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Engineering, term applied to the profession in which a knowledge of the mathematical and the materials and forces of nature. The term engineer properly denotes a person who has natural sciences, gained by study, experience, and practice, is applied to the efficient use of received professional training in pure and applied science, but is often loosely used to describe
the operator of an engine, as in the terms locomotive engineer, marine engineer, or stationary
engineer. In modern terminology these latter occupations are known as crafts or trades.
individuals known as subprofessionals or paraprofessionals, who apply scientific and inspectors, draftsmen, and the like.
Between the professional engineer and the craftsperson or tradesperson, however, are those engineering skills to technical problems; typical of these are engineering aides, technicians,
Before the middle of the 18th century, large-scale construction work was usually placed in the hands of military engineers. Military engineering involved such work as the preparation of topographical maps, the location, design, and construction of roads and bridges; and the
building of forts and docks; see Military Engineering below. In the 18th century, however, the term civil engineering came into use to describe engineering work that was performed by civilians for nonmilitary purposes. With the increasing use of machinery in the 19th century, engineering was similarly recognized.
mechanical engineering was recognized as a separate branch of engineering, and later mining
The technical advances of the 19th century greatly broadened the field of engineering and socioeconomic environment in the 20th century have widened the scope even further.
introduced a large number of engineering specialties, and the rapidly changing demands of the
FIELDS OF ENGINEERING
The main branches of engineering are discussed below in alphabetical order. The engineer who works in any of these fields usually requires a basic knowledge of the other engineering fields, because most engineering problems are complex and interrelated. Thus a chemical engineer designing a plant for the electrolytic refining of metal ores must deal with the design of structures, machinery, and electrical devices, as well as with purely chemical problems. Besides the principal branches discussed below, engineering includes many more specialties than can be described here, such as acoustical engineering (see Acoustics), architectural transportation engineering, and textile engineering. engineering (see Architecture: Construction), automotive engineering, ceramic engineering,
Aeronautical and Aerospace Engineering
Aeronautics deals with the whole field of design, manufacture, maintenance, testing, and use of aircraft for both civilian and military purposes. It involves the knowledge of aerodynamics, structural design, propulsion engines, navigation, communication, and other related areas.
See Airplane; Aviation.
Aerospace engineering is closely allied to aeronautics, but is concerned with the flight of
vehicles in space, beyond the earth's atmosphere, and includes the study and development of rocket engines, artificial satellites, and spacecraft for the exploration of outer space. See Space Exploration.
This branch of engineering is concerned with the design, construction, and management of factories in which the essential processes consist of chemical reactions. Because of the diversity of the materials dealt with, the practice, for more than 50 years, has been to analyze chemical engineering problems in terms of fundamental unit operations or unit processes such as the grinding or pulverizing of solids. It is the task of the chemical engineer to select and appropriate equipment for the new applications. specify the design that will best meet the particular requirements of production and the most
With the advance of technology, the number of unit operations increases, but of continuing
importance are distillation, crystallization, dissolution, filtration, and extraction. In each unit operation, engineers are concerned with four fundamentals: (1) the conservation of matter; (2) the conservation of energy; (3) the principles of chemical equilibrium; (4) the principles of chemical reactivity. In addition, chemical engineers must organize the unit operations in their continuous, or assembly-line, operation is more economical than a batch process, and is frequently amenable to automatic control, chemical engineers were among the first to incorporate automatic controls into their designs. correct sequence, and they must consider the economic cost of the overall process. Because a
Civil engineering is perhaps the broadest of the engineering fields, for it deals with the
creation, improvement, and protection of the communal environment, providing facilities for living, industry and transportation, including large buildings, roads, bridges, canals, railroad lines, airports, water-supply systems, dams, irrigation, harbors, docks, aqueducts, tunnels,
and other engineered constructions. The civil engineer must have a thorough knowledge of all types of surveying, of the properties and mechanics of construction materials, the mechanics of structures and soils, and of hydraulics and fluid mechanics. Among the important subdivisions of the field are construction engineering, irrigation engineering, transportation and coastal and ocean engineering.
engineering, soils and foundation engineering, geodetic engineering, hydraulic engineering,
Electrical and Electronics Engineering
The largest and most diverse field of engineering, it is concerned with the development and design, application, and manufacture of systems and devices that use electric power and signals. Among the most important subjects in the field in the late 1980s are electric power
and machinery, electronic circuits, control systems, computer design, superconductors, solidfiber optics.
state electronics, medical imaging systems, robotics, lasers, radar, consumer electronics, and
Despite its diversity, electrical engineering can be divided into four main branches: electric power and machinery, electronics, communications and control, and computers.
Electric Power and Machinery
The field of electric power is concerned with the design and operation of systems for
generating, transmitting, and distributing electric power. Engineers in this field have brought about several important developments since the late 1970s. One of these is the ability to transmit power at extremely high voltages in both the direct current (DC) and alternating
current (AC) modes, reducing power losses proportionately. Another is the real-time control of power generation, transmission, and distribution, using computers to analyze the data fed system while it is in operation. back from the power system to a central station and thereby optimizing the efficiency of the
A significant advance in the engineering of electric machinery has been the introduction of
electronic controls that enable AC motors to run at variable speeds by adjusting the frequency
Control transmission and distribution. systems are used extensively in aircraft and ships. integration. in military fire-control systems. Circuits are also used to generate waveforms useful for synchronization and timing. ion-beam implantation. received. adding binary numbers. in power Engineers have been working to bring about two revolutionary changes in the field of communications and control: Digital systems are replacing analog ones at the same time that . In designing communication systems. differential equations. engineers rely heavily on various Engineers work on control systems ranging from the everyday. See also Mathematics. Since then. as those that run an elevator. such as design branches of advanced mathematics. faster switching of components. and for correcting errors in digital information. See also Electronics. such as Fourier analysis. such as amplifying electronic they carry. capacitors. package. transmitