are almost fully occupied (see Atom; Quantum Theory). In the same year the Swiss-American physicist Felix Bloch and later the French physicist Louis Brillouin used this idea of quantization in the currently accepted “band” theory of bonding in metallic solids.

According to the band theory, any given metal atom has only a limited number of valence among individual atoms is therefore required. This sharing of electrons is accomplished

electrons with which to bond to all of its nearest neighbors. Extensive sharing of electrons through overlap of equivalent-energy atomic orbitals on the metal atoms that are immediately adjacent to one another. This overlap is delocalized throughout the entire metal sample to form extensive orbitals that span the entire solid rather than being part of individual atoms. Each of these orbitals lies at different energies because the atomic orbitals from which they were constructed were at different energies to begin with. The orbitals, equal in number to the number of individual atomic orbitals that have been combined, each hold two electrons, and are filled in order from lowest to highest energy until the number of available electrons has

been used up. Groups of electrons are then said to reside in bands, which are collections of that band; in some metals, there are energy gaps between bands, meaning that there are

orbitals. Each band has a range of energy values that the electrons must possess to be part of certain energies that the electrons cannot possess. The highest energy band in a metal is not filled with electrons because metals characteristically possess too few electrons to fill it. The may be promoted by absorption of thermal energy into these unfilled energy levels of the band. high thermal electrical conductivities of metals is then explained by the notion that electrons

Objects moving through a fluid experience fluid friction, or drag. Drag acts between the object and the fluid and hinders the motion of the object. The force of drag depends upon the object’s shape, material, and speed, as well as the fluid’s viscosity. Viscosity is a measure of a fluid’s resistance to flow. It results from the friction that occurs between the fluid’s molecules, and it differs depending on the type of fluid. Drag slows down airplanes flying through the air and fish swimming through water. An airplane’s engines help it overcome drag and travel forward, while a fish uses its muscles to overcome drag and swim. Calculating the force of

drag is much more complicated than calculating other types of friction. (see Aerodynamics)

IV

EFFECTS OF FRICTION

Friction helps people convert one form of motion into another. For example, when people

walk, friction allows them to convert a push backward along the ground into forward motion. Similarly, when car or bicycle tires push backward along the ground, friction with the ground makes the tires roll forward. Friction allows us to push and slide objects along the ground without our shoes slipping along the ground in the opposite direction.

While friction allows us to convert one form of motion to another, it also converts some energy into heat, noise, and wear and tear on material. Losing energy to these effects often reduces the efficiency of a machine. For example, a cyclist uses friction between shoes and pedals, the

chain and gears, and the bicycle’s tires and the road to make the bicycle move forward. At the the cyclist and the air all resist the cyclist’s motion. As the cyclist pedals, friction converts

same time, friction between the chain and gears, between the tires and the road, and between some of the cyclist’s energy into heat, noise, and wear and tear on the bicycle. This energy of the energy in the fuel into heat, noise, and wear and tear on the engine’s parts. Excess engines makes it necessary to periodically replace some parts.

loss reduces the efficiency of the bicycle. In automobiles and airplanes, friction converts some frictional heat can damage an engine and braking system. The wearing away of material in

Sometimes the heat that friction produces is useful. When a person strikes a match against a

rough surface, friction produces a large amount of heat on the head of the match and triggers the chemical process of burning. Static friction, which prevents motion, does not create heat.

V

REDUCING FRICTION

Reducing the amount of friction in a machine increases the machine’s efficiency. Less friction methods to reduce friction. The first method involves reducing the roughness of the surfaces

means less energy lost to heat, noise, and wearing down of material. People normally use two in contact. For example, sanding two pieces of wood lessens the amount of friction that occurs between them when they slide against one another. Teflon creates very little friction because it is so smooth.

Applying a lubricant to a surface can also reduce friction. Common examples of lubricants are oil and grease. They reduce friction by minimizing the contact between rough surfaces. The between the surfaces. Lubricants such as machine oil reduce the amount of energy lost to lubricant’s particles slide easily against each other and cause far less friction than would occur frictional heating and reduce the wear damage to the machine surfaces caused by friction.

One of the most common examples of an inclined plane is a staircase. work is the result of a force. with or without the inclined plane. A sharp knife is an everyday example of a wedge. which allows people to move within a building from one floor to another with cars use threaded screws. an inclined plane allows a person to lift an object gradually (at an angle) applied to an object multiplied by the distance over which the force is applied. Some jacks that are used to lift II WORK AND MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE An inclined plane makes doing work easier by changing both the direction and the amount of effort that are used to lift an object. is defined as the amount of force this can be expressed by the following equation: Work = Force x Distance When lifting an object is the work being done. Work. and the distance corresponds to the distance the object is lifted. simple machine. Rather than lifting an object straight up. but because the inclined plane increases the distance over The inclined plane is one of the four simple machines (along with the lever. the force needed is the effort required to lift the object. The same amount of work is accomplished in lifting the object which the force is applied. Mathematically. are really alternate forms of the inclined plane. and the pulley). such as the effort of pushing or pulling something. in physics. the wheel and axle. the screw and the wedge. Two other simple machines. consisting of a ramp or a similar wedge-shaped device. . that makes doing a given amount of work easier. In physical terms. that moves an object over a distance. less effort than climbing straight up a ladder would require.Inclined Plane I INTRODUCTION Inclined Plane. An inclined plane makes it easier to lift heavy objects by enabling a person to apply the necessary force over a greater distance. the work requires less force.

The MA of an inclined plane without any friction is equal to the length of the plane divided by the height of the plane. and therefore doing work. The mechanical advantage (MA) of an inclined plane measures how much the plane magnifies the effort applied to the machine. and some jacks used to lift automobiles rely on screws. which equates with effort applied over a long distance. more gradual path to the same height as that of the steep hill. Friction makes the process of moving objects. however. The mechanical advantage of a screw is related to the circumference of the screw divided by the pitch of the threads. A jack has a large screw attached to a small platform. the larger the MA will a vertical ladder. and raises the automobile. sliding a load (especially a flat load such as a crate) up a plane creates friction and causes the plane to lose much of its MA. Turning the screw many times produces a small amount of vertical lift on the platform. The actual MA of a machine is less than the theoretical MA because of friction. Theoretical MA is the MA a machine would have if it were perfect. If the length of a ramp was equal to its height. This means that the ramp doubles the effort applied by the user. or pole. III MODIFIED INCLINED PLANES The screw and the wedge are common adaptations of the inclined plane. All machines. However. this allows heavy loads to be lifted with a small amount of effort. People also frequently build inclined planes with small rollers or casters built into the plane to reduce friction. Screws are also . around the axis. The longer the inclined plane. The edge of the inclined plane forms a helix. The screw requires a lot of turning. A screw is an inclined plane wrapped around an axis. Wheels can be added to the load to decrease friction. or spiral. or that the user needs to apply only half as much effort to lift an object to a desired height as he or she would without the ramp. Screws are often used to raise objects. Increasing the ratio of the length of the ramp to the height of the ramp decreases the effort needed to lift an object. lose some of their MA to friction. be. like Friction is a phenomenon that reduces the efficiency of all machines. A ramp that is twice as long as it is high has a mechanical advantage of 2. In this case. the inclined plane decreases the amount of force needed to do the same amount of work without the plane. which is placed under a vehicle. The pitch of a thread is the distance along the axis of the screw from one thread to the next. There are two kinds of MA: theoretical and actual. which means the ramp did not magnify the user’s effort. more difficult.over a greater distance. and the actual MA is close to the theoretical MA. Walking up an inclined plane or rolling a load (such as a barrel) up a plane creates little friction. the mechanical advantage would be 1. This idea explains why climbing up a steep hill takes more effort (and seems more difficult) than walking up a longer. a resistance created between objects when they move against each other. the ramp would simply run straight up. Since the pitch is generally small compared to the circumference. By increasing distance. large mechanical advantages can be achieved by using screws.

Evidence from drawings of that time indicates People used wedges in ancient times to split wood. IV HISTORY The inclined plane is undoubtedly one of the first of the simple machines people ever used. The main benefit of the wedge is changing the direction of effort to help split or cut through an object. There are indications that the Egyptians created earthen ramps to raise huge blocks of stone during the construction of the pyramids. They placed dry wooden wedges into cracks in rocks and then allowed the wedges to swell by absorbing water. People also used wooden wedges in prehistoric times to split rocks. The wedge shape of the knife edge helps the user cut through material. transferring the force they applied to the blunt edge out to the sides of the wedge. A person walking up a gradual path to the top of a mountain rather than climbing straight up a steep face is taking advantage of the principle of the inclined plane. Since there is much friction involved. Historians believe that Greek inventor Archimedes (287-212 BC) invented a screw-type device (known as Archimedes’ screw) for raising water. and turning the screw lifts water up the cylinder to a higher level. . A knife is also a form of wedge. where the effort travels along the plane. from about 2700 that the Egyptians used a lubricant. It consists of a cylinder with a wide-threaded screw inside. BC to 1000 BC. threaded nuts and bolts take advantage of the friction that results from the contact between A wedge is another form of inclined plane. as well as the inclined plane and other objects.useful as fastening devices. Screws were used in ancient times as lifting devices. to reduce the sliding friction and thus increase the efficiency of the inclined planes. The resulting pressure in the cracks caused the rocks to split. the mechanical advantage of a wedge is difficult to determine. Screws driven straight into wood or other materials. The bottom end of the cylinder is set in water. These devices use friction to hold things together. A wedge is essentially a double inclined plane. narrows down to a tip. Wedges are often used to split materials such as wood or stone. Wedges transfer downward effort applied to the blunt edge of the where two planes are joined at their bases. The joined inclined planes form a blunt end that wedge out to the sides of the wedge to help it cut through an object. Effort is applied directly to the wedge. which differs from an inclined plane. This principle is still used in some pumps today. probably milk.

then transmit the design to a second computer that creates the part using CAM. The first two steps in . II COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN Engineers use CAD to create two. and maps. CAD is software for creating precise engineering drawings. such as those for automobile and airplane parts. drafting and computer graphics techniques are combined to produce models of objects. such as a drill or a lathe. CAM engineers similarly use computer modeling to determine the best overall manufacturing procedures for use in an industrial plant. In the design stage. While it may be faster for an engineer to create an initial drawing by hand. Engineers use CAD and CAM together to create the design in CAD on one computer.Computer-Aided Design/ComputerAided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) I INTRODUCTION Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM). including the testing and handling of finished products. Designers manipulate and test these models on video display screens until information is then combined with CAM procedures through shared databases. the application of computers in the design and manufacture of components used in the production of items such as automobiles and jet engines. floor plans. including ease of production and cost. The CAD possible to perform the six-step "art-to-part" process with a computer. Today.and three-dimensional drawings. it is this process are the use of sketching software to capture the initial design ideas and to they incorporate the best balance of features. CAM adds a computer to a machine tool. it is much more efficient to change and distribute drawings by computer.

The software generates an image. or model. called a toolpath display. and electric eraser. Since the the CAD software programs instead of through shared databases mid-1980s CAD and CAM have come closer together. engineers use analysis software to ensure that the part is strong enough. plastic stencil. much as print preview in a word- processing program displays a page before it is printed. and cleans up the part. Early CAD The earliest CAM software was a simple computer attached to a milling machine. Massachusetts. Next. The third step is rendering an accurate image of what the part will look like.produce accurate engineering drawings. CAM software selects the best cutting tools for the material and sets the most effective cutting speed. which removes large areas of material. III COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING CAM uses a computer to control the manufacture of objects such as parts. IV HISTORY American Ivan Sutherland invented CAD in 1961 when he described a computerized sketchpad in a doctoral thesis while attending the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge. the rough cut. Step five is the production of a prototype. engineers can run CAD software on personal computers or UNIX workstations. beyond which the tool may not cut. or wood. other tools drafters used. He designed CAD to replace the traditional drafting board and software ran on large. as some CAM software operates within . expensive computers. which removes gouges. produces a smooth finish. plastic. which are most often made of metal. and polishing. The tool's path has three stages: the containment area. The manufacturing operations may include milling. lathing. drilling. Punching buttons on the computer’s front panel programmed the software for the machine. such as the ink pen. In the final step the CAM software controls the machine that produces the part. and the surface finish cut. Today. that shows how the tool will cut the material.

the valve is closed and the water is shut off. When the water falls past a certain level. When the float reaches a certain height. the float drops. specialized machines were developed for tasks such as placing caps on bottles or pouring liquid rubber into tire not reach for objects and place them in a desired location. As technology improved. however. the development of specialized tools. and accomplish work while interacting with its environment. and 18th-century watchmakers were famous for their clever mechanical Feedback (self-correcting) control mechanisms were used in some of the earliest robots and are still in use today. This device featured two metal balls connected to the drive shaft of a speed increased. An example of feedback control is a watering trough that uses a float to sense the water level.U. computer-controlled machine that is programmed to move. they could . engineer James Watt. and the division of work into smaller automation of factories in the 18th century. had none of the versatility of the human arm. (Rossum's Universal Robots) by the Czech novelist and playwright Karel Capek. thus regulating the speed. These machines. so does the float. As the engine steam to the engine was decreased. Automata. medieval churches. meaning “compulsory labor. the balls swung out due to centrifugal force. As the water rises. The word that humans find difficult or undesirable. The term robot originates from the robot has been used since to refer to a machine that performs work to assist people or work II HISTORY The concept of automated machines dates to antiquity with myths of mechanical beings brought to life. tasks that could be performed by either workers or machines were essential ingredients in the molds. closing the valve. Robots are able to perform repetitive Czech word robota.R. and releases more water into the trough. manipulate objects. The flow of Feedback control. tasks more quickly. cheaply. or manlike machines. and accurately than humans. opens a valve. invented in 1788 by the Scottish steam engine and also coupled to a valve that regulated the flow of steam.Robot I INTRODUCTION Robot.” It was first used in the 1921 play R. also appeared in the clockwork figures of creatures. The first true feedback controller was the Watt governor.

changing its orientation. but with some differences. For example. or end effectors.. led to the modern robot. desired location within its reach. or manipulator. developed a truly flexible multipurpose manipulator known as the Programmable Universal Manipulation Arm (PUMA). by sliding cylindrical sections one over another to lengthen the arm. in 1954. Many robots are equipped with special purpose The joints of a robotic arm are usually driven by electric motors. Grippers. a robot arm can extend by telescoping—that is. In 1975 the American mechanical engineer Victor Scheinman. the gripper is moved from one position to another. Jr. . PUMA was capable of moving an object and placing it with any orientation in a for most contemporary robots. Robot arms also can be constructed so that they bend like an elephant trunk. are designed to mimic the grippers to grasp particular devices such as a rack of test tubes or an arc-welder. In most robots. while a graduate student at Stanford University in California. The basic multijointed concept of the PUMA is the template III HOW ROBOTS WORK The inspiration for the design of a robot manipulator is the human arm. A primitive arm that could be programmed to perform specific tasks was developed by the American inventor George Devol.The development of the multijointed artificial arm. A computer calculates the joint angles needed to move the gripper to the desired position in a process known as inverse kinematics. function and structure of the human hand.

Robots. high- . with human beings. Each joint in the arm has a device to measure its angle and send that value computed angle. Controllers and associated computers also must process sensor information collected from cameras that locate objects to be grasped. or feedback.000 in Western Europe. Any robot designed to move in an unstructured or unknown environment will require multiple sensors and controls.000 were used in Japan. to avoid obstacles. such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) planetary rovers. In other cases. Safety must be integral to the design of human service robots.000 in the United States. Many robot applications are for tasks that are either dangerous or unpleasant for human beings.Some multijointed arms are equipped with servo. Over 500. controllers that receive input to the controller. and about 60. require a multitude of sensors and powerful onboard computers to process the complex information that allows them mobility. the servo controller moves the joint until the arm's angle matches the from a computer. such as ultrasonic or infrared sensors. about 120. Robots can perform these repetitive. such as blood or urine samples.000 robots were operating in the industrialized world. robots are used in repetitive. In medical laboratories. This is particularly true for robots designed to work in close proximity meals in a hospital. robots handle potentially hazardous materials. or they must touch sensors on grippers that regulate the grasping force. such as robots that assist persons with disabilities and robots that deliver IV USES FOR ROBOTS In 1995 about 700. monotonous tasks in which human performance might degrade over time. If the actual angle of the arm does not equal the computed angle for the desired position.

Similarly. traveled to Jupiter in 1996 and performed tasks such as determining the chemical content of the Jovian atmosphere. . But robots can cause the loss of unskilled jobs. Robots are being used to assist surgeons in installing artificial hips. painting. New and in the conversion of old factories and the design of new ones.000 robots for tasks such as spot fastest growing industrial applications of robotics. in robot installation and maintenance. robots can assist surgeons with delicate operations on the human eye. A major user of robots is the automobile welding. It requires higher precision than welding or Activities in environments that pose great danger to humans. machine loading. These new jobs.precision operations 24 hours a day without fatigue. an unpiloted space probe. and active volcano exploration. under the remote control of expert surgeons that may one day perform operations in distant battlefields. Research in telesurgery V IMPACT OF ROBOTS Robotic manipulators create manufactured products that are of higher quality and lower cost. however. parts transfer. jobs are created in software and sensor development. Robots are used in electronic assembly where they mount microchips on circuit boards. such as locating sunken ships. cleanup of nuclear waste. prospecting for underwater mineral deposits. particularly on assembly lines in factories. industry. and very high-precision uses robots. are ideally suited to robots. robots can explore distant planets. General Motors Corporation uses approximately 16. NASA's Galileo. Assembly is one of the painting and depends on low-cost sensor systems and powerful inexpensive computers. and assembly.

and machines are being developed that can perform cognitive tasks. diagnosis of failures in aircraft or satellites. The field of artificial intelligence is moving rapidly from university laboratories to practical application in industry. or the control of a large factory will be performed by intelligent computers. and the care of homes and businesses. the management of a battlefield. vessels to deliver medicine or clean arterial blockages. and mow lawns. They also may work inside large Perhaps the most dramatic changes in future robots will arise from their increasing ability to reason. the maintenance of the world's infrastructure. One important trend is the development of microelectromechanical systems. Robots will be able to make new highways. such as strategic planning and learning from experience. construct steel frameworks of buildings. Technologically oriented societies must face the task can be employable in the industries of the 21st century. Increasingly. providing them with new skills so that they VI FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES Automated machines will increasingly assist humans in the manufacture of new products. of retraining workers who lose jobs to automation. . ranging in size from centimeters to millimeters.require higher levels of skill and training. These tiny robots may be used to move through blood machines to diagnose impending mechanical problems. Prototypes of systems to perform all of these tasks already exist. clean underground pipelines.

Those used to carry cargo are called pickups . omnibuses. the so-called horseless carriage has forever altered the leading causes of death and injury throughout the world. number of doors. particularly in the United States and other industrialized nations. The typical automobile. and automobile accidents rank among the elaborate road and highway systems. motorcar. From the growth of suburbs to the development of modern landscape. But for better or worse. can be called the Age of the Automobile. has four wheels and can carry up to six people. Larger vehicles designed to carry more passengers are called vans. including a driver. the 1900s and economy well into the 21st century. and servicing of automobiles have become key elements of industrial economies. auto. and passenger car. also called a car.Automobile I INTRODUCTION Automobile. self-propelled vehicle used primarily on public roads but adaptable to other surfaces. the automobile has brought noise and air pollution. sale. or buses. minivans. style. The manufacture. and cars will no doubt continue to shape our culture Automobiles are classified by size. Automobiles changed the world during the 20th century. But along with greater mobility and job creation. and intended use.

but some engines use diesel ethanol (grain alcohol). Safety features such as bumpers. air bags.5 million passenger cars. For information on the business of making cars. natural gas. Suspension systems. II POWER SYSTEM Gasoline internal-combustion engines power most automobiles. when rotated by powered axles. cool it produces mechanical power that is transmitted to the automobile’s wheels through a during operation. Various systems supply the engine with fuel. lubricate its moving parts. which include springs and shock absorbers.3 million passenger vehicles were produced in North America in 2001. and other stresses. and seat belts help protect occupants in an accident. and help protect the vehicle from being damaged by bumps. a differential gear. cushion the ride and Wheels and tires support the vehicle on the roadway and.or trucks. and powers such components as headlights and radios. which includes a transmission. axles. The automobile is built around an engine. solar energy. see Automobile Industry. depending on their size and design. Minivans are van-style vehicles built on a passenger car frame that can usually carry up to eight passengers. one or more driveshafts. An electrical system starts and operates the engine. Steering and braking systems provide control over controls many aspects of the vehicle’s operation. monitors and propel the vehicle forward or backward. In 2001 manufacturing plants in more than 35 countries produced 39. heavy loads. Sport-utility vehicles. fuel. electricity. also known as SUVs. About 7. The engine drivetrain. or fuels derived from methanol (wood alcohol) and . and remove exhaust gases it creates. are more rugged than passenger cars and are designed for driving in mud or snow. direction and speed.

The motor to disengage from the flywheel. The pistons’ motion rotates the crankshaft at speeds ranging from about 600 to thousands of revolutions per minute (rpm). which are solid cylinders that fit snugly inside the engine’s hollow cylinders. A rod connects the bottom of pivot. The block is manufactured with internal and formed with a set of round cylinders. permitting the starter A Engine The basic components of an internal-combustion engine are the engine block. and camshaft. which in turn causes the engine’s crankshaft to revolve. cylinder head. engine block. crankshaft is now rotating via the up-and-down motion of the pistons. transferring the piston’s vertical motion into the crankshaft’s rotational force. and crankshaft.Most gasoline engines work in the following way: Turning the ignition key operates a switch that sends electricity from a battery to a starter motor. or combusts. valves. in older cars. depending on how much fuel is delivered to the cylinders. houses the cylinders. pistons. The lower part of the engine. The fuel mixture explodes. causes pistons. Fuel vapor enters and exhaust gases leave the combustion chamber through openings in the cylinder head controlled by valves. pistons. Fuel-injection systems or. Lubricated bearings enable both ends of the connecting rod to The top of the piston forms the floor of the combustion chamber. Bolted to the top of the block. The starter motor turns a disk known as a flywheel. The rotating crankshaft move up and down. crankshaft. or torque. it seals the tops of the cylinders. Pistons compress air and fuel against the cylinder head prior to ignition. creating hot expanding gases that push the pistons down the cylinders and cause the crankshaft to rotate. cylinders. the piston to the crankshaft. The typical engine valve is a metal shaft with a disk at one . a carburetor deliver fuel vapor from the gas tank to the engine cylinders. to The pistons compress the vapor inside the cylinders. The components of other engine passageways for lubricants and coolant. called the systems bolt or attach to the engine block. An electric current flows through a spark plug to ignite the vapor. Engine blocks are made of cast iron or aluminum alloy The upper part of the engine is the cylinder head.

a round rod with odd-shaped lobes located inside the engine block or in the cylinder head. which have one or more elliptical chambers in which triangular-shaped rotors. Some cars have rotary engines. or flat. Commercial electric car models for specialized purposes were car in the mid-1990s. with greater force than a gasoline engine does. are similar to gasoline internal-combustion engines. When fuel vapor ignites. and use more fuel. as the size and number of cylinders engines have been designed with 1. although wider. two rows of cylinders are set at an angle to form a V. Outlet valves open to let exhaust gases out. shallower Engines become more powerful. fit into a shorter. A gear wheel. Electric power supplied by batteries runs the motor. In-line configurations of six or eight cylinders require long engine compartments found more often in trucks than in cars. General Motors Corporation introduced a mass-production all-electric Automobiles that combine two or more types of engines are called hybrids. When the crankshaft forces the camshaft to turn. In a V design. At the bottom of the V is the crankshaft. common in large trucks or buses.or diesel-powered engine. belt. A typical hybrid is an electric motor with batteries that are recharged by a generator run by a small gas. the intake and outlet valves close B Engine Types The blocks in most internal-combustion engines are in-line designs or V designs. Most modern vehicles in the United States have 4-. Inlet valves open to allow fuel to enter the combustion chambers. Another engine design that fits into shorter. producing temperatures hot enough to ignite Electric motors have been used to power automobiles since the late 1800s. or chain links the camshaft to the crankshaft. The other end of the shaft is mechanically linked to a camshaft. and more cylinders. Diesels compress air inside the cylinders the diesel fuel on contact. but they have a different ignition system. 6-. 5. By relying more on electricity and less on fuel combustion. 2. increase. 3. arrangement in which the crankshaft lies between two rows of cylinders. or 8-cylinder engines.end fitted to block the opening. space. rotate. which rotates a driveshaft. The V design allows the same number of cylinders to spaces is a horizontally opposed. These hybrids are known as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). lobes on the camshaft cause valves to open and close at precise tightly to direct the force of the explosion downward on the piston. the shaft that transmits engine power to the axles. HEVs have higher fuel efficiency and emit . 12. In-line designs are arranged so that the cylinders stand upright in a single line over the crankshaft. instead of pistons. moments in the engine’s cycle. available in the 1980s. but car Diesel engines. also known as Wankel engines.

fuel injection is more precise. or vapor. fuel and air in the cylinders’ combustion chambers. the airflow transforms drops of fuel into a fine mist. All new cars produced today are equipped with fuel injection systems instead of carburetors. where it is ignited. the Prius. and more consistent than a openings to the combustion chambers. It became available C Fuel Supply The internal-combustion engine is powered by the burning of a precise mixture of liquefied then pumped to a carburetor or. It mixes fuel with air at the head of a pipe. A vacuum created by the downward strokes of pistons draws air through the carburetor and intake The intake manifold delivers the fuel vapor to the cylinders. Several automakers have experimented with hybrids. in newer cars. in 1999.fewer pollutants. manifold. engine responsiveness. but most are operated or managed electronically. Inside the carburetor. called the intake manifold. The carburetor controls the mixture of gas and air that travels to the engine. Since the exact quantity of gas needed is injected into carburetor. Ltd. was offered by Honda Motor Co. Corporation became the first to mass-produce a hybrid vehicle. . The first hybrid available for sale in North America. Fuel-injection systems vary widely. Fuel injectors spray carefully calibrated bursts of fuel mist into cylinders either at or near the cylinders. Fuel is stored in a tank until it is needed.. leading to the cylinders. In 1997 Toyota Motor in Japan in 1997 and in North America in 2000. to a fuel-injection system. and pollution control. easier to adjust. the Honda Insight. gas mileage.. delivering better efficiency.

that is.High-performance automobiles are often fitted with air-compressing equipment that increases an engine’s output. called antifreeze that has a higher boiling point and lower freezing point than water. Some engines are air cooled. or muffles. engine noise. the coolant is a chemical solution effective in temperature extremes. Car manufacturers are experimenting with an electronic muffler. A pump sends the coolant from the engine to a radiator. By increasing the air and fuel flow to the engine. a liquid coolant circulates through the engine. Most conventional mufflers are round or oval-shaped with an inlet and outlet pipe at either end. the coolant was water. The sound waves from the electronic muffler collide with the exhaust sound waves and they cancel each other out. that controls speakers near the tailpipe. Some contain partitions to help reduce engine noise. In most automobiles. they are designed so a flow of air can reach metal fins that conduct heat away from the cylinders. The conventional muffler is an enclosed metal tube packed with sound-deadening material. which transfers heat from the coolant to the air. Chemical reactions inside the catalytic converter change most of the hazardous hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide produced by the engine into water vapor and carbon dioxide. III DRIVETRAIN . This unit uses engine heat to warm the interior of the passenger compartment and supply heat to the windshield defroster. leaving only low-level heat to emerge from the tailpipe. In early engines. which uses sensors to monitor the sound waves of the exhaust noise. making it A second. Turbochargers are turbine-powered compressors run by pressurized exhaust gas. smaller radiator is fitted to all modern cars. The system generates sound waves 180 degrees out E Cooling and Heating System Combustion inside an engine produces temperatures high enough to melt cast iron. The sound wave data are sent to a computer of phase with the engine noise. Exhaust gases leave the engine in a pipe. atmosphere and reduces. these features produce greater horsepower. Superchargers are compressors powered by the crankshaft. A cooling system conducts this heat away from the engine’s cylinders and radiates it into the air. In most automobiles today. D Exhaust System The exhaust system carries exhaust gases from the engine’s combustion chamber to the traveling through a catalytic converter and a muffler before exiting through the tailpipe.

while low a and for climbing hills. automatic. There are three basic transmission types: manual. transfers power from the engine to the driveshaft. Gears are selected with a shift lever located on the floor next . A manual transmission has a gearbox from which the driver selects specific gears depending on road speed and engine load. although some automobiles were designed with a transmission mounted on the rear axle.The rotational force of the engine’s crankshaft turns other shafts and gears that eventually cause the drive wheels to rotate. combinations of transmission gears pass the energy along to a driveshaft. one A Transmission The transmission. The driveshaft causes axles to rotate and turn the wheels. standstill The transmission usually is located just behind the engine. also known as the gearbox. and continuously variable. The major parts of the drivetrain include the transmission. wheels make up the drivetrain. and axles. a transmission alters the rotational speed and torque of the gears provide more power for starting a car from engine passed along to the driveshaft. As the engine’s crankshaft rotates. Higher gears permit the car to travel faster. By using gears of different sizes. The various components that link the crankshaft to the drive or more driveshafts. differential gears.

four-wheel drive is an option the driver selects for certain road conditions. Most automobiles either are frontwheel or rear-wheel drive.and Rear-Wheel Drive Depending on the vehicle’s design. Instead of making distinct changes from one gear to the next. automatic transmissions use a hydraulic torque converter to transfer engine power to the transmission. .to the driver or on the steering column. others feature full-time. the rear wheels. The transmission keeps the engine running at its most B Front. Instead of a manual clutch. all-wh eel drive. It presses against a circular plate attached to the engine’s flywheel. a mechanical lever called a clutch fork and a device called a throwout bearing separate the two disks. Continuously variable transmissions appeared on machinery during the 19th century and on a few smallefficient speed by more precisely matching the gear ratio to the situation. engine automobiles as early as 1900. In some vehicles. a continuously variable transmission uses belts and pulleys to smoothly slide the gear ratio up or down. The driver presses on the clutch to disengage the transmission from the engine to permit a change of gears. engine power is transmitted by the transmission to the front wheels. or to all four wheels. Releasing the clutch pedal presses the two disks together. transferring torque from the engine to the transmission. The clutch disk attaches to the transmission’s input shaft. When the driver presses down on the clutch pedal to shift gears. Commercial applications have been limited to small engines. The wheels receiving power are called drive wheels: They propel the vehicle forward or backward. An automatic transmission selects gears itself according to road conditions and the amount of load on the engine.

the driveshaft runs under the car to a differential gear at the rear axle. a long tube. output shaft to a differential gear in the axle. Four-wheel-drive vehicles have drive shafts and differentials for both axles. wheel suspension systems. . so the shock of one wheel hitting a bump is suspensions for automobiles and heavier vehicles use rigid axles with coil or leaf springs. Modern shock absorbers have a telescoping design and use oil. The driveshaft connects the transmission’s allow it to rotate as the axles move up and down over the road surface. Front wheels on wheel has its own axle and suspension supports. modern cars roll independently of each other on half-shafts instead of on a common axle. the differential is on the front axle and the connections to the transmission are much shorter. Sports cars and sportutility vehicles have firmer suspensions to improve cornering ability and control over rough terrain. luxury sedans.The differential is a gear assembly in an axle that enables each powered wheel to turn at different speeds when the vehicle makes a turn. Each not transferred across a common axle to the other wheel or the rest of the car. the sudden loading and unloading of suspension springs to reduce wheel bounce and each wheel. dampen. and hydraulic cylinders. One shock absorber is installed at combination to absorb energy. and sports cars feature independent rear- Active suspensions are computer-controlled adjustments of the downward force of each wheel as the vehicle corners or rides over uneven terrain. shock absorbers and other devices to protect the auto body and passenger compartment from A Suspension System The suspension system. contains springs that move up and down to absorb bumps and vibrations. and air. especially on unpaved roads. without a system of severe bumps and bounces. IV SUPPORT SYSTEMS Automobiles would deliver jolting rides. or the shock transferred from the road wheels to the body. Many rear-axle However. or strut. Shock absorbers control. advanced passenger cars. gas. part of the undercarriage of an automobile. much like the arrangement on horse-drawn buggies. Older automobiles were equipped with one-piece front axles attached to the frame with semielliptic leaf springs. Universal joints at both ends of the driveshaft In rear-wheel drive. has a shock absorber built into its center section. In front-wheel drive. Sensors. or a Luxury sedans generally have a soft suspension for comfortable riding. a pump. In one type of suspension system.

Automobile wheels generally are made of steel or aluminum. vehicle’s speed with the transmission and the gas pedal. first patented in 1845. which adjusts the amount of fuel fed . In addition. B Wheels and Tires Wheels support the vehicle’s weight and transfer torque to the tires from the drivetrain and braking systems. so driving conditions. and by stopping or slowing the speed at which the wheels rotate. and more expensive. fit on the outside rims of the wheels. the driver controls the to the engine.all monitored and controlled by computer. These controls are made possible by the steering and braking systems. enable the vehicle to lean into corners and compensate for the dips and dives that accompany emergency stops and rapid acceleration. Aluminum wheels are lighter. traction and strength are primary requirements. more impact absorbent. Tire treads come in several varieties to match V CONTROL SYSTEMS A driver controls the automobile’s motion by keeping the wheels pointed in the desired direction. Pneumatic (air-filled) rubber tires. Tires help smooth out the ride and provide the automobile’s only contact with the road.

Manual steering relies only on the force exerted by the driver to turn the wheels. An antilock braking system (ABS) uses a computer. all-wheel steering. or metal. wood. friction applied by linings. against the wheel rims. the driver pressed a block of friction between the wheel and the brake shoe caused the vehicle to slow down or stop. were in use by the 1950s. known as the shoe. or mechanism. and a hydraulic pump to stop the automobile’s forward motion without locking the wheels and putting the vehicle into a skid. especially on uneven terrain. Disk brakes. requiring less effort by the driver. operated by the pressure or movement of a liquid. Cotton and leather shoe coverings. Another method was to use a lever to clamp a strap or brake shoes tightly around the driveshaft. Since the drum and wheel rotate together. sensors. to motor instead of hydraulic pressure. augment that force. When a driver turns the steering wheel. leather. appeared in 1903. A brake system with shoes that pressed against the inside of a drum fitted to the wheel. Hydraulically assisted braking was introduced in the 1920s.A Steering Automobiles are steered by turning the front wheels. The first automobile brakes were much like those on horse-drawn wagons. Pulling on a lever or pushing down on a . By pulling a lever. securely park the car. called drum brakes. With sufficient pressure. the mechanical action rotates a steering shaft inside the steering column. gears or other devices convert the rotating motion of the steering wheel into a horizontal force that turns the wheels. although a few automobile types have The tie-rod insures that the turning of one wheel is matched by a corresponding turn in the other. Introduced in the 1980s. Depending on the steering mechanism. greatly extending the life of the brake the shoes inside the drum slowed or stopped the wheel. were replaced by asbestos after 1908. ABS helps the driver maintain better control over the car during emergency stops and while braking on slippery surfaces. Electric power steering uses an electric B Brakes Brakes enable the driver to slow or stop the moving vehicle. Most steering systems link the front wheels together by means of a tie-rod. Automobiles are also equipped with a hand-operated brake used for emergencies and to foot pedal sets the brake. in which friction pads clamp down on both sides of a disk attached to the axle. Conventional power steering uses hydraulic pressure.

recharging the battery and powering the rest of the car’s electrical needs. but 12 volts became standard after World War II (1939-1945) to operate the growing number of electrical accessories. The distributor’s housing contains a switch called the breaker . 24automobiles. or 48-volt systems may become the standard as more computers and electronics are built into A Ignition System The ignition system supplies high-voltage current to spark plugs to ignite fuel vapor in the cylinders. The alternator generates electric current while the engine is running. a distributor. turn signals. routes high-voltage current to the spark plugs. radio. windshield wipers. but all gasoline-engine ignition systems draw electric current from the battery. headlights. then deliver it to spark plugs that project into the combustion chambers. A battery and an alternator supply electricity. horn. The Early automotive electrical systems ran on 6 volts. battery stores electricity for starting the car. There are many variations. and other accessories. which is an electrical switching device. Eventually.VI ELECTRICAL SYSTEM The automobile depends on electricity for fuel ignition. significantly increase the current’s voltage. In older vehicles. An electric arc between two electrodes at the bottom of the spark plug ignites the fuel vapor.

5-mph) collisions with no damage. Bumpers evolved as rails or bars to protect the front and rear of the car’s body from damage in minor collisions. Some automobiles have side-impact air bags. which mechanically routes it through wires to spark plugs. the bag inflates almost instantaneously. Over the years. government regulations required bumpers designed to withstand low-speed collisions with less damage. not strong enough to survive minor collisions without expensive repairs. the distributor. At impact. The coil uses electromagnetic induction (see Electricity: Electromagnetism) to convert interruptions of the 12-volt current into surges of 20. and condenser have been replaced by solid-state electronics controlled by a computer. points from damage by the high-voltage surge. portions of the automobile designed to absorb forces on many vehicles also have reinforced roll bar structures in the roof. withstand 8-km/h (5-mph) collisions with no damage. in case the vehicle that otherwise would be transmitted to the passenger compartment. bumpers became stylish and. during an impact are now common. A computer controls the ignition system and adjusts it to provide maximum efficiency in a variety of driving conditions. Some bumpers can withstand 4-km/h (2. Air bags first appeared in the midsold in the United States. The inflated bag creates a dash on the passenger’s side. producing a spark that ignites the gas vapor in the cylinders. interrupting the supply of low-voltage current to a transformer called a coil. VII SAFETY FEATURES Manufacturers continue to build lighter vehicles with improved structural rigidity and ability to protect the driver and passengers during collisions. points.000 volts or more. A rotating shaft in the distributor causes the switch to open and close. Today they are installed on all new passenger cars .points. while others can Modern vehicles feature crumple zones. 1970s. available as an optional accessory. located in doors cushion between the occupant and the vehicle’s interior. The distributor and other devices control the In modern ignition systems. Seat belt and upper-body restraints that relax to permit comfort but tighten automatically belts that slide into position automatically when the car’s doors close. Some car models are equipped with shoulder-restraint An air bag is a high-speed inflation device hidden in the hub of the steering wheel or in the or seats. This high-voltage current passes back to the distributor. in some cases. and protective beams in the doors to help protect passengers from side impacts. coil. Eventually. Passenger compartments overturns. A condenser absorbs excess current and protects the breaker timing of the spark-plug discharges.

Stanley.Air bags inflate with great force. which occasionally endangers a child or infant passenger. including the creation of a wheel that turned under its own power. As early as 1801 successful but very heavy steam automobiles were introduced in England.2 km/h (2 mph) and had to stop every 20 minutes to build up a fresh head of steam. built by American twin brothers Freelan and Francis Stanley. Automakers continue to effective in collisions. companies pressured the British Parliament to approve heavy tolls on steam-powered road During the early 20th century steam cars were popular in the United States. yet VIII HISTORY The history of the automobile actually began about 4. Cugnot’s three-wheeled. French engineer Onésiphore Pecqueur built one in 1828. In the early 15th century the Portuguese arrived in China and In 1769 French Army officer Captain Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built what has been called the first automobile. British inventor Walter Handcock built a series of steam carriages in the mid-1830s that were used for the first omnibus service in London. until 1932. In 1802 a steam-powered coach designed by British engineer Richard Trevithick Laws barred them from public roads and forced their owners to run them like trains on private journeyed more than 160 km (100 mi) from Cornwall to London. Illinois. tracks. In 1804 American inventor Oliver Evans built a steampowered vehicle in Chicago. The tolls quickly drove the steam coach operators out of business. Some newer automobile models are equipped with switches to disable the passenger-side air research ways to make air-bag systems less dangerous for frail and small passengers. including the A Internal-Combustion Engine . but it was another century before a full-sized engine-powered used for transportation in India. A Stanley Steamer established a world land speed record in 1906 of 205. By the 1600s small steam-powered engine vehicle was created. Horse-drawn stagecoach companies and the new railroad vehicles. it had a top speed of a little more than 3. steam-powered vehicle carried four persons. Manufacturers produced about 125 models of steam-powered automobiles. By the mid-1800s England had an extensive network of steam coach lines.000 years ago when the first wheel was the interaction of the two cultures led to a variety of new technologies.573 mph). models had been developed. bags when a child or infant is traveling in the passenger seat.44 km/h (121. Steam power caught the attention of other vehicle builders. Designed to move artillery pieces. Most famous was the Stanley Steamer.

in stroke three the vapor explodes and the hot gases push the pistons cylinders. but less efficiently and with more exhaust emissions. Two-stroke engines accomplish the same Automobile manufacturing began in earnest in Europe by the late 1880s. as other car designers had done. they were called internal-combustion engines. The joint company makes cars today under the Mercedes-Benz nameplate (see DaimlerChrysler AG). Two years later.Development of lighter steam cars during the 19th century coincided with major developments in engines that ran on gasoline or other fuels. Karl successful car manufacturing company. including Renault. the most direct ancestor to today’s automobile engines. Other French (Fabbrica Italiana Automobili di Torino) began building cars in 1899. a carriage propelled by a two-cylinder gasoline engine. In 1864 Austrian inventor Siegfried Marcus built and drove internal-combustion engine that was displayed at the 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia. The Daimler Motor Company. In 1860 French inventor Jean-Joseph-Étienne Lenoir patented a one-cylinder engine that used kerosene for fuel. and separate construction of the chassis. Benz. a vehicle powered by Lenoir’s engine reached a top speed of about 6. Fiat . Another German engineer. and the car body. In 1891 this first Peugeot automobile paced a 1. produced his first gasoline car in 1886. Instead of installing the engine under the seats. the pistons move up to compress the vapor. in stroke two. and in stroke four the pistons move up to push exhaust gases out of the cylinder after the other instead of in all at once. In 1887 they manufactured their first car. creating a motorcycle. The company’s first model was a gasoline-powered buggy steered by a tiller. or underlying structure of the car. In a four-stroke engine the pistons move down to draw fuel vapor into the cylinder during stroke one.4 km/h (about 4 mph).046-km (650-mi) professional bicycle race between Paris and Brest. Panhard-Levassor also introduced a clutch and gears. French bicycle manufacturer Armand Peugeot saw the Panhard-Levassor car and designed an automobile using a similar Daimler engine. down the cylinders. a company called Panhard-Levassor began making cars in 1894 using Daimler’s patents. Because the newer engines burned fuel in cylinders inside the engine. which eventually merged with Benz’s manufacturing firm in 1926 to create Daimler-Benz. automobile manufacturers opened shop in the late 1800s. In 1890 Daimler and Maybach started a Gottlieb Daimler and German inventor Wilhelm Maybach mounted a gasoline-powered engine which included a steering tiller and a four-speed gearbox. in 1885. the company introduced the design of a front-mounted engine under the hood. American George Brayton patented an In 1876 German engineer Nikolaus August Otto built a four-stroke gas engine. Pennsylvania. German engineer onto a bicycle. Engines with two or more cylinders are designed so combustion occurs in one steps. In Italy. In France.

By 1899 an km/h (65. electric engines enjoyed great popularity because they were quiet and ran at slow speeds that were less likely to scare horses and people. four-horsepower model. a American industrialist Henry Ford built an internal-combustion engine from plans he saw in a B Early Electric Cars For a few decades in the 1800s. looked much like a Panhard-Levassor model.170 were steam cars. He then designed a similar one and obtained a broad patent that for many years was interpreted to apply to all gasoline engines for automobiles. In 1900 more than 2.8810 Early electric cars featured a large bank of storage batteries under the hood. and only 400 were gasoline cars. Of these. 1. After eight years of court battles. three kinds of power sources were in common use: steam engines. the courts ruled in manufacturers were using four-stroke engines. 800 were electric cars. Most electric cars had needed recharging.79 mph). electric car designed and driven by Belgian inventor Camille Jenatzy set a record of 105. he collected royalties from those who did. The first Duryea. In 1896 he used an engine to power a vehicle mounted on bicycle wheels and steered by a tiller. Selden. Illinois. and electric motors. Ford and most other royalties for Ford-manufactured engines. Frank Duryea built several gas-powered vehicles between 1893 and 1895. Henry Ford believed Selden’s patent was invalid. But development of gasoline cars in the early 1900s was hindered in the United States by legal battles over a patent obtained by New York lawyer George B. gasoline engines. Boston. Selden saw a gasoline engine at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition in 1876. Heavy cables top speeds of 48 km/h (30 mph). Massachusetts. and Chicago. Selden sued when Ford refused to pay 1911 that Selden’s patent applied only to two-stroke engines. Although Selden did not manufacture engines or automobiles. Electric automobiles were manufactured in quantity in the United States IX AUTOMOBILES IN THE 20TH CENTURY For many years after the introduction of automobiles. Brothers Charles Edgar Duryea and James one-cylinder. connected the batteries to a motor between the front and rear axles.American automobile builders were not far behind. In 1893 magazine. Gasoline-powered engines eventually became the nearly universal choice for automobiles because they allowed longer trips and faster speeds than engines powered by steam or electricity. but could go only 80 km (50 mi) before their batteries until 1930. so Selden could not charge them royalties.300 automobiles were registered in New York City. .

in that same year. very similar in design to most cars today. appeared in 1933. shatterproof glass. improved carburetors. comfortable. Popularly known as the Tin Lizzy. Major reasons for the surge in automobile ownership were Ford’s Model T. Automobiles on both sides of the . In 1906 gasoline-powered cars were produced that had a style all their own. along with weather resistant tops and side curtains. when models R and S appeared. Ford sold more than 15 million before stopping the cars was widely adopted in the automobile industry. Most automobiles at the turn of the 20th century appeared more or less like horseless carriages. the Model A.Improvements in the operating and riding qualities of gasoline automobiles developed quickly after 1900. a hood covered the front-mounted engine. and each model was named Ford’s famous Model T debuted in 1908 but was called a 1909 Ford. An electric self-starter was introduced in 1911 to replace the hand crank used to start the engine turning. The 1902 Locomobile was the first American car with a four-cylinder. Company. balloon tires. Two kerosene or acetylene lamps mounted to the front served as headlights. By 1907. more reliable Mercedes introduced the world’s first diesel car in 1936.771 Model the biggest-selling automobiles of all time. four-wheel hydraulic brake systems. vehicle. Electric headlights were introduced at about the same time. Although drivers of horse-drawn In 1903 Henry Ford incorporated the Ford Motor Company. T’s and offered nine body styles. which was hardly surprising since Ford had designed cars the previous year for the Cadillac Motor Car with a letter of the alphabet. The company’s innovative assembly-line method of building By 1920 more than 8 million Americans owned cars. Independent front suspension. Also introduced during the 1930s were stronger. Ford built 17. front-mounted gasoline engine. Built-in baggage compartments appeared in 1906. It closely resembled the 1903 Cadillac. Improvements in engine-powered cars during the 1920s contributed to their popularity: synchromesh transmissions for easier gear shifting. Many 12- and 16-cylinder cars were built. which introduced its first automobile. the assembly-line method of building it. which made the big cars more braking systems. and higher-compression engines. automobile engines and bodies became large and luxurious. which developed more horsepower. The passenger compartment was behind the engine. windshield wipers. heaters. and the affordability of cars for the ordinary wage earner. Ford’s share of the domestic automobile market had soared to 35 percent. Ford’s company rolled out new car models each year. watercooled. which helped passengers get in and out of the vehicles usually sat on the right. and mechanically operated From 1930 to 1937. automotive steering wheels were on the left in the United States. In these new models. the Model T became one of production of the model in 1927. Cars had fenders that covered the wheels and step-up platforms called running boards.

More the United States in 1949. tubeless tires. which gave better engine performance and more reliable operation of the growing number of electrical accessories. Two schools of styling emerged in the 1950s. In the 1950s new automotive features were introduced. Only two were sold that year. including tailfins and portholes.Atlantic were styled with gracious proportions. and pontoon-shaped fenders. Automobiles were produced that had more space. That prompted a downsizing of some American-made vehicles. power brakes. 16 compact trucks. it did not attract buyers on a large scale until 1958. more power. By 1960 sales of foreign and domestic compacts accounted for about one-third of all passenger cars sold in the United States.300 kg (2. offered postwar designs that merged fenders into the bodywork. Three companies. During the 1940s. European sports cars of that era featured hand-fashioned aluminum bodies over a steel chassis and framework. arrived in buying the Beetle and other small imports by the thousands. but American consumers soon began compacts. In America. sealed-beam headlights. advertised as the Beetle. Styling sometimes prevailed over practicality—some cars were built in even the least expensive models. and Ford all built enormous cars. including air conditioning and electrically operated car windows and seat adjusters. long hoods. Ford. The first American car called a compact was the Nash Rambler. automobile designers borrowed features for their cars that were normally found on aircraft and ships. and its new styling was so well accepted the car continued in production virtually unchanged for three years. American cars were built smaller. smaller in overall size than a standard car but with virtually the same interior body dimensions. emerged from the factories of many major manufacturers. The Europeans continued to produce small.800 lb). and Hudson Motor Car Company.495 kg (5. and the automatic transmission were introduced. Olds Motor Vehicle Company (Oldsmobile). The Buick Motor Car Company. Introduced in 1950. selling more than 3 million. some weighing as much as 2. light cars weighing less than 1. The first import by German manufacturer Volkswagen AG. Creative artistry merged with industrial design to produce appealing. Nash. Introduction of power steering and power brakes made bigger cars easier to handle. Cadillac Automobile Company. arrived in the United States in 1956. Manufacturers changed from the 6-volt to the 12-volt ignition system. The first Japanese imports. and smoother riding capability. Heating and ventilating systems became standard equipment on became widespread. and power steering . one on each side of the Atlantic. The 1949 Ford was a landmark in this respect. Automatic transmissions. but with increased engine size and horsepower. Some of the first vehicles to fully incorporate the fender into the bodywork came along just after World War II. but the majority of designs still had separate fenders with pontoon shapes holding headlight assemblies. aerodynamic automobiles.500 lb).

the EV1. but they are noisy. quieter diesel engine introduced by Volkswagen in 1996 may pave the way for more diesels.864 mi) in Australia in six days. At the same time. SunRaycer. while imported imports. sporty Advances in automobile technology in the 1980s included better engine control and the use of innovative types of fuel.which the engines had to be lifted to allow simple service operations. Popular in trucks and heavy vehicles. Japanese manufacturers opened plants in the United States. A solar-powered vehicle. A redesigned. lighter models in addition to to sell well.000 km (1. and less pollution. the auto industry was hurt by the energy crisis. to California buyers. board computer to monitor engine performance. compacts were getting as much as 35 mpg. and a water-vapor by-product. the bigger sedans that led their product lines. Back seats were designed with no legroom. more fuel-efficient Digital speedometers and electronic prompts to service parts of the vehicle appeared in the cars and family minivans surged in popularity. no carbon dioxide. In the 1970s American manufacturers continued to offer smaller. Hydrogen combustion produces only a trace of harmful emissions. and weak consumer interest. In 1996 General Motors became the first to begin selling an all-electric car. In 1981 Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW) introduced an on3. More buyers chose the smaller. diesel engines are only a small portion of the automobile market. driving up the price of gasoline. traveled X NEW TECHNOLOGIES Pollution-control laws adopted at the beginning of the 1990s in some of the United States and in Europe called for automobiles that produced better gas mileage with lower emissions. created when the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). The California Air Resources Board required companies with the largest market shares to begin selling vehicles that were pollution free—in other words. in passenger cars. electric. . technical problems related to the gas’s density and flammability remain to be solved. 1980s. a cartel of oil-producing countries. The allelectric cars introduced so far have been limited by low range. and produce fewer pollutants. Engines that run on hydrogen have been tested. but Japanese and European compacts continued During this period. like changing the spark plugs. The price of crude oil skyrocketed. Catalytic converters were introduced to help reduce exhaust emissions. However. Large cars were getting as little as 8 miles per gallon (mpg). long recharges. cut back on sales to other countries. Diesel engines burn fuel more efficiently.

The onboard navigation system uses an electronic satellite-aided global positioning system (GPS). and exhaust-emission levels.While some developers searched for additional alternatives.000 lb) from the weight of the typical car by making cars smaller. and a display screen showing where the vehicle is relative to the and directs the driver to it. weather information. destination the driver wants to reach. by the 1990s it had become Onboard navigation was one of the new automotive technologies in the 1990s. Two automobiles with such hybrid engines. In the 1980s the reality. the Toyota Prius and the Honda Insight. and if necessary. in the engine and the rest of the vehicle. direct repair or emergency workers to the scene. and research on pollution control will produce better. so the emphasis has shifted to using lighter materials. in vehicle size are not practical. selling 30. Future built-in computer systems may be used to automatically obtain business information During the 1980s and 1990s. Insight debuted in North America in late 1999. “smarter” automobiles. the sound system. The central processing unit (CPU) in modern engines manages overall engine performance. Both vehicles. a computer in the automobile can pinpoint the compass. route directions. such as . became available in the late 1990s. digitized maps. offering alternative routes if needed. enabling a GPS system operator to locate the vehicle. and other data. promised to double the fuel efficiency of conventional gasoline-powered cars while significantly reducing toxic emissions. notion that a car would “talk” to its driver was science fiction. coupled with more efficient engines. known as hybrid electric vehicles Computer control of automobile systems increased dramatically during the 1990s. By using the vehicle’s location within a few meters. map its location. and the information displayed in the vehicle’s Expanded use of computer technology. computers also control the air dashboard. doubled the gas mileage obtained by the average new car between 1974 and 1995.000 models in its first two years of production. Less weight. The Prius became available for sale in North America in 2000. and air mixture ratios. the computer locates it Some cars now come equipped with GPS locator beacons. and carbon composites. Cars equipped with computers and cellular telephones can link to the Internet to obtain constantly updated traffic reports. manufacturers trimmed 450 kg (1. Further reductions plastics. aluminum alloys. Computers manage fuel braking and traction control systems. development of stronger and lighter materials. others investigated ways to combine electricity with liquid fuels to produce low-emissions power systems. Prius hit automobile showrooms in Japan in 1997. The Honda (HEVs). They adjust the antilock conditioning and heating. In many models. Microprocessors regulating other systems share data with the CPU. over the Internet and manage personal affairs while the vehicle’s owner is driving. ignition timing. After being told the destination.

Looking ahead. The technology may be expanded to new vehicles. In simple spur gearing. the car’s brakes automatically slow the warn drivers when another vehicle is in their “blind spot. At one time various mechanisms were collectively called gearing. and vice versa. Spur gears transmit rotating motion between two shafts or other parts with parallel axes. so most of the pollution they emit occurs in the first few minutes of operation.” vehicle if it is following another vehicle too closely. engineers are devising ways to reduce driver errors and poor driving habits. In some. transmitting motion from one shaft to another. or heat the converters more rapidly. New infrared sensors or radar systems may Catalytic converters work only when they are warm. Now. a wheel with teeth cut across its edge parallel to the axis. the word gearing is used only to describe systems of wheels or cylinders with constitute a gear train. toothed wheel or cylinder used to transmit rotary or reciprocating motion from one part of a machine to another. meshing teeth. with suitably rotating motion. Gear I INTRODUCTION Gear. the driven shaft revolves in the opposite direction to the driving shaft. but can. designed gears and flat-toothed sectors. If . Gearing is chiefly used to transmit rotating motion. Engineers are working on ways to keep the converters warm for longer periods between drives. Systems already exist in some locales to prevent intoxicated drivers from starting their vehicles. however. be employed to transform reciprocating motion into II SIMPLE GEARS The simplest gear is the spur gear. Anticollision systems with sensors and warning signals are being developed. Two or more gears.

thin cylinder that has one or more continuous helical teeth that mesh with a helical gear. In any form of gearing the speed of the driven shaft depends on the number of teeth in each gear. or annular. operates like a gear wheel with an infinite radius and can be used to transform Bevel gears are employed to transmit rotation between shafts that do not have parallel axes. also called the screw gear. When the angle between the rotating shafts is 90°.rotation in the same direction is desired. and a 20-tooth Internal. This thrust can be avoided by using double helical. The idler revolves in the opposite direction to the driving gear and therefore turns the driven gear in the same direction as the driving gear. a flat. a small gear with few teeth. One of the most common uses of hypoid gearing is to rotation between shafts that are not parallel is often incorrectly called spiral gearing. gears. Such gears are suitable for heavy loads because the gear teeth come the disadvantage of producing a thrust that tends to move the gears along their respective together at an acute angle rather than at 90° as in spur gearing. III HELICAL GEARS These have teeth that are not parallel to the axis of the shaft but are spiraled around the shaft in the form of a helix. or vice versa. A gear with 10 teeth gear driving a 10-tooth gear will revolve at half the speed. with a large reduction in speed. connect the drive shaft and the rear axle in automobiles. gears are variations of the spur gear in which the teeth are cut on the driven by a pinion. the ratio of driving to driven speed may be varied within wide limits. A rack. Helical gearing used to transmit Another variation of helical gearing is provided by the worm gear. an idler gear is placed between the driving gear and the driven gear. toothed bar that moves in a the rotation of a pinion to reciprocating motion. across the teeth of the driven gear instead of exerting a direct rolling pressure. These gears have cone-shaped bodies and straight teeth. inside of a ring or flanged wheel rather than on the outside. from one shaft to another at a 90° angle. A worm gear is a long. By using a train of several gears. Worm gears differ from helical gears in that the teeth of the worm slide are used chiefly to transmit rotation. or herringbone. Worm gears . Simple helical gearing has shafts. Internal gears usually drive or are straight line. Hypoid gears are helical bevel gears employed when the axes of the two shafts are perpendicular but do not intersect. the bevel gears used are called miter gears. driving a gear with 20 teeth will revolve twice as fast as the gear it is driving. which have V-shaped teeth composed of half a right-handed helical tooth and half a left-handed helical tooth.

devices used to measure or indicate the passage of time. is usually intended to be kept in one place. a watch is designed to be carried or worn. which is larger than a watch. II MECHANISMS . Both types of timepieces require a source of power and a means of transmitting and controlling it.Clocks and Watches I INTRODUCTION Clocks and Watches. as well as indicators to register the lapse of time units. A clock.

with a balance wheel regulating the motive on a rotor that responds to the arm movements of the wearer. a small motor runs in unison with the power- station generator. force.In a clock. Electric currents may also be used to keep the movements of several “slave” clocks synchronized with the pendulum in a master clock. the mainspring is tightened automatically by means of a weight III ELECTRIC TIMEPIECES In the electric clocks used in homes today. time may be shown by a display of numbers.000 and 100.000 hertz (cycles per second). The quartz-crystal clock developed in 1929 for precision timekeeping employs a ring of quartz that is connected to an electrical circuit and made to oscillate between 10. In such a clock. In electric or electronic clocks. or an electric current. periodic adjustments. Except in electric or electronic clocks. and thus made to . The high-frequency oscillation is converted to an alternating current. The motive force generated by the power source in a mechanical clock is transmitted by a gear train and regulated by a pendulum or a balance and is registered visually by the rotation of wheels bearing numerals or by the position of wheel. which is regulated to deliver an alternating current of precisely 60 cycles per second. the watch conserves energy by means of a gear train. As in spring-powered clocks. In self-winding watches. reduced to a frequency more convenient for time measurement. such as lifting the weight or tightening the spring. the source of power may be produced by weight. A mechanical watch uses a coiled spring as its power source. are needed. a mainspring. the time may be reported audibly by the striking of a gong or chime hands on a dial.

or it may be used to drive the oscillations of either a small tuning fork or a quartz crystal. Various forms of chronographs exist. timer. which measures the distance of an object from the observer. The maximum error of the most accurate quartz-crystal clocks is plus or minus one second in ten years. The modern wrist and certified by testing bureaus in Switzerland. which determines pulse rate. which indicates the number of products made in a given time. and the production counter. shows elapsed time without providing the time of day. the tachometer. The V ATOMIC CLOCKS . including the telemeter. The battery may drive the balance wheel of an otherwise mechanical clock. or stopwatch. These portable instruments are mounted on a box chronometer is a precision watch regulated in different positions and at various temperatures Another precision timekeeper is the chronograph. which measures speed of rotation. the pulsometer. IV CHRONOMETERS Carefully constructed mechanical timepieces known as chronometers are precision devices used by navigators in the determination of their longitude at sea and by astronomers and jewelers for calibrating measuring devices. in 1761 by English horologist John Harrison.drive the motor of a synchronous clock or a digital display. a form of chronograph used in athletic contests. The electric or electronic watch is powered by a small battery that functions for about one year without replacement. The first successful chronometer was constructed on gimbals so as to maintain the delicate movements in a level position. which not only provides accurate time but also registers elapsed time in fractions of a second.

Their uses include measuring the systems such as the global positioning system in computing distances. the basic unit of time of the International System of Units. or hyperfine. In this clock. many atoms make the transition to the new energy state. which may vary by 4 to 5 milliseconds per day.770 periods of radiation. The most stable cesium-atom clocks have an error of about plus or minus one second in .The most precise timekeeping devices are atomic clocks. The cesium-atom clock is very accurate and remains stable over long periods of one million years. Because the frequency of these waves is unaffected by external forces. cesium-133 atoms in one hyperfine energy state are subjected to microwave radiation that is near the resonant frequency of the transition to another hyperfine energy state. and when the correct frequency is reached. and aiding navigational certain atoms or molecules make the transition between two closely spaced. time. The microwave frequency is adjusted. The second is defined as the duration of 9. corresponding period of the waves can be used as a standard to define time intervals. the The cesium-atom clock is used to define the second.192. The frequency of the microwave radiation is then used to determine the period of the microwave. Atomic clocks are tuned to the frequency of the electromagnetic waves that are emitted or absorbed when rotation of the earth.631. energy states. or the time interval between wave crests.

Throughout history. time has been measured by the movement of the earth relative to the sun and stars. The hydrogen clock and the ammonia clock rely on the maser principle. a vertical stick or obelisk that casts a shadow. Ancient methods of measuring is still in existence. It employs the same basic principle as the cesium-atom clock.8 m (32 ft). by Greek inventor Ctesibius of Alexandria. Clockworks were initially heavy. emitting energy in the form of an clock is very stable for several hours at a time. but they are more compact and less expensive. atoms are forced to change to a lower energy state. in which the flow of sand is used to measure time intervals.” was first applied in the present in the 14th century. sense to the huge. and the water clock. The hydrogen VI HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT BC. An Egyptian shadow BC was the hours in the absence of sunlight included the notched candle and the Chinese practice of by Chaldean astronomer Berossus. even to the inclusion of gearing in about 270 BC Eventually. When many atoms make the transition. a time-measuring instrument was known as a horologium. a weight falling under the force of gravity was substituted for the flow of water in time devices. however. The first hemispherical sundial was described burning a knotted rope and noting the length of time required for the fire to travel from one knot to the next. The period of this emitted wave is used to measure time. The earliest type of timekeeper. mechanical time indicators installed in bell towers in the late Middle Ages. electromagnetic wave. are first forced to change their hyperfine energy state and are then subjected to microwave radiation to return them to their original state. a focused magnetic field selects hydrogen atoms in a specific hyperfine energy state. When many atoms return to their original state. cumbersome devices. These they begin to oscillate between the two states. Until that time. Devices almost as old as the shadow clock and sundial include the hourglass. the correct transition frequency has been reached and the period of the wave can be used to measure time. The Henry De Vick of Württemberg for the royal palace (now the Palais de Justice) in Paris was . which originally meant “bell. The first recorded examples are found or hour teller. in which the flow of water indicates passage of time. The rubidium atoms. or clepsydra. A The Mechanical Clock The historical origin of the mechanical clock is obscure. The name clock. Clepsydras became more complicated. or gnomon.The rubidium clock uses the transition of the rubidium-87 atom between two hyperfine energy states. In a hydrogen clock. A clock built in the 14th century by powered by a 227-kg (500-lb) weight that descended a distance of 9. Rubidium clocks are not as stable or as accurate as cesiumatom clocks. dating from as far back as 3500 clock of the 8th century about the 3rd century BC shadow clock. anticipating the mechanical clock.

Ten years later English physicist Robert Hooke invented an escapement. Other improvements that increased the accuracy of watches a lever escapement devised by British inventor Thomas Mudge about 1765. which permitted the use in clocks of a pendulum with a small arc of oscillation. known as isochronism. B The Pendulum A series of inventions in the 17th and 18th centuries increased the accuracy of clockworks and the property of a pendulum. Jeweled bearings to reduce friction and prolong the life of watchworks In the centuries that preceded the introduction of machine-made parts. Clocks of that period had dials with only one hand. This type of spring was used in Italy about 1450. for the balance wheel. which indicated the nearest quarter hour. to equalize the uneven pull of the spring. and Switzerland also produced many fine artisans whose work was noted for beauty and a high degree of mechanical perfection. In 1657 Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens showed how a pendulum could be used to regulate a clock. Jacob Zech of Prague. British of compensating for variations in the length of a pendulum resulting from changes in temperature. Galileo had described late in the 16th century constant. began producing portable timepieces known popularly as Nürnberg eggs. Many bore sculptured figures. included a spiral hairspring. clockmaker George Graham improved the escapement. In 1525 another artisan. founded in D Decorative Clocks The clock was often a decorative as well as a useful instrument. and clockworks were used in the towers of late . and crystals to protect both the dial and hands. About 1500 Peter Henlein. Early clocks were highly ornamented. craftsmanship of a high order was required to manufacture accurate. a locksmith in Nürnberg. invented a fusee. durable clocks and watches. A guild known as the Clockmakers Company. invented about 1660 by Robert Hooke. or spiral pulley. is still in existence. first appeared on were introduced in the 18th century. Germany. The Netherlands. 17th-century watches. clockmaking and its apprenticeship.apparatus for controlling its rate of fall was crude and the clock inaccurate. stating that the period of the swing is reduced the weight and bulk of the mechanisms. and Minute and second hands. Germany. Such local craft organizations as the Paris Guild of Clockmakers (1544) were organized to control the art of London in 1630. and John Harrison developed a means C Watches Watchworks were developed when coiled springs were introduced as a source of power.

the manufacture of this watch was discontinued as a result of the During this period. with families manufacturing kept in a pocket. In the early 1800s. a clock could be built in 1716 for the City Hall at Nassau and Wall streets. by 1753. Some modern Swiss watchworks are tiny enough to fit into pencil ends or in VII PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES European clockmakers and watchmakers brought their skills and mechanical ingenuity to colonial America. and a clock was installed in Independence Hall in Philadelphia. which was. Massachusetts. Watches were not produced in significant volume in the United States until about 1800. church tower. The grandfather. Because of the scarcity of metals. pillar-and-scroll clock. About the same time in American Revolution (1775-1783). found in a Boston. Connecticut. containing carved wooden birds. when Thomas Harland of Norwich. Connecticut. clock. established a factory with a capacity of 200 units a year. Simon Willard of Roxbury. devised a rolled-brass clock movement that could be sold at a low price. The first public clock in New York City was Mass production of clocks with interchangeable parts began in the United States after the used for the movements. Despite a reputation for depression of 1837. and it continues to be a popular ornamental clock. Such innovations. accuracy and durability. Swiss watchmaking by the 1850s had led to the development of a number of small factories and the foundation of earrings. Cuckoo clocks. Connecticut. were made in the Black Forest of Germany as early as 1730 and are still popular. was designed before machine-cut gears were introduced. Massachusetts. however. well-seasoned wood was patented the popular banjo clock. Some early English clocks pendulum and weight exposed beneath a gear housing at the top of a tall cabinet. together with the . one of the largest clock factories in the world. Connecticut. At first a cottage industry. were made in the form of lanterns or birdcages. Beginning in watch parts at home to be assembled and sold by a master watchmaker. Wristwatches became popular as watchworks became smaller. before the introduction of the pendulum clock.medieval Europe to set in motion huge statues of saints or allegorical figures. which has the Watches were originally shaped like drums or balls and were worn suspended from a belt or the 18th century. in the mid-20th century. and Eli Terry of Connecticut evolved a shelf clock called the Plymouth Hollow (now Thomaston). Chauncey Jerome of Bristol. Pennsylvania. In 1836 the Pitkin brothers of East Hartford. which required winding only once a day. particularly in the villages of the Jura Mountains. Switzerland became the center of a watchmaking industry. which temporarily crippled American industry. or case. In 1650. a major industry. which emerge and “sing” to tell the time. Seth Thomas founded the Seth Thomas Clock Company. produced the first Americandesigned watch and the first containing a machine-made part.

. who induced producers of electric power to time the alternating-current cycles carefully so that synchronous motors could be used for clocks. for example. invented by Henry E. The Ingersol and the Ingraham. The first Waterbury. made possible the most accurate timekeeper until the introduction of the quartz clock in the United States in 1929. The invention by W. H. Later watches were even less expensive. Warren. Shortt in 1921 of the Shortt Free Pendulum. became known as the dollar watches. a famous American pocket watch. soon made the United States the leading clock-making country of the world. competition reduced the price of a clock to $1 or less. first installed in the Edinburgh Observatory. could be sold for only $4 because it used a stamped-out mechanism without jewels. Watches wound with keys were replaced after 1875 by stem-wound types. As production increased. working in Massachusetts. VIII RECENT DEVELOPMENTS The electric clock was an American innovation of the early 1900s. invented and perfected automatic production machinery in the 1850s. developed in England in 1955. Watches also became cheaper as production rose. American horologists Aaron Dennison and Edward Howard. New designs reduced the number of parts required.economies of mass production. and for the first time most families could afford a clock. The first improvement over the quartz clock was the cesium atomic clock.

body heat. which . uses the light-producing characteristics of certain semiconductors to illuminate its digital time display. and raised dots on the dial to mark the hours. a quartz crystal provides the oscillations that are reduced to compute time. and atomic energy. The LED. materials having optical properties similar to liquids and solid crystals. More recent developments have been the LED (light-emitting diode) and LCD (liquid crystal display) watches. portable alarm clock. developed in the 1960s. which functions as a tiny. The mainsprings of present-day mechanical watches are made from metals that resist breakage and rust. and the calendar watch. which has sturdy hands not jeweled bearings. produced in the 1970s.Electric wristwatches appeared on the market in 1957. Scientific advances in metallurgy and other fields have led to many improvements in timekeeping devices of all types. New sources of power. the alarm watch for the shows the day of month and the week. such as sunlight. followed in 1959 by an electronic watch that substituted a small tuning fork for the usual escapement. Other covered with a crystal. with a battery to power the transistorized oscillating circuit. pocket or wrist. are being investigated in current horological research. uses liquid crystals. synthetics have replaced precious stones in special-purpose watches include the Braille watch for the blind. The LCD. and cases have been perfected that seal out both dust and moisture.

Today there are land planes (aircraft that take off from and land on the ground). because they have rigid wings. and airplanes that can leave the borne flight. The speed of . meant to carry a single pilot. such as helicopters.Airplane I INTRODUCTION Airplane. Modern airplanes range from ultralight aircraft weighing no more than 46 kg (100 lb) and several hundred tons of cargo. and weighing nearly 454 metric tons. seaplanes (aircraft that take off from and land on water). which make it possible to guide their flight. control surfaces. in contrast to vehicles such as balloons and airships. which are lighter than air. The wings alter the direction of the flow of air as it passes. or special engines that permit level or climbing flight. amphibians (aircraft that can operate on both land and sea). the upward force on the plane. Airplanes are heavier than air. as they interact with the flow of air around them. ground using the jet thrust of their engines or rotors (rotating wings) and then switch to wing- II HOW AN AIRPLANE FLIES An airplane flies because its wings create lift. Airplanes also differ from other heavier-than-air craft. to great jumbo jets. capable of carrying several hundred people. engine-driven vehicle that can fly through the air supported by the action of air against its wings. such as movable parts of the wings and tail. The exact shape of the surface of a wing is critical to its ability to generate lift. and power plants. Airplanes are adapted to specialized uses.

with shapes that slip easily through the air. a faster moving fluid (such as air) will have a lower pressure than a slower moving fluid. it will climb. That is why high-speed fighters and missiles have such thin wings—they need to minimize drag created by lift. The air on the top of an airplane wing moves faster and is at a lower pressure than the air underneath the wing. may have a big. The angle the wings make with the horizontal is called the angle of attack. Thrust is provided by the airplane’s propulsion system. Designing a wing that is powerful enough to lift an airplane off the ground. and drag. The others are weight. but because of its large size. A steeper angle of attack will cause the wings to push states that every action produces an equal and opposite reaction (see Mechanics: The Third Law). Drag is created because any object moving through a fluid. the upward force on the plane. . Air flowing over the top of the wing is also deflected downward as it follows the more air downward. then the lift produced by its wings must be greater than 4.5 metric tons in order for the airplane to leave the ground. the front edges of its wings ride higher than the rear edges. such as an airplane through air. the air pushes up on the wings. When lift is greater than weight. Thrust is the force that propels an airplane forward through the air. under certain circumstances. Lift is one of the four primary forces acting upon an airplane. and in reaction. the wings pushing air downward is the action. This causes lift.the airflow and the angle at which the wing meets the oncoming airstream also contribute to the amount of lift generated. Weight is the force that offsets lift. Drag is also minimized by designing sleek. which flies at relatively slow speeds.5 metric tons. a crop duster. because it acts in the opposite direction. produces friction as it interacts with that fluid and because it must move the fluid out of its way to do its work. and the air pushing the wings upward is the reaction. When an airplane is level or rising. may create a great deal of lift for an airplane. is one of the marvels of modern aircraft technology. and yet efficient enough to fly at high speeds over extremely long distances. thick wing because high lift is more important than airplanes. for example. thrust. an airplane will accelerate. aerodynamic Managing the balance between these four forces is the challenge of flight. As the wings move through the air. and the lift generated by the wing can be modeled using equations derived from Bernoulli’s principle. the amount of drag associated with it. When thrust is greater than drag. The third law of motion formulated by English physicist Isaac Newton specially designed shape of the wing. If an airplane weighs 4. In this case. A high-lift wing surface. An airplane’s wings push down on the air flowing past them. this angle causes them to push air flowing under them downward. Conversely. either a propeller or jet engine or combination of the two. it is also creating a significant amount of drag. Lift is also often explained using Bernoulli’s principle. A fourth force acting on all airplanes is drag. which states that. The weight of the airplane must be overcome by the lift produced by the wings.

After World War II. Or. which has the same effect as reducing thrust.Using various control surfaces and propulsion systems. A pilot can reduce thrust in order to slow down or descend. by retracting the landing gear and flaps. effectively locking the controls and leaving the crews helpless. but with commercial applications as well. a pilot can manipulate the balance of the four forces to change the direction or speed. modern airplanes have to contend with another phenomenon. The pilot can lower the landing gear into the airstream and deploy the landing flaps on the wings to increase drag. tackled the realm of supersonic flight. primarily for military airplanes. The pilot can add thrust either to speed up or climb. the pilot can accelerate or climb. Fighter pilots in World War II (1939-1945) first ran up against this so-called barrier in high-speed dives during air combat. pilots lost control of the aircraft as shock waves built up on control surfaces. designers . and thereby reducing drag. In some cases. weight. and drag. thrust. III SUPERSONIC FLIGHT In addition to balancing lift. The sound barrier is not a physical barrier but a speed at which the behavior of the airflow around an airplane changes dramatically.

At sea level. This shock wave moves back at a sharp angle as the speed increases. sound travels through air at approximately 1.Supersonic flight is defined as flight at a speed greater than that of the local speed of sound. At the speed .220 km/h (760 mph). a shock wave consisting of highly compressed air forms at the nose of the plane. of sound.

the XB-70 Valkyrie bomber. an airplane is traveling at the speed of sound (transonic). which represent the ratio of the speed of the airplane to the speed of sound (subsonic). a commercial supersonic aircraft. then the temperature rose above the surface of the craft. but harder to manufacture and maintain. An airplane traveling at less than Mach 1 is traveling below the speed of Mach 1 to 5 are referred to as supersonic. the Anglo-French Concorde. which ended its regular passenger service in October 2003. and expensive. Designers today believe they can help lessen the impact of sonic booms created by supersonic airliners but probably cannot eliminate them. and the SR-71 spy plane. At such high speeds.7 is about the limit for conventional. Sonic booms at low altitudes over populated areas are generally considered a significant problem and have prevented most supersonic boom. enormous temperatures are reached at temperature requirements. flown by Air Force test pilot Chuck Yeager. the Concorde was forced to fly a flight profile dictated by safe limits for the aluminum structure of the airplane. at Mach 2. Titanium and other relatively exotic. speeds of Mach 5 and above are called hypersonic. constructed of more temperature-resistant materials. metals are more heat-resistant. One of the most difficult practical barriers to supersonic flight is the fact that high-speed flight produces heat through friction. an airplane is traveling at twice the speed of sound (supersonic flight). or to those over sparsely populated regions of the world. culminating in the 1960s and 1970s with Mach 3+ speedsters such as the Soviet MiG- The shock wave created by an airplane moving at supersonic and hypersonic speeds represents a rather abrupt change in air pressure and is perceived on the ground as a sonic distance of the observer from the flight path. This limitation impacted the commercial viability of the Concorde. Above that speed. and would most likely have to find a way IV AIRPLANE STRUCTURE . relatively inexpensive materials and fuels. an airplane would need to be to cool its fuel. if the aircraft moved too fast.Supersonic flight was achieved in 1947 for the first time by the Bell X-1 rocket plane. For example. aircraft. sound as it moves air. Speeds at or near supersonic flight are measured in units called Mach numbers. the exact nature of which varies depending upon how far away the aircraft is and the airplanes from efficiently utilizing overland routes. For example. Airplane designers have concluded that a speed of Mach 2. Speeds of Designers in Europe and the United States developed succeeding generations of military 25 Foxbat interceptor. was generally limited to over-water routes. at Mach 1.

and a set of specialized control surfaces mounted on the wings and tail. landing gear. tail. wings.Airplanes generally share the same basic configuration—each usually has a fuselage. A Fuselage .

electronics. because of that material’s relatively light weight and high strength. fuel. The cabin section may be designed to carry passengers. the fuselage may house the engines. or more spars that run from one end of the wing to the other. to the rear. and linen for the cloth covering. Others have minimal wings. and a cabin section. A conventional wing has one series of ribs. cargo. Wood and fabric wings often used spruce for the structure. Generally the fuselage has a cockpit section at the front end. Before the 20th century. and some weapons. or trailing edge. wings were made of wooden ribs and spars (or beams). such as the space shuttle. by definition. the fuselage may be nothing more than a minimal structure connecting the wings. or wings that seem to be merely extensions of a blended. Some are nearly all wing with a very small cockpit. tail. In a military fighter plane. Perpendicular to the spar are a wing. which run from the front. These are carefully constructed to shape the wing in a manner that determines its lifting . have wings.The fuselage is the main cabin. cockpit. aerodynamic fuselage. or both. of the properties. covered with fabric that was sewn tightly and varnished to be extremely stiff. or leading edge. B Wings All airplanes. where the pilot controls the airplane. and engines. or body of the airplane. In some of the sleekest of gliders and ultralight airplanes.

these designs created a great deal of drag. has been a great success as a flying machine. and visibility for the pilot. but the rudder helps keep the turn coordinated by serving much like a boat’s rudder to move the nose of the airplane left or right. or pitch. The rudder is at the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer and is used by the airplane to help control turns. in fact. usually one mounted about 1. A pilot controls pitch by moving a control column or stick. and fabric through the air. advanced materials. The components of the tail assembly are collectively referred to as the empennage. combined with new construction techniques. After World War I (1914-1918). Rudder motion is usually controlled by two pedals on the floor of the cockpit. or stealth bomber. and. or single-wing airplane. many airplane designers have postulated that the ideal airplane would. and 1940s. were first developed in the 1930s and 2 bomber. Over the years. its wings laterally. An airplane actually turns by banking. and elevators. have a tail assembly attached to the rear of the fuselage. consisting of vertical and horizontal stabilizers. A monoplane’s single wing gives it great advantages in speed. except for flying wings. and fuel. of the airplane’s nose. The stabilizers serve to help keep the airplane stable while in flight. so aircraft engineers eventually pursued the monoplane. Aircraft pioneers found the upper and lower wing to create a strong structure with substantial lift. airliners. a rudder. the B- computerized flight controls. these materials enabled the development of modern all-metal wings capable not only of developing lift but of housing landing gear. or moving. Flying wings. but airline and airport managers have been unable to integrate these unusual shapes C Tail Assembly Most airplanes.Early airplanes were usually biplanes—craft with two wings on each side of the fuselage. In pushing the they could build such wings relatively easily and brace them together using wires to connect many cables. benefiting from modern computer-aided design (CAD). weapons. wood. Popular magazines routinely show artists’ concepts of flying-wing into conventional airline and airport facilities. be nothing but wing. which look like small wings. simplicity. Moving an airplane’s nose left or right is known as a yaw motion. developed in the 1980s. American aerospace manufacturer Northrop Grumman Corporation’s flying wing. The elevators control the up-and-down motion. Moving the elevators up into the airstream will cause the tail to go down and the nose to pitch up. designers began moving toward wings made of steel and aluminum. . Elevators are control surfaces at the trailing edge of horizontal stabilizers. which are pushed by the pilot.5 m (about 5 to 6 ft) above the other. as they are called.

In order to bank and begin a turn. were originally developed for aircraft and are used to gain maximum possible braking power on wet or icy runways. emergencies. Antiskid braking systems. climb. and tires designed specifically for the demands of flight. which runs the length of the craft. or turn the airplane’s nose left or right. Larger and more complex aircraft typically have retractable landing gear—so called because reduces the drag generated by the wheel structures that would otherwise hang out in the airstream. the left wing goes down. such as a 400-metric-ton airliner aborting a takeoff at the last possible moment. which runs straight down through the middle of the airplane. and the airplane banks to the left. they can be pulled up into the wing or fuselage after takeoff. To do so. about the longitudinal axis. An airplane relies on the movement of air across its wings for lift. creating a small amount of drag and decreasing the lift produced by that wing. or deflected. or roll. The An airplane may roll. the left aileron is lifted up into the airstream over the left wing. the right aileron is pushed down into the airstream. a plane may pitch its nose up or down. which may be thought of as a straight line running from wingtip to wingtip. as well as carrying nearly 454 metric tons. moving about its lateral axis. the ailerons In order to yaw. banking its wings either left or right. The right wing then comes up. often incorporating special heat-resistant materials. The airplane will yaw. are moved in exactly the opposite fashion. by the pilot. the pilot must press upon rudder pedals on the floor of the cockpit. and the rudder at the trailing . vertical axis. Tires must be capable of going from a Brakes. Push down on the left pedal. thereby increasing slightly the lift produced by the right wing. and it makes use of this same airflow to move in any way about the three axes. the pilot will manipulate controls in the cockpit that direct control surfaces on the wings and tail to move into the airstream. pitch. Modern aircraft employ brakes. common on automobiles today. To bank to the right. In order to bank left. At the same time. depending on which control surfaces or combination of surfaces are moved. Having retractable gear greatly E Control Components An airplane is capable of three types of motion that revolve around three separate axes. wheels. a conventional airplane will deflect control surfaces on the trailing edge of the wings known as ailerons. must be able to handle standstill to nearly 322 km/h (200 mph) at landing. or descend. Finally.D Landing Gear All airplanes must have some type of landing gear. The airplane may yaw its nose either left or right about the plane may fly steadily in one direction and at one altitude—or it may turn.

and attitude of the airplane. For example. to control the flight of the aircraft. spoilers. as well as gas temperatures and fuel Flight instruments are those used to tell a pilot the course. and to navigate. and fuel systems. slats. On some F Instruments Airplane pilots rely on a set of instruments in the cockpit to monitor airplane systems. and speed brakes. These kinds of controls are used to adjust more precisely the flight path of an airplane that may be slightly out of balance or alignment. Flaps and slats are at low speeds. They may include an airspeed indicator. These instruments have many variations. and a compass. altitude. Systems instruments will tell a pilot about the condition of the airplane’s engines and electrical. rotational speeds of the rotating blades in the turbines. the left rudder moves the nose of the plane to the left. On some airplanes. pushing the tail down and the nose up. the entire horizontal stabilizer moves in small increments to serve the same function as a trim tab. thereby moving the elevators at the trailing edge of the horizontal stabilizer. For example. Airplanes that are more complex also have a set of secondary control surfaces that may include devices such as flaps. high-speed jet aircraft have airspeed indicators that . Pushing forward on the wheel causes the elevators to drop down. and oil pressures and temperatures. hydraulic. they also can be extended back generally used during takeoff and landing to increase the amount of lift produced by the wing beyond the normal trailing edge of the wing to increase the surface area of the wing as well as change its shape. depending on the complexity and performance of the airplane. As in a boat. to change the way the air flows over the wing. Piston-engine instruments monitor engine and exhaustgas temperatures. trim tabs. although some jets have leading-edge flaps as well. thereby increasing lift. Leading-edge slats usually extend from the front of the wing at low speeds increase drag and slow the approach of a landing airplane. Pulling back on the wheel deflects the elevators upward into the airstream. the pilot usually pulls or pushes on a control wheel or stick. Elevator trim tabs are usually used to help set the pitch attitude airplanes. lifting the tail and forcing the nose down. an altimeter. an artificial horizon. Jet-engine instruments measure the flow. an aileron tab acts like a miniature aileron within the larger aileron. Flaps usually droop down from the trailing edge of the wing. A push on the right pedal causes the airplane to yaw to the right. In order to pitch the nose up or down. Flaps also often serve to Trim tabs are miniature control surfaces incorporated into larger control surfaces.edge of the vertical stabilizer moves to the left. (the angle of the airplane in relation to the Earth) for a given speed through the air. speed.

or uses its jet thrust directly to move an airplane through the air. Systems (ILS) and Microwave Landing Systems (MLS). military. depending on its airspeed and momentum. provides an airplane with its position to within a few meters. Specially equipped airplanes can use ultraprecise radio beacons and receivers. in relation to the Earth. developed for the United States military but now used by many civilian pilots.may indicate speeds both in nautical miles per hour (slightly faster than miles per hour used with ground vehicles) and in Mach number. and commercial airplanes also have instruments that aid in navigation. The compass is the simplest of these. airplane is banking. In smaller airplanes. known as Instrument Landing to land during conditions of poor visibility. . a turbine engine either turns a propeller through a gearbox. The artificial horizon indicates whether the may or may not be climbing. The Global Positioning System (GPS). a conventional gas-powered piston engine turns a propeller. but many airplanes now employ without any help from the ground. combined with special cockpit displays. An airplane with its nose up General-aviation (private aircraft). or diving. which either pulls or pushes an airplane through the air. climbing. V PROPULSION Airplanes use either piston or turbine (rotating blades) engines to provide propulsion. In larger airplanes. Many airplanes still employ radio receivers that tune to a satellite navigation systems and computers to navigate from any point on the globe to another ground-based radio-beacon system in order to navigate cross-country.

The rest runs along the outside of the core case and inside the engine casing. Aircraft designers throughout the 20th century and greater reliability. by itself. and an exhaust nozzle.In either case. Although enormously improved over the past 90 years of flight and still suitable for modern jet propulsion and required for commercial and military aviation. except that. or fan-jet. many smaller general aviation aircraft. they fall short of the higher performance possible with The turbine or jet engine operates on the principle of Newton’s third law of motion. there is an opposite but equal reaction. which then explodes with great force rearward through the exhaust nozzle. and released. with many precision-machined parts moving through large ranges and in complex motions. a turbine to take some power out of the exhaust A modern derivative known as the turbofan. in the form of solid propellant or liquid oxidizer. for combustion. the rocket must carry along its own air. A rocket engine operates on the same principle. the engine must provide enough power to move the weight of the airplane forward through the airstream. which is usually driven by the jet . only a relatively small fraction of which is sent through the core for combustion. this high-volume mass of air. This fan flow is mixed with the hot jet exhaust at the rear of the engine. however. acting much like a propeller. but with the addition of a and spin the compressor. Thrust from the engine is derived purely from the acceleration of the released exhaust gases out the rear. These piston engines are examples of internal-combustion engines. In a turbojet. There are several different types of jet engines. lighter weight. which states that for every action. compressor section. where it cools and quiets the exhaust noise. Known as turboprops. This elegant simplicity is offset by the need to boost a ramjet to several hundred miles an hour before ram-air compression is sufficient to operate the engine. In addition. in order to operate in the airless vacuum of space. adds a large fan in front of the compressor section. these engines produce most of their thrust through the propeller. squeezes the air by pulling it through a series of spinning compressors. This fan pulls an enormous amount of air into the engine case. a combustion chamber. accelerated rearward by the fan. some smaller jet engines are used to turn propellers. The turbojet is based on the jet-propulsion system of the ramjet. Piston engines. The rearward force is balanced with an equal force that pushes forward the jet engine and the airplane attached to it. mixes it with fuel and ignites the mixture. eliminating the need for the spinning compressor section. burned. even though it is never burned. A jet sucks air into the front. produces a great deal of thrust In fact. The simplest is the ramjet. are still relatively complicated pieces of pushed their engineering colleagues constantly for engines with more power. all of the air taken into the compressor at the front of the engine is sent through the core of the engine. machinery. which takes advantage of high speed to ram or force the air into the engine. The earliest powered airplanes relied on crude steam or gas engines.

and land. As a power source for a propeller. Some land planes are specially equipped to operate from grass or other unfinished surfaces. and many smaller airliners in the 19. A land plane usually has wheels to taxi. short takeoff and landing (STOL). carrier-based airplanes. although they are often called. as in some general-aviation airplanes.to 70-passenger-capacity range use km/h (400 mph). Land planes.engine through a set of gears. The wheels are sometimes referred B Carrier-Based Aircraft . take off. amphibians. turboprops. although some specialized aircraft operating in to as the undercarriage. but their capabilities and uses make A Land Planes Land planes are designed to operate from a hard surface. the landing gear. retractable. shuttles all take advantage of the same basic technology. or and commercial aviation. together with the associated brakes. a turbine engine is extremely efficient. usually into the fuselage or wings. Landing gear may be fixed. They are particularly efficient at lower altitudes and medium speeds up to 640 VI TYPES OF AIRPLANES There are a wide variety of types of airplanes. seaplanes. typically a paved runway. as in more-sophisticated airplanes in general the Arctic or Antarctic regions have skis in place of wheels. vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL). and space them seem only distantly related.

Carrier-based airplanes are a specially modified type of land plane designed for takeoff from and landing aboard naval aircraft carriers. to handle the stresses of catapult-assisted takeoff. and arrested landings. in which the C Seaplanes . Carrier airplanes have a strengthened structure. made by using a hook attached to the underside of the aircraft’s tail to catch one of four wires strung across the flight deck of the carrier. including their landing gear. craft is launched by a steam-driven catapult.

sometimes called floatplanes or pontoon planes. an amphibian is a true seaplane. Known as flying boats. some flying boats were fitted with so-called beaching gear. Historically. In many landing gear that can be extended to allow the airplane to taxi right out of the water onto land. After taking off. but there are very few VTOL airplanes. . a system of rolled onto land. Such seaplanes have small floats attached to their outer wing panels to help steady them at low speeds on the water. which then allowed the aircraft to be E Vertical Takeoff and Landing Airplanes Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) airplanes typically use the jet thrust from their engines. pointed down at the Earth. A helicopter is a type of VTOL aircraft.Seaplanes. with a boat hull and the addition of specially designed cradles on wheels positioned under the floating aircraft. they may have D Amphibians Amphibians. are often ordinary land planes have been designed from scratch to operate only from water bases. operate from both water and land bases. to take off and land straight up and down. modified with floats instead of wheels so they can operate from water. like their animal namesakes. but the weight of the airplane is borne by the floating hull. A number of seaplanes fuselages that resemble and perform like ship hulls. cases. a VTOL airplane usually transitions to wing-borne flight in order to cover a longer distance or carry a significant load.

propeller-like rotating wings or rotors driven by jet engines at the wingtips. STOL airplanes are usually cargo airplanes. as distinguished from an airplane that has a wing optimized for high-speed cruise at high altitude. is an aircraft unlike any other because it flies as a fixed-wing airplane within the atmosphere and as a spacecraft outside Earth’s atmosphere. flown by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). it flies like a rocket . When the space shuttle takes off. as well as in Spain. the Harrier can take off vertically from smaller ships. F Short Takeoff and Landing Airplanes Short Takeoff and Landing (STOL) airplanes are designed to be able to function on relatively short runways. or it can be flown to operating areas near the ground troops it supports in its ground-attack role. and United Kingdom. a military attack plane that uses rotating nozzles attached to its jet engine to direct the engine exhaust in the appropriate direction. After takeoff. the engines and rotors are positioned vertically. although some serve in a passenger-carrying capacity as well. however. G Space Shuttle The space shuttle. Italy. the engine/rotor combination tilts forward.One unique type of VTOL aircraft is the tilt-rotor. Flown in the United States by the Marine Corps. The most prominent example of a true VTOL airplane flying today is the AV-8B Harrier II. and the wing takes on the load of the craft. where it was originally developed. India. much like a helicopter. which has large. For takeoff and landing. Their designs usually employ wings and high-lift devices on the wings optimized for best performance during takeoff and landing.

175 metric tons of thrust generated by its solid-fuel rocket boosters and liquid-fueled main engines to power its way up. all of which fall under different government-mandated certification A Commercial Airplanes Commercial aircraft are those used for profit making. usually by carrying cargo or passengers for hire (see Air Transport Industry). During landing. States and Airbus in Europe—offer a wide variety of aircraft with different capabilities. and and operating rules. Modern large commercial-airplane manufacturers—such The Boeing Company in the United jet airliners carry anywhere from 100 passengers to more than 500 over short and long distances. by other national aviation authorities. and in other countries. Today’s . atmosphere. by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). and out of the landing without propulsion. relying on the 3. VII CLASSES OF AIRPLANES Airplanes can be grouped into a handful of major classes. such as commercial. general-aviation airplanes. by Transport Canada. They are strictly regulated—in the United States. the shuttle becomes the world’s most sophisticated glider. in Canada. military. through.with wings.

training. profitability. and air-towith other airplanes. Since the 1950s many fighters airplane to the speed of sound as it travels through air).Beginning in 1976 the British-French Concorde supersonic transport (SST) carried passengers of the two nations that funded its development during the late 1960s and 1970s. although some airplanes have both capabilities. which cost about $9.000 and up crash in 2000 grounded the Concorde for a full year. and observation (see Military Aviation). A fatal air sharp decline in airline travel following the September 11 terrorist attacks. flag carriers States had an SST program. in either defensive or offensive situations. combined with higher costs led to the Concorde’s demise. It returned to service only to witness a B Military Airplanes Military aircraft are usually grouped into four categories: combat. The Concorde flew for British Airways and Air France. Combat airplanes are generally either fighters or bombers. Some fighters have a ground-attack . The United at twice the speed of sound. such as missiles. but it was ended because of budget and environmental concerns in 1971. cargo. Declining ticket sales for the high-priced service. Fighters are designed to engage in air combat have been capable of Mach 2+ flight (a Mach number represents the ratio of the speed of an role as well and are designed to carry both air-to-air weapons. The Concorde ended its regular passenger service in October 2003 due to its lack of for a round-trip fare.

Bombers such as the B-52 are designed to fly fast at low altitudes. while others. the Boeing B-1. Fighters include aircraft such as the Panavia Tornado. may use sophisticated .ground weapons. Bombers are designed to carry large air-to-ground-weapons loads and either penetrate or avoid enemy air defenses in order to deliver those weapons. Some well-known bombers include the Boeing B-52. in radar-defeating technologies to fly virtually unobserved. and the Su-27 Flanker. the MiG-29 Fulcrum. such as bombs. and the Northrop-Grumman B-2 stealth bomber. the Lockheed-Martin F-16 Falcon. such as the B-2. the Boeing F-15 Eagle. order to fly under enemy radar defenses. following the terrain.

Today’s military cargo airplanes are capable of carrying enormous tanks. artillery pieces. carriers. Cargo planes such as the giant Lockheed C- . Some cargo planes can serve a dual role as aerial gas stations. refueling different types of military airplanes while in flight. armored personnel 5B and Boeing C-17 were designed expressly for such roles. and even smaller aircraft. Such tankers include the Boeing KC-135 and KC-10.

Lockheed’s SR-71. or reconnaissance. With the advent of the Lockheed U-2 spy plane in the 1950s. They relay video and battlegrounds during the day or at night. a two-seat airplane. California. of chemicals.000 ft) and speeds well over Mach 3. aircraft. and capable of hauling several hundred pounds VIII HISTORY . bombers. ultralight airplanes to sleek twin turboprops capable of carrying eight people. appointments. Some UAVs.All military pilots go through rigorous training and education programs using military training airplanes to prepare them to fly the high-performance aircraft of the armed forces. crop dusters lack sophisticated navigation aids and complex systems. observation airplanes were developed solely for highly specialized missions. Large farms require efficient ways to spread fertilizer and insecticides over a large area. They typically begin the flight training in relatively simple. crop dusters are rugged.000 m (80. containing navigational instructions and operated from the ground. factor. Pleasure aircraft range from simple single-seat. They can be seen swooping low over farm fields. Some military trainers include the T-34 Mentor. uses specialized engines and fuel to reach altitudes greater than 25. Business aircraft transport business executives to all-weather capability. highly maneuverable. Inc. These unpiloted aircraft are flown by software programs infrared images in real time to military commanders. A final category of military airplane is the observation. providing instantaneous views of Vehicles (UCAVs). or transports. the T-37 and T-38. UAVs include the Predator drone. and the Boeing T-45 Goshawk. Not intended for serious crosscountry navigation. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) also were developed for reconnaissance in situations considered too dangerous for piloted aircraft or in instances where pilot fatigue would be a based in San Diego. known as Unmanned Combat Aerial C General-Aviation Aircraft General-aviation aircraft are certified for and intended primarily for noncommercial or private operations. propeller airplanes and move into basic jets before specializing in a career path involving fighters.. A very specialized type of airplane. made by General Atomics Aeronautical Systems. Most business airplanes require more reliable performance and more range and Another class of general-aviation airplanes is used in agriculture. also carry weapons that can be fired by ground operators using the aircraft’s video and infrared cameras to locate their targets.

Through his published works. Apart from Leonardo’s efforts. technical value to experimenters but was a source of inspiration to aspiring engineers. and other devices and first gliding flight in history. and designed airplanes with rigid wings to provide lift. called ornithopters. and with separate airplane.Before the end of the 18th century. an early propeller. and roll stability. and the model helicopter. In 1853. streamlining. few people had applied themselves to the study of flight. the kite. Leonardo was preoccupied chiefly with bird flight and with flapping-wing machines. Cayley abandoned the ornithopter tradition. pitch. Cayley laid the foundations inclined plane to provide lift. in which both lift and thrust are provided propelling devices to provide thrust. both with models and with full-size gliders. during the 15th century. His aeronautical work lay unknown until late in the 19th century. the use of the rudder-elevator unit mounted on a universal joint. practices. Cayley sent his unwilling coachman on the . three devices important to aviation had been invented in Europe in the Middle Ages and had reached a high stage of development by Leonardo’s time—the windmill. flight control by means of a single of aerodynamics. One was the Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci. an early airplane wing. when it could furnish little of A The First Airplanes Between 1799 and 1809 English baronet Sir George Cayley created the concept of the modern by the wings. He demonstrated. in his third full-size machine.

the flight was not sustained. heavier-than-air. It could bank. Henson’s design did more than any other to establish the form of the modern In 1890 French engineer Clément Ader built a steam-powered airplane and made the first actual flight of a piloted. North Carolina. While successful as gliders. . of sound scientific research and engineering. suffered from design faults. as Langley called it. However. That first flight traveled a distance of about 37 m (120 ft). The Aerodrome never successfully carried a person. Through the disciplines of critical characteristics that other designs of the day lacked—a relatively lightweight (337 kg/750 lb). 1903. his designs lacked a in 1896. and remain in the air for as long as the fuel lasted. was the world’s first fully practical airplane. and the airplane brushed the ground over a distance of 50 m (160 ft). the unpiloted Aerodrome. Virginia. fuselage. Between 1891 and 1896 German aeronautical engineer Otto Lilienthal made thousands of successful flights in hang gliders of his own design. Steam Carriage. but it represented the beginning of a new age in technology and human achievement. the Wright brothers put together the combination At Kitty Hawk. and with flight control by means of rear elevator and rudder. which the Wrights constructed in 1905. on December 17. called the Flyer. and wheeled landing gear. and thus prevented Langley from earning the place in history claimed by the Wright brothers. The third Flyer. unpiloted aircraft. self-propelled craft. hung in a frame between the wings and controlled his gliders entirely by swinging his torso control system and a reliable method for powering the craft. Lilienthal and legs in the direction he wished to go. Orville Wright made the first successful flight of a piloted. Steam-powered models made by Henson in 1847 were promising but unsuccessful. are considered the fathers of the first successful piloted heavier-than-air flying machine. The distance was less than the wingspan of many modern airliners. heavier-than-air craft. Inventors continued to pursue the dream of sustained flight. up to half an hour on occasion. turn. Launched by catapult from a houseboat on the Potomac River near Quantico.In 1843 British inventor William Samuel Henson published his patented design for an Aerial airplane—a fixed-wing monoplane with propellers. circle. Ohio. He was killed in a gliding accident American inventor Samuel Pierpont Langley had been working for several years on flying machines. make figure eights. an effective system for controlling the aircraft. Their fourth and final flight of the day lasted 59 seconds and covered only 260 m (852 ft). powerful engine. Langley began experimenting in 1892 with a steam-powered. B The First Airplane Flight American aviators Orville Wright and Wilbur Wright of Dayton. and a wing and structure that were both strong and lightweight. a reliable transmission and efficient propellers. and in 1896 made the first sustained flight of any mechanically propelled heavier-than-air craft.

airplanes. like many other milestone inventions throughout history. were considered superior to their Allied competition. Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge.E. the most successful fighter in the skies. Orville crashed while carrying an army observer. with many stops. Fokker’s biplanes. Virginia. prior to World War I (1914-1918). the airplane was used in its first wartime operation when an Italian captain flew over and observed Turkish positions during the Italo-Turkish War of 1911 to 1912. and other stunts proved the maneuverability of France to Egypt. Long-distance flights made in 1913 included a 4.000-km (2. 2 proved itself to be the first naturally stable airplane in the world. D Planes of World War I During World War I. and upside-down flying. European designers such as Louis Blériot and Dutch-American engineer Anthony Herman Fokker exploited basic concepts created by the Wrights and developed ever faster. 1909. . Army’s Myer. while circling the field at Fort died from his injuries and became the first fatality from the crash of a powered airplane. was not immediately recognized for its potential. The resulting Fokker Eindecker monoplane fighter was. That same year. In 1911 the U. American inventor and aviator Glenn Curtiss introduced the first practical seaplane. loops. Army used a Wright brothers’ biplane to make the first live bomb test from an airplane. where daredevil pilots drew large crowds but few investors. In Britain. The B.” Aerobatics. During the very early 1900s. the airplane was relegated mostly to the county-fair circuit. air craft as early as 1898. such as the D-VII and D-VIII flown by German pilots. for a time. from France to Tunisia. a wartime potential. This was a biplane with a large float beneath the center of the lower wing and two smaller floats beneath the tips of the lower wing. when monoplane of his own design. and the first nonstop flight across the Mediterranean Sea.C Early Military and Public Interest The airplane.S. In September of that year. One exception was the United States War Department. Also in 1911. or acrobatic flying.000 were subsequently built.500-mi) flight from was introduced. French engineer Louis Blériot crossed the English channel in a Blériot XI. and deadlier combat airplanes. In 1908 the Wrights demonstrated their airplane to the U. more capable. Blériot’s channel crossing made clear to the world the airplane’s American pilot Eugene Ely took off from and landed on warships.E. Selfridge On July 25. and this potential was further demonstrated in 1910 and 1911. 2c version of this airplane was so successful that nearly 2. a modified Farnborough B. The year 1913 became known as the “glorious year of flying.S. which had long been using balloons to observe the battlefield and expressed an interest in heavier-thanSignal Corps at Fort Myer. the development of the airplane accelerated dramatically. In 1915 Fokker mounted a machine gun with a timing gear so that the gun could fire between the rotating propellers.

The DC-3 quickly came to dominate commercial aviation in the late 1930s. California. driven by the two world wars and service demands of the U.000-horsepower engines. Light and powerful. The Moth could Instrument flying became practical in 1929. The first regularly scheduled passenger line in the world operated between Saint Petersburg and Tampa. both warring sides had fighters that could fly at altitudes of 7. In the mid-1920s light airplanes were produced in great numbers. just 10 years after the Wrights pioneered the skies. low-wing monoplane. and room production line and led indirectly to the development of perhaps the most successful propeller Beach.S. the Douglas DC-3. all without visual reference to the Earth. 1929. flying over a predetermined course. an all-metal. in quick succession. when the American inventor Elmer Sperry perfected the artificial horizon and directional gyro. with retractable landing gear. The inexpensive DeHavilland Moth biplane. which became. not willing to wait for Boeing to finish the order from United. Post Office for airmail. and club and private pleasure flying became popular. In the early 1920s the air-cooled engine was perfected. an insulated cabin. Commercial aviation developed slowly during the next 30 years. engine casing. or cooled engines. Introduced in 1933. An order from United Air Lines for 60 planes of this type tied up Boeing’s airliner in history. During World War I. and some DC- . strong.600 m (25. an American pilot and army officer. The DC-3 carried 21 passengers. approached airplane manufacturer Donald Douglas in Long and the DC-3. James Doolittle. Trans World Airlines. On September 24.000 ft) and speeds up to 250 km/h (155 mph). along with its streamlined cowling.800 m (19. and easy to handle. Florida. liquid- introduced in 1925. proved the value of Sperry’s instruments by taking off. although it had to stop many times for 3s are still in service today. It was for ten passengers.000 ft) and had a top speed of 190 km/h (120 mph). put flying within the financial reach of many enthusiasts. used powerful. E Development of Commercial Aviation Commercial aviation began in January 1914. and landing. travel at 145 km/h (90 mph) and was light. the DC-2. By the end of World War I in 1918. Notable French fighters included the Spad (1916) and the Nieuport 28 (1918).The concentrated research and development made necessary by wartime pressures produced great progress in airplane design and construction. 1. and could travel across the country in less than 24 hours of travel time. fuel. Boeing’s Model 247 was considered the first truly modern airliner. for an alternative. these engines gave strong competition to the older. outstanding early British fighters included the Sopwith Pup (1916) and the Sopwith Camel (1917). which flew as high as 5. the DC-1.

airlines clamored for smaller.000 a year by the end of the war. the Stratoliner could carry 33 passengers at altitudes up to 6. G The Jumbo Jet Era . four-engine jet. now carried Wartime technology efforts also brought to aviation critical new developments. Douglas produced the DC-9 and Boeing both the 737 and the trijet 727.000 ft) and F Aircraft Developments of World War II It was not until after World War II (1939-1945). there were fewer than 300 planes in airline service. such as the jet engine. used in wartime for troop and cargo carriage. and air travel changed dramatically almost overnight. and Boeing and Douglas delivered. This complication gave American manufacturers Boeing and Douglas time to bring the 707 and DC-8 to the market. Pressurized propeller planes such as the Douglas DC-6 and Lockheed paying passengers on transcontinental and transatlantic flights. The Comet quickly suffered two fatal crashes due to structural problems and was grounded. After the big. Pan American World Airways inaugurated Boeing 707 jet service in October of 1958. when comfortable. became available to commercial operators after Constellation. With its regulated cabin air at speeds of 320 km/h (200 mph). Jet transportation in the commercial-aviation arena arrived in 1952 with Britain’s DeHavilland Comet. shorter-range jets. half the propeller-airplane time. England. A large number of sophisticated new transports. When the United nearly 50. and reached a rate of became available in large numbers. the war ended. in less than eight hours. entering service in 1940. Boeing’s new 707 carried 112 passengers at high speed and quickly brought an end to the propeller era for large commercial airplanes. an 885-km/h (550-mph). four-engine 707s and DC-8s had established themselves. a pressurized derivative of the famous B-17 bomber.Boeing provided the next major breakthrough with its Model 307 Stratoliner. pressurized air transports States entered World War II in 1941. early versions of which carried troops and VIPs during the war. that the airline industry really prospered. Transatlantic jet service enabled travelers to fly from New York City to London. pressure.000 m (20. Airplane production concentrated mainly on fighters and bombers.

three-engine jet called the DC-10. and Lockheed-Martin no longer builds commercial airliners. McDonnell Douglas built a somewhat smaller. 80. The company ceded the superjumbo jet market to Airbus and instead focused . Boeing developed and still builds the 747. a unique. the jet will be the world’s largest passenger airliner. a four-engine airplane for longer routes. produced later in an updated version known as the MD-11. During the 1980s and 1990s Airbus expanded its family of aircraft by introducing the slightly smaller A310 twin jet and the narrow-body A320 twin. In 2000 the company launched production of the A380. and a year later the company announced its intention to halt production of the passenger workhorses MD-11. Lockheed built the L-1011 Tristar. and Boeing brought online the narrow-body 757 and wide-body 767 twin jets. both of which extend the entire length of the fuselage. in 1995. MDits efforts on developing a midsize passenger airplane.The next frontier. lighter. so-called fly-by-wire aircraft with sidestick controllers for the pilots rather than conventional control columns and wheels. In the 1980s McDonnell Douglas introduced the twin-engine MD-80 family. a superjumbo jet that will seat Scheduled to enter service in 2006. Boeing introduced the 777. The L-1011 is no longer in production. Airbus had developed the A300 wide-body twin during the 1970s. and MD-90. sometimes called jumbo jets. on which passenger loads are somewhat 555 passengers on two decks. Boeing. was the age of the jumbo jet. McDonnell Douglas. In 1997 Boeing acquired longtime rival McDonnell Douglas. a wide-body jumbo jet that can hold up to 400 passengers. a trijet that competed with the DC-10. Airbus also introduced the larger A330 twin and the A340. and Lockheed all produced wide-body airliners. pioneered in the late 1960s.

under the control of a set of instructions called a program. such as calculations or electronic communication. such as video display monitors or printers. The program results II USES OF COMPUTERS . accurately. and quickly. Computers perform a wide variety of activities reliably. machine that performs tasks. computer and are retrieved and processed by the computer’s electronics. Programs usually reside within the are stored or routed to output devices.Computer I INTRODUCTION Computer.

computers track inventories with bar codes and scanners. tiny computers embedded in the electronic circuitry of most appliances control the indoor temperature. creating digitized sound on stereo systems or computer-animated features from a digitally encoded laser disc. Computers in automobiles regulate the flow of fuel. they Instruction). with computer-controlled projection units. or applications. and turn videocassette recorders (VCRs) on and off. thereby increasing gas mileage. investigate complicated data. or model systems that are too costly or impractical to build. Computers are used extensively in scientific research to solve mathematical problems. computers in sophisticated communications to encode and unscramble messages. the central processing unit (CPU) that carries out program instructions. Computer programs. exist to aid every level of education. tell the time. and to keep III HOW COMPUTERS WORK The physical computer and its components are known as hardware. Educators use computers to can add graphics. In business. such as printers . the input devices. and transfer funds electronically. Computer hardware includes the memory that stores data and program instructions. and animation to their communications (see Computer-Aided track grades and communicate with students. operate home security systems. that allow the user to communicate with the computer. The military employs track of personnel and supplies. check the credit status of customers.People use computers in many ways. from programs that teach simple addition or sentence construction to programs that teach advanced calculus. sound. In homes. the output devices. Computers also entertain. such as a keyboard or mouse. such as testing the air flow around the next generation of aircraft.

and video display monitors. to control the arm of a robot to weld a car’s of the computer. reports the results of operating system loads the program in the computer’s memory and runs the program. To access these files or commands. Popular operating systems. that enable the computer to present information to the user. graphical user interfaces (GUIs)—that use tiny pictures. or to direct the general operation A The Operating System When a computer is turned on it searches for instructions in its memory. to display and modify a photograph. Some operating systems allow the user to B Computer Memory . and controls the sequence of the software and hardware actions. touch. the user clicks the mouse on the icon or carry out these tasks via voice. to represent various files and presses a combination of keys on the keyboard. one of the first sets of these instructions is a special program called the operating system. the work. to write a letter. stores and manages data. The programs that run the computer are called software. It prompts the user (or other machines) for input and commands. have commands. Usually. Software generally is designed to perform a particular type of task—for example. and buses (hardware lines or wires) that connect these and other computer components. or other input methods. body. such as Microsoft Windows and the Macintosh system (Mac OS). which is the software that makes the computer these commands and other operations. These instructions tell the computer how to start up. When the user requests that a program run. or icons.

characters such as . a gigabyte can store about 1 billion characters. 010.024 bytes—can store about 1. or bits. Numbers can represent anything from chemical bonds to dollar figures to colors to sounds. Each time a bit is added. 001. and several character-sized graphics symbols. A third bit added to this two-bit representation again doubles 110. which can be read by . as well as numeric digits. 01. 10. or read-only memory (ROM). A byte is a useful quantity in which to store information because it provides enough possible punctuation marks. called a byte. a single number. including non-English patterns to represent the entire alphabet.To process information electronically. 101. data are stored in a computer in the form of binary digits. resulting in four possible the number of combinations. or part of a larger number. the number of possible patterns is doubled. given byte should be interpreted—that is. A byte also can be interpreted as a pattern that represents a number between 0 and 255. which can be read or changed by the user or computer. Eight bits is Extended Memory. A kilobyte—1. See also Expanded Memory.000 characters. the number of representations is doubled. or 111. If a second bit is added to a single bit of information. a byte has 256 possible combinations of 0s and 1s. Computer programmers usually decide how a text. and a terabyte can store about 1 trillion characters. a megabyte can store about 1 million characters. 100. in lower and upper cases. a character within a string of The physical memory of a computer is either random access memory (RAM). 011. or 11. each having two possible representations (0 or 1). combinations: 00. resulting in eight possibilities: 000. as a single character.

compact discs (CDs). permit the computer user to communicate with the computer. usually in tiny computer chips that hold millions of bytes of information. and some DVDs can hold more than 12 times as much data as a CD. The . Each wire can carry one bit. such as magnetic floppy disks. which converts images such as photographs into digital images that the computer can manipulate. used to input sounds such as the human voice which can activate computer commands in conjunction with voice recognition software.the computer but not altered in any way. a 16-bit bus. which senses the placement of a user’s finger and can be used to execute commands or access files. Early computer designs utilized a single or very few buses. which can store about 2 megabytes of information. which can store gigabytes of information. which can store up to 680 megabytes of information. and a microphone. temporarily storing instructions or data. The bus is usually a flat cable with numerous parallel wires. a single piece of silicon containing millions of tiny. C The Bus The bus enables the components in a computer. microscopically wired electrical components. a touch panel. which can store 8. one special register called the program counter keeps track of which program instruction comes next by maintaining the memory location of the next program instruction to be executed. so the bus can transmit many bits along the cable at the same time. “Tablet” computers are being developed that will allow users to interact with their screens using a penlike device. One way to store memory is within the circuitry of the computer.5 gigabytes of information. with 16 parallel wires. The memory within these computer chips is RAM. The CPU is a microprocessor chip—that is. Modern designs typically use many buses. D Input Devices Input devices. For example. E The Central Processing Unit Information from an input device or from the computer’s memory is communicated via the bus to the central processing unit (CPU). Information is stored in a CPU memory location called a register. Other input devices include a joystick. such as the CPU and the memory circuits. Memory also can be stored outside the circuitry of the computer on external storage devices. some of them specialized to carry particular forms of data. hard drives. allows the simultaneous transmission of 16 bits (2 bytes) of information from one component to another. a scanner. such as a keyboard or mouse. such as graphics. which is the part of the computer that translates commands and runs programs. Registers can be thought of as the CPU’s tiny scratchpad. a rodlike device often used by people who play computer games. to communicate as program instructions are being carried out. and digital video discs (DVDs). When a program is running. A single CD can store nearly as much information as several hundred floppy disks.

All other programming languages must be converted to machine code for them to be understood. and it uses the program counter to locate and retrieve the next instruction from memory. computer can understand it. liquid crystal display. and the results are stored in another instruction will do. The current instruction is analyzed by a decoder. and speakers. Computer programmers. The CPU executes the instruction. for example. These other languages are slower because the language must be translated first so that the than code written directly in the machine’s language. This entire sequence of steps is each at a different stage in its instruction cycle. where it is executed next. Machine CPU). Other output devices are printers. The translation can lead to code that may be less efficient to run A Machine Language Computer programs that can be run by a computer’s operating system are called executables. See also Input/Output Devices. This is called pipeline processing. the program may request that the information be communicated to an output device. however. Typical instructions are for copying data from a memory location or for adding the code instructions are few in number (roughly 20 to 200. F Output Devices Once the CPU has executed the program instruction. several instructions may be in process simultaneously. videocassette IV PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES Programming languages contain the series of commands that create software. In a typical sequence. Intel Pentium and Power PC microprocessor chips each have different machine languages and require different sets of codes to perform the same task. A CPU has a limited set of instructions known as machine code that it is capable of understanding. depending on the computer and the . overhead projectors. the CPU locates the next instruction in the appropriate memory device. called an instruction cycle. Meanwhile. prefer to use other computer languages that use words or other commands because they are easier to use.CPU’s control unit coordinates and times the CPU’s functions. Any data the instruction needs are retrieved via the bus and placed in the register or copied to specific memory locations via a bus. Frequently. An executable program is a sequence of extremely simple instructions known as machine code. such as a video display monitor or a flat recorders (VCRs). which determines what the CPU’s registers. stored in a special instruction register. the program counter changes—usually increasing a small amount—so that it contains the location of the instruction that will be The instruction then travels along the bus from the computer’s memory to the CPU. The CPU can understand only this language. These instructions are specific to the individual computer’s CPU and associated hardware.

to display a greeting need include only the following command: cout << ‘Hello. Instead. This command directs the computer’s CPU to display the greeting. Although the “cout” and “endl” parts of the above For example. the text that appears statement appear cryptic. equivalent command in assembly language. For example. computer programmers write code in languages known as an assembly language or a high-level language. these languages are not CPU-specific. Because these sequences are long strings of 0s and 1s and are usually not easy to understand. programmers quickly become accustomed to their meanings. different assembly languages. B” instructs the computer to copy data from location A to location B. Each machine language instruction has an statement “MOV A. B Assembly Language Assembly language uses easy-to-remember commands that are more understandable to programmers than machine-language commands. a programmer writing in the high-level C++ programming language who wants what type of CPU the computer uses. CPUs use different machine languages and therefore require different programs and different program to carry out specific hardware tasks or to speed up parts of the high-level program C High-Level Languages High-level languages were developed because of the difficulty of programming using assembly languages.contents of two memory locations (usually registers in the CPU). For example. because assembly-language instructions are a series of abstract codes and each instruction carries out a relatively simple task. “cout” sends the greeting message to the “standard output” (usually the computer . computer instructions usually are not written in machine code. in one Intel assembly language. Once an assembly-language an assembler. Encarta User!’ << endl. the program is written. It is still difficult to use. The same instruction in machine code is a string of 16 0s and 1s. and it will work no matter between the quotes will be displayed. Assembly language is sometimes inserted into a high-level language that are executed frequently. Machine code instructions are binary—that is. In addition. it is converted to a machine-language program by another program called Assembly language is fast and powerful because of its correspondence with machine language. Complex tasks require a sequence of these simple instructions. sequences of bits (0s and 1s). they contain general commands that work on different CPUs. however. In addition. When this statement is executed. Instead. High-level languages are easier to use than machine and assembly languages because their commands are closer to natural human language.

New Hampshire. especially in physics. and the term discovered a hardware failure in the Mark II computer caused by a moth trapped between its eventually came to represent any computer error. interactive nature and its inclusion on into machine code first.user’s screen) and “endl” is how to tell the computer (when using the C++ language) to go to a new line after it outputs the message. FLOW-MATIC. The language was easier to learn than its predecessors and became popular due to its friendly.” VI FORTRAN From 1954 to 1958 American computer scientist John Backus of International Business Machines. “First actual case of a bug being found. It became a its variations are still in use today. a program that divides a number in half 10 INPUT “ENTER A NUMBER. including one based strictly on incorrect instructions in software. This simplifies the programmer’s V FLOW-MATIC American naval officer and mathematician Grace Murray Hopper helped develop the first commercially available high-level software language. Hopper is credited for inventing the term bug. using compilers designed for those machines. in 1957. Hopper taped the moth into her notebook and wrote. Unlike languages that require all their instructions to be translated closeness to natural human language. Fortran and VII BASIC Kurtz at Dartmouth College in Hanover. For example. This is the task of a special program called a compiler. A compiler turns a high-level program into a CPU-specific machine language. a programmer may write a program in a high-level language such as C++ or Java and then prepare it for different machines. such as a Sun Microsystems work station or a personal task and makes the software more portable to different users and machines. BASIC commands typify high-level languages because of their simplicity and their can be written as Hungarian-American mathematician John Kemeny and American mathematician Thomas early personal computers. She documented the event in her laboratory notebook.” X 20 Y=X/2 . in 1945 she mechanical relays. computer (PC). high-level languages also must be translated. standard programming language because it could process mathematical formulas. (IBM) developed Fortran. For example. developed BASIC (Beginner’s Allpurpose Symbolic Instruction Code) in 1964. BASIC is turned into machine language line by line as the program runs. which indicates a computer malfunction. an acronym for Formula Translation. Like assembly-language instructions. Inc.

designed. graphics. which represent switches that are turned on or off by electrical current.30 PRINT “HALF OF THAT NUMBER IS. are intended to display data.14). This makes the programmer’s task easier. or a number like  (approximately 3. a class defining squares can inherit features such as right angles from a class defining rectangles. For example. .” In the next line. and it results in more IX A TYPES OF COMPUTERS Digital and Analog Computers can be either digital or analog. are based on traditional high-level languages. This set of programming classes simplifies the programmer’s task. but they enable a programmer to think in terms of collections of cooperating objects instead of lists of commands. and Java. Virtually all modern computers are digital. C++. Pascal. such as C++ and Java. especially for users of the World Wide Web. such as a circle. that number is divided by two and stored as “Y. Both 0 and 1 can be represented by analog computers. and their variants. Digital refers to the processes in computers that manipulate binary numbers (0s or 1s). COBOL. but nothing in between 0 and 1. Reusable code allows a programmer to use code that has already been reliable and efficient programs. The first line prints “ENTER A NUMBER” on the computer screen followed by program demonstrates how data are stored and manipulated in most high-level programming VIII OTHER HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES Other high-level languages in use today include C.5. 1. and tested.” In the third line. Analog refers to circuits or numerical values that have a continuous range. such as the “markup languages” known as HTML. and media selections. this simple languages. programming languages. the result of the operation is displayed on the computer screen. Visual Basic. Markup languages are often not considered A Object-Oriented Programming Languages Object-oriented programming (OOP) languages. Ada. resulting in more “reusable” computer code. Prolog.5. Objects. have properties such as the radius of the circle and the command that draws it on the computer screen. LISP. but they have become increasingly sophisticated.” Y The numbers that precede each line are chosen by the programmer to indicate the sequence a question mark to prompt the user to type in the number labeled “X. of the commands. written. Some languages. A bit can have the value 0 or the value 1. XML. Even though BASIC is rarely used today. but so can 0. Classes of objects can inherit features from other classes of objects.

They are used as notepads. Some small computers can be held in one hand and are called personal digital assistants (PDAs). such as tuning to a particular television frequency. If a dimmer replaces the on/off switch. They are equipped with a keyboard. speed. to track finances. is analog. A popular analog computer used a narrow. They generally are “hard-wired”—that Programmable computers vary enormously in their computational power. such as televisions and wristwatches.A desk lamp can serve as an example of the difference between analog and digital. trackball. B Range of Computer Ability Computers exist in a wide range of sizes and power. Most sources consider the terms “laptop” and “notebook” synonymous. Because the sliding is continuous and there is no mechanism to stop at any exact values. They can be in the 20th century was the slide rule. a mouse. is. particularly in areas such as neural networks. or on or off bits. letters. These built to respond to continuous electrical signals. These bits can be combined to denote information such as numbers. Most modern computers. because the lamp either produces light at a given moment or it does not. If the lamp has a simple on/off switch. their programs are represented as circuits that cannot be reprogrammed. delivering doses of medicine. These computers are typically preprogrammed for a specific task. the slide rule is analog. and for entertainment. then the lamp system is digital. or other information. they can connect to worldwide computer networks to small computers. scheduling systems. but they are more compact and have flat. Laptop and notebook computers usually have hardware and software similar to PCs. They have large amounts of internal memory to store hundreds of pointing device. memory. if equipped with a cellular phone. Hand-held game devices are also examples of Portable laptop and notebook computers and desktop PCs are typically used in businesses and at home to communicate on computer networks. the 0 or 1. the user slides been shown recently in analog computers. The smallest are embedded within the circuitry of appliances. . then the lamp in between. and program instructions. however. for word processing. To perform calculations with a slide rule. or keeping accurate time. lightweight LCDs instead of television-like video display monitors. because the amount of light can vary continuously from on to off and all intensities Analog computer systems were the first type to be produced. are digital machines whose components have a finite number of states—for example. exchange information regardless of location. graphics. gauged wooden strip inside a rulerlike holder. sound. and physical size. and a video display monitor or liquid crystal display (LCD) to display programs and documents. New interest has are specialized computer designs that attempt to mimic neurons of the brain. and address books.

a hard the workstation or PC because less expensive computers can be purchased.Workstations are similar to personal computers but have greater memory and more extensive exchange data. or receive output from. the boundaries between the various types have from one type of computer to another. and business environments— especially financial ones. consists of several PCs or workstations connected to a special computer called a server. can be shared. or terminals that have no computational abilities of their own. called supercomputers. One type of network. workstations. The advantage of a network is that data can be exchanged rapidly. such as those used to create weather predictions. The performance of various tasks and types of computing have also moved X NETWORKS Computers can communicate with other computers through a series of connections and associated hardware called a network. drive) specific to itself. The most powerful mainframe computers. A server often contains all of a storage capabilities. become less rigid. They control businesses and industrial facilities and are used for scientific research. such as hard-disk space or printers. but the bulk of storage resides on the server. and they are connected to other workstations or personal computers to Mainframe computers have more memory. the central computer. mathematical abilities. This reduces the cost of the maintenance of software because the software resides only on the server rather than on Mainframe computers and supercomputers commonly are networked. Some supercomputers have many sets of CPUs. These computers have increased in sophistication. each PC may have “local” memory (for example. Networks also allow remote use of a computer by a user who cannot physically access the computer. process complex and time-consuming calculations. and each CPU processes a portion of the task to increase overall speed and efficiency. and the military use them. networked PCs can work together on a given task in a version of parallel processing known as distributed computing. and it simplifies each individual workstation or PC. speed. As institutions. These “dumb” terminals are used only to enter data into. They are typically found in scientific. In this scenario. scientific computers break a task into small pieces. They may be connected to PCs. The server stores and manages programs and data. and capabilities than workstations and are usually shared by multiple users through a series of interconnected computers. . often within the same building or office networked group’s data and enables LAN workstations or PCs to be set up without large complex. a local area network (LAN). such as stock exchanges—that require complex and fast computations. For example. industrial. and software and hardware resources. Large businesses. Such computers are called parallel processors.

The Internet is a mammoth resource of data. B First Punch Cards . multiply and divide. These data are extensively cross-indexed. XI A HISTORY Beginnings The history of computing began with an analog machine. a person in Washington. government. or video. In 1623 German scientist Wilhelm could add. and with the aid of logarithm tables. Seventeenth-century German mathematician Gottfried Leibniz designed a special gearing system to enable multiplication on Pascal’s machine. mathematician. Computers can Los Angeles can browse through the computerized archives of the Library of Congress in connect to these networks to use facilities in another city or country. For example. enabling users to browse (transfer their attention from one information site to another) via buttons. Users can obtain a variety of information in the form of text. automatically carrying and borrowing digits from column to column. and scientific agencies. but most served as curiosities in parlors of the wealthy. Schikard invented a machine that used 11 complete and 6 incomplete sprocketed wheels that French philosopher. and utilities. and physicist Blaise Pascal invented a machine in 1642 that added and subtracted. highlighted text. a global consortium of networks linked by common communication programs and protocols (a set of established standards that enable computers to communicate with each other). programs.C. The largest WAN is the Internet. is a system of information resources accessed primarily through the Internet. developed in the 1980s by British physicist Timothy Berners-Lee. sounds. The World Wide Web. In 1984 the development of Internet technology was creating the Internet in 1973 as part of the United States Department of Defense Advanced turned over to private.Wide area networks (WANs) are networks that span large geographical areas. D. graphics. American computer scientist Vinton Cerf was largely responsible for Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Pascal built 50 copies of his machine. or sophisticated searching software known as search engines.

however. Lovelace’s conceptual programs for the machine led to the naming of a programming language (Ada) in her honor. The Analytical Engine Augusta Ada Byron. especially in the manufacture of fine furniture fabrics. The looms are C Precursor to Modern Computer Another early mechanical computer was the Difference Engine. Although never completed by Babbage.000 of his looms existed in Lyon. Engine. its . designed in the early 1820s by British mathematician and scientist Charles Babbage. he fled for his life from the city of Lyon pursued by weavers however: When Jacquard died. The loom prevailed. the Difference Engine was intended to be a machine with a 20-decimal capacity that could solve mathematical problems.In the early 19th century French inventor Joseph-Marie Jacquard devised a specialized type of computer: a silk loom. countess of Lovelace. considered the mechanical precursor of the modern computer. She was the daughter of the famous poet Lord Byron and one of only a few woman mathematicians of her time. emperor Napoleon I for his work. She prepared extensive notes concerning Babbage’s ideas and the Analytical Engine. more than 30. Babbage’s lack of political skills kept him from obtaining the approval and funds to build it. Although the Analytical Engine was never built. the Analytical was designed to perform all arithmetic operations efficiently. still used today. Babbage also made plans for another machine. was a personal friend and student of Babbage. Although Jacquard was rewarded and admired by French who feared their jobs were in jeopardy due to Jacquard’s invention. Jacquard’s loom used punched cards to program patterns that helped the loom create woven fabrics.

New Jersey. and hydrodynamics. the modern digital computer. and the ability to print. used an idea similar to Jacquard’s loom when he combined the use of punched cards with devices that created and electronically read the cards. Hollerith’s Tabulating-Recording Company. an American inventor. which was built by IBM. and UNIVAC At the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. Aiken obsessively numbers. insisting that there would never be a need for more than five or B EDVAC. Aiken also introduced computers to universities by establishing the first computer mistrusted the concept of storing a program within the computer.S. This electronic calculating machine used relays and electromagnetic components to replace mechanical components. Von Neumann's 1945 design for the Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC)—in stark contrast to . and it made the computational time three to four times shorter than the time previously needed for hand counts. Turing’s machine was the theoretical precursor to theorists. Massachusetts. meteorology. development of computers. the use of punched cards as a primitive memory.key concepts. Tabulating Machine Company eventually merged with two companies to form the Computing- In 1936 British mathematician Alan Turing proposed the idea of a machine that could process an automatic typewriter that used symbols for math and logic instead of letters. His computer had to read instructions from punched cards. XII A DEVELOPMENTS IN THE 20TH CENTURY Early Electronic Calculators Herman Hollerith. ENIAC. Turing equations without human direction. insisting that the integrity of the machine could be maintained only through a strict separation of program instructions from data. census. In later machines. can be found in many modern computers. Hollerith’s tabulator was used for the 1890 U. which could be stored away from the computer. In 1924 the company changed its name to International Business Machines (IBM). The machine (now known as a Turing machine) resembled intended the device to be a “universal machine” that could be used to duplicate or represent the function of any other existing machine. Aiken used vacuum tubes and solid state transistors (tiny electrical switches) to manipulate the binary science program at Harvard University in Cambridge. The Turing machine model is still used by modern computational In the 1930s American mathematician Howard Aiken developed the Mark I calculating machine. such as the capacity to store instructions. He also urged the National Bureau of Standards not to support the six of them nationwide. economics. Hungarian-American mathematician John von Neumann developed one of the first computers used to solve problems in mathematics.

which was then bought by the Rand Corporation. vacuum tubes. weighed more than 27. ENIAC was operational in 1945 and introduced to the public in 1946.. Many of ENIAC’s first tasks were for military purposes. Clifford Berry. Atanasoff’s device was the first computer to separate ABC.000 team of six technicians. incorporate a program stored entirely within its memory. it had to be reprogrammed for each task. used for a broader variety of commercial applications. By 1957. patent on ENIAC was settled. and MANIAC. general digital computer. Roughly 2. and contained more than 18. It is regarded as the first successful. while teaching at Iowa State College. such as stored program machine. He helped build it along with American engineer John Presper Eckert.the designs of Aiken. Jr.800 sq ft).000 lb). or later used in the design of the ENIAC. Since ENIAC was initially not a Eckert and Mauchly eventually formed their own company. there were 46 UNIVACs in use. his contemporary—was the first electronic computer design to some with clever names like ILLIAC. Atanasoff developed the concepts that were data processing from memory.000 kg (60. It occupied 167 sq m (1. American physicist John Vincent Atanasoff built a prototype computing device called the Atanasoff-Berry Computer. JOHNNIAC. but it is not clear whether a functional version was ever built.000 of the computer’s vacuum tubes were replaced each month by a calculating ballistic firing tables and designing atomic weapons. with the help of his assistant. They produced the Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC). Atanasoff did not receive credit for his contributions until 1973. This machine led to several others. when a lawsuit regarding the XIII THE TRANSISTOR AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS TRANSFORM COMPUTING . The first UNIVAC was delivered to the Between 1937 and 1939. which was United States Census Bureau in 1951. the Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer. American physicist John Mauchly proposed the electronic digital computer called ENIAC. at the Moore School of Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia.

Modern microprocessors can contain more than 40 million transistors. and Linux enables computer users to run programs and manipulate data in ways that were unimaginable in the mid-20th century.In 1948. American physicists Walter Houser Brattain. a device that can act as an energy-inefficient. had 256 bytes of RAM. received input through switches on the front panel. Refinements in the PC continued abilities. independent work of Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments and circuits became miniaturized. and CPUs with more computational used successfully by Apple Computer. electric switch. more components could be designed into a single computer circuit. Inc. In the late 1960s integrated circuits (tiny transistors and other electrical components arranged on a single chip of silicon) replaced individual transistors in computers. Graphical user interfaces were first designed by the Xerox Corporation. replacing costly. In the 1970s refinements in integrated circuit technology led to the development of the modern microprocessor. the Mac OS. then later with the inclusion of video displays. Integrated circuits Robert Noyce of the Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation in the late 1950s. . Manufacturers used integrated circuit technology to build smaller and cheaper computers. better storage devices. and displayed output on rows of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). and William Bradford Shockley developed the transistor. at Bell Telephone Laboratories. sold by Micro Instrumentation Telemetry Systems (MITS). The first of these so-called personal computers (PCs)—the Altair 8800—appeared in 1975. integrated circuits that contained thousands of transistors.. As integrated resulted from the simultaneous. Today the development of sophisticated operating systems such as Windows. The transistor had a tremendous impact on computer design. and unreliable vacuum tubes. John Bardeen. The Altair used an 8-bit Intel 8080 microprocessor.

to a chess match with a supercomputer called Deep Blue. and the United States are collaborating to develop new In 1996 IBM challenged Garry Kasparov. At issue. The computer had the ability to compute more than 100 million chess positions per second.Several researchers claim the “record” for the largest single calculation ever performed. Italy. rather than one programmed XIV THE FUTURE OF COMPUTERS . Their analysis demonstrated the existence of a previously hypothetical subatomic supercomputers that will run these types of calculations 100 times faster. becoming the first computer to win a match against a reigning world chess champion with regulation time controls. particle called a glueball. the reigning world chess champion. however. and some speculate that massive calculating power will one day replace intelligence. Japan. is whether a computer can be to solve a specific set of tasks. developed with the ability to learn to solve problems on its own. They solved one million trillion mathematical subproblems by continuously running 448 computers for two years. In a 1997 rematch Deep Blue defeated Kasparov. Many experts predict these types of parallel processing machines will soon surpass human chess playing ability. Deep Blue serves as a prototype for future computers that will be required to solve complex problems. One large single calculation was accomplished by physicists at IBM in 1995.

the physical limitations of miniaturizing circuits embedded in silicon. to store data so far. Virtual Reality Modeling language (VRML)—are currently in use or are being developed for the World Wide Web. including biological computing that uses living organisms. as computer use becomes more widespread. Computer hackers—people who illegally gain access to computer systems—often violate privacy and can tamper with or destroy records. Long-standing issues. the basic unit of heredity. These laws allow quantum computers could include code breaking (see cryptography) and large database quantum computers to examine all possible answers to a query simultaneously. and Computers will become more advanced and they will also become easier to use. and more versatile. molecular computing that uses molecules with particular properties. Improved speech recognition will make the operation of a computer easier. expression. Scientists investigate them because of related to heat generated by even the tiniest of transistors. computers simplify day-to-day life. erasing information or causing malfunctions. and regulatory legislation. This is now known as Moore’s Law. and carry out operations. Future uses of . are being reexamined in light of the digital revolution. are limited in abilities or are strictly theoretical. These are examples of possible future computational platforms that. Other. such as how to regulate material on the have used computers to electronically embezzle funds and alter credit histories (see Computer Internet and the World Wide Web. cheaper. Other individuals Security). compromise. and computing that uses deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The number of transistors and the computational With their increasing power and versatility. Programs called viruses or worms can replicate and spread from computer to computer. better computer security. such as privacy and freedom of governments are working to solve these problems through informed conversation. will also contribute to better human and computer interfaces. so do the opportunities for misuse. the technology of interacting with a computer using all of the human senses. There are also limitations Intriguing breakthroughs occurred in the area of quantum computing in the late 1990s.In 1965 semiconductor pioneer Gordon Moore predicted that the number of transistors contained on a computer chip would double every year. Scientists use a branch of (particles that make up atoms). New ethical issues also have arisen. Quantum computers may one day be thousands to millions of times faster than current computers. speed of microprocessors currently doubles approximately every 18 months. Virtual reality. Components continue to shrink in size and are becoming faster. Unfortunately. Quantum computers under development use components of a chloroform molecule (a combination of chlorine and hydrogen atoms) and a variation of a medical procedure called physics called quantum mechanics. exotic models of computation are being developed. which describes the behavior of subatomic particles magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compute at a molecular level. and it has proven to be somewhat accurate. Individuals. as the basis for quantum computing. Standards for virtual-reality program languages—for example. because they take advantage of the laws that govern the behavior of subatomic particles. companies.

Communications between computer users and networks will benefit from new technologies such as broadband communication systems that can carry significantly more data faster or more conveniently to and from the vast interconnected databases that continue to grow in number and type.queries. Theorists of chemistry. computer science. mathematics. and physics are now working to determine the possibilities and limitations of quantum computing. .

the infrared through the X-ray range. from II PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION . Masers are similar devices that produce and amplify microwaves. compact disc (CD) players. Lasers are used in many modern technological devices including bar code readers. a device that produces and amplifies light. Lasers can generate light beyond the range visible to the human eye. The word laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. and can be directed with great accuracy. can be extremely intense. Laser light is very pure in color. and laser printers.Laser I INTRODUCTION Laser.

Lasers generate light by storing energy in particles called electrons inside atoms and then all matter on Earth and are a thousand times smaller than viruses. Atoms are the building blocks of Light is composed of tiny packets of energy called photons. Lasers produce coherent light: light that is monochromatic (one color) and whose photons are “in step” with one another. made up of two types of particles: protons. inducing the electrons to emit the absorbed energy as light. which have a positive charge. This cluster is have no charge. which occupies only a tiny part of the atom’s space. Electrons are the underlying source of almost all light. and neutrons.9 percent of the atom’s mass but Stadium and the equally magnified nucleus is only the size of a baseball. The nucleus makes up more than 99. A Excited Atoms At the heart of an atom is a tightly bound cluster of particles called the nucleus. Enlarge an atom up to the size of Yankee .

Electrons. A photon’s energy. the peaks and troughs of their waves line up. electrons quickly jump back to the low energy level. equivalently. Neon signs and fluorescent lamps glow with this kind of light as B Stimulated Emission Lasers are different from more familiar sources of light. frequency. Excited atoms in lasers collectively emit photons of a single color. When two photons are in step. tiny particles that have a negative charge. Electrons travel in complex orbits and exist only in certain specific energy states or levels (see Quantum Theory). If the photon approaches closely enough. The new light . the photon can stimulate the excited atom to immediately emit light that has the same wavelength and is in step with the photon that interacted with it. light (see Photoelectric Effect). to an excited state by an color (or. the same wavelength) as the photon this atom is about to emit energy source. color. This stimulated emission is the key to laser operation. Electrons can move from a low to a high energy level by absorbing energy. whirl through the rest of the space inside atoms. giving off the extra energy as many electrons independently emit photons of different colors in all directions. Usually. all traveling in the same direction and all in step with one another. and wavelength are directly related: All photons of a given energy are the same color and have the same frequency and wavelength. An excited atom can then be “stimulated” by a photon of exactly the same spontaneously. An atom can become excited by absorbing a photon whose energy equals the difference between the two energy levels. or energized. An atom with at least one electron that occupies a higher energy level than it normally would is said to be excited. The electrons in the atoms of a laser are first pumped.

Townes in 1964 and Schawlow in 1981). and free electron are all common types of lasers. who had written down some ideas and laser. however. the photons usually zip back and forth in a gas-filled tube with parallel mirrors. (Both men won Nobel Prizes in physics for their work. and single-colored laser light finally escapes through this slightly transparent mirror. coherent beam of light: laser light. arc lamps. One of the mirrors is only partially intense. liquid. As the photons bounce between the two silvered. Translating the idea of stimulated emission into a working model. The working principles of lasers were outlined by the American physicists Charles Hard Townes and Arthur Leonard Schawlow in a 1958 patent application. A Solid-State Lasers Solid-state lasers produce light by means of a solid medium. for example. They are usually pulsed to generate a very are useful for studying physical phenomena of very brief duration. The phenomenon snowballs into an amplified. semiconductor. brief burst of light. directional. Solid-state. in 1917. Bursts as short as 12 × 10-15 sec have been achieved. The most common solid laser media are rods of ruby crystals and neodymium-doped glasses and crystals. or metal-vapor lamps. required more than four decades. they trigger further stimulated emissions and the light gets brighter and brighter with each pass through the excited atoms. The Albert Einstein first proposed stimulated emission. they use to produce the laser light. In a gas laser. the underlying process for laser action. gas. In 1960 American physicist Theodore Maiman of Hughes Aircraft Corporation constructed the first working laser from a ruby rod.adds to the existing light. but it was later challenged by the American physicist and engineer Gordon Gould. . and the two photons go on to stimulate other excited atoms to give up their extra energy. coined the word laser in 1957. is achieved with brilliant strobe light from xenon flash tubes. called pumping. highly reflective mirrors facing inward at each end. The escaped light forms the laser beam. These short bursts One method of exciting the atoms in lasers is to illuminate the solid laser material with higherenergy light than the laser produces. again in step. Gould eventually won a partial patent covering several types of III TYPES OF LASERS Lasers are generally classified according to the material. called the medium. The ends of the rods are fashioned into two parallel surfaces coated with a highly reflecting nonmetallic film. This procedure. Solid-state lasers offer the highest power output. allowing a small amount of light to pass through rather than reflecting it all. The patent for the laser was granted to Townes and Schawlow.

Semiconductor operated in the continuous wave mode with better than 50 percent efficiency. They are pumped by intense flash lamps in a pulse mode or by a separate gas laser in the continuous can be adjusted with the help of a prism located inside the laser cavity. First developed in 1977. E Free Electron Lasers. . Free electron lasers employ an array of magnets to excite free electrons (electrons not bound to atoms). Some dye lasers are tunable. lasers are pumped by the direct application of electric current across the junction. Only a small percentage of the energy used to excite most other lasers is converted into light. Gas lasers can be pumped by ultraviolet turning the energy used to excite their atoms into laser light. they are the most powerful continuous wave (CW) lasers—that is. electron beams.B Gas Lasers The lasing medium of a gas laser can be a pure gas. wave mode. Two mirrors are located light. One layer is treated with an impurity whose atoms provide an extra electron. called quantum-dot verticalon a chip the size of a fingernail. or even metal vapor. A typical semiconductor laser consists of a junction between two flat layers of gallium arsenide. C Liquid Lasers The most common liquid laser media are inorganic dyes contained in glass vessels. cavity surface-emitting lasers. Semiconductor lasers also form the heart of fiber-optics communication systems (see Fiber Optics). Carbon dioxide lasers are very efficient at outside the ends of the tube to form the laser cavity. they are now becoming important research instruments. electric current. Consequently. meaning that the color of the laser light they emit D Semiconductor Lasers Semiconductor lasers are the most compact lasers. These lasers are so tiny that more than a million of them can fit Common uses for semiconductor lasers include compact disc (CD) players and laser printers. The medium is usually contained in a cylindrical glass or quartz tube. a mixture of gases. lasers that emit light continuously rather than in pulses. or chemical reactions. and the other with an impurity whose atoms are one electron short. Gallium arsenide is the most common semiconductor used. The helium-neon laser is known for its color purity and minimal beam spread. They can be Scientists have developed extremely tiny semiconductor lasers.

Lasers have been used. At high power. to cut fashion patterns. to induce controlled nuclear fusion (see Nuclear Energy).Free electron lasers are tunable over a broader range of energies than dye lasers. The devices become more difficult to operate at higher energies but generally work successfully from X-ray range. for example. and to attempt to . A Industry Powerful laser beams can be focused on a small spot to generate enormous temperatures. Consequently. infrared through ultraviolet wavelengths. trim microelectronics. the military. to drill holes in diamonds. to synthesize new material. or vaporize material. producing very high-power radiation that is currently too expensive to produce. electron lasers can function even in the The free electron laser facility at the University of California at Santa Barbara uses intense farinfrared light to investigate mutations in DNA molecules and to study the properties of semiconductor materials. medicine. Theoretically. communications. Lasers have become valuable tools in industry. to shape machine tools. and the arts. IV LASER APPLICATIONS The use of lasers is restricted only by imagination. melt. scientific research. the focused beams can readily and precisely heat. Free electron lasers should also eventually become capable of near-infrared beams from a free electron laser could defend against a missile attack.

extremely small amounts of light scattering and small shifts in color caused by the interaction between laser light and matter can easily be detected. existence of trace substances in samples can be detected. laser pulses also make high-speed photography with exposure times of only several trillionths B Scientific Research Because laser light is highly directional and monochromatic. for example. Earth and the Moon. Powerful. and the detectors of certain types of air pollution. By measuring the scattering and color shifts.Highly directional laser beams are used for alignment in construction. Lasers have been used for precise determination (to within one inch) of the distance between . Photochemistry). Perfectly straight and uniformly sized tunnels. Scientists also have used lasers to determine the speed of light to an unprecedented accuracy. short of a second possible. may be dug using lasers for guidance. and in precise tests to confirm Einstein’s theory of relativity. (see Chemical Analysis. Lasers are used in this way for monitoring small movements associated with plate tectonics and for geographic surveys. scientists can study molecular structures of matter. Chemical reactions can be selectively induced. Lasers are also the most effective Scientists use lasers to make extremely accurate measurements.

Lasers are therefore ideal for space communications. and cauterize blood vessels. bore holes in the skull. Laser techniques have also been used for high-density information recording. Laser techniques have also been developed for lab tests of small E Military Applications . For instance. In microwave signals.000 times the television channels today carried by fibers have been developed to transmit laser light for earthbound communication in telephone and computer systems. Scientists also use lasers to trap single atoms and subatomic particles in order to study these C Communications Laser light can travel a large distance in outer space with little reduction in signal strength. from which a threeCDs and videodiscs (see Sound Recording and Reproduction). vaporize procedures for eye disorders. Intense. healthy tissues. Laser surgery has virtually replaced older surgical biological samples.Very fast laser-activated switches are being developed for use in particle accelerators. Lasers are also used to play audio D Medicine Lasers have a wide range of medical uses. Low-loss optical addition. narrow beams of laser light can cut and cauterize certain body tissues in a small fraction of a second without damaging surrounding lesions. high-energy laser light can carry 1. tiny bits of matter (see Particle Trap). Lasers have been used to “weld” the retina. dimensional image can be reconstructed with a laser beam. laser light simplifies the recording of a hologram.

Guns can missiles has been proposed. Bush. and cause permanent eye damage whether the light is direct. The use of laser beams to destroy hostile ballistic Ronald Reagan and the Ballistic Missile Defense program supported by President George W. burn flesh. High-powered lasers of the Class IV type (the highest classification is then attached to the laser as a sticker. depending on their power output. Therefore. and the energy of the photons they emit. the chief danger in working with lasers is eye damage.Laser guidance systems for missiles. aircraft. the enforced by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH). president be fitted with laser sights and range finders. The higher its potential to injure. their emission duration. The higher the laser’s energy. a department of the Food classification) generate a beam of energy that can start fires. or diffused. and laser use in Canada is overseen by Health Canada’s Radiation . as in the Strategic Defense Initiative urged by U.S. Lasers sold and used commercially in the United States must comply with a strict set of laws and Drug Administration. The CDRH has divided lasers into six groups. laser light should not be viewed either directly or reflected. The ability of tunable dye lasers to selectively excite an atom or molecule may open up V LASER SAFETY Because the eye focuses laser light just as it does other light. and satellites have been constructed. more efficient ways to separate isotopes for construction of nuclear weapons. reflected. classification system. Canada uses the same Protection Bureau.

Having discovered that nonmetallic materials such as silicon could be made to conduct electricity in tiny integrated circuits (see Integrated Circuit) on a small chip of silicon. ceramics. new applications. are possible. materials science research was given renewed emphasis with the discovery of ceramics that display superconductivity at higher temperatures than metals do. Even with goggles. including levitating trains and superfast computers. and metallurgy. and how they can be adapted and fabricated to meet the needs of modern technology.Goggles blocking the specific color of photons that a laser produces are mandatory for the safe use of lasers. the study of materials. Using the finding new ways of using plastics. chemistry. Materials Science and Technology I INTRODUCTION Materials Science and Technology. If the temperature at which these new materials become superconductive can be raised high enough. and other nonmetals in applications formerly reserved for metals. gave materials science its first major impetus. direct exposure to laser light should be avoided. nonmetallic as well as metallic. . beginning in the early 1960s. This then made it possible to miniaturize the components of electronic devices such as computers. scientists are II RECENT DEVELOPMENTS The rapid development of semiconductors (see Semiconductor) for the electronics industry. ways that metals could not. scientists and engineers devised ways of fashioning thousands of In the late 1980s. laboratory techniques and research tools of physics.

Tension is a pulling force that acts in one direction. and the resistance of materials to creep and fatigue are of basic importance in engineering. When a material is subjected to a bending. . permanent deformation. shearing. and engineers testing. It occurs when a mechanical part is subjected to a repeated or cyclic stress. No deformation is apparent during fatigue. stronger. The gradual loosening of bolts. Solid materials respond to these forces by elastic deformation (that is. such as tension. such as titanium alloys. Materials subjected to high temperatures are especially susceptible to this deformation. and shear. continuing importance. scientists have been developing. composite materials that are lighter. bending. Time-dependent effects of external forces are creep and fatigue. both tensile and is stretched and subjected to a tensional force. torsion. the deformation itself. and under even greater forces the Compression is the decrease in volume that results from the application of pressure. elastic limits.Although the latest developments in materials science have tended to focus on electrical properties. Under larger tensions. nonmetallic other metals currently used to form the outer skin of aircraft. such as vibration. an example is the force in a cable holding a weight. one side of it Creep is a slowly progressing. Creep extended over a long time eventually leads to the rupture of the Fatigue can be defined as progressive fracture. When a rod is bent. In many cases the slow deformation stops because the force causing the creep is eliminated by material. Under tension. which are defined below. See also Metals. material does not return completely to its original condition. and easier to fabricate than the aluminum and III MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS Engineers must know how solid materials respond to external forces. the sagging of long-span cables. compressive forces are simultaneously at work. a material usually stretches. the material ruptures. compression. mechanical properties are also of major. or torsional (twisting) force. or fracture. fatigue can be avoided by keeping the cyclic force below a certain level. failure of the material can occur even after a short time. and the other side is compressed. For the aircraft industry. With some metals. but small localized cracks develop and propagate through the material until the remaining cross-sectional area cannot support the maximum stress of the cyclic force. for instance. the material returns to its original size and form when the external force is lifted). permanent deformation that results from a steady force acting on a material. Even when the maximum stress never exceeds the elastic limit. Knowledge of tensile stress. and the deformation of components of machines and engines are all noticeable examples of creep. for example. returning to its original length if the force does not exceed the material's elastic limit (see Elasticity).

Refrigeration .

The vapor next is drawn into a .3° F). pharmaceuticals. Ice owes its effectiveness as a cooling agent to the fact that it has a constant fusion temperature of 0° C (32° F). used in domestic units for large coldstorage applications and for most air conditioning.5° C (-109. or other items under refrigeration is commonly known as cold storage. The two main types of mechanical refrigeration systems used are the compression system. constant cooling is achieved by the circulation of a refrigerant in a closed system. or providing an atmosphere conducive to bodily comfort.I INTRODUCTION Refrigeration. and the absorption system. process of lowering the temperature and maintaining it in a given space for the purpose of chilling foods. If no leakage occurs. or power. ice must absorb heat amounting to 333. expansion valve. condenser. known as dry ice. All that is required to maintain cooling is a constant supply of energy. Foodstuffs maintained at this temperature or slightly above have an increased storage life. In the evaporator the refrigerant is vaporized and heat is absorbed from the material contents or the space being cooled. Such refrigeration checks both bacterial growth and adverse chemical reactions that occur in the normal atmosphere. the refrigerant lasts indefinitely throughout the entire life of the system. II COMPRESSION SYSTEMS Compression systems employ four elements in the refrigeration cycle: compressor. furs. In order to melt. when mechanical or electric refrigerators became available. Storing perishable foods. it sublimes directly from the solid to vapor phase at a temperatures during the period of sublimation.1 kJ/kg (143. The use of natural or manufactured ice for refrigeration was widespread until shortly before World War I. in which it evaporates to a gas and then condenses back again to a liquid in a continuous cycle. preserving certain substances. Solid carbon dioxide. Melting ice in the presence of a dissolving salt lowers its melting point by several degrees. is used also as a refrigerant. Dry ice is effective for maintaining products at low In mechanical refrigeration. and evaporator. and a method of dissipating waste heat. Having no liquid phase at temperature of -78.3 Btu/lb). now employed largely for heat-operated air-conditioning units but formerly also used for heat-operated domestic units. normal atmospheric pressure.

With air-conditioning units the condenser heat must be dissipated out of doors or directly into cooling water.7° C (20° F) in its evaporator under a pressure of 246. In some cases this space constitutes the whole refrigerator cabinet.8° C (100° F) in the condenser.motor-driven compressor and elevated to high pressure.7 psi). This process of evaporator. and after compression to 909. which raises its temperature.2 kPa (35. the ammonia gas is reabsorbed in the partially cooled. however. weak solution . IV ABSORPTION SYSTEM A few household units. The condenser. For example. operate on the absorption principle. Changed to a liquid state in the condenser. In small domestic refrigerators used for food storage. in which its resulting superheated. known refrigerant would.3° C (-10° F) an evaporator pressure of 132. In a domestic refrigeration system the evaporator. to maintain a temperature of -23. A similar pressure-temperature relationship holds in the condenser. high-pressure gas is then condensed to liquid in an air. vaporize at -6. which passes into a condenser. III REFRIGERANTS For every refrigerant there is a specific boiling. called the freezer. The lower temperatures. so that if it ran continuously it would produce progressively temperature range. The resulting condensed liquid would then enter the expansion valve to drop to evaporator pressure and repeat the cycle of absorbing heat at low temperature and low pressure and dissipating heat at the much higher condenser pressure and temperature. In order to maintain the interior of the box within the desired compressor is usually oversized. A frozen-food refrigerator resembles the household refrigerator except that its compressor and motor must be of sufficient size to handle the larger gas volume of the refrigerant at its lower evaporator pressure. the condenser heat is dissipated into the kitchen or other room housing the refrigerator. the ammonia flows to the evaporator as in the compression system. From the condenser the liquid flows through an expansion valve. This synthetic chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) when used as a of the most widely used refrigerants for many years has been dichlorodifluoromethane. One popularly as Refrigerant-12. Instead of the gas being inducted into a compressor on exit from the returning from the generator.2 psi) is required with Refrigerant-12. called gas refrigerators. is always placed in an insulated space. and the ammonia is driven off as a vapor. In such gas refrigerators a strong solution of ammonia in water is heated by a gas flame in a container called a generator. the motor driving the compressor is controlled by a thermostatic switch.3 kPa (19. or vaporization. for example. so that it is only necessary to control the pressure in the evaporator to obtain a desired temperature. temperature associated with each pressure.or water-cooled pressure and temperature are reduced to the conditions that are maintained in the evaporator.9 psi) would condense at 37.2 kPa (131. to form the strong ammonia solution.

are currently the major compounds used in the cooling and insulation systems of home refrigeration units. This solution is then pumped into the generator.2° to 10° C) are suitable. Refrigerant-11 and Refrigerant-22. where. for which purpose refrigerant temperatures of 45° to 50° F (7.0 kPa (1. however. . as the absorbent material. Increasing use of absorption refrigeration now occurs in refrigeration units for comfort space cooling.145 psi). from which the enriched liquid flows back to the generator to complete the cycle. and some manufacturers of CFCs have already pledged to phase out these products by the end of the century.45 psi). that CFCs are posing a major threat to the global environment through their role in the destruction of the ozone layer. The very cold boiling water from the evaporator is absorbed in concentrated salt solution. In this temperature range.0 kPa (0. usually lithium bromide. V REFRIGERANTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT Refrigerant-12 and related CFCs. A search has therefore begun for replacements. recirculates back to the absorber to complete the cycle. the surplus water is boiled off to increase the salt concentration of the solution.reabsorption occurs in a container called the absorber. this solution. after cooling. water can be used as a refrigerant with an aqueous salt solution. the generator and condenser operate at about 10. It has been found. The units are usually direct-fired or use steam generated in a boiler. at elevated temperature. The system operates at high vacuum at an evaporator pressure of about 1.

Stoves and some parts of the world. Ventilating. as from a fireplace or stove in an individual room.Heating. circulation. and Air Conditioning (HVAC) I INTRODUCTION Heating. either separately or in combination with the heating or air-conditioning system. or heated air passing through pipes or other ducts transports thermal energy to all the rooms of a building. as in a central system in which steam. related processes designed to regulate ambient conditions within buildings for comfort or for industrial purposes. controls both the supply and exhaust of air within given areas in order to provide sufficient oxygen to the occupants and to eliminate odors. Ventilation. Ventilating. or indirect. heated water. Heating an area raises temperature in a given space to a more satisfactory level than that of the atmosphere. air handled or stored there. Air conditioning designates control of the indoor environment year-round to create and maintain desirable temperature. and Air Conditioning (HVAC). The earliest heating system was the open fire with which people warmed their dwellings. humidity. braziers of various types that were developed by the ancient Romans are still employed in . and purity for the occupants of that space or for the industrial materials that are II HEATING The heating process may be direct.

B Stoves The stove. some modern fireplaces are built with an arrangement of interior ducts in which cold air from the room is warmed and then recirculated through the room. peat. From 85 to 90 percent of the heat improve heating efficiency. An efficient stove delivers about 75 percent of the energy of the burning fuel. Grates are used for such fuels as coal. Fireplaces with chimneys sufficiently high above the roof of the building to provide adequate draft for the fire were introduced during the 12th century. and kerosene. with short flues that communicated with the open air. Fireplaces are included in modern houses mainly for aesthetic reasons rather than thermal efficiency. and the circulation of air under the fuel. however. The first fireplaces were hearths. or a pair of metal charcoal. On the hearth is either a metal grate. . coal. coke. The fuels used include wood. products of the fire. an enclosure of metal or ceramic materials in which fuel is burned. To and indirect radiation from the hot sidewalls and back wall.A Fireplaces The fireplace was developed as a method of heating rooms by means of an open fire. raised on legs. recessed into the walls of buildings. These devices promote combustion by permitting The useful heat given off by a fireplace consists of both direct radiation from the burning fuel from the burning fuel is lost in the combustion gases that go up the chimney. is an improvement over the fireplace because its surfaces are in contact with the air of the room and by convection deliver heat to the air passing over them. Ordinary fireplaces consist of a hearth enclosed on three sides with brick and surmounted by a completely enclosed chimney or flue that carries away the smoke and other combustion supports called firedogs or andirons. gas. and andirons are used for wood. coke.

were developed in the 1800s. Oil.or gas-fired furnaces only need the control of burners to regulate heat.C Central Heating Central-heating systems. This system subsequently came into extensive use Present-day central-heating systems provide heat from a central furnace for a single building the heat. such as those in shopping malls. steam. The combustion firebox and the associated boiler are customarily enclosed in an insulated casing. A type of centralized heating. As air in some residential furnaces. the fuel burns. gas. was used to a limited extent in Britain about 1816. in which one centrally located heating unit is used to warm several rooms or an entire house. using hot water. In large systems steam or hot water is usually employed to distribute even groups of buildings. require the admission of additional fuel to the system. however. The term district heating is applied to systems in which a large number of buildings are supplied with steam from central boiler rooms operated by a public utility. system. . are automatically responsive to remote thermostats that control their operation.S. The removal of ashes from the stoker or grates is also essential. Steam heating was developed about 1850. or even Most furnaces. or coal. large and small. used warm air. and or a group of buildings. introduced in 1835. Most dwellings are provided with central heat. it heats metal surfaces that in turn transfer the heat to water. Furnaces that use solid fuels. Furnaces for heating systems conventionally are fired with such fuels as oil. but the first successful central in the U. hotels. as are office buildings.

the term radiant heating is applied popularly to systems in which floors. As the air is heated. Unless the warm-air ducts are comparatively large in diameter. the system may not heat a house adequately. rather than by radiation. individual grills or registers in each room of the upper floors. forced-circulation systems may be used effectively for heating and cooling. Ordinary radiators consist of a consists of a network of finned steel or nonferrous-metal tubes. Cold air. primarily because the same equipment can provide air conditioning . Often the furnace is arranged so the warm air passes over a water pan in the furnace for humidification before circulating through the house. Efficiency is high because radiant heat raises the inside-surface temperature. is admitted between the a sheet-metal casing. When combined with cooling. humidifying. and ducts leading to the various rooms. and properly insulated to prevent heat losses. In a forced-circulation system a fan or blower is placed in the furnace casing. the panels containing heating elements are heat and has a comparatively low cost of operation. Dust filters residential installations. it passes through the ducts to opened or closed to control the temperature of the rooms. unit heaters in which an electric fan or blower forces air through heating coils. warehouses. thus. and dehumidifying units. or ceilings are used as the radiating units.The devices generally employed to transfer heat from the heating system to the area to be warmed are known commonly as radiators and convectors. Stores. The convector enclosures designed to permit air circulation. Steam or hot-water pipes are placed in the walls or floors during construction of the building. If electricity is used for heating. These units are placed in series of cast-iron grids or coils having a comparatively large total surface area. To ensure natural circulation of firebox and the casing and is heated by contact with the hot surfaces of the furnace. heat is provided largely by convection. mounted on a wall. or the ceiling of the room. thereby providing comfort at a lower room-air temperature than other systems. Radiant heating provides uniform C1 Warm-Air Systems The simplest warm-air heating system consists of a firebox and waste-gas passage set within the warm air. The grills or registers can be The chief problem in this type of system lies in obtaining adequate air circulation. such a system may be included in the system to ensure the cleanliness of the air. either from within the house or from outdoors. baseboard. which tends to rise. slanted upward from the furnace. the furnace usually is situated below the first floor of the house. walls. Forced-circulation warm-air systems are popular for through the year. and factories are often equipped with so-called Although heat is provided in part by radiation in all forms of direct heating. ensures the circulation of a large amount of air even under unfavorable conditions.

and hence the radiators farthest from the furnace must be larger than those nearer the furnace in order to deliver the same amount of heat. vapor systems. In the one-pipe system. and the air is discharged either . The vapor system is a two-pipe arrangement in which steam passes into the radiator through an inlet valve. water is admitted to back into the same pipe. In the two-pipe system all radiators are supplied with hot water at the same temperature from a single supply pipe. Modern systems of this type employ a boiler. The steam condenses in the radiators. This is the least expensive system to install. but forced circulation using a pump is more efficient Either one. and flows increasingly cool as it flows away from the furnace. C3 Steam Systems Steam-heating systems closely resemble hot-water systems except that steam rather than hot water is circulated through the pipes to the radiators. The disadvantage of this arrangement is that the water becomes each radiator from the supply side of the main pipe. condensation. or mechanical-pump. in which water is heated to a temperature of from 60° to 83° C (140° to 180° F). Three main types of steam systems are used: air-vent systems. systems. Closed expansion tanks contain about 50 percent air. and the water from all the radiators flows back to the to control than the one-pipe system. giving up its latent heat (see Heat: Latent Heat). Air vents on each radiator permit air to be forced out of the radiator by the steam during the warm-up period and also during operation. which compresses and expands to compensate for volume changes in the water.C2 Hot-Water Systems In the first hot-water heating systems the waters of natural hot springs reputedly were used as a source of heat. The water is then circulated by means of pipes to radiators located in the various rooms. a subatmospheric type is less used. In both systems an expansion tank is required to furnace through a common return pipe. and air and condensate are delivered to the return pipe by means of a steam trap on the radiator. The two-pipe system is thus more efficient and easier compensate for variations in the volume of water in the system. Circulation of the hot water can be because it provides flexibility and control. but the pipes must be large to accommodate both the steam and the condensate.or two-pipe systems may be used. circulates through the radiator. Both one-pipe and two-pipe arrangements are employed for circulating the steam and for returning to the boiler the water formed by and vacuum. accomplished by pressure and gravity. The condensate is returned to the boiler. The one-pipe air-vent system is an arrangement in which the force of gravity causes the condensate to flow from the radiator to the boiler in the same pipe through which steam reaches the radiator.

or some other source. . well water. such as Freon. most heat pumps are controlled by thermostats. varying patterns—for example. In heating season. With circulate more readily. then flows so it absorbs heat from the outside air. but the convenience. the heat pump transfers heat from one place to another. through a vent for each zone heated by the system. and its actions are essentially the same for either process. There the warmth is radiated or blown into the room or through a valve where its pressure and temperature are lowered further before it liquefies and is pumped into the outdoor coil to continue the cycle. under windows. C4 Electric Heating The practice of using electric energy for heating is increasing not only in residences but in public buildings as well. The refrigerant. economical because it can be operated on the low-firing cycle of the furnace and thus requires Vacuum systems resemble vapor systems in that each radiator is equipped with an inlet valve and a steam trap. and reduced space needs of electric heat can often justify its use. so radiators can be situated either above or below the boiler. To air condition a space. a liquid refrigerant. Instead of creating heat. having given up much of its heat. convectors in or on the walls. A vapor system. flows first to a compressor. is pumped through a coil that is outside the area to be heated. The overall cost of electric C5 Heat pump A heat pump is a system designed to provide useful heating and cooling. and condensate condensate is pumped back into the boiler and the air is expelled into the atmosphere.through one central air vent in the basement or. which raises its temperature and pressure so that it becomes other space to be heated. in larger installations. although more expensive to install than the one-pipe system. as does a furnace. Electric heating generally costs more than energy obtained from combustion of a fuel. is more less fuel. or as baseboard ceilings or floors to radiate low-temperature heat into a space. If the system is constructed with light joints. cleanliness. The heat can be provided from electric coils or strips used in radiation in part or all of a room. It then vapor before it flows to an indoor coil. but they differ in having a vacuum pump installed in the return piping. valves reverse the flow so that the refrigerant picks up heat from inside and discharges it outside. With a full vacuum system the condensate does not have to be returned by gravity. the ground. air. the rate at which air reenters the system is so reduced that minimal pressure is required to propel the steam. The condensate and air return to a central point from which the the pump a partial vacuum is maintained in the system so that the steam. Like furnaces. Heating elements or wires can even be incorporated in heating can be substantially reduced through the use of a heat-pump system. The refrigerant is cold.

drawing in cool air through vents in the bottom of the stove and emitting heated air from top vents. This energy can often be more than enough to heat a well-designed building. clarity of the atmosphere. C6 Solar heating During each sunlight hour of the day approximately 0. many of which can be moved from room to room as needed. The actual energy received varies with time of day. it is safer to use. a supplementary heat source for the water is usually provided. Another type consists of a plate or tube of heat-resistant .9 kw per sq m (280 Btu per hour per sq ft) of solar energy reaches the surface of the earth. time of year. The water. Some radiant heaters include a fan. The simplest electric heaters are radiant heaters having a resistanceheating unit in front of a reflector. provided enough solar absorbing surface can be installed and enough heat storage is made available to carry the building during periods of darkness and inclement weather. which circulates air around the heating unit. heated by the sun.Most heat pumps use atmospheric air as their heat source. A common method employed uses roof panels with built-in elsewhere in the house. cold. latitude. and the direction relative to the sun that an absorbing surface faces at any given time. In colder water circuits. The entire plate or tube is warmed by the wires and gives off radiant heat. delivered heat should amount to more than twice the heat purchased from the power source. large stoves of this general pattern can provide adequate heat for several rooms. the Heat-pump systems are now being used extensively not only in residences but also in commercial buildings and schools. Proper placement of the glazing in any house can also greatly reduce the heating need D Portable Heating Units Houses lacking central-heating systems are equipped with various types of portable and semiportable heating devices. Kerosene stoves heat both by radiation and by convection. this water becomes a source of heating for the house. The most common types are kerosene stoves and electric heaters. which concentrates the radiant heat into a narrow beam. The usual kerosene stove is made of sheet metal and contains one or more wick burners that heat metal flues within the stove. This presents a problem in areas where winter temperatures frequently drop below freezing. Because the heater has no incandescent wires. then flows into insulated tanks or pools located climates. A number of such systems are in successful operation. thus warming glass or quartz in which resistance wires are embedded. Kerosene stoves should be used with adequate outside ventilation because combustion gases can be harmful. making it difficult to raise the temperature and pressure of the refrigerant. For economical heating performance. by convection as well as by radiation. Known generally as space heaters. particularly in areas where the weather is not severely from fuels or electric power in winter.

These radiators are to warm a small conventional radiator partially filled with water. Nearly all chemical processes generate hazardous waste gases and vapors. filters. the term air conditioning often is applied improperly to air cooling. and engineers. or Factory ventilation systems must remove hazardous airborne contaminants from the workplace. These use outgoing air to heat or cool incoming air. thereby increasing the IV AIR CONDITIONING Theoretically. and minimize unpleasant odors. filtered air. however. No pipe connections are outlet. dilute the amount of air movement or ventilation ordinarily is provided by air leakage through small crevices in the building's walls. Chemical completely from one and a half to three times each hour. Radiators filled with oil that is heated electrically are also available.Electric-steam radiators are used to supplement other heating systems. Many systems include efficiency of the system by reducing the amount of energy needed to operate it. especially around windows and doors. . A certain ventilation may suffice for homes. Many so-called air-conditioning units consist merely of blowerequipped refrigerating units that provide only a flow of cool. and the units can be moved from place to place and plugged into any electrical III VENTILATION Buildings in which people live and work must be ventilated to replenish oxygen. or both. humidity controls. are involved in ventilation design for factories and refineries. regardless of weather conditions. or that about 280 to 850 liters (about 10 to 30 cu ft) of outside air per minute should be supplied for each occupant. Providing this amount of ventilation usually requires mechanical devices to augment the Simple ventilation devices include fans or blowers that are arranged either to exhaust the stale air from the building or to force fresh air into the building. concentration of carbon dioxide and water vapor. an air-conditioning system consists of centralized equipment that provides an atmosphere with controlled temperature. In popular usage. or cooling devices. Ventilating systems may be combined with heaters. miniature steam-heating systems in which an electrical-heating unit generates enough steam necessary. Such haphazard for factories. but not for public buildings such as offices and theaters. heat exchangers. in particular. Engineers estimate that for adequate ventilation the air in a room should be changed these must be removed from the workplace environment in a cost-effective manner. natural flow of air. humidity. and purity at all times.

it is usually dehumidified by cooling or by dehydration. air ducts. When dry air is required. sprays or. The air is passed through water electrostatically by means of precipitators (see Electrostatic Precipitator). as is necessary in the manufacture of certain drugs and medical supplies. and the regular heating refrigerating unit and blower in a compact cabinet that can be mounted in a window. Air is humidified by circulation through water baths or sprays. generally must be installed when the building is constructed. cooling. blowers. providing fully controlled heating. through a labyrinth of oil-covered plates. and a plenum chamber in which air from the interior of the building is mixed with outside air. being complex. the number of occupants. in some filters. stores. in others. dust is removed Centralized air-conditioning systems. these systems have increasingly been automated by computer technology for purposes of energy conservation.A number of manufacturing processes. textiles. require air conditioning for the control of conditions during manufacture. A smaller apparatus for cooling single rooms consists of a The design of an air-conditioning system depends on the type of structure in which the system is to be placed. are employed widely in theaters. Such installations are used for cooling and dehumidifying during the summer months. Air conditioning of this kind usually is based on adjusting the humidity of the circulated air. the amount of space to be cooled. In the latter process it is passed through chambers containing adsorptive chemicals such as silica gel. and the nature of their activity. In older buildings. such as those used in the production of paper. When air must be completely free of dust. Such systems. as required. or an indoor office . and printed matter. in recent years. the air- conditioning system is designed to include some type of filter. A room or building with large windows exposed to the sun. single apartments or suites of offices may be equipped with a refrigerating unit. restaurants. system is used during the winter. and ventilation. and other public buildings.

The circulation of air must be greater in a space in which the occupants are allowed to smoke than in a space of heated air can be recirculated without discomfort to the occupants.000 Btu/hour equal to 3. Usage still supports the term ton of refrigeration. It came into use Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005. equal capacity in which smoking is prohibited. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. because a horsepower (or 0. the equivalent of a ton of refrigeration. and a Air-conditioning units are rated in terms of effective cooling capacity.space with many heat-producing lights. no air can be recirculated.746 kw) represents work power and not cooling.5 kw of cooling. most of the cooled or factories employing processes that generate noxious fumes. which properly should be expressed in kilowatt units.5 kw—a Btu is the amount of heat removed from 1 lb (0. requires a system with a larger cooling capacity than an almost windowless room in which cool fluorescent lighting is used.45 kg) of Horsepower ratings were formerly used for small air conditioners. or water when its temperature is lowered by 1° F (5/9° C). In homes or apartments. All rights reserved. but the term is misleading because under usual summer conditions a motor of one horsepower could support 3. 12. which implies the amount of heat that would have to be absorbed to melt a ton of water-ice in 24 hours. but in laboratories or constant supply of cooled or heated fresh air must be supplied. .

” Photographs serve as scientific evidence. chlorine. The compounds most widely used today are silver halide crystals. based on principles of light.Photography I INTRODUCTION Photography. The word photography comes from Greek words and means “drawing with light. or iodine). Millions of people around the made with still cameras. these silver salts are distributed in gelatin to make a mixture called an emulsion. information on motion picture technology and history. For Pictures. and chemistry. which are salts consisting of silver and chemicals called halogens (usually bromine. historical documents. such as filtration and electronic flash. It also outlines techniques of modern photography. method of picture making developed in the early 19th century. and surveys how photographic technologies have evolved since the medium's invention. conveyers of news. and records of family life. Photosensitive materials abound in nature. plants that close their based on the fact that certain chemicals are photosensitive—that is. which is applied to film or another supporting material in a thin . The films used in photography depend on a limited number of chemical compounds that darken when exposed to light. every year more than 10 billion exposures are This article discusses how photographs are produced using film. they change in some way blooms at night are one example. works of art. Nearly all forms of photography are when exposed to light. History of Motion II GENERAL PRINCIPLES Light is the most essential ingredient in photography. optics. For information on the history of photography and its artistic practice. see History of Photography. world own cameras and enjoy taking pictures. and lenses. For the purpose of producing a photograph. see Motion Pictures. cameras.

shutter speed—influences the appearance of the photograph as much stood in the same spot to take photographs of the Grand Canyon over the years. as the choice of subject and the time of day. A device called a shutter controls how long light strikes the film. after further processing. making the resulting image appear in focus. or scene in front of the camera—onto the inside of the box. The combination of choices that a photographer makes—film type. a device that artists once used to and the modern camera. The dense (or dark) areas of the negative translate into light areas on the final photograph. Almost all modern photography relies on this negative-to-positive process. The diaphragm controls the size of the aperture. or an automatic mechanism focus falls exactly where the film lies. the silver halide crystals undergo chemical changes and. In both the camera obscura Cameras work on the basic principle of the camera obscura. the denser or more opaque that part of the film becomes. thousands of people have III PHOTOGRAPHIC FILMS . in some cameras. Lenses that take in a wide angle of view make the subject seem farther away. camera size. the shutter speed can range from a small fraction of a second (1/1000 or less) to minutes or even hours.layer. The purpose of the lens is refraction. must adjust the distance between the lens and the film so that the plane of Various types of lenses admit different amounts of light and permit different angles of view. lenses that take in a narrow angle make the subject seem magnified. project a temporary image of something they wanted to draw. from which a positive final copy can be printed on sensitized paper. To take one example. The camera’s glass or plastic lens down on the other side of the lens. the bending of light. which in a modern camera contains film. a or circular opening of the lens. The photographer can switch a modern zoom lens from wide to narrow angles of view by turning a collar or pressing a button. The photographer. The stronger the light that strikes the crystals. In most cases the camera and its lens determine the appearance of the photographic image. focus. mechanism built of overlapping metal blades. but their photographs look different because the photographers made different choices with these controls. light passes through a lens fitted into an otherwise lightproof box. an image becomes visible. The camera and lens control how much light strikes the film in what is called an exposure. lens aperture. Light passing through the lens casts an image of the camera’s subject—the object. Most types of film produce a negative image. The area where they re-form an image of the subject bends the light rays reflected from the subject so that these rays cross and reappear upsideinside the camera is called the plane of focus. When the emulsion is exposed to light. angle of view. person. The amount of light that a lens allows to fall on the film is controlled by a lens diaphragm.

announced an The daguerreotype process produced a detailed. it A French inventor. Talbot’s process produced a paper negative. Daguerreotypes remained popular through the 1850s. and the silver salts were suspended in collodion. A few years later American inventor George Eastman devised a flexible improved on this by using a type of plastic called celluloid instead of paper.Modern film consists of a transparent material. version of this system. during the 18th century. The smooth glass negatives could produce paper. English inventor William Henry Fox Talbot devised this process and perfected it in the 1840s. or color A A Brief History of Film Scientists recognized the photosensitivity of certain silver compounds. French painter Louis Jacques Mandé improved version of the process. positive image on a shiny copper plate small enough to be held in the hand. that are appropriate for different lighting conditions. color print. after Niépce's death. which he called the daguerreotype. a type of roll film that incorporates various conveniences for amateur photographers. in the back of a camera obscura. experimenters sought a dry version of the same process. light-sensitive material. the entire surface blackened after continued exposure to light. usually acetate. from which he could produce any number of paper positives. In the early 19th century English scientists Thomas Wedgwood and Sir Humphry Davy used silver nitrate in an attempt to transfer a was not permanent. This refinement became known as the wet collodion process. He exposed silver- sensitized paper briefly to light and then treated it with other chemicals to produce a visible image. 4-by-5 and 8-by-10 inch sheet films. pieces of glass coated in advance with an emulsion of gelatin and silver bromide. Typical formats are 35-millimeter and 6-centimeter roll films. It is available in a variety of shapes and sizes determined by the format of the camera. In 1889 he were invented in 1878. because the details were no longer lost in the texture of the Because the wet collodion (or wet plate) process required photographers to coat the glass support just before taking a picture. transparency) and sensitivity levels. producing the first . is credited with having made the first successful photograph in 1826. a thick liquid. Niépce later switched from pewter to Daguerre continued Niépce’s pioneering work and in 1839. Advanced Photo System (APS). another copper plates and from bitumen to silver chloride. and most recently. Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. While they succeeded in producing a negative image. particularly silver nitrate and silver chloride. a long paper strip that could replace the glass plate. which has been coated with one or more light-sensitive emulsions. He achieved this by placing a pewter plate coated with bitumen. but were eventually replaced by a negative/positive process. called film speeds. Within each film format there are a range of film types (black and white. Beginning in 1850 glass replaced paper as a support for the negative. Dry plates. sharper images than paper ones. painted image onto leather or paper.

Most color films are coated with three emulsions. These films are also known as reversal . which are made of acetate or polyester. in a picture of blue. which produces the actual color that resembles what the eye sees. whereas the red and orange flowers would look unrealistically dark. yellow. which gave amateurs the same negative/positive process they had long B How Film Works To understand how film works. B1 Dyes and Emulsions Photographic films vary in the way they react to different wavelengths of visible light. called Autochrome. Even black-and-white films record colors as different shades of gray. specialized compounds called dye sensitizers were incorporated into the emulsion. So. Early primarily to light perceived as blue. which we see as colors. typically cyan (a greenish blue). plastics that are less flammable than celluloid. the shortest as violet. Kodachrome color film in 1935 and Agfacolor in 1936. films are sensitive to all colors of the visible spectrum. and orange black-and-white films were sensitive to only the shorter wavelengths of the visible spectrum. and blue in between. and infrared and ultraviolet radiation. became available in 1907 and was based on a process devised by French inventors Auguste and Louis Lumière. Light is the visible portion of a broad range of energy called electromagnetic radiation. color films were not invented until the 20th century. filters to screen the light these emulsions receive. or slides. Both of these films produced positive negatives in 1942. gamma rays. which also includes invisible energy in the form of radio waves. Eastman's invention paved the way for all modern films. Our eyes perceive the longest (A rainbow or a prism shows all the colors of the visible spectrum. X rays. Except for some isolated experiments. and to prevent light from scattering within Color transparency films produce a positive color image for viewing with the help of a slide projector or an illuminated surface called a light table.photographic film. Today. The Kodak company introduced Kodacolor film for color enjoyed in black and white. Other layers act as the film. flowers. But the era of color photography did not really begin until the advent of color transparencies. Each emulsion responds to only one color of light and is coupled with a dye layer. yellow. and magenta (a purplish red). with a few specialized exceptions. To correct this. with orange. green. The first commercially successful material for making color photographs.) wavelengths as red. the blue flowers would appear too light. for example. The narrow band of electromagnetic waves that the human eye can detect is called the visible spectrum. red. it is first necessary to understand a few things about light.

they are built into the film itself. areas in the subject that were dark appear light on the negative. B2 Positive/Negative Development When film is processed in a chemical agent called a developer. and the print shows a flag properly striped with red. yellow. The silver is then removed. In color transparency films. and blue. just as in black-and-white processing. final print. and areas that were bright appear dark. But in color processing the developer also stimulates dye couplers (chemicals that react to a specific color of light and cause corresponding dyes to be released) to form cyan. although silver is also essential to the process. and yellow (the complement of blue). complement of red). During processing. leaving a negative image in the three colors. called chromogenic film. But when exposed to paper for printing color photographs it produces an image composed of different shades of a single color. Exposure to lots of light causes many particles to form. also known as print films. in others. they . The resulting image produced on the film is called a negative because the tonal values of the subject photographed are reversed. As these remaining silver halides are converted to metal. Color negative films. the colored dyes on the negative would be a blue-green color called cyan (the original scene. turning what would otherwise be a negative image into a positive one. unexposed silver halide crystals that are not converted during a second development. produce positive prints. dyes built into the emulsion chemically react with the silver salts that form the image. in which the dye is built in. yellow. magenta. The dyes in some brands of transparency film are added during development. and yellow dye images. while exposure to dim light or exposure for a very short time causes just a few particles to form. Different combinations of those colors create the more complex colors visible on the to metallic silver and washed away during the initial development remain to be converted again combine with dye couplers to form the final color image. The colors on the processed negative are the complements of the colors in the and blue. large particles of metallic silver form in areas of the film that were exposed to light. the negative provides an image nearly identical to that of conventional black-and-white film. makes use of color-film technology to produce a negative that has just a single dye layer. negative are reversed again in the printing process—or in the case of transparencies (slides). the chemical action of the developer creates initial images in metallic silver. When exposed to conventional blackand-white photo paper.films because the initial developed image is chemically reversed during processing. the colors return to One type of black-and-white film. Chromogenic color films. As with some transparency films. For instance. which is red. The tonal values of the during the development of the film—creating a positive image. if you took a picture of the Ecuadorian flag. blue (the complement of yellow). positive form. before the second layer of metallic silver is also washed away. When light shines through this negative onto color-sensitive print paper. exhibit dye images rather than silver images.

specifically with Distinguishing between daylight and tungsten film types is important mainly with transparency or slide films. pictures with unpleasant green or purple casts when taken indoors under fluorescent light. commonly made of plastic or paper) is coated with a lightcolor papers have at least three layers. Black-and-white papers have a single layer of emulsion. electronic flash. the practical concept is simple: color films are balanced to perform best in specific lighting conditions. because print films are balanced for daylight. are designed for both outdoor photography and pictures taken indoors with certain types of bulbs manufactured for such situations called photofloods. be designed to respond to the specific quality or energy of light illuminating the scene. All color films will produce in an office. Tungsten films are designed to be used indoors without flash. meaning that they respond to all colors of light and can record each color’s relative strength with a fair degree of accuracy. Too short an exposure and the image is underexposed. For more information about eliminating color casts. pictures from them often have an orange cast when taken indoors without flash. which shows most visibly as insufficient contrast between dark and light. .Photographic print papers are constructed much like films. which produce direct positive images that cannot be altered. While the theory of color temperature is complicated. The color in print films. the most widely used. C1 Sensitivity and Color Balance Most films now in use are panchromatic. but generally require fewer layers. the end result is a positive. or electronic flash. incandescent lamps. Film exposed to light for a longer than optimal time is said to be overexposed and produces prints that look bleached out and blurred. Films may vary in their sensitivity to different kinds of light and in their ability to record fine details or quickly moving subjects. The so-called paper support (today. sensitive emulsion. just as films are. which Each of these kinds of light has a distinct characteristic referred to as color temperature. So-called daylight films. Nonetheless. which produce negatives. When these papers are exposed to light shone through C Film Characteristics Certain characteristics help people determine which film will work best in a particular situation. Color films also must may be outdoor sunlight. a negative. see the Filtration section of this article. can be adjusted during printing to compensate for different lighting conditions. as C2 Exposure Latitude In any lighting situation there is an optimal exposure that will produce a perfect image on film.

many high-speed films have a greater exposure latitude than slower films. The manufacturer of the film assigns it a standardized Organization). With some cameras the photographer will need to manually adjust the ISO number. exposure time and aperture size need to be precisely set to fit the lighting conditions. fast films. Staying within a given film’s exposure latitude can ensure an acceptable range of tones in the picture. but films that are even slower exist. Films in the ISO 125 to ISO 200 range are considered medium speed. slow films. such as when photographing a rapidly moving subject. and low Today. while films above ISO 200 are considered fast. especially when enlarged. Despite these advantages. a range of settings within which it can accurately render the color and tonal values (contrasts of light and dark) of the subject photographed. Film grain is the visible trace of the metallic silver that forms the image. With films that have a narrow exposure latitude. But to achieve the best-possible image quality. The wider a film's latitude. including full detail throughout the picture. High ISO numbers correspond to highly light-sensitive. a rating that provides a measure of the film’s sensitivity to light. cameras. this rating determines the amount of exposure required to photograph a numerical rating known as the ISO number (ISO stands for the International Standards numbers to less sensitive. setting an exposure compensation dial will trick the camera into making this lengthened to compensate for the underexposure. A photographer can push the limits of a film by overriding the recommended exposure for that film speed and shortening the exposure time. slow-speed film generally has a higher resolution—that is. For each film. the margin for error is small. halide grains. the C3 Speed and Grain Film is also classified by speed. slow-speed films typically have a rating between ISO 25 and ISO 100. all films exhibit a pattern called grain. subject under a given lighting condition. Because of the small size of its silver with greater sharpness. In addition. areas. Slow-speed film also produces a smoother range of tones and more films in certain situations. The individual grains of silver are generally larger and more obvious in faster film than in slower film. The photographer must then make sure that the development time is Whether fast or slow. an exposure adjusted for a shady area is likely to result in overexposure of adjacent sunny in a range of lighting conditions. the greater its ability to provide satisfactory prints or slides Films that produce negatives generally offer much greater latitude than transparency films. with other adjustment for you. photographs taken with slowspeed film appear less grainy. it renders fine details intense colors than fast film. For this reason. slow films are not as desirable as fast C4 DX Coding .Every film has a characteristic exposure latitude.

These types include color print films. takes one or more minutes. The DX code is also placed on the film itself to inform the developing laboratory of this information. D Color Films in Use Today A range of color film types is available to photographers. Both daylight and tungsten versions of these films are generally available. a type of photography that produces prints almost immediately after exposure. and Agfacolor. Manufacturers also design films for such specific tasks as slide ISO 3200. Films are available in several sizes. reversal films.DX coding is a recent innovation in film and camera technology that eliminates the need to set film. include such brand names as Kodacolor. Today Polaroid films . Most cameras with electronic controls are equipped with DX sensors that can read this information and automatically adjust exposures accordingly. Manufacturers also offer premium films in most formats. manufacturers print a checkerboard pattern that corresponds to an electronic code. they are designed to provide excellent color rendition out of doors and with electronic flash. Although the process are available in both black-and-white and color. develop into prints without additional processing. used to make color slides and larger transparencies. and a number of specialty films such as X- D1 Print Films Color print films. or formats. Ideal for amateur use. Polaroid films. D2 Slide Films Kodachrome. Film speeds of slide films commonly range from a very slow ISO 25 to a very fast D3 Polaroid In 1947 American physicist Edwin Herbert Land invented the Polaroid process. which provide better color and smaller grain size. Fujicolor. This the film speed by hand in the camera's built-in exposure meter. duplication. which ray and infrared. and Agfachrome are examples of films that produce 35-millimeter slides and larger transparencies. including the popular 35-millimeter format (in which a single frame of the film is 35 millimeters wide). which produce prints through the classic negative-to-positive process. Ektachrome. Each manufacturer supplies its brand in several speeds: ISO 100. it was quickly dubbed instant photography. and 400 are the most common. Fujichrome. On cartridges of 35-millimeter code tells the camera’s computer the ISO rating of the film as well as the number of frames on the roll. 200. for both special Polaroid cameras and for standard-format cameras (see Polaroid Corporation).

improvements. Improvements in camera photographs. and users can watch the image develop before their eyes. producing a print. technology over the years have given photographers more control over the quality of their A A Brief History of Cameras Today’s cameras all derive from the 16th-century camera obscura. Basically. allowed the photographer to easily adjust the distance today. At first the shutter was simply a blind dropped in front of the lens by the force of . They placed thin paper onto the viewing screen and could easily trace the reflected image. between the lens and the plane of focus. One notable enhancement for the box. light. a large-format camera known as the view camera. X-ray. Older Polaroid films use a system in which the negative peels away from the final print. This kind of camera. infrared portion of the spectrum in addition to visible respond to X rays and other forms of electromagnetic radiation. was used throughout the 19th century. ground-glass viewing screen on the top of the box. Film manufacturers also design specialized emulsions for medical and scientific films that IV CAMERAS The most important tool of photography is the camera itself. A chemical diffusing agent transfers the negative image to the paper. Long before film was invented artists used The inventors of photography in the early 19th century adapted the camera obscura by adding a device for holding sensitized plates in the back of the box. with some pleated leather sides called bellows. a camera is a lighttight box with a lens on one side and light-sensitive film on the other. on the other hand. Professional photographers still use a similar camera In the 1880s the invention of more sensitive emulsions and better lenses led to the development of lens shutters. Polaroid SX-70 film. D4 Infrared. The mirror reflected an image onto a this device to help them draw more accurately. The earliest form of this hole and projected an upside-down image of the subject onto the opposite wall. has no separate negative. Over the course of three centuries the camera obscura evolved into a handheld box with a lens device was a darkened room with a tiny hole in one wall. and Special Films Some special-purpose films are sensitive to wavelengths beyond the visible spectrum of light. Light entered the room through this replacing the pinhole and an angled mirror at the back. Infrared film responds to the invisible.The processing chemicals and conventional silver halide emulsions in instant film are combined in a self-contained paper envelope or within the print itself. devices that could limit the time of exposure to a fraction of a second.

B Modern Camera Types Cameras come in a variety of forms. models—offering built-in flash. After taking a roll of pictures. Manufacturers now reuse or recycle many of the parts inside these cameras. B1 Box Cameras The Eastman Kodak Company introduced one of the first box cameras in 1888. through which the simplicity of this easy-to-use design has assured its popularity ever since. It made photography available to amateurs for the first time and created a snapshot craze at the turn of the 20th century. The Kodak was one of the earliest handheld cameras. located just in front of the film. Because of its compactness and economy. Whereas cameras once required many decisions on the part of photographers. a viewfinder window. a fixed. In 1925 the Leitz Company in Germany introduced the Leica. These cardboard-covered. which used a cylindrical shutter that the photographer turned by pulling a string on the front of the camera. most of today’s cameras offer a range of automated features that greatly simplify picture taking and reduce the likelihood of error.gravity. plastic cameras come loaded with 35-millimeter color print film. or the ability to show panoramic views in B2 View Cameras . On most box cameras. Box cameras consist photographer looks to frame the scene. simple lens. All but the earliest Leicas used a focal-plane shutter. a small-sized film initially designed for motion pictures. and a shutter with one or possibly two speeds. Because it blocks light from the film even when the lens is removed. the lens is set to an aperture and focus that produce reasonably sharp pictures of a subject at least 2 m (about 6 ft) away. one of the first cameras to use 35-millimeter film. the photographer can do little to control the results. the focal-plane shutter allows photographers to switch lenses safely in the middle of a film roll. Later designs featured a set of blades just behind the optical lens. and the of a rigid box or body. or by a spring. The modern-day equivalents of the old Kodak box cameras are the disposable cameras now sold at drugstores and tourist shops. But because these settings are not adjustable. In 1888 George Eastman introduced the first Kodak camera. Single-use cameras are also available in several advanced extra-wide prints. when the camera is used outdoors in the sun. the Leica and other 35-millimeter cameras became popular with both amateur and professional photographers. the user turns over the entire camera to a processing lab for development. a waterproof body.

or architectural photography. and the space in between is enclosed in an expandable leather bellows. allowing for great variation in perspective and focus. The photographer can shift. the lenses cannot be include automatic controls for exposure. and some professionals still use it. independently moveable elements that ride on a track: The front element holds the lens and shutter. the modern rangefinder camera centimeter film. at which point the camera has set show the scene through the lens. window-like lens through which the photographer sees and frames the subject. It has a number of automatic features that make it practically foolproof to operate while producing pictures of high quality. raise. rangefinder cameras can be inaccurate for framing close-up shots. is paired with an adjacent window called a rangefinder. Nevertheless. Point-and-shoot cameras feature battery-operated electronic systems that may are available with a fixed single-focal-length lens or a zoom lens. aperture. The body configuration of the view camera. is extremely adjustable. but only one that closely approximates it. tilt. but it is ideal for carefully arranged studio shots. They removed from the body. some also use a newer film type called Advanced Photo System (APS). landscapes. The viewfinder adjusts a ring or collar until the two views appear as one. which are able to unlike that of most general-purpose cameras. then inserts a film holder in front of the glass. modern rangefinders feature lenses that can be removed from the camera body so that photographers can choose a lens specifically suited to the subject. see the Recent Developments: APS section of this article. or swing the front and rear elements separately. The gap in time between framing and exposure makes the view camera useless for action shots. The cameras work with all types of 35-millimeter film.View cameras are larger and heavier than most amateur cameras but allow for maximum precision in focus. B3 Rangefinder Cameras Rangefinder cameras were the first cameras to have an optical viewfinder—that is. They use large-format films. (For more information.) . and film rewinding. Unlike point-and-shoot cameras. It has two capture far greater detail than 35-millimeter films. The photographer frames and focuses the scene that appears in the glass panel at the back. flash. Since the viewfinder window does not Rangefinder cameras were once very popular with amateur photographers. B4 Point-and-Shoot Cameras The most popular camera type today is the point-and-shoot camera. the rear holds a ground-glass panel. a separate. and takes the picture. focusing. Rangefinders are available in two formats. but today’s pointworks well under certain circumstances. and framing. the photographer the focus to precisely match the distance of the subject. To focus the camera. for use with either 35-millimeter film or the larger format 6- and-shoot cameras have largely replaced them. film winding.

A more complex and more accurate viewfinding system is the single-lens-reflex system. precise automatic exposure systems. described above. When released. at the moment of exposure. C2 Shutters The shutter. C1 Viewfinders A viewfinder enables photographers to frame their subject the way they would like it to appear in the finished photograph. a cluster of meshed blades springs apart to uncover the full lens aperture and then springs shut. which then reflects it through a five-sided prism into the viewfinder. Some viewfinders consist of a simple window on top of the camera that only approximates the view through the lens. Because of this system. a spring-activated mechanical device. In today’s cameras many of these features are automated.B5 Single-Lens-Reflex Cameras With the single-lens-reflex (SLR) camera. keeps light from entering the camera except during the interval of exposure. C Modern Camera Features Modern cameras feature several components to help photographers control their results under widely varying conditions. at the moment the photographer snaps the picture. The focal-plane shutter consists of a black shade with a variable-size slit across its the slit moves. The mirror is hinged. the shade moves quickly across the film. camera manufacturers are producing SLRs with automatic focusing. the photographer uses a single lens for both viewing the scene and taking the picture. width. the image recorded on the film is almost taking situations. In the leaf shutter. an innovation originally reserved for less sophisticated cameras. a spring automatically pulls the mirror out of the path between lens and film. Most modern cameras have focal-plane or leaf shutters. and built-in flash controls. exactly what the photographer sees in the viewfinder. exposing it progressively as C3 Built-in Meters and Automatic Exposure . Light comes through the lens onto a mirror. Increasingly. a great advantage in many picture- Most SLRs are precision electronic instruments equipped with fast focal-plane shutters.

for example. There are two widely used methods for determining the focus automatically. Active systems can be fooled by window glass. By the 1960s camera companies had begun to build exposure meters right into the camera body. emits either an infrared light beam or high-energy (ultrasonic) sound waves. in electronics. the user must use a crank to rewind the film. With 35-millimeter film. used in more sophisticated cameras. In the 1980s this process became automated: With builtthe most inexpensive cameras feature such a system of automatic exposure. to that subject. Passive systems. A passive system would have trouble setting the correct focus. When the light or sound waves bounce off the subject and return to the camera. only professional photographers using sheet films still need to load their cameras in the dark. be discernable lines present in the target zone for this system to determine maximum contrast C5 Film Loading and Transport Most people today buy film in the form of lighttight cartridges or cassettes that they can insert into the camera in daylight. Automatic cameras wind the film into position when the back is closed and cameras. used in most point-and-shoot cameras. the distance between camera and subject and from this determine the exact plane of focus. which interrupts their beams. the user attaches a leader extending the other side. If the primary subject is off to one side of the frame. An active autofocus system. automatically adjust the Neither method is foolproof. the camera could adjust itself to produce an appropriate exposure. photographers were able to take precise readings of the light level and essentially an educated guess. such systems typically required the user to center a needle over a pointer inside the viewfinder. The point of maximum contrast corresponds to the point of greatest sharpness. they give an accurate reading of the distance focus of the lens until sensors detect that maximum contrast has been reached inside a rectangular target at the center of the focusing screen. Passive systems require a certain amount of detail—usually there must in the subject. called active and passive. Today all but C4 Autofocusing Autofocus cameras use electronics and a small computer processor to automatically sample The computer then signals a small mechanism that turns the lens barrel to this point.For early photographers. With older . from the cartridge to a spool at one side of the camera. for instance. most autofocusing systems will ignore it. But with the development of handheld photoelectric exposure adjust the exposure accordingly. for a photograph in which the plain white sails of a boat took up the center of the frame. then drops the cartridge into a slot on rewind the exposed film into the cartridge when all exposures have been taken. setting the correct aperture and shutter speed for an exposure was meters in the 1930s.

as many as three to five pictures per second can be taken this way. Quality modern lenses are made of many individual elements of ground and polished glass (6 to 14 elements is common). the lens barrel incorporates an aperture ring and a focusing ring. the photographer adjusts the opening of the lens diaphragm. a more rapid way of advancing the film. the more light the lens will admit. or elements. which determines how much light reaches the film. and the second was the discovery of ways to combine several pieces of glass.Most cameras now automatically advance the film to the next frame after an exposure has been made. the need for camera-specific lenses increased. Because this distance varies depending on how the camera is focused. Focal length is the distance from the optical center of the lens to the image formed inside the camera. These developments took place along two fronts: The first was the invention of new types of glass that refracted light more effectively. Some cameras come with a motor drive. A A Brief History of Lenses The modern camera’s predecessor. In the 17th century people discovered they could produce a brighter. each group is then assembled in what is called a lens barrel. Over the next 300 years. each of a different shape and purpose. leading to rapid developments in the field of lens making. By turning the aperture ring. such lens came from a pair of eyeglasses. Its function is to bring light from the subject into focus on the film. are cemented into groups. The greater the size of . These elements. the camera obscura. On a manually controlled camera. Motor drives allow the photographer to snap a sequence of exposures in rapid succession while V LENSES The lens is the eye of the camera. holding a finger on the shutter-release button. to control optical distortion. The first microscopes led to the development of better and brighter lenses. focal length ratings are defined by measuring the longer the focal length. The focusing ring is used to focus the image on the film plane by changing the distance between the element groups. interest in telescopes and With the invention of photography in the 19th century. consisted of a simple pinhole in the side of a room or box. A camera can have a single lens or a complex set of lenses. B Focal Lengths Camera lenses are categorized according to their focal lengths and maximum apertures. Together with the shutter. the lens controls the amount of light that enters the camera. The the aperture. the larger the image inside the camera will be. sharper image by fitting a camera obscura with a convex (outward-curving) lens.

with a long focal length. while the The zoom lens offers a range of focal lengths.distance when the focusing ring is set for photographing a distant subject (indicated on the focusing ring with the symbol ∞. Another type of zoom lens. reproduce an object on film at one-half its actual size. a fixed position. with the addition of an extension ring. and thus the amount of light that passes through the lens. before framing the picture at a different focal length. such as a microscope. they only can attach to a normal lens to allow close-ups. Lenses that approximate the angle of view of the human eye are called normal lenses. Extension rings or simple close-up lenses also D Aperture The lens diaphragm controls the size of the aperture. The user can change the focal length by simply pushing a button or turning a ring on the lens barrel. The wide-angle can take in a broader angle of view than the eye can see. Focal length determines the magnification and angle of view of the image. Many modern zoom lenses come with a macro setting that allows a limited range of close-up focusing. Magnification of a subject to greater than its actual size calls for more specialized equipment. and is called photomicrography. for subjects ranging from flowers to coins. seen through a telephoto lens. a telephoto lens. macro lenses were developed for single-lens-reflex cameras. this allows photographers with single-lens-reflex cameras to focus precisely at high magnification lens. called infinity). at best. The most common specialized task is close-up photography. On a traditional. Macro lenses for 35millimeter cameras extend the focusing range to a matter of inches. However. manually controlled camera the f-stops are inscribed on an adjustable ring that fits around the lens. To cope with these small subjects. objects photographed with a wide-angle lens will seem farther away than with together). A lens with a short focal length is commonly called a wide-angle lens. It operates in conjunction with the shutter. On their own they can the camera can picture an object at life size. the same objects will seem closer (and closer telephoto narrows this view. the varifocal C Macro Lenses Some photographic subjects require task-specific optics. reproduce an object at one-fifth its actual size. must refocus as the focal length changes—a disadvantage only if the camera does not offer automatic focusing. With the camera in a normal lens. Typical f-stops . and is one of the most popular types of lenses today. or lens opening. The aperture size is measured by numerical settings called f-stops. So-called true zooms maintain focus while changing the focal length. these are no substitute for a true macro lens because.

f/16 a small aperture. Lenses come with a rating for their maximum aperture. adjustment. Cameras with interchangeable lenses still have focusing collars to allow for manual distance. a computer sets the aperture size. With single-lens-reflex cameras. This term refers to a zone of focus—that is. However. the area between the closest and farthest objects that will appear sharply focused in the photograph. The setting f/2 represents a large aperture. . depth of field will be most shallow when photographing a subject at close range. But most of today's cameras with built-in lenses will adjust the lens automatically. f/8. many manufacturers now design zoom lenses with a variable maximum aperture: The size of the with a smaller aperture. A picture with a shallow depth of field might be a close-up portrait. indicating how much light can reach the film when the lens diaphragm is wide open. depth of field will be greatest when photographing a distant subject. Until recently photographers had to bring an image into focus manually. using a long focal length (telephoto) lens. a lens with a large maximum aperture will have a larger diameter and weigh more than a lens let in the same amount of light as a normal or wide-angle lens. With simple automatic-exposure cameras. A picture with a deeper zone of focus might be a landscape in which both the trees in the foreground and the mountains in the background appear in sharp focus. called infinity. and f/16. Most lenses will focus from a few feet in front of the camera to a point in the far F Depth of Field To help determine what will appear in focus in a picture. f/2. and a small aperture. photographers make use of a concept called depth of field. Within lens types.8. by turning a ring or a focusing collar on the camera lens. E Focusing Technically. f/4. and focal length. in practice we call a picture “in focus” when it appears reasonably sharp at a given magnification and viewing distance. with a wide aperture. through use of a mechanism connected to an autofocusing sensor. thus the aperture ring has disappeared from many of today's lenses.are f/2. zoom lenses are also physically large. the maximum aperture also influences how bright the image appears in the viewfinder. All other factors being equal. using a short focal length (wide-angle) lens. in which objects in the background are purposely blurred. focusing distance. Like telephoto lenses.6. film captures only one plane of a picture in perfect focus. f/5. To reduce their bulkiness and complexity. f/11. Conversely. The factors that determine depth of field are lens aperture. A telephoto lens requires a larger lens diameter and greater length to aperture changes as the focal length of the lens goes from wide-angle to telephoto settings.

G Lens Hoods and Coatings One of the worst enemies of photographers is flare. coatings enhance the contrast of the film image and account for the characteristic green and VI EXPOSURE All light-sensitive photographic materials—film or photographic print paper—produce their development. A variant of this manual-focusing technique is called zone focusing: The photographer chooses an aperture and a focusing distance that together cover the range of distances at which the subject is likely to appear. a depth-of-field scale shows the approximate sharp-focus zone for the different aperture settings. Zone focusing is especially useful for candid photography. photographers can shade the front of the lens with a collar called a lens hood that photographing with the sun in front of or just to the side of the lens. photographers can obtain the maximum depth of field by turning the focusing collar until the infinity sign aligns with the outside depth-of-field mark for the f/stop they have chosen. unwanted light that enters the lens and causes strange reflections and a loss of contrast on the film. is the technical key to excellent photographs. to focus on a band of details across the central picture area. certain cameras with motor Focusing precisely on a central subject. manually adjusted lenses. In cameras with removable. Precise exposure. A one-stop change in shutter speed is equivalent to an . coupled with consistent A photographer can change the amount of exposure the film receives by adjusting either the shutter speed or the aperture setting. does not necessarily provide the greatest depth of field. Automatic cameras are designed to focus precisely on a single subject at the center of the frame or. however. To decrease the incidence prevents sunlight from striking the glass surfaces. the photographer locks in the focus by pressing the shutter drives will adjust the focus continuously while the photographer tracks the subject. Flare is especially obvious when of flare. because they must angle away from the lens enough to accommodate the lens's widest angle Lens makers also combat the more subtle effects of flare by coating the exterior and interior surfaces of the lens’s glass elements with thin layers of reflection-absorbing material. These purple hues visible when one looks into the front of a modern lens. button part way. In most cases. finest results when given the optimum exposure.A photographer using a single-lens-reflex camera or view camera can judge the approximate depth of field by looking directly through the lens with the aperture set to the desired f-stop. With manual focusing. Hoods for zoom lenses are less effective of view. in more sophisticated designs. For capturing the image of a moving subject.

there are limits to this relationship. manufacturers introduced photoelectric exposure meters in the 1930s. of the negative.aperture change of one f-stop. At the extremes of very little be noticeably underexposed. If the photographer is holding the camera by hand the second option is speed is two stops faster. different combinations of f-stop and shutter speed result in the same amount of light hitting For example. If the photographer is using a tripod to hold the camera still and provides greater depth of field.6 for 1/15 second produces twice the density and very great amounts of exposure. those that read a . and to help them avoid the problems associated with extremely high or extremely low exposure levels. At first these meters were independent.6 at 1/15 second allows the same amount of light to strike the film as an exposure of f/2. because at speeds below 1/60 second. between exposure and density. later they were incorporated into the camera itself. unless the print exposure time is doubled. for a given lighting situation several the film. For example. This shade (called 18 percent gray for its ratio of reflection) represents the average amount of light reflected by an average outdoor subject. every stop of increase in the exposure (one step up in either f-stop or shutter speed) effectively doubles the density of an exposure at the same f-stop for 1/30 second. camera uses data from its built-in exposure meter to automatically adjust the shutter speed All metering systems share one principle: They respond to the world as if it were a uniform shade of gray.) Most of these devices are also amount of light reflected into the lens by the subject. In most situations. called averaging meters because they read a broad angle of the scene.8 at 1/60 second—the aperture is two stops larger. an exposure at f/5. photographing a still subject. an exposure of f/5. and therefore a print made from it will be twice as light. the incident-light meter. movement of the camera or of the subject is likely to blur the image. The meters built into modern cameras are called reflected light meters: They measure the measures the light that is falling on the scene or subject. The exposures are thus comparable. called reciprocity. the first option may be preferable because the smaller aperture When film is developed according to the manufacturer's specifications. However. The final development was automatic exposure. Thus. but the pictorial results. and vice versa. with a sensor measuring the light as it came through the lens. basing the exposure on this average reading produces ideal results: the negative receives just the right amount of light. (Another type. in which the and lens aperture. handheld devices. this rule is less consistent and the resulting images will A Light Metering To help photographers determine the ideal exposure. but they produce different preferable.

This technique is often used in large-format. a sophisticated photographer might overexpose the negative and then shorten its development time to subdue the harsh light. such as an overly bright sky. If the lighting is harsh. meter readings are not foolproof. In backlit conditions. This type of system measures the light coming through the lens from several different areas within the picture frame. or one-to-one relationship between to result in underexposed images. For example. development can be adjusted to compensate for certain variations in exposure. In black-and-white photography. B Development and Exposure Perfectly exposed film will produce imperfect pictures if it is not developed properly. With color films. fails. these meters try to guess the kind of picturetaking situation at hand and compensate for some problems. of the method used by American wilderness photographer Ansel Adams. Spot meters give very precise readings. exposure and image density. but the photographer must know how to correctly interpret these readings. Pictures taken at either very fast or very slow speeds tend . if the main subject is a snowman in a field of snow. have its development time extended during processing to produce reasonable results. At significantly slower or faster speeds the reciprocity. automatic exposure systems will assume that the snow is an average shade of gray and underexpose it. Averaging meters provide somewhat less accuracy than spot meters but are easy to use. Newer. Lengthening development time lightens the resulting images. most meters will recommend too little exposure.narrow angle are called spot meters. It then compares the results to a computerized formula to determine the best overall exposure. more sophisticated single-lens-reflex cameras try to increase the accuracy of their automatic-exposure systems with what is called a multipattern metering system. resulting in high contrast between light and dark areas. it is common to adjust the exposure and development of each picture individually to compensate for varying contrast conditions. Despite all the advances in exposure technology. Based on the data gathered. pushed—that is. Likewise. neither very dark nor very light skin tones reflect 18 percent of the light. so portrait photographers have to adjust their exposures to compensate. a roll of ISO 100 slide film exposed by mistake at a rating of ISO 200 can be same token. which otherwise would appear too dark. view camera photography and is the foundation C Long and Short Exposure Times Most films are intended for use at shutter speeds between 1/2 and 1/1000 second. By the For example. the colors may also shift. when a person is surrounded by a bright background.

the photographer must compensate by manually adjusting the exposure according to charts supplied by the film manufacturer. For some fast-moving subjects—such as the wings of a hummingbird in flight or a golf club as a golfer swings it—even a shutter-speed setting of 1/1000 second is not sufficient to capture the image in focus. tungsten lamps called photofloods. developed an electronic strobe light (see Stroboscope) with which he now readily available. When a brief jolt of electricity is applied to the electrodes sealed at the ends of the tube.000 second is Eugene Edgerton. the maximum speed at which synchronization is possible is usually 1/125 second. the gas produces an intense burst of light of very short duration. In 1931 the inventor of the electronic flash. In cameras with a focal-plane shutter (this includes most commonly used cameras). Setting the shutter speed is important because the shutter and the flash need to be synchronized—that is. The most commonly used sources of artificial illumination are electronic flash. . the flashbulb. Most flash exposures last from 1/1000 to 1/5000 second. development times must also be increased. Camera-mounted flashes are adequate for snapshots of family and friends. the larger the unit. although a duration of 1/100. called dedicated flash units. With black-and-white film. battery-powered. a powerful studio unit is needed. photographers use artificial light to illuminate scenes. camera-mounted units to large studio units that plug into an electric wall socket. and quartz lamps.Exposure meters do not compensate for reciprocity effects. both indoors and outdoors. Special electronic flash units are able to limit the duration of their light output to as little as 1/100.000 second. the greater the intensity of light produced. a disposable bulb filled with oxygen and a mass of fine magnesium Flash units vary in size from small. are made for use with a particular camera model and have circuitry that sets the shutter speed and illuminates a light in the viewfinder when the tube is ready to fire again. Flash units are designed either as part of the camera mechanism or as accessories. without wearing out the tube. An electronic flash unit consists of a glass quartz tube filled with an inert gas—usually xenon. light source. The process can be repeated thousands of times.000 second. Generally speaking. Some designs. the shutter must be open for the duration of the flash. instead. D Flash Photography In the absence of adequate daylight. Another once-popular alloy wire. American engineer Harold produced flashes of 1/500. enabling him to capture the image of a bullet in flight. has gone the way of the dinosaur. Flash photography can produce an effect equivalent to shorter exposure times. sometimes in rapid succession. but to illuminate a large scene evenly and with a single burst of light.

called fill-flash. Before automatic flash was Flash aimed directly at the subject usually produces harsh. for example. Flash can also be used in daylight to fill in foreground areas where shadows may be too required for the existing light. much of the blue light of the sky is blocked. are balanced for use indoors with light from photofloods or incandescent lightbulbs. camera. lightens shadows without same as daylight so the two light sources do not produce noticeable color differences. minimize haze. contain automatic flash systems. A series 80 conversion filter corrects this problem. The the tone of a blue sky in much the same way as the human eye does. Tungsten films. depending on the aperture set on the lens. filters may alter the color balance of light. it was not possible to adjust the flash output. they produce pictures with a bluish cast. They have a sensor that determines the appropriate amount of light from the flash tube. more even light and eliminates red eye. Daylight film. In black-and-white reaches the film. flat lighting. making the centers of the subject’s eyes appear red. to conversion filters are light-balancing filters. changes the color balance of light when it is radically different from that of the film. strong. Photographers also use CC filters to make small changes in color rendition on . With some flash units it is possible to achieve more pleasant results indoors by aiming the flash at the ceiling. where it can gauge the amount of light at the film plane. For this type of picture. Exposed in daylight. The color temperature of electronic flash is practically the E Filters Filters added to the front of a camera lens change the quantity or quality of the light that contrast or brightness. which can adjust tungsten film designed for one Color-compensating (CC) filters help balance fluorescent light for daylight film or indoor (tungsten) film. Made of gelatin or glass. In a landscape photograph taken with a red filter. the exposure generally should be set to half of what would be overriding the main source of light. called a conversion filter. Similar type of artificial light to work with a second type of artificial light. medium-yellow filter is often used for outdoor black-and-white photography because it renders Another type of filter. it produces a softer. A series 85 conversion filter can correct this. This technique. or create special effects. which is balanced for sunlight at noon. for example. color filters transmit light of one color while blocking light of a contrasting color. As light bounces from ceiling to subject. as well as built-in camera units. causing the sky to appear darker and thereby emphasizing clouds. A yellow filter produces a less extreme effect because more blue light is transmitted to the film.Modern dedicated flash units. has a yellow-amber cast when exposed indoors under incandescent light or photofloods. When photographing people or animals in very dim conditions. using flash also causes a condition known as red eye. This sensor is commonly located inside the invented. change photography. photographers could control the exposure only by adjusting the aperture.

laundry room. filters are familiar amateur accessories. an upright device that functions much like a camera except that it contains its own light source. and is used for the chemical processing of films and prints. With automatic exposure. and preparation. color films. called filter the light after it has come through the lens. The enlarger light shines through the negative. the enlarger lens focuses this . All filters reduce the amount of light reaching the lens to some degree—with a polarizing filter the reduction can amount to two stops or more of exposure. the wet side contains a sink with temperature-controlled running water. factors. All such reductions. It must completely seal out light from outside the room. Because many processing fan to expel fumes and dust. which holds metal reels onto which the exposed film has been wound. The dry side is used for loading. many photographers traveled with many people have a home darkroom built in their basement. and color printing papers. must be calculated into manual exposures. portable darkrooms. which were housed in horse-drawn wagons or carried by servants. Skylight. polarizing filters also produce more intense colors. a UV filter eliminates most of the excess blue that appears in distant landscape photographs and secondarily provides a transparent protective cap for the lens. a special orange-colored light bulb called a safelight can provide some illumination. filter factors are less relevant.the film or when printing in the darkroom. In color photography. they are sensitive to all types of light. and the photographer should always wear latex gloves when handling wet materials and a dust mask when mixing powdered chemicals with water. film is customarily developed in a lighttight tank. which measures VII DARKROOM PROCESSING A darkroom is a room for processing photography materials. which is invisible to humans but which can register on film as blue. chemicals are toxic. but they still require slower shutter speeds or larger apertures. But during the processing of black-and-white films. They filter ultraviolet of a lens. A darkroom is divided into a dry side and a wet side. In the home darkroom. Today enlarging. or ultraviolet (UV). certain precautions are necessary: the darkroom should have an exhaust During the process of exposing and developing black-and-white printing paper. Screwed into the end A polarizing filter reduces reflections from the surfaces of shiny subjects such as windows. In the early days of the medium. the darkroom must be totally dark. or closet. because these materials are panchromatic—that is. Photographers make prints with an enlarger. Some professional transparency films require CC filtration as a matter of course. light.

It encourages large grains of silver to form around the minute particles of metal that already make up the latent (not yet visible) image. and a large image of the negative projects onto the printing paper. Using this method. a fixer remover. it darker. which shows all the exposures from a For projection printing. or hypo-clearing agent. This technique is known as dodging when used to lighten an area and as burning when making . The density of silver deposited in each area depends on the amount of light the area received during exposure. which chemically neutralizes the developer. a visible image develops on the film. As large particles of silver begin to form. film. is applied to clear any remaining fixer from the film. the photographer can reduce or increase the amount of light falling on selected portions of the image. An aperture on the enlarging lens controls the exposure. along with a timer connected to the enlarger light. By blocking part of the light source with hands or small tools. bathing the processed film in a washing aid promotes uniform drying and prevents formation of water spots or streaks. they apply another chemical solution to the negative image to fix it—that is. or fixer. The exposure commonly lasts from ten seconds to a minute. which sits on a flat easel at the base of the enlarger. The film must then be thoroughly washed in water. use this method to print what is called a contact sheet. In order to arrest the action of the developer. After rinsing the residual silver halide crystals unexposed to light. Finally. to remove After a short rinse.light. thus lightening or darkening those areas in the final print. photographers first place the negative in the enlarger and place a piece of sensitized printing material on the flat easel at its base. A Developing the Film Photographers develop film by treating it with an alkaline chemical solution called a developer. This solution reactivates the process begun by the action of light when the film was exposed. The solution used for this process is commonly referred to as hypo. photographers transfer the film to a solution called the stop bath. B Printing the Photos Photographers produce prints by either of two methods: contact or projection. as residual fixer tends to destroy negatives over time. The contact method works for making prints of exactly the same size as the negative. Switching on the enlarger light source projects an enlarged image of the negative onto the paper. they place the emulsion side of the negative in contact with the printing material and expose the two together to a source of light. Photographers with 35-millimeter cameras commonly single roll of film in small size.

the target market for APS remains the point-and-shoot camera user. APS is not a digital photography system. Electronic technologies have not only changed the way that most cameras work. including silver halides and dye couplers. since the APS film cartridge has no leader to thread into a take-up spool. including several single-lens-reflex models. for color prints. After exposing the print. This coating is similar to that used for film but is much positive image by a process very similar to that used for developing film. a machine called a scanner records visual information and converts . well-exposed prints than with 35-millimeter processing. And photofinishing machines can read. APS cameras are slightly smaller and lighter. prints are made on sheets of paper or plastic that have been coated with a light-sensitive emulsion. unlike film technology. According to Kodak. which are explained in the next section. APS film is APS cameras magnetically encode information onto the exposed film that automated easier to load. the photographer can then develop and fix the and-white prints. such as computers and the graphic arts. this results in a higher percentage of format than 35-millimeter film. this technology challenges conventional 35-millimeter photography on several fronts. digital systems. In comparison to 35-millimeter point-and-shoot models. To process blackor automatic roller processor is preferred. fundamental ways that the distinction has begun to blur between photography and other A APS In the early 1990s the Eastman Kodak Company introduced a new line of cameras and film designed for amateur photographers. it is capable of results that nearly match the precision and sharpness of the older format. APS employs well-established color B Digital Photography Digital photography is a method of making images without the use of conventional photographic film. less sensitive to light. the paper is usually placed in a series of open trays. One of the biggest differences between APS and conventional photography is that photographers can have their pictures processed conventionally or have them scanned onto a compact disc (CD) for use with a computer. However.For either printing process. And although APS film is of a smaller Soon after Kodak’s introduction of APS. Called the Advanced Photo System (APS). other film and camera makers also adopted the system. Instead. dozens of APS cameras are now available. a drum VIII RECENT DEVELOPMENTS The technology of photography continues to develop rapidly. but are changing photography in such image-making systems.

Photographs in digital form can be manipulated by means of various computer programs. The original high-resolution image can later be reproduced in ink (in a magazine. so the whole family can look at snapshots together. with automatic focus. stored on disks. or sent to friends via electronic mail.it into a code of ones and zeroes that a computer can read. full-color digital photograph. Some digital cameras are able to transfer their large picture files directly into a computer for storage. automatic exposure. Others accept a disc or similar portable storage unit to achieve the same purpose. or digital dots of color (see Computer Graphics). Pictures from these cameras contain fewer pixels than those from a more expensive camera and are therefore not as sharp. After taking pictures. the user can connect the camera directly to a television set or video cassette recorder. and built-in electronic flash. There can be several million pixels in a high-resolution. Digital cameras are now available for both professional photographers and amateur enthusiasts. The more expensive professional cameras function as sophisticated 35-millimeter cameras but record the picture information as pixels. image files can be transferred to a home computer. Alternatively. for example) or as a conventional silver halide print Digital cameras aimed at the amateur photography market function much as point-and-shoot cameras do. Digital photography was widely used in advertising and graphic design in the late 1990s. and was quickly replacing conventional photographic technology in areas such as photojournalism. .

It can be sent almost instantaneously over long distances. it is said to be negatively charged. as Electrical activity takes place constantly everywhere in the universe. molecules together. . it is said to be an object contains as many protons as electrons. and it can be stored. but the positive charge of the proton is exactly opposite the negative charge of the electron. and well as by devices built by people. light. if it has more electrons than protons. protons. or moving. Because of this versatility. or electrically neutral. transmitted. Electrical forces hold transmitted between neurons (nerve cells). and other particles. Electric charge comes in two forms: positive and negative. Electricity is associated with electric charge. televisions. Electrons and protons both carry exactly the same amount of electric charge. If Electricity occurs in two forms: static electricity and electric current. positively charged. particles that make up the atoms of all ordinary matter. two of the basic in static electricity. one of the basic forms of energy. The nervous systems of animals work by means of weak electric signals converted into heat. a property of certain elementary particles such as electrons and protons. electricity plays a part in nearly every aspect of modern computers. Static electricity consists of electric charges that stay in one place. Electricity provides light. An electric current is a flow of electric charges between objects or locations. as Electricity is an extremely versatile form of energy. technology. Electricity can also be converted efficiently into other forms of energy. as in an electric current. Electric charges can be stationary.Electricity I INTRODUCTION Electricity. If an object has more protons than electrons. and countless other necessities and luxuries possible. and other forms of energy through natural processes. motion. It makes telephones. the charges will cancel each other and the object is said to be uncharged. heat. It can be generated in many ways and from many different sources. and mechanical power. II ELECTRIC CHARGE Electricity consists of charges carried by electrons. Electricity is generated.

The following flannel. that hang from one end of a metal rod. since it now has more electrons than protons. The ability to store charge is called capacitance and is measured in units called farads. and fur (or hair). When the charged comb touches the ball. When charge flows between objects in contact. earlier in the list becomes negative. Charges in motion form an electric current. The comb becomes negatively charged and the hair becomes positively charged. A charged object transfers electric charge to an object with lesser charge if the two touch. Charging by contact can be demonstrated by touching an uncharged electroscope with a charged comb. separate because they now hold like charges and repel each other. The electroscope has thus been charged by contact with the comb. The object that gains electrons becomes negatively charged. and the material later in the list becomes positive. For example. silk. The A Charging by Contact Objects become electrically charged in either of two ways: by contact or by induction. materials are named in decreasing order of their ability to hold electrons: rubber. glass. The object that gives up electrons becomes positively charged. An electroscope is a device that contains two strips of metal foil. When this happens. Electrons move from the surface of one object to the surface of the other if the second material holds onto its electrons more strongly than the first does. called leaves. dry hair.III STATIC ELECTRICITY Static electricity can be produced by rubbing together two objects made of different materials. if a nylon comb is run through clean. the material materials should be clean and dry. which the leaves remain apart because they retain their charges. A metal ball is at the other end of the rod. the amount of charge that an object receives depends on its ability to store charge. . a charge flows from the first to the second object for a brief time. some of the charges on the comb flow to the leaves. If the comb is removed. If any two of these materials are rubbed together. some of the electrons on the hair are transferred to the comb.

called conductors. However. Some materials. The greater the other. quantifies the strength of the attraction or repulsion. for example. charge will flow from the 8-coulomb object to the 4-coulomb . is equal to the combined charges of 6. allow an electric current to flow through them easily. the air becomes a conductor. also named after Coulomb.24 × 1018 protons (or electrons). they divide the charge evenly. and objects with similar charges repel each late 18th century. formulated by French physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb during the the force between two charged objects is directly proportional to the product of their charges charges on the objects. If two charged objects in contact have the same capacitance. air is an insulator. strongly resist the passage of an electric current. Suppose. Other Under normal conditions. When they touch. Coulomb’s law. part of the charge may jump. When the charge is large enough. if an object gains a large enough charge of static electricity. or discharge. This law states that and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. However. that one object has a charge of +4 coulombs and the other a charge of +8 coulombs. it requires a pathway for the electric charge to move along. called insulators. materials. the greater the distance between the objects. The unit of electric charge. through the air to another object without touching it directly. B Coulomb’s Law Objects with opposite charges attract each other. Lightning is an example of a discharge. the larger the force between them. the lesser the force between them.This flow of charge between objects with different amounts of charge will occur whenever possible.

If each object originally had a charge of +6 coulombs. . For example. the electrons in the the neutral object that is nearest to the positive object. the 10-farad object will have a charge of +8 coulombs and the 5- C Charging by Induction A charged object may induce a charge in a nearby neutral object without touching it. they divide the charge in proportion to their capacitances. Because electrons leave the far side of the neutral object while its protons remain stationary. If two objects have different capacitances. no charge would flow between them. Some of these electrons flow to the side of accumulates electrons and becomes negatively charged. This side of the neutral object neutral object are attracted to the positive object. that side becomes positively charged. Suppose that the objects are oppositely charged and that one has a charge of +20 coulombs and the other a charge of -8 coulombs. coulombs. If an object with a capacitance of 10 farads touches an object with a capacitance of 5 farads.object until each has a charge of +6 coulombs. Their total charge is therefore +12 farad object will have +4 coulombs. After they touch. if a positively charged object is brought near a neutral object. the 10-farad object will end up with twice the amount of charge of the 5-farad object.

the net effect is an attraction between the objects. since it has lost electrons to Earth. If that side of B is then connected to the ground by a good brought near a neutral object. the electrons flow out through the wire into the ground. If this wire is then removed. The ground can receive almost any amount of charge because Earth. the positively charged side and the positive object. the charge on the far side.Since the negatively charged side of the neutral object is closest to the positive object. the electrons on the other object redistribute themselves evenly over it. the electrons on B are repelled as far as possible from A and conductor. being neutral. If a negatively charged object. Similarly. Object B is said to be grounded by the wire connecting it to Earth. remains positive because the wire has been disconnected and B cannot regain electrons from IV ELECTRIC CURRENT . when a negatively charged object is brought near a neutral object. Thus B has been permanently charged by induction. B has a positive charge. is flow to the other side of B. As soon as the charged object is again becomes neutral. B still Earth to neutralize its positive charge. B. taken away. has an enormous capacitance. so that it An object can also be charged permanently by induction. such as a metal wire. attraction between this side and the positive object is greater than the repulsion between the negative object induces a positive charge on the near side of the neutral object and a negative The induced charges described above are not permanent. Even if A is subsequently removed. As before. A. The net effect is an attraction between the objects.

Current that flows in one direction only. the passage of the current through the air is visible as a tiny spark. glass. If two objects are connected by a material that lets charge flow easily. the wire is carrying a current of 1 amp. or jump. reversing direction again and again. When two objects with different charges touch and redistribute their charges. but not in contact with. voltage. In the dark. See also Electric Meters. the charge can arc. which is used in most devices that are “plugged in” to electrical outlets in buildings. causing the bulb to glow. Electric current can be demonstrated by connecting a small light bulb to an electric battery by two copper wires. Other properties that are used to quantify and compare electric currents are the voltage (also called electromotive force) driving the current and the resistance of the conductor to the related through an equation called Ohm’s law. passage of the current. each point of a wire every second. Direct current. nonconductors. Most of the following discussion focuses on direct current. an electric current flows from one object to the other until the charge is distributed according to the capacitances of the objects.An electric current is a movement of charge. such as the current in a battery-powered flashlight. Electricians wear rubber gloves so that electric current will not pass from electrical equipment to their bodies. Current that flows back and forth. and air are common insulators. Substances that do not allow electric current to flow through them are called insulators. The amount of current. which is used in most battery-powered devices. the current is 2 amp. will be discussed in the Alternating Current section of this article. B Measuring Electric Current Electric current is measured in units called amperes (amp). If 2 coulombs flow C Voltage . a metal doorknob or radiator. is called alternating current. current will arc through the air from your finger to the doorknob or radiator. However. through an insulator to another object. such as a copper wire. current flows through the wires and the bulb. Rubber. is easier to understand than alternating current. or dielectrics. and resistance in any circuit are all A Conductors and Insulators Conductors are materials that allow an electric current to flow through them easily. is called direct current. then an electric current flows from one object to the other through the wire. if you shuffle across a wool rug and then hold your finger very close to. if an object contains a sufficient amount of charge. When the connections are properly made. Most metals are good conductors. Alternating current. If 1 coulomb of charge flows past past each point in a second. even though air is an insulator. For example.

Voltage is measured in units called volts. The more willing the terminals are to give up and receive electrons. which is less expensive than silver. the greater its resistance. Electric wires are usually made of copper. and area by saying that resistance is proportional to length and inversely proportional Usually. and R is the resistance in ohms of the conductor between the two locations of interest. Scientists describe this relationship between resistance. If one wire is twice as long as a shorter one. has less resistance. the higher the voltage. The symbol for ohms is the Greek letter omega. The resistance of some materials drops to zero at very low temperatures. however. the higher the temperature of a wire. I is the amount of current in amperes that is flowing between these two points. One terminal continuously sends electrons into the conductor. silver is the best conductor and copper is the second The resistance of a piece of wire depends on its length. voltage. Collisions between the electrons and the atoms of the conductor interfere with the flow of electrons. to cross-sectional area. The longer the wire is. where V is the difference in volts between two locations (called the potential difference). The current flow is caused by the voltage. because a thick wire offers more room for an electric current to pass through than a thin wire does. the greater its resistance. or thickness. If any . E Ohm’s Law The relationship between current. At commonly encountered temperatures. best. or potential difference. A thicker wire. V = IR can also be written R = V/I and I = V/R. V = IR. A wire whose cross- wire of identical diameter and material. D Resistance A conductor allows an electric current to flow through it. This phenomenon is known as resistance. Resistance is measured in units called ohms. an electric current flows through the conductor. length. while the other continuously receives electrons from it. Another name for a voltage produced by a source of electric current is electromotive force. but it does not permit the current to flow with perfect freedom. and resistance is given by Ohm’s law. A good conductor is one that has low resistance. the longer wire offers twice as much resistance as the sectional area is twice that of another wire of equal length and similar material has only half the resistance of the thinner wire. This law states that the amount of current passing through a conductor is directly proportional to the voltage across the conductor and inversely proportional to the resistance of the conductor. and its cross-sectional area. between the terminals.When the two terminals of a battery are connected by a conductor. This phenomenon is known as superconductivity. Ù. A good insulator has a very high resistance. Ohm’s law can be expressed as an equation.

however. if a voltage is applied to the two ends of a copper bar by means of a battery. then the resistance of the conductor is R = V/I = 110/10 = 11 ohms. are tightly bound to individual copper atoms. However. electric current is conducted differently in solids. Most of the electrons in a bar of copper. then I = V/R = 110/11 = 10 amp. When an electric current flows in a solid conductor. however. The greater the current passing through the conductor. as many of them are moving in one direction as in another. resistance is constant in conductors made of metal. the third can be calculated. For example. However. A current of I amp passing through a resistance of R ohms for t seconds generates an amount of heat equal to I2Rt joules (a joule is a unit of energy equal to 0. then R is still 11. If the voltage is raised to 220 in the example above. The other end is said to be at a lower potential . because the current is carried entirely by electrons. Under normal conditions. since I = V/R = 220/11 = 20 amp. The rate at which energy power P supplied by a current of I amp passing through a resistance of R ohms is given by P = I2R. Also. The current I will be doubled. the greater the resistance. gases. if a potential difference of 110 volts sends a 10-amp current through a conductor. a two-directional flow is made possible by the process of ionization (see Electrochemistry).two of the quantities are known. the greater the heat. the greater the heat. the free electrons tend to drift toward one end. and it is often measured in units called watts. If V = 110 and R = 11. V HOW ELECTRIC CURRENT IS CONDUCTED All electric currents consist of charges in motion. Energy is required to drive an electric current through a resistance. However. Ordinarily the motion of the free electrons is random. A Conduction in Solids The conduction of electric currents in solid substances is made possible by the presence of free electrons (electrons that are free to move about).239 calorie). some are free to move from atom to atom. that is. In liquids and gases. This end is said to be at a higher potential and is called the positive end. and liquids. This energy is supplied by is supplied to a device is called power. enabling current to flow. for example. the flow is in one direction only. The the source of the current. such as a battery or an electric generator. F Heat and Power A conductor’s resistance to electric current produces heat.

The electrons move toward the high-potential (more positive) point. When a strong potential difference is applied between two points inside a container filled with a gas. An electric current in a gas is composed of these opposite flows of charges. their atoms. said to be ionized. This separation is called electrolysis. When sodium chloride dissolves in water. but no such Some substances that ordinarily have no free electrons. A battery does this by supplying electrons to the negative end of the bar to replace those that drift to the positive end and also by absorbing electrons at the positive end. As in gases. substances are called semiconductors. such as silicon and germanium. A perfect insulator would allow no charge to be forced through it. water that contains even a slight impurity of an ionized substance is a conductor. the few knocking free more electrons. VI SOURCES OF ELECTRIC CURRENT . while the ions move toward the low-potential (more negative) point. The best insulators offer high but not infinite resistance at room temperature. Since the positive and negative ions of a dissolved substance migrate to different points when an electric current flows. can conduct electric currents when small amounts of certain impurities are added to them. The gas atoms become positively charged ions and the gas is free electrons are accelerated by the potential difference and collide with the atoms of the gas. the electric current is composed of these flows of opposite charges. C Conduction in Liquid Solutions Many substances become ionized when they dissolve in water or in some other liquid. it separates into positive sodium ions. Insulators cannot conduct electric currents because all their electrons are tightly bound to substance is known at room temperature. but a lower resistance than an insulator. Semiconductors generally have a higher resistance to B Conduction in Gases Gases normally contain few free electrons and are generally insulators. and negative chlorine ions. the negative ions drift toward the positive point. while the positive ions drift toward the negative point. such as copper. such as glass. If two points in the solution are at different potentials. the substance is gradually separated into two parts. Thus. The function of a battery or other source of electric current is to maintain potential difference. Na+. while water that is absolutely pure is an insulator. An example is ordinary table salt.and is called the negative end. Such the flow of current than does a conductor. Cl-. sodium chloride (NaCl).

As the aluminum gains electrons and becomes negative. produce electricity through chemical reactions. Chemical reactions within an consists of a cell or group of cells connected together. the platinum loses electrons and becomes positive. from which electricity to operate lights and appliances is drawn. Unlike electrolytic cells. electrolytic cell produce a potential difference between the cell’s terminals. fuel cells do not store chemicals and therefore must be constantly refilled. Platinum. for example. however. are connected voltage between the terminals drives an electric current through the appliance that is plugged B Electrolytic Cells Electrolytic cells use chemical energy to produce electricity. some electrons will flow from the platinum to the aluminum. See Electric Power Systems. An electric battery C Other Sources There are many sources of electric current other than generators and electrolytic cells. Each outlet contains two terminals. The two most common sources are generators and electrolytic cells. Certain sources of electric current operate on the principle that some metals hold onto their strongly than aluminum does. Fuel cells.There are several different devices that can supply the voltage necessary to generate an electric current. for example. electrons more strongly than other metals do. such as water pouring through a dam or the motion of a turbine driven by steam. to produce electricity. other buildings. A Generators Generators use mechanical energy. If a strip of platinum and a strip of aluminum are pressed together under the proper conditions. The into the outlet. holds its electrons less . The electric outlets on the walls of homes and to giant generators located in electric power stations.

Electricity thus produced is called piezoelectricity. through the bulb filament (also a type of wire). a battery. current flows and the bulb lights. the connection is broken. and the bulb does not light. Some microphones VII ELECTRIC CIRCUITS An electric circuit is an arrangement of electric current sources and conducting paths through which a current can continuously flow. Electricity produced directly by heating is called thermoelectricity. When the switch is closed. In a simple circuit consisting of a small light bulb. develops across them. a potential difference work on this principle. When the electric current flows through the filament. through the other piece of connecting wire. and back to the positive terminal of the battery. If two strips of different metals are joined and the joint heated. the filament heats up and the bulb lights. and two pieces of wire. When the switch is open. . through one piece of connecting wire.The strength with which a metal holds its electrons varies with temperature. Electricity produced in this way is called photoelectricity. the electric current flows from the negative terminal of the battery. electrons will pass from one strip to the other. A flashlight is an example of such a circuit. Some substances emit electrons when they are struck by light. When pressure is applied to certain crystals. electric current cannot flow through the circuit. A switch can be placed in one of the connecting wires.

thereby breaking the circuit and melt. The load forms a continuous conducting path between the terminals of the current source. and other devices. the other objects one after another. There are two basic ways in which the parts of a circuit are arranged. The load includes all appliances placed in the circuit. the wires. the electric current flows through them against the resistance of the first object. stopping the flow of current. a fuse (circuit breaker) may be placed in the circuit. then against the resistance of the next object. fans. and toasters. . radios. and the other is called a parallel circuit. When too much current flows through the fuse. buzzers. and fuse are connected in series. and so on. A Series Circuits If various objects are arranged to form a single conducting path between the terminals of a source of electric current. as well as switches. It also includes the connecting wires. such as lights. the objects are said to be connected in series. When objects are connected in series. a wire in the fuse heats up and melts. To prevent this from happening. In the example of the light bulb. then flows through The current is the same throughout the circuit. The electron current first passes from the negative terminal of the source into the first object. fuses. switch. The wire in the fuse is designed to melt before the filament would The part of an electric circuit other than the source of electric current is called the load.The bulb filament may burn out if too much electric current flows through it. bulb. and finally returns to the positive terminal of the source. One arrangement is called a series circuit.

from the equation V = IR. and gives a total drop of 100 volts. each with a resistance of 1 ohm. The electric current through a parallel circuit is distributed among the branches according to the resistances of the branches. where I is the amount of current in the branch. 15. if a motor with a resistance of 48 ohms is connected to the terminals of a current source by two wires. the current in each branch can the voltage. and 30 ohms. In a series circuit the sum of the voltage drops across the objects always equals the total voltage supplied by the source. the current merges again before reentering the current source. they are said to be connected in parallel. After The total resistance of objects connected in parallel is less than that of any of the individual resistances. R2. . If three objects with resistances R1. the total current of 100/50 = 2 amp will flow through the circuit. and R is the resistance of the branch. I is the amount of In the example of the motor. If the voltage is 100 volts. The voltage that each object uses up is called the voltage drop across that object. Each separate path is called a flowing through the separate branches.. branch of the circuit. and R3 are connected in series. For example. their total resistance is R1 + R2 + R3.Therefore the total resistance to the current is equal to the sum of the individual resistances. and R is the resistance of the object. whereas a series circuit has only one path for all the current. This is because a parallel circuit offers more than one branch (path) for the electric current. Adding up the voltage drops (2 + 2 + 96) B Parallel Circuits If various objects are connected to form separate paths between the terminals of a source of electric current. where V is the voltage drop across the object.. the voltage drop in each wire is V = IR = 2 × 1 = 2 volts. the voltage drop in the motor is 2 × 48 = 96 volts. For example. If the branches have different resistances. V is The total resistance of a parallel circuit can be calculated from the equation where R is the total resistance and R1. If each branch has the same resistance. resistance of the motor and wires is 48 + 1 + 1 = 50 ohms. Voltage drop can be calculated current. if a parallel circuit consists of three branches with resistances of 10. R2. are the resistances of the branches. then the current in each will be equal. be determined from the equation I = V/R. then . a Voltage can be thought of as being used up by the objects in a circuit. Current from the source splits up and enters the various branches.

The load is then placed between the positive terminal of battery C and the negative terminal of battery A. with resistances of 10. but also to any given section of a D Series and Parallel Sources Sources of electric current can also be connected in various ways. would receive a current of V/R = 150/10 = 15 amp. . a voltage of 150 volts would produce an electric current of I = V/R = 150/5 = 30 amp. the branch with a resistance of 10 ohms flowing through that branch. as well as the voltage across it. be combined according to the rules for a series circuit. 15. The greater the resistance of a given branch. If a parallel circuit of three branches. B. One branch of a parallel circuit. the net sum of the voltage encountered will be equal to the net sum of the products of the resistances encountered and the currents flowing through them. amp. the smaller the portion of the electric current and 30 ohms. is connected to a 150-volt source. These rules make it possible to find the amount of electric current flowing through each second law states that. In this circuit. if the positive terminal of battery A is connected to the negative terminal of battery B. These branch currents add up to a total current C Series-Parallel Circuits Many circuits combine series and parallel arrangements. The first of Kirchhoff’s laws states that at any junction in a circuit through which a steady current is flowing. a series circuit may Complicated series-parallel circuits may be analyzed by means of two rules called Kirchhoff’s part of any circuit. may have within it several objects in a series. In other circuit. which is the value obtained by dividing the voltage by the total resistance. The branches are parallel and must be treated by the rules for parallel circuits. Ohm’s law applies not only to a circuit as a whole. for example. R = 5 ohms. and the 30-ohm branch receives 5 amp. and the positive terminal of battery B to the negative terminal of battery C. the sum of the currents flowing to the junction is equal to the sum of the currents flowing away from that point. and C are in series. words. the 15-ohm branch receives 10 of 30 amp. On the other hand. then batteries A. The laws. Similarly.Therefore. starting at any point in a circuit and following any closed path back to the starting point. For example. Sources can be arranged in series by connecting a terminal of one source to the opposite terminal of the next source. The resistances of these objects must at one point divide into two or more branches and then rejoin.

and all the negative terminals together. The load is then placed between the group of positive Arranging sources in parallel does not increase the voltage. Current sources may be arranged in parallel by connecting all the positive terminals together terminals and the group of negative terminals. If the load is 9 ohms. their total voltage is equal to the sum of their individual voltages. The ability to attract or repel can be thought of as being charge.5 amp through the load.5-volt batteries are parallel unless they have approximately the same voltage.5-volt batteries connected in series furnish a total of 4. the total voltage is still 1. For example.When sources of electric current are connected in series. This region is called the electric field of force of the A Lines of Force . If a high voltage battery is current through the low voltage battery and damage it. Batteries should not be connected in connected in parallel with a low voltage battery.5/9 = 0. three 1.5 volts. All charged objects have electric fields around them. and it will demonstrate this ability as soon as another charge is brought near it. stored in the region around the charge. connected in parallel. the high voltage battery will force an electric VIII ELECTRIC FIELDS A single electric charge can attract or repel. If three 1.5 volts. the batteries send a current of 4.

it is acted on by a force that tends to push it in a certain direction. Near a charge. the lines do not connect. of a field at any point is defined as the force exerted on a charge of 1 coulomb placed at that point. point. Where they are far apart. This direction is called the direction of the field at that charge. are placed near each other. the electric field is 10 newtons per coulomb at that point. IX ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM Many similarities exist between electric and magnetic phenomena. their lines of force connect. or intensity. since a field can be drawn with as many lines as desired. the field is strong. the field is weak. An object with Field strength is represented graphically by the closeness (density) of the lines of force. force of 10 newtons. Where the lines are close together. if a point charge of 1 coulomb is subjected to a a charge of 5 coulombs would be subjected to a force of 50 newtons at the same point. Nevertheless. exactly as happens with electric charges. Conversely. the field is strong and the lines are close together. the lines in the field around a negatively charged object are directed toward the object. B Field Direction When a charge is placed at any given point in an electric field. If two objects with similar charges are Lines of force are only imaginary. since the object repels positive charges. Opposite magnetic poles attract each other. and similar magnetic poles repel each other. The lines in the field around a positively charged object radiate in all directions away from the object. If a positive and a negative object placed near each other. A magnet has two opposite poles.An electric field can be visualized as consisting of imaginary lines called lines of force. Each line corresponds to the path that a positive charge would take if placed in the field on that line. the idea of lines of force helps in visualizing an electric field. The field direction can be represented graphically by the lines of force near an electric C Field Strength The strength. . referred to as north and south. The field strength values that the lines represent are relative. the field weakens and the lines are not as close together. At greater distances from the charge. Lines of force never cross each other. For example.

The field can . This relationship is similar to the Coulomb’s inverse square law for electric charges. they constitute an electric current.The force with which magnetic poles attract or repel each other depends on the strength of the poles and the distance between them. See also Magnetism. A Magnetic Effects of Electricity It has been noted that an electric field exists around any electric charge. See also Quantum Electrodynamics. demonstrated by the fact that a magnetic field exists around any electric current. The magnetic effect of electricity is be detected when a magnet is brought close to the current-carrying conductor. Electricity produces magnetic effects and magnetism produces electric effects. If electric charges are moving. The relationship between electricity and magnetism is called electromagnetism. The similarities between electric and magnetic phenomena indicate that electricity and magnetism are related.

the magnetic fields interact to produce a force that tends to push the wire out of the Motors and Generators. To apply this rule. See also Electric C Solenoids If a wire is bent into many continuous loops to form a long spiral coil. Such a coil. and a magnetic field exists between the two poles of a magnet. If the left hand grasps the coil in such a way . is used in electric motors.) of the lines of magnetic force.The magnetic field around an electric current can be thought of as lines of magnetic force that form closed circular loops around the wire that carries the current. then the magnetic lines the individual loops of wire. The polarity of the coil can be determined by applying the left-hand coil rule. This phenomenon. a magnetic field exists around a wire carrying an electric current. If the wire is placed between the poles. known as the motor effect. The end from which the lines exit is the north pole and the end into which the lines reenter is the south pole. The direction of the magnetic field can be determined by a convenient rule called the right-hand rule. The direction of the fingers then indicates the direction negative. field. the thumb of the right hand is pointed in the direction in which the current is flowing and the fingers are curled around the wire. behaves in the same way as a of force tend to go through the center of the coil from one end to the other rather than around magnet and is the basis for all electromagnets. called a solenoid. (The right-hand rule assumes that current flows from positive to B Motor Effect As already stated.

an induced current generates a magnetic field around it. and use. An electric current will flow through the wire if the two ends of the wire are connected by a conductor to form a circuit. one in each direction. In the Although direct and alternating currents share some characteristics. Most electric power stations supply electricity in the form of alternating currents. Then it immediately starts in the first direction again. When a conductor is moved back and forth in a magnetic field. Two consecutive surges. It then and again dies down to zero. X ALTERNATING CURRENT An alternating current is an electric current that changes direction at regular intervals. some properties of alternating current are somewhat different from those of direct current. builds up to a maximum in that direction. the flow of current in the conductor will reverse direction as often as the physical motion of the conductor reverses direction. the lines of magnetic force are cut by the wire and an electric current is induced in the wire. most currents have a frequency of 60 cycles per second. also produce phenomena that direct currents do not. D Electric Effects of Magnetism If a wire is moved through a magnetic field in such a way that it cuts the magnetic lines of force. and dies down to zero. If a magnet is moved near a stationary wire. Like any electric current. transmission. immediately starts flowing in the opposite direction. Alternating currents current make it ideal for power generation. The current flows first in one direction. This current is called an induced current. It does not matter whether the wire moves or the magnetic field moves. then the thumb points in the direction of the north pole. Some of the unique traits of alternating A Amperage and Voltage . and the induction of a current in this manner is called electromagnetic induction. completed by an electric current in one second is called the frequency of the current. are called a cycle. a voltage is created across the wire. builds up to a maximum in that direction. provided that the wire cuts through lines of force. This surging back and forth can occur at a very rapid rate. Lenz’s law expresses an important fact concerning this magnetic field: The motion of an induced current is always in such a direction that its magnetic field opposes the magnetic field that is causing the current. The number of cycles United States and Canada.that the fingers curl around in the direction of the electron current.

both for industrial installations and in the home. and impedance is expressed by V = IZ. however.000 volts and a current of 100 amp. 1 effective amp of alternating current through a conductor produces heat at the B Impedance Like direct current. and together they are called reactance. other words. and Z is the impedance in ohms. The movement of the magnetic field induces an alternating current second coil will be larger than the voltage in the first. an alternating current current is equal to the amperage of a direct current that produces heat at the same rate. In same rate as 1 amp of direct current flowing through the same conductor. These effects depend on the frequency of the current and on an alternating current is called impedance. voltage will be smaller than the primary voltage. the secondary. is equal to the square of the current times the . alternating current is hindered by the resistance of the conductor through hinder the alternating current. however. Like a direct current. it may be equally well supplied by a potential of 200. C Advantages of Alternating Current Alternating current has several characteristics that make it more attractive than direct current as a source of electric power. the voltage induced in the number of individual conductors. because power is equal to the product of voltage and current. because the field is acting on a greater The action of a transformer makes possible the economical transmission of electric power over long distances. If the second coil has more turns than the first.000 watts of power is supplied to a power line. or induced. The effective amperage of an alternating scientists simply deal with the effective amperage. the voltage of an alternating current is considered in terms of the effective voltage. effective voltage. In a transformer. In addition. of an alternating current varies continuously between zero and a maximum. the magnetic field about the any value desired by means of a simple electromagnetic device called a transformer. or amperage. It is equal to the resistance plus the reactance.000 volts and a current of 1 amp or by a potential of 2. if there are fewer turns in the second coil. The total hindering effect on The relationship of effective current. which it passes. If 200. electric connection with it. various effects produced by the alternating current itself the design of the circuit.The strength. where V is the effective voltage in volts. The most important of these characteristics is that the voltage or the current may be changed to almost alternating current surges back and forth through a coil of wire. Since it is inconvenient to take into account a whole range of amperage values. The power lost in the line through heating. but not in direct in the second coil. Similarly. a coil of wire is placed in the magnetic field of the first coil. produces heat as it passes through a conductor. Conversely. When an coil expands and collapses and then expands in a field of opposite polarity and again collapses. I is the effective current in amperes (amp).

Thus. . when rubbed.000 years after Theophrastus. The object that gains electric fluid acquires a vitreous charge. Von Guericke also described the first machine for producing an electric charge in 1672. When a hand was held against the sphere. whereas the loss on the 2. Dufay called one kind vitreous and the other kind resinous. electric fluid flows from one object to the other. Accordingly. Gray during the early 1700s.000 watts. which is derived from the Greek word elektron (which means “amber”). The object that loses electric fluid acquires a resinous charge. About other objects move. stated that other substances also have this power. A 600 Early Theories Greek philosopher Thales of Miletus held that amber had a soul. American scientist Benjamin Franklin theorized that electricity is a kind of fluid. light objects. According to Franklin’s theory. The machine consisted of a sulfur sphere turned by a crank.000-volt line will be 100. The word electricity was first used by English writer and physician Sir Thomas Browne in 1646. In 1600 English physician William Gilbert published a book in which he noted that many substances besides amber could be charged by rubbing. when two objects are rubbed together. but scientists did not make great progress in understanding electricity until the 1700s. since it could make The ancient Greeks observed that amber. available power. who observed conduction in a linen thread. another Greek philosopher. little progress was made in the study of electricity. which Franklin called negative charge.000-volt line will be 10 watts. Gray also noted that some substances are good conductors while Also during the early 1700s. Frenchman Charles Dufay observed that electric charges are of two kinds. BC For almost 2. Conduction was rediscovered independently by Englishman Stephen others are insulators. He gave these substances the Latin name electrica. The fact that electricity can flow through a substance was discovered by 17th-century German physicist Otto von Guericke. power companies tend to favor high voltage lines for long XI HISTORY Humans have known about the existence of static electricity for thousands of years. attracted small. a charge was induced on the sphere.resistance. He found that opposite kinds attract each other while similar kinds repel. the loss on the 200. Theophrastus. In a treatise written about three centuries later. if the resistance of the line is 10 ohms. or half the distance transmission. which Franklin called positive charge.

Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted demonstrated that electric currents are surrounded by magnetic fields in 1819. With this apparatus he confirmed the product of the individual charges. Georg Simon Ohm. body. could be Around 1766 British chemist Joseph Priestley proved experimentally that the force between also demonstrated that an electric charge distributes itself uniformly over the surface of a hollow metal sphere and that no charge and no electric field of force exists within such a sphere. Ampère also demonstrated the magnetic properties of abilities of various metals. Priestley measure accurately the force exerted by electric charges. performed on the muscles of dead frogs. In 1827 Ohm published his results. In 1752 he constructed a kite and flew it during a storm. The voltaic pile made the study of electric current much easier by providing a reliable. Electric charge gathered by the kite had flowed down the wet under a shed and held the string by a dry silk cord. Galvani had found earlier that the muscles in a frog’s B 19th and 20th Centuries In 1800 another Italian scientist. The same effect was discovered a year later by English scientist Michael useful in the study of electricity. Shortly afterward. a German high school teacher. A spark jumped. Alessandro Volta. a device able to store electric charge. a concept that proved extremely About 1840 British physicist James Prescott Joule and German scientist Hermann Ludwig circuits obey the law of the conservation of energy. André Marie Ampère discovered the relationship known as Ampere’s law. When the string became wet enough to conduct. put his hand near a metal key attached to string to the key and then jumped across an air gap to flow to the ground through Franklin’s charged by touching it to the key when electric current was flowing down the string. Priestley’s observations and also showed that the force between two charges is proportional to In 1791 Italian biologist Luigi Galvani published the results of experiments that he had leg would contract if he applied an electric current to them. a form of electric battery. including the relationship now In 1830 American physicist Joseph Henry discovered that a moving magnetic field induces an electric current. who stood the string. Franklin. announced that he had created the voltaic pile. investigated the conducting known as Ohm’s law. which solenoids. Faraday introduced the concept of lines of force. Franklin also showed that a Leyden jar. Ferdinand von Helmholtz demonstrated that electricity is a form of energy and that electric . gives the direction of the magnetic field. Faraday.Franklin demonstrated that lightning is a form of electricity. steady source of current. French physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb reinvented a torsion balance to electric charges varies inversely with the square of the distance between the charges.

Also during the 19th century. Nikola Tesla. Maxwell summed up almost all the laws of electricity and magnetism in four mathematical equations. accurately measured the charge on the electron in 1909. His work paved the way for German physicist Heinrich Rudolf Hertz. . © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. The widespread use of electricity as a such as Thomas Alva Edison. was first advanced by Dutch physicist Hendrik Antoon Lorentz in 1892. and for Italian engineer Guglielmo Marconi. American physicist Robert Andrews Millikan source of power is largely due to the work of pioneering American engineers and inventors and early 20th centuries. which is the basis of modern electrical theory. who produced and detected electric waves in the atmosphere in 1886. The electron theory. All rights reserved. and Charles Proteus Steinmetz during the late 19th Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005. who harnessed these waves in 1895 to produce the first practical radio signaling system. British physicist James Clerk Maxwell investigated the properties of electromagnetic waves and light and developed the theory that the two are identical.

HOWSTUFFWORKS@YAHOO. In a worm gear.WWW.COM Worm Gears If you want to create a high gear ratio. nothing beats the worm gear. If the gear has 40 teeth. a threaded shaft engages the teeth on a gear. you have a 40:1 gear ratio in a very small package. Each time the shaft spins one revolution. Here's one example from a windshield wiper. the gear moves one tooth forward. A mechanical odometer is another place that uses a lot of worm gears: .

as shown here: . However. The size of the red gear is not important because it is just there to reverse the direction of rotation so that the blue and yellow gears turn the same way. imagine that you want the axis of the output gear to be the same as that of the input gear. Planetary gears solve the following problem. One way to create that ratio is with the following three-gear train: In this train. the blue gear has six times the diameter of the yellow gear (giving a 6:1 ratio). Planetary Gears There are many other ways to use gears. you can use a planetary gear system. A common place where this same-axis capability is needed is in an electric screwdriver. One specialized gear train is called a planetary gear train. See How Odometers Work for more information. Let's say you want a gear ratio of 6:1 with the input turning in the same direction as the output.There are three worm gears visible in this odometer. In that case.

and the planet carrier is held stationary -.this gives the same 6:1 gear ratio. You can see a picture of a two-stage planetary gear system on the electric screwdriver page. The output shaft is attached to the blue ring gear. This is because the planet carrier circled the sun gear once in the same direction as it was spinning. we get a different gear ratio. You also find planetary gear systems inside automatic transmissions. Gear Trains To create large gear ratios. Because there are three red gears instead of one. this gear train is extremely rugged. and we hold the ring gear stationary and attach the output shaft to the planet carrier.In this gear system. it has to spin seven times. and this time hold the sun gear stationary. the planet carrier and planets orbit the sun gear. we get a 7:1 reduction. using clutches and brake bands to hold different parts of the gearset stationary and change the inputs and outputs. as shown here: . You could rearrange things again. This would give you a 1. So in this case. An automatic transmission uses planetary gearsets to create the different gear ratios. which gear you use as the output. if the input is the sun gear. In this case. subtracting one revolution from the sun gear. and which one you hold still. For instance. and a three-stage plenetary gear system of the sprinkler page. the yellow gear (the sun) engages all three red gears (the planets) simultaneously.17:1 gear reduction. All three are attached to a plate (the planet carrier). so instead of the sun gear having to spin six times for the planet carrier to make it around once. gears are often connected together in gear trains. take the output from the planet carrier and hook the input up to the ring gear. and they engage the inside of the blue gear (the ring) instead of the outside. Another interesting thing about planetary gearsets is that they can produce different gear ratios depending on which gear you use as the input.

as shown in the next two figures. Gear trains often consist of multiple gears in the train. one on top of the other. . as shown above. A small gear and a larger gear are connected together.The right-hand (purple) gear in the train is actually made in two parts.

the purple gear turns at a rate twice that of the blue gear. The gear train shown below has a higher gear ratio: In this train. If you can see inside your power meter and it's of the older style with five mechanical dials.500-rpm motor to the red gear to get 100 rpm on the purple gear. the green gear will turn at a rate of 500 rpm and the red gear will turn at a rate of 2. The red gear turns at twice the rate as the green gear. with the gears having a ratio of 10:1. In the same way. you could attach a 2. the smaller gears are one-fifth the size of the larger gears.In the case above. That means that if you connect the purple gear to a motor spinning at 100 revolutions per minute (rpm). The green gear turns at twice the rate of the purple gear.500 rpm. you will see that the five dials are connected to one another through a gear train like this. Because the dials are directly connected .

to one another. You can place a big gear between them if you want them to have the same direction of rotation: Or you can use two equal-sized gears if you want them to have opposite directions of rotation: However. they spin in opposite directions (you will see that the numbers are reversed on dials next to one another). but they are some distance apart. the common solution is to use either a chain or a toothed belt. An Example Imagine the following situation: You have two red gears that you want to keep synchronized. In these cases. in both of these cases the extra gears are likely to be heavy and you need to create axles for them. as shown here: .

The advantages of chains and belts are light weight. the ability to separate the two gears by some distance. two camshafts and the alternator. in a car engine. check out the links on the next page! . it would be a lot harder. the same toothed belt might engage the crankshaft. For example. For more information on gears and their applications. If you had to use gears in place of the belt. and the ability to connect many gears together on the same chain or belt.

Although these simple machines have been other common simple machines. are complex machines wheel and axle. no other simple machines have been discovered. II WORK Machines help people do work by changing the amount of force and the distance needed to the distance over which the force is applied. Work. which combines a lever (the hinged handle). are really adaptations of the inclined plane. perform work by lengthening the distance over which the force is applied.Machine I INTRODUCTION Machine. but increasing speed requires the application of more effort. Knowing the mechanical advantage of a machine allows a user to predict how much force is needed to lift a given object. the pulley at the top of a flagpole. such as automobiles or power tools. no matter how complicated a machine is. Distance refers to the distance a load is moved by the force. the screw and the wedge. composed of many parts. Although less force There are four types of simple machines: the lever. simple device that affects the force. An everyday example of a complex machine is the and a wedge (the sharpened cutting disk). However. the steering wheel of an automobile (a form of wheel and axle). Machines lessen the force needed to is subsequently used. the inclined plane. or effort. such as a hand pushing a book across a table. a wheel and axle (the turning knob). can opener. Two Some common examples of simple machines are the shovel (a form of lever). it is composed of some combination of the four simple machines. is the amount of force used to move an object multiplied by Force is defined as a push or a pull exerted on one body by another. and the wheelchair ramp (a form of inclined plane). This can be written in mathematical terms: Work = Force × Distance move objects. Each machine affects the direction or the amount of effort needed to do work. the amount of work that results remains the same. . The advantage that a machine gives its user by affecting the amount of force needed is called the machine’s mechanical advantage. or MA. the pulley. needed to do a certain amount of work. Machines can also increase the speed at which work makes an object travel. Machines can make a tough job seem easier by enabling a person to apply less force or to apply force in a direction that is easier to manipulate. and the Most mechanical machines. known and used for thousands of years. in physics.

The distance walked on the gentle slope is longer. usually powered by electricity. Friction results from two bodies moving against each other in different . An airplane engine uses the combustion. Electricity also powers the levers that help open and shut the elevator doors. Applying effort over a greater distance takes more time. is made up of many simple machines. The mechanical energy in a person’s muscles makes the machine do work. An elevator uses large engines. various gears on a multispeed bicycle (another complex machine) work in a manner similar to People use simple machines. to provide the necessary force to do work. such as an airplane engine or an elevator. B Mechanical Advantage and Friction Measuring the mechanical advantage (MA) is a mathematical way to determine how much a machine affects the amount of force needed to do work. or rapid burning. A machine decreases the amount of force needed by increasing the distance over which the effort is applied to move the object. In simple machines. The wheel and axle and certain types of levers are simple machines that can either speed up a task (requiring more effort) or slow down a task (requiring less effort). to make manual chores easier. Scientists find the mechanical advantage of a machine by dividing the force the machine delivers by the effort put into the machine. but the effort needed to reach the top is less. Not all machines use muscle power. such as levers and pulleys. This is why walking gradually up a gentle slope is easier than walking up a steep slope. of airplane fuel to power the engine that turns the propeller. Airplane engines and elevators are not powered by hand.A How Machines Work A machine can make a given task seem easier by reducing the amount of force needed to move an object. mechanical advantage of a machine is the advantage it would produce if the machine were perfect. and this slows down the speed of work. Other gears require less effort and are useful for climbing hills. however. then the force must therefore be increased to keep work constant. the main source of imperfection is friction. or ideal. The that of the wheel and axle. A gentle slope is a form of inclined plane. to pull cables that raise and lower the elevator car. Some gears require more effort. Some machines can actually speed up a task. If the distance in the equation defining work (Work = Force × Increasing the speed at which a task is performed requires more force than would otherwise be necessary. by changing the direction in which the force must be applied. The theoretical. but spreading the necessary effort out over a longer distance makes the task seem easier. such as airplane fuel or the energy stored in electricity. The amount of work needed to overcome gravity and lift a given load always remains the same. They do this by reducing the distance Distance) is reduced. Complex machines often use the energy stored in chemical substances. A complex machine. to do work. over which the effort is applied. but they make the bicycle travel faster on flat terrain. or by doing both.

An automobile engine is much less efficient dissipating from the engine. the actual mechanical advantage is always less than the Because simple machines increase mechanical advantage by increasing the distance over which the effort is applied. All four of these machines can be used to decrease the amount of force needed to do work or to change the direction of the force. meters above the ground. raising inclined plane. a person with the inclined plane. Because of the inclined plane. the person must move the object a farther distance. This increase in distance allows a person to move a large object to a certain would need to lift with a force equal to the entire weight of the object.) The tradeoff is that also changes the direction—from straight up to along the angle of the plane—of the effort height while applying less force than would otherwise be needed. the work that results to the amount of work put into the machine. An inclined plane . and some levers can also be used to increase the speed of performance of a task. The efficiency of a machine because much of the energy used to move the crankshaft is lost to friction in the form of heat III TYPES OF SIMPLE MACHINES The four simple machines each function in different ways. This means that the work was twice as easy. present in almost every machine. the load needed to be pushed twice as far to end up 5 C Efficiency Another factor that people sometimes compute for machines is their efficiency. Friction always opposes motion and makes doing work harder. however. Since friction is theoretical mechanical advantage. (Without the plane. one way to compute theoretical mechanical advantage is to divide a load 5 m (16 ft) off the ground is easier if the load is moved up a gradual slope. Moving the load along a 10-m (32-ft) inclined plane would provide a mechanical advantage of 10 divided by 5.directions. For example. but doing so A Inclined Plane Ramps and staircases are simple examples of inclined planes. The wheel and axle always increases the amount of force needed. or that only half as much effort was needed to raise the load. A perfect machine would be 100 percent efficient. but they always lose some efficiency due to friction. Most simple machines are very efficient. or the ratio of is usually expressed as a percentage and can vary from 5 percent to 95 percent. or an the distance the effort is applied by the distance the load actually travels. rather than lifted straight up. but they all change the direction or the amount of effort put into them. An inclined plane is an object that decreases the effort needed to lift an object by increasing the distance over which the effort is applied. or 2.

applied. The materials are held together by a combination of friction on the threads and compression of the screw by the materials. which have threads that dig into the materials being joined. The MA of an inclined plane equals the length of the plane divided by the height to which the object is raised. Wedges are often used to split wood. than a steep inclined plane. The MA of a screw is related to the pitch of the threads (the distance along the axis of the screw from one thread to the next) and the diameter of the axis. but some friction with lifting screws is helpful so that the screw can safely hold B Lever . An example of a lifting screw is the screw jack used to change tires on a car. Lifting screws are usually lubricated to the load. A wedge is a changing the downward direction of the force from a sledgehammer to a sideways force A screw is a form of inclined plane in which the plane is wrapped around an axis. Fastening screws are used to join things together. Other screws. sometimes called machine screws or bolts. A long inclined plane at a small angle has a greater mechanical advantage double inclined plane. have threads that are matched by the threads on the inside of a nut. Lifting screws are used to lift loads or to exert forces on other bodies. Examples of fastening screws are wood or metal screws. toward the wood being split. because the effort is applied over a greater distance. or pole. with a plane on each side. There are two different types of screws: fastening screws and lifting screws. reduce friction. The amount of work done is the same whether the person lifts the object straight up or along an inclined plane.

and the only example. A lever consists of a bar that rotates around a pivot point. a small effort can move a large C Pulley The pulley is a special type of wheel. In a Class 1 lever. a downward pull on a cord is required. the load. which means that one-third as much effort is required to move the load. as in a wheelbarrow. The rope on a pulley causes a good deal of friction. the mechanical advantage is 1. advantage of using the pulley is that the direction of the force needed is changed. and this limits the number of pulleys that can be used.One of the most commonly used simple machines is the lever. because they increase the distance the rope travels. One of the limitations of levers is that they only operate through relatively small angles. and the effort is applied in the middle. D Wheel and Axle The wheel and axle is similar in appearance to a pulley. the fulcrum lies between the effort and the load. The human forearm is a Class 3 lever. The MA of a block and tackle is equal to the number of strands of rope on the part of the block and tackle that is attached load requires the user to pull the rope three times farther than the load actually moves. the fulcrum and the effort is far from the fulcrum. the fulcrum lies at one end. There are three classes of levers. and the fulcrum along the bar. which vary in the placement of the effort. but the load is at the other end. Pulleys are used at the top of flagpoles and in some types of window blinds. thereby increasing the distance over which the effort is applied. The human arm is actually a lever. The MA is maximized when the load is close to load. A seesaw is an example of a lever. and the load is in the middle. as is the steering wheel of a car. the fulcrum is again at one end. the effort is applied at the other end. and the forearm muscles apply the effort between the elbow and hand. If a single pulley is used. Tweezers are another example of a Class 3 lever. The MA of a lever is the distance from the fulcrum to the point where the force is applied divided by the distance from the fulcrum to the load. as in a seesaw. Using a combination of pulleys that results in three strands of rope attached to the results in an MA of 3. For When multiple pulleys are combined (in what is called a block and tackle). they can have mechanical advantages greater than 1. In a Class 3 lever. The force applied by the user is the effort. or chain. A user applies effort to the large outer wheel of the steering wheel to move the load at the axle. The object being lifted is called the load. with one major difference: the wheel is fixed to the axle. which has a groove cut into the edge to guide a rope. The MA of a wheel and axle is equal . cable. This to the load. The elbow is the fulcrum. which is called the fulcrum. called a sheave. to raise window blinds. In a Class 2 lever. and the muscles apply the force needed to lift weight or move objects. In this case.

to the radius of the wheel divided by the radius of the axle. Pliers usually as the cutting edge. An automobile is one such machine. The disk drive uses a wheel and axle . giving the scissors a higher MA than if the cutting was done Some complex machines are very complicated. This fan is a complex machine in which to turn the disk and a system of levers to position the heads that read and write the data on the disk. Some common examples of a wheel and axle are a doorknob and IV COMPLEX MACHINES Many everyday objects are really combinations of simple machines. which are a form of wheel and axle with specially shaped teeth on the outside of the wheels. which is placed at the axle. A pair of pliers is really two Class 1 levers with the same fulcrum (the pivot pin). the distance over which the effort is applied is much greater than the distance the load. has a cooling fan. The transmission uses gears. large mechanical advantage. which is a form of wheel. wheels and axles. Two gears of the gears. The radius of the wheel. The whole engine is held together by threaded bolts. the speed and direction of the rotation of the axles can be controlled. and therefore its circumference. which is thought of as an electronic device. The engine contains many levers. the motor shaft turns the fan. Therefore. fit together and transfer force and power from one gear shaft to another. A pair of scissors is a pair of pliers with wedges between the load and the fulcrum. This placement decreases the distance near the tip of the scissors. The doorknob is a wheel and axle system that transfers the force applied by a person to a system of levers. is usually much larger than the radius of the axle. Such combinations are known as complex machines. which are a form of inclined plane. The difference in the sizes of the wheel and axle can result in a a round water faucet handle. A computer. and pulleys. have a mechanical advantage of 5 or higher. The levers move the bolt and unlatch the door. moves. Cutting something thick or hard is easier when the scissors are opened wide and the object is placed near the pivot pin. By choosing the size Even devices that do not seem to be mechanical use simple machines.

The first levers were probably branches or logs used to lift heavy objects. Contributed By: Odis Hayden Griffin. for raising water. of force to do work. from the ground. People also used such a device for lifting soldiers over battlements. someone choosing a long. All rights reserved. and later adopted by Europeans in the 12th century. gradual approach up a mountain rather than walking up a steeper.V HISTORY The history of machines dates back thousands of years. Although the date of the first use of simple machines is not known. which is used to pump water produce electricity. However. Waterwheels. used spoked wheels. developed a screw-type device known as Archimedes’ screw The Greek Machines can transform natural energy. into work. Later Industrial Revolutions elsewhere brought about the invention of even more complex machines. People used wooden wedges to swell by absorbing water. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. Some modern water pumps still use this principle. Grinding wheels connected to waterwheels can grind grain for making The windmill also uses the same wheel and axle principle to magnify and change the direction flour or power large saws for sawing wood. According to legend. . the mechanical reaper (used to cut grain). Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005. shorter path would have been taking advantage of an inclined plane. such as wind and falling water. the lever is believed to be the first simple machine that was utilized by humans. Archimedes also used a block and tackle to pull ships onto dry land. which were lighter than solid wheels. first used in ancient Greece and Rome. Historians believe the people of ancient Mesopotamia (an early civilization near modern-day Iraq) used wheels as early as 3500 inventor Archimedes (287-212 BC) split rocks by placing dry wooden wedges into cracks in rocks and then allowing the wedges to BC. People used a counterbalanced lever called a shadoof in ancient Egypt for lifting irrigation water. used the water falling from a waterfall to turn large wheels (see Waterpower). Jr. Waterwheels and windmills can also be connected to electrical generators to Complicated machines such as the power loom (patented in 1786) helped cultivate the improvements seen in Great Britain during the first Industrial Revolution at the end of the 18th century. as early as 2000 Chariots in Asia Minor BC. Metal or stone wedges have been used since ancient times for splitting wood. such as the cotton gin (used to separate cotton fibers from seeds). and the automobile. Pumps connected to windmills transform the rotary motion of a windmill into reciprocating (back and forth) motion.

Levers affect the effort. A good example is a claw hammer used to pry nails loose. and the object to be moved (referred to as the resistance or load) is usually located at Physicists classify the lever as one of the four simple machines used to do work. the force travels a greater distance than does the load as the nail is pried loose. is applied. with the fulcrum somewhere between the two. force is applied to one end of the the other end of the lever. The away from the fulcrum. by using the lever the force was spread out over a greater nail is much closer to the fulcrum than is the hand applying the force. The lever. Since the hand is farther . simple machine consisting of a rigid bar that rotates about a fixed point. that moves an object over a distance. This relationship can be written mathematically as: Work = Force × Distance The amount of work needed to move an object a given distance always remains the same by reducing the force needed to move an object. is the product of the force used to lift a load multiplied by the distance the force. The same amount of work would have been done if the nail had been pulled directly out by hand. and the nail at the other end of the lever is the load to be moved. The user’s hand applies force to the handle at one end of the lever. However. making the job easier. except when friction is present. The human arm is also a lever. The head of the hammer is the fulcrum. the wheel and axle. the amount of effort needed to move the load can be decreased.) Work is defined in physics as example of a lever is the seesaw. the distance over which the force is applied must be increased. the result of a force. A common II WORK AND MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE A lever makes work easier by reducing the force needed to move a load. and are used to lift heavy objects. or effort. To move an object with a lever. needed to do a certain amount of work. called a fulcrum. where the elbow is the fulcrum and the muscles apply the force. By varying the distances between the force and the fulcrum and between the load and the fulcrum. Work. like all simple machines. such as a person lifting. lever. makes doing work easier To increase this distance. and the inclined plane. in physics. the load to be moved must be close to the fulcrum and the force must be applied far from the fulcrum. (The other three are the pulley.Lever I INTRODUCTION Lever. In order to reduce the force needed. or force.

the force at the other end. the load at the other end. the MA is the distance of the force to the fulcrum divided by the distance of the load to the fulcrum. where the wheel is the fulcrum. the MA may be less than or III TYPES OF LEVERS There are three different classes of levers. reducing the designed in that manner to make them easy for the user to move. When a heavier person sits on one end. and the muscles of . The force of a smaller person can balance and even lift the load of a larger person as the smaller person moves farther away from the fulcrum. and so less force was needed. and the system is balanced. the load rests mechanical advantage of greater than 1. as in a seesaw. which gives a mechanical advantage to the lighter person so B Class 2 Levers The class 2 lever has the fulcrum at one end. A Class 1 Levers The class 1 lever has the fulcrum between the force and the load. The MA of a lever is the ratio of the distance the force travels to the distance the load travels. When two fulcrum. the best wheelbarrow design is one where the wheel is directly under the load. It is possible for a class 1 lever to have a significant mechanical advantage. To reduce the force required by the user even more. Another example is a seesaw. that person that the system is again in balance. greater than 1. The mechanical advantage (MA) of a lever tells how much the lever magnifies effort. they position themselves an equal distance from the usually moves toward the center. Many wheelbarrows and garden carts are C Class 3 Levers A class 3 lever has the fulcrum at one end. The human forearm is a class 3 lever.distance. Depending on the class of lever and the location of the fulcrum. Each class of lever affects force in a different way. the and each class has different applications. and the fulcrum along the lever bar. and the force is the lift supplied by the user. distance from the load to the fulcrum almost to zero. In practical terms. the less the effort needed to move a load. load. The greater the MA. people of equal weight use the seesaw. A common example is the wheelbarrow. The elbow is the fulcrum. depending on the arrangement of the force. A class 2 lever always has a middle. and the load in the within the box. and the force in the middle.

the work requires more effort than would ordinarily be needed. people added weights so that the force they had to exert was lessened. Waterwheels installed near large grindstones for grinding grain into flour. A baseball bat and a broom are also examples of class 3 levers. often use a series of levers to transfer force. speed at which a load is moved. attacking armies used a similar device for lifting soldiers over fortress walls. used to till soil for planting crops.the forearm apply the force between the elbow and the hand. Learning to use those simple tools led to the development of other applications of the lever. Consequently. The principle of the lever was often utilized through the rotary motion of the wheel and axle. The class 3 lever always has a mechanical advantage of less than 1. In both of those applications. During the Middle Ages. with which a greater effort results in a smaller load moving at a greater speed. and it is still used today. These weights are called counterweights. Although they boost the amount of effort needed. waterfalls used the continuous force of moving water to provide the necessary leverage to turn A crowbar and the claw of a hammer used to pry loose nails are both common examples of levers in action. Balance scales use levers to find the mass of an object. because the load travels a greater distance than the force travels. class 3 levers are useful for increasing the IV HISTORY The first levers were probably branches or logs used to lift heavy objects. the lever magnifies the force In addition to using human power as the force applied to the lever. followed by sticks applied by a human. The keys of a piano use levers to transmit force . Complex machines from the keys to the hammers that strike the strings. A counterbalanced lever called a shadoof was used in ancient Egypt for lifting irrigation water from the Nile River up onto land.

so heavy loads can be lifted with even less effort. the wheel and axle. and a rope or cable threaded around the disk. rope or cable moves over it. the inclined plane) used to do work. Work is defined in physics as the result of a force. Pulling down on the rope causes the flag to go up because the pulley changes the direction of the force applied to the flag. Mechanical advantage (MA) is a term that describes how much a machine magnifies effort. Pulleys reduce the effort to lift an object by increasing the distance over which the effort is applied. Work is the product of the effort. and the effort of pulling on a rope. A common example of a pulley can be found at the top of a flagpole. and pulling on the other end of the rope. A pulley consists of a grooved wheel or disk within a housing. The disk of the pulley rotates as the object. The greater the MA. the less the effort needed to lift a given load. Construction cranes use multiple pulley The pulley is one of the four simple machines (along with the lever. applied to an object multiplied by the distance the force is applied. By changing the direction of a force. threading the rope through the pulley (or system of pulleys). or force. so that less force is needed to lift an object. Combining pulleys increases the amount of rope needed to lift an object.Pulley I INTRODUCTION Pulley. that moves an object across a distance. There are two types of MA: . Pulleys increase distance by requiring additional rope to be pulled to lift an object. Increasing the distance reduces the amount of force needed for the job. The relation of work to force and distance can be show as an equation: Work = Force × Distance A pulley makes work easier by increasing the distance over which effort is applied. Pulleys are used for lifting by attaching one end of the rope to the A single fixed pulley changes the direction of the force applied to the end of the rope. simple machine used to lift objects. pulleys make it easier to apply the force because it is more convenient to pull down than to pull up. a person must do some work. Multiple pulleys can change both the direction of the applied force and the amount of systems to reduce the amount of force needed to lift heavy equipment. such as II WORK AND MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE To lift any object. force.

The primary benefit of a single pulley is to change the direction of the force or to move a load to a point (such as the top of a flagpole) that cannot be reached by the user. Friction is a major problem in pulleys MA is generally determined by dividing the distance the effort travels by the distance the load top of a flagpole. the pulley system must also double the distance the effort travels. and is present to some degree in almost every machine. provides an MA of 2. which is always less than theoretical MA. Even a single pulley. Lubricants and bearings are often used in pulleys to reduce friction. The load that can be lifted is equal to the force that is applied by the user. takes into account imperfections in simple machines. in order to raise a load a given distance. A movable pulley is one that is attached to the load to be lifted and therefore moves with the load as the rope is pulled. For a single movable pulley to work. the result of two bodies rubbing against each other. any effort applied is doubled. Since a pulley system with an MA of 2 increases the force by a factor of 2. It is the MA a machine would have if it were perfect. meaning that twice the load can be lifted with the same amount of effort. when placed on the object to be moved. the easier it is to do work. such as that at the pulls in. The higher the MA.theoretical and actual. the flag rises the same distance. Two common types of pulley systems are the block and tackle and the chain hoist. The main source of imperfection is friction. the actual MA is slightly less than 1 the axle on which it turns. because of the friction of the rope against the pulley and the friction between the pulley and Pulleys can offer MAs of greater than 1 if they are movable. In reality. Effort is not magnified in this case. The rope leads from the anchor down through the pulley (which is attached to the load). III PULLEY SYSTEMS Systems of pulleys have been used for centuries to move loads. Since both strands of rope coming from the pulley equally support the load. much rope. while a block and tackle system is often used with an engine or motor. The MA of a movable pulley (or a movable part (the load being lifted). system of pulleys with a movable part) equals the number of strands of rope coming from the A movable pulley can be used to lift a heavy load from the bottom of a cargo ship up to the deck. The actual MA. Friction always opposes motion. the user must pull and take in twice as deck. A single fixed pulley. Chain hoists are usually operated by hand. which means for each distance of rope the user travels. because of the weight on the rope and the movement of the rope on the pulley. Theoretical MA is the MA most commonly referred to. has a theoretical MA of 1. one end of the rope is tied to a fixed anchor on the and back up to the user. Therefore. A Block and Tackle .

that pulley pulls in chain from the movable pulley. When early the idea of a single fixed pulley to change the direction of a force. When a user pulls on the chain hanging down from the large pulley. their housings and a rope used to apply the forces. the large pulley brings in more chain than the small pulley lets out. the chain hoist multiplies force. they used BC Mesopotamia used rope pulleys for hoisting water. Legend has it that the Greek inventor used a block and tackle system to pull ships onto dry land. By using these devices. The top has a large pulley and a small pulley bottom section of a chain hoist is a movable pulley attached to the load. They will. A block and tackle typically houses several pulleys. and back up to the large pulley. Since the effort travels a greater distance than the load. The The chain hangs down from the large pulley on one side. a block and tackle is used to apply forces to another block and tackle to gain an even greater MA. Tackle is a term traditionally used to refer to a sailing ship’s rigging. sailors can exert large forces. The term block refers to the case that houses the pulleys side by side and holds the axle which was usually made of rope. and then threads back up around the small pulley. the entire system is usually called a block and tackle. and can increase MA considerably. people in . and so the load is raised. Chain hoists are sometimes used to lift automobile engines out of cars. The chain threading through the movable pulley is fed from the small pulley on top. the origin of the pulley is unknown. B Chain Hoist A chain hoist is a pulley system joined together by a closed loop of chain that is pulled by hand. which are usually made of wood with some metal parts. But since there was no wheel to turn. have to pull a greater length of rope to accomplish this. The large and small pulleys turn together as a unit. this use resulted in considerable friction. The MA of a block and tackle is equal to sails. The MA of a chain hoist depends on the diameters of the large and small pulleys. When the chain is pulled. This is often necessary because of the large friction losses in such systems. down through the movable pulley. much like the sprockets that hold a bicycle chain in place. Block and tackle systems are commonly used on sailing ships to lift heavy of the pulleys in place. however. The pulleys on a chain hoist have teeth that hold the chain. Thus the block and tackle consists of a system of pulleys in the number of strands of rope coming from the moveable set of pulleys attached to the load. It is believed that by 1500 Archimedes (287-212 BC) peoples lifted heavy objects by throwing vines or other crude ropes over tree limbs. IV HISTORY As is the case with all the simple machines.When several movable and fixed pulleys are used together. On sailing ships. joined side by side on the same axle. A chain hoist is made up of two sections.

Construction cranes and cranes used at shipyards move heavy loads using block and tackle systems lower the elevator cars. the user only has to push a button to lift or lower the load. By using a motor. connected to powerful motors.Modern pulley systems are often combined with motors to create hoists for lifting heavy loads. An elevator in a building uses a pulley system to raise and .

and therefore doing work. work is the result of a force. an inclined plane allows a person to lift an object gradually (at an angle) over a greater distance. By increasing distance. Theoretical MA is the MA a machine would have if it were perfect. more difficult. and the pulley). An inclined plane makes it easier to lift heavy objects by enabling a person to apply the necessary force over a greater distance. less effort than climbing straight up a ladder would require.Inclined Plane I INTRODUCTION Inclined Plane. the force needed is the effort required to lift the object. Two other simple machines. The mechanical advantage (MA) of an inclined plane measures how much the plane magnifies the effort applied to the machine. the screw and the wedge. in physics. such as the effort of pushing or pulling something. that moves an object over a distance. The same amount of work is accomplished in lifting the object which the force is applied. One of the most common examples of an inclined plane is a staircase. Friction makes the process of moving objects. is defined as the amount of force this can be expressed by the following equation: Work = Force x Distance When lifting an object is the work being done. are really alternate forms of the inclined plane. which allows people to move within a building from one floor to another with cars use threaded screws. and the distance corresponds to the distance the object is lifted. The actual MA of a machine is less than the theoretical MA because of friction. Work. but because the inclined plane increases the distance over The inclined plane is one of the four simple machines (along with the lever. All machines. . lose some of their MA to friction. the work requires less force. In physical terms. Some jacks that are used to lift II WORK AND MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE An inclined plane makes doing work easier by changing both the direction and the amount of effort that are used to lift an object. simple machine. Rather than lifting an object straight up. A sharp knife is an everyday example of a wedge. consisting of a ramp or a similar wedge-shaped device. however. applied to an object multiplied by the distance over which the force is applied. that makes doing a given amount of work easier. There are two kinds of MA: theoretical and actual. a resistance created between objects when they move against each other. the inclined plane decreases the amount of force needed to do the same amount of work without the plane. the wheel and axle. with or without the inclined plane. Mathematically.

Wedges transfer downward effort applied to the blunt edge of the where two planes are joined at their bases. A jack has a large screw attached to a small platform. around the axis. Effort is applied directly to the wedge. the mechanical advantage would be 1. or pole. more gradual path to the same height as that of the steep hill. Wheels can be added to the load to decrease friction. A ramp that is twice as long as it is high has a mechanical advantage of 2. Screws driven straight into wood or other materials. and raises the automobile. the ramp would simply run straight up. A wedge is essentially a double inclined plane. like Friction is a phenomenon that reduces the efficiency of all machines. III MODIFIED INCLINED PLANES The screw and the wedge are common adaptations of the inclined plane. People also frequently build inclined planes with small rollers or casters built into the plane to reduce friction. Wedges are often used to split materials such as wood or stone. Since there is much friction . The mechanical advantage of a screw is related to the circumference of the screw divided by the pitch of the threads. The joined inclined planes form a blunt end that wedge out to the sides of the wedge to help it cut through an object. The screw requires a lot of turning. which means the ramp did not magnify the user’s effort. The pitch of a thread is the distance along the axis of the screw from one thread to the next. In this case. large mechanical advantages can be achieved by using screws. sliding a load (especially a flat load such as a crate) up a plane creates friction and causes the plane to lose much of its MA. Walking up an inclined plane or rolling a load (such as a barrel) up a plane creates little friction. A screw is an inclined plane wrapped around an axis. this allows heavy loads to be lifted with a small amount of effort. Screws are also useful as fastening devices. be. If the length of a ramp was equal to its height. the larger the MA will a vertical ladder. or spiral. This idea explains why climbing up a steep hill takes more effort (and seems more difficult) than walking up a longer. where the effort travels along the plane. Since the pitch is generally small compared to the circumference. However. The edge of the inclined plane forms a helix. narrows down to a tip. Increasing the ratio of the length of the ramp to the height of the ramp decreases the effort needed to lift an object. as well as the inclined plane and other objects. and the actual MA is close to the theoretical MA. This means that the ramp doubles the effort applied by the user. which is placed under a vehicle. or that the user needs to apply only half as much effort to lift an object to a desired height as he or she would without the ramp. which differs from an inclined plane. The longer the inclined plane. threaded nuts and bolts take advantage of the friction that results from the contact between A wedge is another form of inclined plane. Screws are often used to raise objects. Turning the screw many times produces a small amount of vertical lift on the platform. which equates with effort applied over a long distance. and some jacks used to lift automobiles rely on screws.The MA of an inclined plane without any friction is equal to the length of the plane divided by the height of the plane. These devices use friction to hold things together.

Screws were used in ancient times as lifting devices. They placed dry wooden wedges into cracks in rocks and then allowed the split. The main benefit of the wedge is changing the direction of effort to help split or cut through an object. IV HISTORY The inclined plane is undoubtedly one of the first of the simple machines people ever used. It consists of a cylinder with a wide-threaded screw inside.involved. to reduce the sliding friction and thus increase the efficiency of the inclined planes. BC to 1000 BC. transferring the force they applied to the to split rocks. The resulting pressure in the cracks caused the rocks to inventor Archimedes (287-212 BC) invented a screw-type device (known as Archimedes’ screw) for raising water. A person walking up a gradual path to the top of a mountain rather than climbing straight up a steep face is taking advantage of the principle of the inclined plane. Historians believe that Greek blunt edge out to the sides of the wedge. People also used wooden wedges in prehistoric times wedges to swell by absorbing water. There are indications that the Egyptians created earthen ramps to raise huge blocks of stone during the construction of the pyramids. the mechanical advantage of a wedge is difficult to determine. This principle is still used in some pumps today. and turning the screw lifts water up the cylinder to . The wedge shape of the knife edge helps the user cut through material. probably milk. A knife is also a form of wedge. from about 2700 that the Egyptians used a lubricant. Evidence from drawings of that time indicates People used wedges in ancient times to split wood. bottom end of the cylinder is set in water. The a higher level.

object over a distance. in physics. The object to be moved is a resistance. Mathematically. usually located at the axle. and the distance corresponds to how far the wheel is turned as effort is applied. The force needed is the effort required to turn the load. any effort applied to the wheel multiplies the force applied by the user. Because the circumference of will always move a greater distance than the load at the axle. and steering wheel of a car. the work to be done is the moving or turning of a load. located at the axle. is defined as the amount of force applied to an object multiplied by the distance over which that force is applied. A wheel and axle makes work easier by changing the amount and axle—running through and attached to the center of the wheel. or load. There are two kinds of MA: theoretical and actual. the formula to compute work can be expressed as: Work = Force × Distance For a wheel and axle. and are the basis for all other machines. in the case of a doorknob. In this The wheel and axle is one of the four simple machines (along with the lever. a greater distance than would be possible if the force were applied directly to the axle. that moves an direction of the force applied to move (or in this case. and so less effort is needed to move the load. A round doorknob and a round Work is the result of a physical force. . The wheel enables a user to apply the force over way. The mechanical advantage (MA) of a wheel and axle measures how much the machine the wheel is always larger than the circumference of the axle. The much larger handle turns a much smaller axle to move a door latch. Work. consisting of a circular object—the wheel—with a shaft—the water faucet are both examples of wheels and axles. Another common example of a wheel and axle is the cause the load at the axle (the front wheels) to turn.Wheel and Axle I INTRODUCTION Wheel and Axle. The wheel and axle is used to make doing a given amount of work easier. the pulley. turn) an object. the inclined plane). All simple machines change the amount of effort needed to do work. The wheel and axle makes the effort move a greater distance than the load. in the case of a faucet. A force applied at the outer edge of the wheel moves or turns the load located at the axle. where the driver exerts a force on the outer edge of the wheel to II WORK AND MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE A wheel and axle makes work easier by changing the amount of force applied to a load. a wheel and axle reduces the effort needed to move a load. such as the effort of pushing or pulling. or open a water valve. simple machine.

the MA is the radius of the axle divided by the radius of the wheel. the distance the effort travels is divided by the distance the load travels. A wheel that drives or is driven by a chain is usually referred to as a sprocket. since actual MA can be difficult to calculate. . the smaller gear turns faster than the larger gear. are often used in automobiles to transmit the rotary power from the engine to fans or other devices. The wheel (the handle) transmits the user’s force to the axle (the screwdriver shaft) to turn a screw. However. However. The large blades of an airplane engine to turn the axle. In the previous examples. since the force will always travel a greater distance on the larger wheel than will the load at the smaller axle. they turn at the same speed. then the device is not a true machine. but it takes the power of an the axle. Gears. propeller move much faster than the small axle in the middle. if one gear is larger than the other. If the gears are the same size.Theoretical MA is the MA that would exist if the machine were perfect. When force is applied at MA less than 1. are actually wheels with teeth around the edge. Rolling is easier than pushing or dragging an object. Wheels and axles used in this fashion often obtain force generated by fuel-powered engines. III WHEEL AND AXLE APPLICATIONS Wheels and axles are used in one form or another in most complex machines. Theoretical MA is the one most commonly referred to. and therefore doing work. To find the MA of a simple machine. Friction makes the process of moving objects. because it does not change force. more difficult. Force can also be applied at the axle to move a load at the wheel. Belts. then the MA of a wheel and axle equals the radius of the wheel divided by the radius of the axle. This will always produce an MA greater than 1. the other gear turns in the opposite direction. Friction is a resistance created between objects when they move against each other. Wheel and axle combinations also can be used with belts or chains (as on a bicycle) to transmit the forces from one wheel to the other. larger handle of the screwdriver is much easier than trying to turn the smaller screw by itself. This produces a If a wheel can rotate independently about the axle. but all machines lose some of their MA to friction. but one benefit is that the wheel will move much faster. force applied at the wheel moved a heavy load at the axle. and means that speed will be gained. closed loops of rope or rubber. such as those used in a mechanical clock. freely rotating wheels and axles are used frequently to reduce friction. This requires more force to move the wheel. Turning the The mechanical advantage of this type of wheel and axle can be very large. If force is applied to the wheel. A screwdriver is a type of wheel and axle. When one gear turns.

because it made transportation much easier. which can be used with a rope to pull heavy objects with less effort. Most mechanical devices make some use of the wheel and axle. method is used to convert the rotary motion of an electric motor into the up-and-down motion IV HISTORY Wheels and axles have been used for centuries to magnify force. The back and forth motion (called reciprocating motion) of a piston in an engine can be changed into rotary motion by connecting the piston to the edge of a wheel. A small force applied at the outer edge of a winch handle is changed into a large force at the axle. The drive wheels of an old-fashioned crankshaft. grinding grain. This of a jigsaw blade or a sewing-machine needle. or move other large objects. The steam locomotive operate in this way. One of the first uses of the wheel as a tool was the potter’s wheel. A likely early use of the fixed wheel and axle to multiply force was the winch. Winches can be used to haul heavy buckets of water up from wells. The use of wheels to reduce friction while moving objects was one of the most important inventions in human civilization. Windmills and waterwheels (both forms of wheel and axle) were combined with gearing to make mills for bolts. a special type of axle that provides the rotary motion to the wheels of a car. usually made of stone and used to make pottery. It was invented about the same time as the wheel used in transportation. Wheels used for transportation are believed to have been used on carts in Mesopotamia as early as 3500 BC. The pistons in an automobile engine are connected to a process is also used in reverse so rotary motion can be changed to reciprocating motion.Wheels and axles are also used to change the direction of applied force. The wrench uses the principle of the wheel and axle to turn screws or tighten .

Propellers may operate in either air or water. of a simple propeller shaft is given one complete rotation. The propeller is essentially a screw that. gas or liquid. along the axis of rotation when rotated in a fluid. three. The distance that the propeller actually moves through the air or water in one rotation . acts as a windmill when placed in a wind current. Marine propellers are frequently termed screws. or the distance between adjacent threads. this corresponds to the pitch. which is the geometric form of a screw thread. virtually all aircraft. inefficient in the other.Propeller (mechanics) I INTRODUCTION Propeller (mechanics). mechanical device that produces a force. mounted on a high-speed wheel geared to a generator. Virtually all ships are equipped with propellers. and aircraft propellers are termed airscrews in Britain. and until the although a propeller designed for efficient operation in one of these media would be extremely development of jet propulsion. or four blades. A propeller. pulls itself through the air or water in the same way that a bolt pulls itself through a nut. or thrust. The distance that a propeller or propeller blade will move forward when the pitch. except gliders. if there is no slippage. when turned. is called the geometric screw. each of which is a section of a helix. were also propelled in the same way. Typical propellers consist of two.

or the turning force. and the difference between effective and geometric pitch is called slip. an efficient propeller slips little. in general. thrust in the direction of the flight. Another method of analysis of propeller action is based on the changes in blade. when all the blade elements and the number of blades are accounted for. perpendicular and parallel to the air velocity relative to a section of the blade (see Aerodynamics. but the ratio of propulsive energy produced to energy consumed in rotating the propeller shaft. This simple concept of propeller action has been extensively refined by aerodynamicists momentum of the flow as it passes through the propeller disk. Aircraft operate at lower efficiencies. The forces created by the motion of the propeller are resolved into a component. creates lift and drag. the criterion of propeller efficiency is not slip. . The other component in the plane of rotation represents the force that must be overcome by the torque. it is not as comprehensive as the blade-element theory. and the peripheral velocity due to the rotation of the in recent years. but marine propellers II AIRCRAFT PROPELLERS An aircraft propeller blade is aerodynamically similar to a wing. which. of the driving engine. The complete motion of a blade element involves a combination of the forward velocity represented by the flight speed. Airplane). however. This approach was originally used by the British engineer and naval architect William Froude but. propellers are often operated at efficiencies as high as 86 percent. and the effective pitch is almost equal to the geometric pitch.is called the effective pitch. In general. when driven through the air.

the propeller would be in static balance. The capability of setting the blade in a negative pitch condition may also be included in Modern propeller blades are usually made either of solid aluminum alloy or of hollow steel. and a 28. a 57-g (2-oz) weight were attached to the middle of one blade of a two-bladed propeller. that is. their pitch may be varied. in which the blade can be rotated in the hub so as to alter the effective pitch. Clearance is also less of a problem on ship propellers. The blades are usually built of copper alloys to resist corrosion. while at the same time the angle of the resultant velocity vector with the plane of rotation is also increased. the top speed never approaches the speed of sound. however. that is. The speed of sound in water is much higher than the speed in air. and because of the high frictional resistance of water. Thus. like ordinary aircraft propeller blades. and produces lift. it would not rotate if the propeller shaft were placed on knife edges with the blades in any position. are usually capable of being feathered. both statically and dynamically. it would not. a condition will eventually be reached at which the blade will produce little or no thrust. but. The propellers are equipped with deicing equipment. In order to adapt a given propeller to aircraft with different flight characteristics. and would vibrate if rotated at high speed.5-g (1-oz) weight were attached to the tip of the other blade. Controllable-pitch propellers direction. A more effective procedure is to use a variable-pitch propeller with the pitch or blade angle controllable in flight so as to maintain operating conditions very close to the optimum. In the ship propeller. each blade is very broad (from leading to trailing edge) and very thin. however. On the other hand. III SHIP PROPELLERS A ship propeller operates in much the same way as the airplane propeller.For a given rotational speed. although the have been achieved with experimental propellers. most ship propellers operate at efficiencies . If. The propeller must be very precisely balanced. the angle between the velocity vector and the blade will become so large as to cause the blade to stall. if the blade has a fixed pitch. with a severe corresponding drop in the blade's efficiency. This operation must be accomplished on the ground with the propeller removed from the aircraft. be in dynamic balance. the resultant velocity at a blade element increases in magnitude as the forward speed is increased. each shaped like an airfoil in cross section. Propellers of this type are usually operated at a constant rotational speed by means of either a hydraulic or electrical governing mechanism. so as to prevent windmilling that could otherwise occur in the event of an engine the design so as to provide negative thrust and aerodynamic braking action in landing. Although efficiencies as high as 77 percent of about 56 percent. as the forward speed is decreased. that it consists of several blades. adjustablepitch propellers are sometimes used. The rotor of an autogiro or helicopter is essentially similar to an ordinary aircraft propeller in The blades are not twisted. the blade angle can be set parallel to the flight failure. for example.

the formation of a vacuum along parts of the propeller excessive underwater noise.diameter and position of the propeller are limited by the loss in efficiency if the propeller blades come anywhere near the surface of the water. loss of efficiency. which leads to excessive slip. a serious disadvantage on submarines. blade. The principal problem of ship-propeller design and operation is cavitation. and pitting of the blades. It also causes .

Unconventional machine tools employ light. Machine tools form the basis of modern industry and are used either directly or indirectly in the manufacture of machine and tool parts. electrical. chemical. Machine tools may be classified under three main categories: conventional chip-making machine tools. stationary power-driven machines used to shape or form solid materials. employ a number of different shaping processes. The shaping is accomplished by removing material from a workpiece or by pressing it into the desired shape. and high-energy particle beams to shape the exotic materials and II HISTORY . or drawing energy. and sonic alloys that have been developed to meet the needs of modern technology. pressing. especially metals. superheated gases. and unconventional machine tools. including shearing.Machine Tools I INTRODUCTION Machine Tools. Conventional chip-making tools shape the workpiece by cutting away the unwanted portion in the form of chips. presses. Presses (elongating).

Modern machine tools date from about 1775. government to produce 10. all with interchangeable parts. planers. making possible the economical manufacture of products of complex design. Such tools are III CONVENTIONAL MACHINE TOOLS . During the 19th century. now widely used. The earliest attempts to manufacture interchangeable parts occurred almost simultaneously in Europe and the United States. machine tools were enlarged and made even more accurate. drilling. such standard machine tools as lathes.000 army muskets. These efforts relied on the use of so-called filing jigs. grinders. After 1920 they and saws and milling. when the English inventor John Wilkinson constructed a horizontal boring machine for producing internal cylindrical surfaces. and they were not adaptable to a variety of products or to variations in manufacturing standards. in the past three decades engineers have developed highly versatile and accurate machine tools that have been adapted to computer control. however. The machines lacked flexibility. and their use became widespread in the industrializing nations. in 1830. who in 1798 obtained a contract with the U. About 1794 Henry Maudslay developed the first engine lathe. and boring machines reached a fairly high degree of precision. From about 1930 to 1950 more powerful and had become available. During the early part of the 20th century. Joseph Whitworth speeded the wider use of Wilkinson's and Maudslay's machine tools by developing.S. Later. As a result. measuring instruments accurate to a millionth of an inch. These specialized machine tools made it possible to manufacture rigid machine tools were built to utilize effectively the greatly improved cutting materials that standardized products very economically. with which parts could be hand-filed to substantially identical dimensions. The first true mass- production system was created by the American inventor Eli Whitney. shapers. became more specialized in their applications. His work was of great value because precise methods of measurement were necessary for the subsequent mass production of articles having interchangeable parts. using relatively unskilled labor.

the shaper. returns to its starting position. grinders. In general. With special attachments. For this reason. the shaper is seldom found on a production line. The tool slides against the stationary stroke after a slight lateral displacement. a lathe may also be used to produce flat surfaces. A Lathe A lathe. valuable for tool and die because few identical pieces are being made.Among the basic machine tools are the lathe. the planer. and then cuts on the next surface composed of straight-line elements. Auxiliary to these are drilling and boring machines. It uses a single-point tool and is relatively slow. or it may drill or bore holes in the workpiece. rooms and for job shops where flexibility is essential and relative slowness is unimportant . as a milling machine does. B Shaper The shaper is used primarily to produce flat surfaces. the shaper can produce almost any workpiece and cuts on one stroke. saws. the oldest and most common type of turning machine. The tool may be moved parallel to or across the direction of rotation to form parts that have a cylindrical or conical shape or to cut threads. holds and rotates metal or wood while a cutting tool shapes the material. It is. however. because it depends on reciprocating (alternating forward and return) strokes. and various metal-forming machines. and the milling machine.

or to lap or hone a hole to create an accurate size or a smooth finish. which moves a tool past a fixed workpiece. slots. Unlike the shaper. or diagonal cuts. and machine tools. cutter. horizontal. gear teeth. The workpiece is held on a table that controls the feed against the vertical. the planer is intended to produce vertical. E Drilling and Boring Machines Hole-making machine tools are used to drill a hole where none previously existed. Flat or contoured surfaces may be machined with excellent finish and accuracy. and recess cuts can be made by using various cutters. or by tapping . It is D Milling Machine In a milling machine. to alter a to cut threads for a screw). Milling machines are the most versatile of all Angles. Like the shaper. The table conventionally has three possible movements: longitudinal. in some cases it can also rotate. also possible to mount several tools at one time in any or all tool holders of a planer to execute multiple simultaneous cuts. the workpiece is advanced laterally to expose a new section to the tool. After each reciprocating cycle. hole in accordance with some specification (by boring or reaming to enlarge it. the planer moves the workpiece past a fixed tool. a workpiece is fed against a circular device with a series of cutting edges on its circumference. horizontal.C Planer The planer is the largest of the reciprocating machine tools.

Drilling machines vary in size and function, ranging from portable drills to radial drilling machines, multispindle units, automatic production machines, and deep-hole-drilling machines. See Drill.

Boring is a process that enlarges holes previously drilled, usually with a rotating single-point borers and vertical and horizontal boring mills.

cutter held on a boring bar and fed against a stationary workpiece. Boring machines include jig

F

Grinders

Grinding is the removal of metal by a rotating abrasive wheel; the action is similar to that of a each grain acting as a miniature cutting tool. The process produces extremely smooth and accurate finishes. Because only a small amount of material is removed at each pass of the

milling cutter. The wheel is composed of many small grains of abrasive, bonded together, with

wheel, grinding machines require fine wheel regulation. The pressure of the wheel against the workpiece can be made very slight, so that grinding can be carried out on fragile materials that cannot be machined by other conventional devices. See Grinding and Polishing.

G

Saws

Commonly used power-driven saws are classified into three general types, according to the

kind of motion used in the cutting action: reciprocating, circular, and band-sawing machines.

They generally consist of a bed or frame, a vise for clamping the workpiece, a feed mechanism, and the saw blade.

H

Cutting Tools and Fluids

Because cutting processes involve high local stresses, frictions, and considerable heat

generation, cutting-tool material must combine strength, toughness, hardness, and wear

resistance at elevated temperatures. These requirements are met in varying degrees by such cutting-tool materials as carbon steels (steel containing 1 to 1.2 percent carbon), high-speed steels (iron alloys containing tungsten, chromium, vanadium, and carbon), tungsten carbide, and diamonds and by such recently developed materials as ceramic, carbide ceramic, and aluminum oxide.

In many cutting operations fluids are used to cool and lubricate. Cooling increases tool life and helps to stabilize the size of the finished part. Lubrication reduces friction, thus decreasing the heat generated and the power required for a given cut. Cutting fluids include water-based solutions, chemically inactive oils, and synthetic fluids.

I

Presses

Presses shape workpieces without cutting away material, that is, without making chips. A press consists of a frame supporting a stationary bed, a ram, a power source, and a mechanism that moves the ram in line with or at right angles to the bed. Presses are equipped with dies (see Die) and punches designed for such operations as forming, punching, and for only one stroke of the ram. shearing. Presses are capable of rapid production because the operation time is that needed

IV

UNCONVENTIONAL MACHINE TOOLS

Unconventional machine tools include plasma-arc, laser-beam, electrodischarge,

electrochemical, ultrasonic, and electron-beam machines. These machine tools were

developed primarily to shape the ultrahard alloys used in heavy industry and in aerospace microprocessors.

applications and to shape and etch the ultrathin materials used in such electronic devices as

A

Plasma Arc

Plasma-arc machining (PAM) employs a high-velocity jet of high-temperature gas (see

Plasma) to melt and displace material in its path. The materials cut by PAM are generally those that are difficult to cut by any other means, such as stainless steels and aluminum alloys.

B

Laser

Laser-beam machining (LBM) is accomplished by precisely manipulating a beam of coherent light (see Laser) to vaporize unwanted material. LBM is particularly suited to making accurately placed holes. The LBM process can make holes in refractory metals and ceramics and in very thin materials without warping the workpiece. Extremely fine wires can also be welded using LBM equipment.

C

Electrodischarge

Electrodischarge machining (EDM), also known as spark erosion, employs electrical energy to remove metal from the workpiece without touching it. A pulsating high- frequency electric and vaporize small areas of the workpiece. Because no cutting forces are involved, light, delicate operations can be performed on thin workpieces. EDM can produce shapes unobtainable by any conventional machining process. current is applied between the tool point and the workpiece, causing sparks to jump the gap

D

Electrochemical

Electrochemical machining (ECM) also uses electrical energy to remove material. An

electrolytic cell is created in an electrolyte medium, with the tool as the cathode and the

workpiece as the anode. A high-amperage, low-voltage current is used to dissolve the metal

and to remove it from the workpiece, which must be electrically conductive. A wide variety of and milling.

operations can be performed by ECM; these operations include etching, marking, hole making,

E

Ultrasonic

Ultrasonic machining (USM) employs high-frequency, low-amplitude vibrations to create holes and other cavities. A relatively soft tool is shaped as desired and vibrated against the workpiece while a mixture of fine abrasive and water flows between them. The friction of the abrasive particles gradually cuts the workpiece. Materials such as hardened steel, carbides, rubies, quartz, diamonds, and glass can easily be machined by USM.

F

Electron Beam

In electron-beam machining (EBM), electrons are accelerated to a velocity nearly three-fourths that of light. The process is performed in a vacuum chamber to reduce the scattering of electrons by gas molecules in the atmosphere. The stream of electrons is directed against a precisely limited area of the workpiece; on impact, the kinetic energy of the electrons is converted into thermal energy that melts and vaporizes the material to be removed, forming holes or cuts. EBM equipment is commonly used by the electronics industry to aid in the etching of circuits in microprocessors. See Microprocessor.

Microprocessor, electronic circuit that functions as the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer, providing computational control. Microprocessors are also used in other advanced electronic systems, such as computer printers, automobiles, and jet airliners.

Hand-Held Computer The hand-held computer attests to the remarkable miniaturization of computing hardware. The early computers of the 1940s were so large that they filled entire rooms. Techonological innovations, such as the integrated circuit in 1959 and the microprocessor in 1971, shrank computers’ central processing units to the size of tiny silicon chips.Photo Researchers, Inc. The microprocessor is one type of ultra-large-scale integrated circuit. Integrated circuits, also known as microchips or chips, are complex electronic circuits consisting of extremely tiny components formed on a single, thin, flat piece of material known as a semiconductor. Modern microprocessors incorporate transistors (which act as electronic amplifiers, oscillators, or, most commonly, switches), in addition to other components such as resistors, diodes, capacitors, and wires, all packed into an area about the size of a postage stamp.

Microprocessor Microprocessors, also called silicon chips, are typically embedded in a protective casing. The wires radiating from the silicon chip above connect to short metal legs that are soldered into integrated circuit boards.The Image Bank/Jean-Pierre Horlin A microprocessor consists of several different sections: The arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) performs calculations on numbers and makes logical decisions; the registers are special memory locations for storing temporary information much as a scratch pad does; the control unit deciphers programs; buses carry digital information throughout the chip and computer; and local memory supports on-chip computation. More complex microprocessors often contain other sections—such as sections of specialized memory, called cache memory, to speed up access to external data-storage devices. Modern microprocessors operate with bus widths of 64 bits (binary digits, or units of information represented as 1s and 0s), meaning that 64 bits of data can be transferred at the same time. A crystal oscillator in the computer provides a clock signal to coordinate all activities of the microprocessor. The clock speed of the most advanced microprocessors allows billions of computer instructions to be executed every second. II COMPUTER MEMORY Because the microprocessor alone cannot accommodate the large amount of memory required to store program instructions and data, such as the text in a word-processing program, transistors can be used as memory elements in combination with the microprocessor. Separate integrated circuits, called random-access memory (RAM) chips, which contain large numbers of transistors, are used in conjunction with the microprocessor to provide the needed memory. There are different kinds of randomaccess memory. Static RAM (SRAM) holds information as long as power is turned on

and is usually used as cache memory because it operates very quickly. Another type of memory, dynamic RAM (DRAM), is slower than SRAM and must be periodically refreshed with electricity or the information it holds is lost. DRAM is more economical than SRAM and serves as the main memory element in most computers. III MICROCONTROLLER A microprocessor is not a complete computer. It does not contain large amounts of memory or have the ability to communicate with input devices—such as keyboards, joysticks, and mice—or with output devices, such as monitors and printers. A different kind of integrated circuit, a microcontroller, is a complete computer on a chip, containing all of the elements of the basic microprocessor along with other specialized functions. Microcontrollers are used in video games, videocassette recorders (VCRs), automobiles, and other machines. IV SEMICONDUCTORS sidebar SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES Manufacturing an Integrated Circuit Beginning in the late 20th century, integrated circuits based on silicon chips shrank rapidly in price and size while expanding in capacity. These advances in chip technology contributed to a boom in the computer industry. The creation of a single silicon chip requires hundreds of manufacturing steps. In this Scientific American article, Intel Corporation president and chief operating officer Craig R. Barrett describes the chip manufacturing process from design through completion. open sidebar All integrated circuits are fabricated from semiconductors, substances whose ability to conduct electricity ranks between that of a conductor and that of a nonconductor, or insulator. Silicon is the most common semiconductor material. Because the electrical conductivity of a semiconductor can change according to the voltage applied to it, transistors made from semiconductors act like tiny switches that turn electrical current on and off in just a few nanoseconds (billionths of a second). This capability enables a computer to perform many billions of simple instructions each second and to complete complex tasks quickly. The basic building block of most semiconductor devices is the diode, a junction, or union, of negative-type (n-type) and positive-type (p-type) materials. The terms n-type and p-type refer to semiconducting materials that have been doped—that is, have had their electrical properties altered by the controlled addition of very small quantities of impurities such as boron or phosphorus. In a diode, current flows in only one direction: across the junction from the p- to n-type material, and then only when the p-type material is at a higher voltage than the n-type. The voltage applied to the diode to create this condition is called the forward bias. The opposite voltage, for which current will not flow, is called the reverse bias. An integrated circuit contains millions of p-n junctions,

each serving a specific purpose within the millions of electronic circuit elements. Proper placement and biasing of p- and n-type regions restrict the electrical current to the correct paths and ensure the proper operation of the entire chip. V TRANSISTORS The transistor used most commonly in the microelectronics industry is called a metaloxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). It contains two n-type regions, called the source and the drain, with a p-type region in between them, called the channel. Over the channel is a thin layer of nonconductive silicon dioxide topped by another layer, called the gate. For electrons to flow from the source to the drain, a voltage (forward bias) must be applied to the gate. This causes the gate to act like a control switch, turning the MOSFET on and off and creating a logic gate that transmits digital 1s and 0s throughout the microprocessor. VI CONSTRUCTION OF MICROPROCESSORS Microprocessors are fabricated using techniques similar to those used for other integrated circuits, such as memory chips. Microprocessors generally have a more complex structure than do other chips, and their manufacture requires extremely precise techniques.

Economical manufacturing of microprocessors requires mass production. Several hundred dies, or circuit patterns, are created on the surface of a silicon wafer simultaneously. Microprocessors are constructed by a process of deposition and removal of conducting, insulating, and semiconducting materials one thin layer at a time until, after hundreds of separate steps, a complex sandwich is constructed that contains all the interconnected circuitry of the microprocessor. Only the outer surface of the silicon

(For comparison.) . also called doping. Microprocessor features are so small and precise that a single speck of dust can destroy an entire die. whereby the material is melted and then evaporated coating the wafer.wafer—a layer about 10 microns (about 0. In the final step of the process. the resist is removed from the wafer either by chemicals. ion implantation. The thin layers used to build up a microprocessor are referred to as films. which is “grown” by exposing the silicon wafer to oxygen in a furnace at about 1000°C (about 1800°F). making it easy to dissolve in a developing solution. The rooms used for microprocessor creation are called clean rooms because the air in them is extremely well filtered and virtually free of dust. changes when exposed to light. short-wavelength ultraviolet light must be used to resolve the tiny details of the patterns. etching. which is analogous to transforming the wafer into a piece of photographic film and projecting a picture of the circuit on it. In each case. oxidation. ion implantation. or by exposure to a corrosive gas. indicating that there is no more than one speck of dust per cubic foot of air. In the next step of the process. This is accomplished by ionizing the boron or phosphorus atoms (stripping off one or two electrons) and propelling them at the wafer with an ion implanter at very high energies. the films are deposited using sputterers in which thin films are grown in a plasma.0004 in) thick. The ions become embedded in the surface of the wafer. called a plasma. The most important type of dielectric is silicon dioxide. called the photoresist or resist. and film deposition. Nearly every layer that is deposited on the wafer must be patterned accurately into the shape of the transistors and other electronic elements. Usually this is done in a process known as photolithography. a typical home is class one million or so. lithography. by means of evaporation. or by means of chemical-vapor deposition. These patterns are as small as 0. In the oxidation step. the largest wafers used in industry are 300 mm (12 in) in diameter. After photolithography. called a dielectric. A coating on the surface of the wafer. The oxygen combines with the silicon to form a thin layer of oxide about 75 angstroms deep (an angstrom is one ten-billionth of a meter). the film must be of high purity and its thickness must be controlled within a small fraction of a micron. a silicon slice in the shape of a round wafer that is polished to a mirror-like smoothness. in a special vacuum chamber. impurities such as boron and phosphorus are introduced into the silicon to alter its conductivity. the wafer is etched—that is. Because the shortest wavelength of visible light is about 0. At present. The purest of today's clean rooms are referred to as class 1. in a process known as wet etching.01 mm/0. an electrically nonconducting layer.13 microns in size. The first step in producing a microprocessor is the creation of an ultrapure silicon substrate. The processing steps include substrate creation. whereby the material condenses from a gas at low or atmospheric pressure.5 microns. or about one-tenth the thickness of a human hair—is used for the electronic circuit. is placed between each conductive layer on the wafer.

was the 8-bit Intel 8080 (see Microprocessor.000 operations per second. containing 5. containing 9. it contained 2.000 instructions per second. it organizes files on a variety of storage media. compact disc. a computer user can easily execute commands by clicking on pictures. hard drive.500 transistors and could execute 200.300 transistors on a 4-bit microprocessor that could perform only 60. The operating system has three major functions: It coordinates and manipulates computer hardware. An Operating System Interface A screen shot from the Windows XP operating system displays icons and other images typical of the graphical user interface (GUI) that makes computers easy to use. 8080). and performed billions of instructions per second. All Rights Reserved. It contains more than three million transistors. 32-bit microprocessors containing 1. containing 5. With a GUI. a prediction that has come to be known as Moore’s Law. In 1965 Moore predicted that the number of transistors on a computer chip would double every year.VII HISTORY OF THE MICROPROCESSOR Pentium Microprocessor The Pentium microprocessor (shown at 2. Originally developed for a calculator.2 million transistors and capable of executing 20 million instructions per second had been introduced. printers. and Motorola. the UltraSparc-II. further reading These sources provide additional information on Microprocessor. containing 7 million transistors. transferred 64 bits of data at once. The Intel 8008 contained 3. which contained 4. The rate of change followed an early prediction made by American semiconductor pioneer Gordon Moore. and tape. developed in 1972 to run computer terminals. IBM. By the end of the decade microprocessors contained many millions of transistors. keyboard. In the mid-1990s chips included the Intel Pentium Pro. The first truly general-purpose microprocessor.3 million transistors. by Sun Microsystems.5X magnification) is manufactured by the Intel Corporation. mouse.300 transistors. and revolutionary for its time.Photo Researchers. and the Digital Equipment Corporation's Alpha 21164A. The most common semiconductor materials used in making computer chips are the elements silicon and germanium.© Microsoft Corporation.5 million transistors. the PowerPC620. developed in 1974. and it manages hardware errors and the loss of data. and monitor. or icons with a pointing device known as a mouse.4 million transistors./Michael W. digital video disc. In the 1990s the number of transistors on microprocessors continued to double nearly every 18 months. produced in 1971. the basic software that controls a computer. developed jointly by Apple. disks. II HOW AN OS WORKS . in computer science. words. Inc. such as computer memory. By 1989. The first 8-bit microprocessor was the Intel 8008. Davidson The first microprocessor was the Intel 4004. Operating System (OS). such as floppy disk. although nearly all computer chips are made from silicon.

it is suspended and another process is run. The scheduler runs short processes quickly to minimize perceptible delay. The processes appear to run simultaneously because the user's sense of time is much slower than the processing speed of the computer. To implement this technique. UNIX and its clones support multitasking and multiple users. The most common mechanism used to create this illusion is time-slice multitasking. enabling the user to communicate with the computer. however. called a scheduler. The more primitive singletasking operating systems can run only one process at a time. One important process is interpreting commands. requiring commands to be typed in or to be selected via function keys on a keyboard. This exchanging of processes is called context switching. Inc. however. Macintosh OS. an on-screen picture that represents a specific command. Operating systems can use a technique known as virtual memory to run processes that require more main memory than is actually available.). Other command interpreters use graphics and let the user communicate by pointing and clicking on an icon. whereby each process is run individually for a fixed period of time. Xenix (distributed by Microsoft Corporation). but many experienced computer users prefer text-oriented command interpreters. Variations of UNIX include SunOS (distributed by SUN Microsystems. It also has a mechanism. the computational and control unit of the computer). Operating systems are either single-tasking or multitasking. In most computers.). The OS performs the “bookkeeping” that preserves a suspended process. Beginners generally find graphically oriented interpreters easier to use. and Linux (available for download free of charge and distributed commercially by companies such as Red Hat. there is only one central processing unit (CPU. when the computer is printing a document. is a popular operating system among academic computer users. Accessing the hard drive is more time-consuming than accessing main memory. UNIX. III CURRENT OPERATING SYSTEMS Operating systems commonly found on personal computers include UNIX. All modern operating systems are multitasking and can run several processes simultaneously.Operating systems control different computer processes. Inc. Its popularity is due in large part to the growth of the interconnected computer network known as the Internet. space on the hard drive is used to mimic the extra memory needed. and Windows. Some command interpreters are text oriented. developed in 1969 at AT&T Bell Laboratories. so performance of the computer slows. that determines which process will be run next. such as running a spreadsheet program or accessing information from the computer's memory. so a multitasking OS creates the illusion of several processes running simultaneously on the CPU. Its file system provides a simple means of organizing . it cannot start another process or respond to new commands until the printing is completed. For instance. Software for the Internet was initially designed for computers that ran UNIX. If the process is not completed within the allotted time.

which make computer technology more accessible. and higher-quality monitors—than do command-oriented operating systems. Instead. All basic OS functions—such as maintaining file systems. Currently these types of input are imprecise because people pronounce and write words very differently. and mastering the system is difficult. A recently developed type of OS called a distributed operating system is designed for a connected. IV FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES Operating systems continue to evolve. more memory. are widely used in personal computers (PCs). a process can run on any computer in the network (presumably a computer that is idle) to increase that process's performance. Consequently. and recovering data in the event of a partial failure— become more complex in distributed systems.disk files and lets users control access to their files. collection of computers that share resources such as hard drives. making it difficult for a computer to recognize the same input from different users. graphical systems generally have the disadvantage of requiring more hardware—such as faster CPUs. but independent. although UNIX is popular for professionals. In addition. ensuring reasonable behavior. However. software has been developed that can be taught to recognize an individual's handwriting. such as Windows and the Macintosh OS. however. In a distributed OS. it is not the operating system of choice for the general public. Research is also being conducted that would replace the keyboard with a means of using voice or handwriting for input. advances in this field have led to systems that can recognize a small number of words spoken by a variety of people. However. . The commands in UNIX are not readily apparent. windowing systems with graphical interfaces.

Steel in general is an alloy of iron and carbon. or chromium. particularly those containing a small percentage of carbon. special form of malleable iron. Steels of various types contain from 0. Open-hearth iron and wrought iron contain only a few hundredths of 1 percent of carbon. they contain from 20 to 80 percent of an alloying element. The differences between the various types of iron and steel are sometimes confusing because of the nomenclature used. technology related to the production of iron and its alloys. known as ferroalloys. and pig iron contain amounts of carbon varying from 2 to 4 percent. II HISTORY . such as manganese. A malleable iron.Iron and Steel Manufacture I INTRODUCTION Iron and Steel Manufacture. silicon. often with an admixture of other elements. A special group of iron alloys. Cast iron.04 percent to 2. is known as white-heart Some alloys that are commercially called irons contain more carbon than commercial steels. is used in the manufacture of iron and steel alloys. containing virtually no carbon. malleable cast iron.25 percent of carbon.

” the mixture of raw materials. They were made by heating a incandescent and beaten with heavy sledges to drive out the slag and to weld and consolidate the iron. several so-called minimills have been producing steel from scrap metal in electric furnaces. by accident. indeed. reduced to metallic iron and then took on more carbon as a result of the gases forced through temperature than steel or wrought iron. Since the 1960s. all the iron alloys made until about the 14th century mass of iron ore and charcoal in a forge or furnace having a forced draft. Under this treatment the ore was reduced to the sponge of metallic iron filled with a slag composed of metallic impurities and charcoal ash. Occasionally this technique of ironmaking produced. Such mills are an important component of total U. The giant steel mills remain essential for the production of steel from iron III PIG-IRON PRODUCTION . in 1855. In these larger furnaces. would be classified today as wrought iron. a true steel rather than wrought iron. and increased draft was used to force the combustion gases through the “charge. steel by heating wrought iron and charcoal in clay boxes for a period of several days. The process of refining molten iron with blasts of air was accomplished converter. the iron ore in the upper part of the furnace was first it by the blast.S.The exact date at which people discovered the technique of smelting iron ore to produce date from about 3000 about 1000 BC. This sponge of iron was removed from the furnace while still AD. usable metal is not known. By this After the 14th century the furnaces used in smelting were increased in size. round ingots known as pigs) was then further refined to make steel. The iron produced under these conditions usually contained about 3 percent of slag particles and 0. and. The product of these furnaces was pig iron. an alloy that melts at a lower stubby. BC. ore.1 percent of other impurities. Pig iron (so called because it was usually cast in Modern steelmaking employs blast furnaces that are merely refinements of the furnaces used by the British inventor Sir Henry Bessemer who developed the Bessemer furnace. The earliest iron implements discovered by archaeologists in Egypt advanced technique of hardening iron weapons by heat treatment was known to the Greeks and iron ornaments were used even earlier. the comparatively The alloys produced by early iron workers. or by the old ironworkers. steel production. Ironworkers learned to make process the iron absorbed enough carbon to become a true steel.

but below the tuyeres.5 A typical blast furnace consists of a cylindrical steel shell lined with a refractory. reducing them to metallic iron. silicon. The top of the furnace. called the bosh. 0. phosphorus. The shell is tapered at the top and at the bottom and which the air blast is forced. it has the equation: Fe2O3 + 3CO = 3CO2 + silicate. manganese. The lower portion of the furnace. is equipped with several tubular openings or tuyeres through pig iron flows when the furnace is tapped. which combines with the iron oxides in the ore. as it burns. Ordinary pig iron as produced by blast furnaces contains iron. Without the limestone. This 2Fe. is nonmetallic substance such as firebrick. and limestone. which is about 27 m (about 90 ft) in height. and a pair of round hoppers closed with bellshaped valves through which the charge is introduced into the furnace. The coke is burned as a fuel to heat the furnace.25 to 2. 0. brought up to the hoppers in small dump cars or skips that are hauled up an inclined external . with a resulting loss of metallic the bottom of the furnace. which is any is widest at a point about one-quarter of the distance from the bottom. and above this hole. the coke gives off carbon monoxide. Near the bottom of the bosh is a hole through which the molten another hole for draining the slag. The limestone in the furnace charge is used as an additional source of carbon monoxide and as a “flux” to combine with the infusible silica present in the ore to form fusible calcium is the basic chemical reaction in the blast furnace. iron silicate would be formed.04 to 2 percent. contains vents for the escaping gases. Calcium silicate plus other impurities form a slag that floats on top of the molten metal at about 92 percent. percent. 3 or 4 percent. coke.5 to 3 percent.The basic materials used for the manufacture of pig iron are iron ore. carbon. and a trace of sulfur. iron. The materials are skip hoist. 0.

000° and 1. The heating is performed in stoves. Slag is drawn off from the top of the melt about once every 2 hr. was introduced after World War II. which may be either a ladle or a rail car capable of holding Modern-day blast furnaces are operated in conjunction with basic oxygen furnaces and sometimes the older open-hearth furnaces as part of a single steel-producing plant. weight of air used in the operation of a blast furnace exceeds the total weight of the other raw An important development in blast furnace technology. Experimental installations with oxygen. off or tapped about five times a day. Any slag that may flow from the furnace with the metal is skimmed off before it reaches the container. plants the molten pig iron is used to charge the steel furnaces. The molten metal from several IV OTHER METHODS OF IRON REFINING Although almost all the iron and steel manufactured in the world is made from pig iron produced by the blast-furnace process. and the iron itself is drawn The air used to supply the blast in a blast furnace is preheated to temperatures between approximately 540° and 870° C (approximately 1. other methods of iron refining are possible and have been practiced to a limited extent. Then the flame is turned off and the air for the blast is blown through the stove. By “throttling” the flow of gas from the furnace vents. The output of many blast furnaces can be increased 25 percent by pressurizing. the waste gases from the top of the furnace. In this process iron ore and coke are mixed in a revolving kiln and heated to a temperature of about 950° C (about 1. without making pig iron. The pressurizing technique makes possible better combustion of the coke and higher output of pig iron. One such method is the so-called direct method of making iron and steel from ore. The bricks in the stoves are heated for several hours by burning blast-furnace gas. The container of molten pig iron is then transported to the steelmaking shop. The materials employed. large.600° F). to minimize any irregularities in the composition of the individual melts.to 15-min intervals. The raw material to be fed into the furnace is divided into a number of small charges that are introduced into the furnace at 10. the pressure within the furnace may be built up to 1. brick-lined metal container. Carbon monoxide is given off from the heated coke just as in the blast furnace and reduces the oxides . In such blast furnaces may be mixed in a large ladle before it is converted to steel. have also shown that the output of blast furnaces can be increased by enriching the air blast The process of tapping consists of knocking out a clay plug from the iron hole near the bottom of the bosh and allowing the molten metal to flow into a clay-lined runner and then into a as much as 100 tons of metal.Blast furnaces operate continuously. the pressurizing of furnaces.740° F).7 atm or more. cylinders containing networks of firebrick.

which is roofed over at a height of about 2.5 m (about 8 ft). the exhaust gases from the furnace are drawn through one of a series of chambers containing a mass of brickwork and give up most of their heat to the bricks. Through this method open-hearth furnaces can reach temperatures as high as 1. rectangular brick hearth about 6 m by 10 m (about 20 ft by 33 ft). The entire . this furnace can be operated at a high temperature by regenerative preheating of the fuel gas and air used for combustion in the furnace. The secondary reactions that occur in a blast furnace. In regenerative preheating. Virtually pure iron is also produced by means of electrolysis (see Electrochemistry). furnace is reversed and the fuel and air pass through the heated chambers and are warmed by The furnace itself consists typically of a flat. One difficulty in the manufacture of developed. V OPEN-HEARTH PROCESS Essentially the production of steel from pig iron by any process consists of burning out the steel is its high melting point. To overcome this difficulty the open-hearth furnace was excess carbon and other impurities present in the iron. about 1. In front of the hearth a series of doors opens out onto a working floor in front of the hearth. Neither the direct nor the electrolytic processes has yet achieved any great commercial significance. Then the flow through the the bricks. which prevents the use of ordinary fuels and furnaces. by passing an electric current through a solution of ferrous chloride.000° F). do not occur.of the ore to metallic iron.500° F). however.370° C (about 2.650° C (approximately 3. and the kiln produces so-called sponge iron of much higher purity than pig iron.

Great quantities of air were blown through the molten metal. These reactions take place while the metal in the furnace is at melting heat. however. Thousands of cubic meters of oxygen are blown into the furnace at supersonic speed. Air. the Bessemer process. which combine with the limestone to form slag. After the furnace has been charged. 11. that could be tilted sideways for united chemically with the impurities and carried them off. its oxygen In the basic oxygen process. and iron ore that provides additional oxygen.000 lb) of scrap steel. and subjecting it to physical examination or chemical analysis. has been replaced by a high-pressure stream of nearly lowered into it. 45. charging and pouring. lb) of iron ore. From the ladle the steel is poured into cast-iron molds that form ingots usually about 1. pear-shaped furnace. but the melt is usually tested by withdrawing a small amount of metal from the carbon content of the melt reaches the desired level. and the space under the hearth is taken up by the heat-regenerating chambers of the furnace. After the furnace has been charged and turned upright. A furnace of this size produces about 100 metric tons of steel every 11 hr. first having to go through the process of casting ingots. 11.350 kg (25. and sulfur. Recently. The molten steel then flows through a short trough to a large ladle set below the furnace at ground level. and the furnace is held between 1. When by its appearance.000 lb) of molten pig iron.800 kg (26.800° and 3. 900 kg (2.000 lb) of limestone. the raw material for all forms of fabricated steel.hearth and working floor are one story above ground level. and 230 kg (500 lb) of fluorspar. These ingots.000 furnace is lighted and the flames play back and forth over the hearth as their direction is Chemically the action of the open-hearth furnace consists of lowering the carbon content of the charge by oxidization and of removing such impurities as silicon. weigh approximately 2. methods have been put into practice for the continuous processing of steel without VI BASIC OXYGEN PROCESS The oldest process for making steel in large quantities. the furnace is tapped through a hole at the rear. Limestone is added for flux and fluorspar to make the slag more fluid. steel is also refined in a pear-shaped furnace that tilts sideways pure oxygen. The oxygen combines with . but a typical charge might consist of 56. The water-cooled tip of the lance is usually about 2 m (about 6 ft) above the charge although this distance can be varied according to requirements. manganese.540° and 1.000 lb) of cold pig iron. the reversed by the operator to provide heat regeneration.750 kg (125. The proportions of the charge vary within wide limits.5 m (about 5 ft) long and 48 cm (19 in) square. an oxygen lance is for charging and pouring. made use of a tall. scrap steel. Experienced open-hearth operators can often judge the carbon content of the metal the furnace.25 metric tons in this size.400 kg (100. cooling it. called a Bessemer converter.000° F) for many hours until the molten metal has the desired carbon content.650° C (2. phosphorus. The furnace is charged with a mixture of pig iron (either molten or cold).

Heat is generated by the overcoming of current enters through one of the electrodes. because its alloy content will affect the composition of the order to help remove carbon and other impurities that are present. flows through the resistance to the flow of current through the charge. electricity instead of fire supplies the heat for the melting and refining of steel. railroad rails. thus keeping down undesirable oxidizing reactions. approximately 275 metric tons of steel can be made in an hour. Refining takes place in a tightly closed chamber. In another type of electric furnace. and I-beams. channels. Other materials. The quantity of oxygen entering the furnace can always be closely controlled. heat is generated in a coil. raising the temperature of the furnace and decreasing the time needed to produce the finished steel. together with that coming from the intensely hot arc itself. Before it is ready to be used. This heat. into the refined steel as it is poured into the ladle. The additional alloying refined metal. These shapes are produced at steel mills by rolling and otherwise forming heated ingots to the required shape.carbon and other unwanted elements and starts a high-temperature churning reaction that takes 50 min or less. Most often the charge consists almost entirely of scrap. electric furnaces are particularly valuable for producing stainless steels and other highly alloyed steels that must be made to exacting specifications. After the furnace is charged. The working of steel also improves the quality of the steel by refining its crystalline structure and making the metal tougher. high-purity oxygen is injected through a lance. VIII FINISHING PROCESSES Steel is marketed in a wide variety of sizes and shapes. Because refining conditions in such a furnace can be regulated more strictly than in open-hearth or basic oxygen furnaces. rapidly burns out impurities from the pig iron and converts it into steel. See Electric Furnace. tees. The refining process VII ELECTRIC-FURNACE STEEL In some furnaces. electrodes are lowered close to the surface of the metal. quickly melts the metal. The metal. where temperatures and other conditions are kept under rigid control by automatic devices. are added in elements go either into the charge or. such as small quantities of iron ore and dry lime. . and then arcs back to the next electrode. the scrap must first be analyzed and sorted. pipes. During the early stages of this refining process. later. such as rods. arcs to the metallic charge.

.The basic process of working steel is known as hot rolling. From the blooming mill. and angles are grooved to give the required shape. the steel is passed on to roughing mills and finally to finishing mills that reduce it to the correct cross section. and the square billets of steel that the ingot produces are known as blooms. In hot rolling the cast ingot is first of pairs of metal rollers that squeeze it to the desired size and shape. The rollers of mills used to produce railroad rails and such structural shapes as I-beams. H-beams. The distance between the rollers diminishes for each successive pair as the steel is elongated and reduced in thickness. heated to bright-red heat in a furnace called a soaking pit and is then passed between a series The first pair of rollers through which the ingot passes is commonly called the blooming mill.

127 cm (0.210 ft). Using conventional thin enough to enter a continuous mill. causing the tin to dissolve slowly and to be deposited on the steel. Seamless pipe or tubing is made from solid rods by passing them between a way that it pierces the rods and forms the inside diameter of the pipe at the same time that the rollers are forming the outside diameter. In electrolytic processing. The completed coils of sheet are dropped on a the sheet by knocking it off mechanically. Meanwhile. The pressure on the rollers is great enough to weld the edges together. In 1989. casting methods. or mandrel. In some mills steel sheets that have been hot-rolled and then cold-rolled are coated by passing them through a bath of slowly unrolled from its coil and passed through a chemical solution. the edges of the skelp are usually overlapped and passed between a pair of rollers curved to correspond with the outside diameter of the pipe.6 sq m (more than 200 sq ft) of steel. Sheet steel is kilogram of tin will coat more than 18.5 in) thick is and increase its length from 4 m (13 ft) to 370 m (1. A slab of hot steel over 11 cm (about 4. A more efficient way to produce thin sheet steel is to feed thinner slabs through the rollers. Descaling apparatus removes the scale that forms on the surface of sheet sharply at some point in its travel. Continuous mills are equipped fed through a series of rollers which reduce it progressively in thickness to 0.05 in) with a number of accessory devices including edging rollers. less than half a molten tin. The most common method of coating is by the electrolytic process.Modern manufacturing requires a large amount of thin sheet steel. The edging rollers are sets of vertical rolls set opposite each other at either side of the sheet to ensure that the width of the sheet is maintained. descaling devices. loosening it by means of an air blast. a current of electricity is passing through a piece of pure tin into the same solution. before it cools and becomes unworkable. or bending the conveyor and carried away to be annealed and cut into individual sheets. of hot steel into cylindrical form and welding the edges to complete the pipe. German engineers have eliminated any need for blooming and roughing mills. IX PIPE Cheaper grades of pipe are shaped by bending a flat strip. and devices for coiling the sheet automatically when it reaches the end of the mill. a steel mill in Indiana became the first outside Europe to adopt this new system. or skelp.4 m (8 ft). pair of inclined rollers that have a pointed metal bar. ingots must still be passed through a blooming mill in order to produce slabs By devising a continuous casting system that produces an endless steel slab less than 5 cm (2 in) thick. For the product . For the smaller sizes of pipe. set between them in such a X TIN PLATE By far the most important coated product of the steel mill is tin plate for the manufacture of containers. Such mills process thin sheet steel rapidly. The “tin” can is actually more than 99 percent steel. Continuous mills roll steel strips and sheets in widths of up to 2.

spongelike mass is separated into lumps. usually hematite ore. The resulting pasty. a treatment that makes the steel plate extra tough as well as extra thin. The silicon and most of the manganese in the iron are oxidized and some sulfur and phosphorus are eliminated. because it can be effectively is typically of more uniform quality than wrought iron. The iron is then cut into flat pieces that are piled on one another. replaced in nearly all applications by low-carbon steel. a machine in which the greater part of the intermingled siliceous slag is expelled from the ball and the grains of pure iron are thoroughly welded together. strikes the arched roof. As the iron increases in carbon is burned away the melting temperature of the alloy increases and the charge becomes purity. The development of new processes using Bessemer converters and open-hearth furnaces allowed the production of larger quantities of wrought iron. malleable alloy known as wrought iron differs markedly from hand labor. The temperature of the furnace is then raised slightly. and has become moderately heated. and the carbon starts to burn out as carbonoxide gases. and “reverberates” upon the contents of the hearth. After about 30 working the oxide into the iron with a bent iron bar called a raddle. “fettles” it by plastering charged with about 270 kg (about 600 lb) of pig iron and the door is closed. other forms of steel making. which is less expensive to produce and The puddling furnace used in the older process has a low. separated by a wall from the combustion chamber in which bituminous coal is burned. arched roof and a depressed hearth on which the crude metal lies. or furnace operator. The balls are withdrawn from the cohesion of the particles. and drawing the steel through dies (see Die). Cans made of thin tin are about as strong as ordinary tin cans. however. As the more and more pasty. production of wrought iron in tonnage quantities was impossible. called furnace with tongs and are placed directly in a squeezer. yet they contain less steel. The flame in the combustion chamber surmounts the wall. . Other processes of steel fabrication include forging. known as puddling. required a great deal of Wrought iron is no longer produced commercially. the puddler. Because this process. The furnace is then min the iron is melted and the puddler adds more iron oxide or mill scale to the charge. of about 80 to 90 kg (about 180 to 200 lb) each. with a resultant saving in weight and cost. the puddler stirs the charge with the raddle to ensure uniform composition and proper balls. founding. After the furnace is lit the hearth and walls with a paste of iron oxide. XI WROUGHT IRON The process of making the tough. As the gas is evolved the slag puffs up and the level of the charge rises. sheet and strip are given a second cold rolling before being coated with tin. and finally the bath drops to its former level. Lightweight packaging containers are also being made of tin-plated steel foil that has been laminated to paper or cardboard.known as thin tin.

is poured into the ladle containing the molten slag. and sand in an open-hearth furnace. containing certain percentages of vanadium. They cost less than the regular alloy steels because they contain only small amounts of the expensive alloying elements. After the slag has been poured off the top of the ladle.heated to welding temperature. they are the newest of the five chief families of steels. releasing the dissolved gas. Machines. to have much more strength than carbon steels of the same weight.60 percent silicon. automobile bodies. molybdenum. The force exerted by the gas shatters the metal into minute particles that are heavier than the slag and that accumulate in the bottom of the ladle. The modern technique of making wrought iron uses molten iron from a Bessemer converter and molten slag.65 percent manganese. They contain varying amounts of carbon and not more than 1. freight cars made of HSLA steels can carry larger loads because their walls are thinner than would be necessary with carbon steel of equal strength. XII A CLASSIFICATIONS OF STEEL Steels are grouped into five main classifications.60 percent copper. silicon. C High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels Called HSLA steels. or other elements. and copper than do the regular carbon steels. the metal solidifies almost instantly. as well as larger amounts of manganese. This rolling process is sometimes repeated to improve the quality of the product. The molten slag is maintained in a ladle at a temperature several hundred degrees below the temperature of the molten iron. most structural steel for buildings. because an HSLA freight car is lighter in weight than the ordinary car. mill scale. which is usually prepared by melting iron ore. agglomerating into a spongy mass similar to the balls produced in a puddling furnace. bobby pins are among the products made of carbon steels. When the molten iron. ship hulls. and B Alloy Steels These steels have a specified composition. Automobile gears and axles. They have been specially processed. and then rolled into a single piece. bedsprings. which carries a large amount of gas in solution. also. the ball of iron is removed and squeezed and rolled like the product of the puddling furnace. it is less . Carbon Steels More than 90 percent of all steels are carbon steels. roller skates. For example. and 0. 0. and carving knives are some of the many things that are made of alloy steels. however.

Steel with still more carbon is a mixture of pearlite and cementite. but if cooling is sudden. They contain tungsten.8 percent of carbon. nickel. If the steel is . molybdenum. and they are also used to patch or replace broken bones because the steels can withstand the action of body fluids. As the carbon content of a steel increases. and XIII STRUCTURE OF STEEL The physical properties of various types of steel and of any given steel alloy at varying the iron. Raising the temperature of steel changes ferrite and pearlite to an allotropic form of iron-carbon alloy known as austenite. a compound of iron containing about 7 percent carbon. Before heat treatment most steels are a mixture of three substances: ferrite.of a load for the locomotive to pull. for jet planes. resistance to wear. In steel because it does not taint the food and can be easily cleaned. the amount of ferrite present decreases and the amount of pearlite increases until. frameworks of HSLA steels. and cementite. Surgical instruments and equipment are made from these steels. some have unusual strength and will retain that strength for long periods at extremely high and low temperatures. the which has the property of dissolving all the free carbon present in the metal. when the steel has 0. it is entirely composed of pearlite. The toughness and hardness of a steel that is not heat treated depend on the proportions of these three ingredients. hardness. is extremely brittle and hard. kitchens and in plants where food is prepared. and other alloying elements that give them extra strength. temperatures depend primarily on the amount of carbon present and on how it is distributed in pearlite. Because of their shining surfaces architects often use them for decorative purposes. Stainless steels are used for the pipes and tanks of petroleum refineries and chemical plants. Girders can be made thinner without sacrificing their strength. Cementite. and for space capsules. Numerous buildings are now being constructed with additional space is left for offices and apartments. cooled slowly the austenite reverts to ferrite and pearlite. Ferrite is iron containing small amounts of carbon and other elements in solution and is soft and ductile. Some stainless steels are very hard. Pearlite is an intimate mixture of ferrite and cementite having a specific composition and characteristic structure. and physical characteristics intermediate between its two constituents. and other alloying elements that keep them bright and rust resistant in spite of moisture or the action of corrosive acids and gases. handling equipment is often made of stainless E Tool Steels These steels are fabricated into many types of tools or into the cutting and shaping parts of power-driven machinery for various manufacturing operations. and D Stainless Steels Stainless steels contain chromium.

and these are relieved by tempering. usually about 760° to 870° C (about 1. which is an extremely hard allotropic modification that resembles ferrite but contains carbon in solid solution. Many variations of the basic process are practiced. temperature. Such hardening temperature at which austenite is formed. Three comparatively new processes have been developed to avoid cracking. In carburizing. These compounds react with the steel. In a constant-temperature bath until it attains a uniform temperature throughout its cross martempering the steel is withdrawn from the quench at the same point. it rapidly in water or oil. and is then placed in section. the piece is heated in charcoal or coke. either raising the carbon content or forming nitrides in . or in carbonaceous gases such as methane or carbon monoxide. which in turn determines the physical properties of the steel. In nitriding. which form martensite.400° to treatments. size. and is then cooled slowly in air. Tempering results in a decrease in hardness and strength and an increase in The primary purpose of the heat-treating process is to control the amount.600° F) and then cooling. or annealing. Metallurgists have discovered that the change from austenite to martensite occurs during the latter part of the cooling period and that this change is accompanied by a change in volume that may crack the metal if the cooling is too swift. Other methods of heat treating steel to harden it are used. which for most steels is the range from about 288° C (about 550° F) to room temperature. steels of special composition are hardened by heating them in ammonia gas to form alloy nitrides. or quenching. XIV HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL The basic process of hardening steel by heat treatment consists of heating the metal to a 1. shape. and distribution of the cementite particles in the ferrite. The steel is then allowed to cool in air through the temperature range of martensite formation. which consists of reheating the steel to a lower ductility and toughness. set up large internal strains in the metal. In austempering the steel is quenched in a bath of metal or salt maintained at the constant temperature at which the desired structural change occurs and is held in this bath until the change is complete before being subjected to the final cooling.austenite is “frozen” or changes to martensite. In time-quenching the steel is withdrawn from the quenching bath when it has reached the temperature at which the martensite begins to form. its surface layer. In case hardening. a finished piece of steel is given an extremely hard surface by heating it with carbon or nitrogen compounds. Cyaniding consists of hardening in a bath of molten cyanide salt to form both carbides and nitrides.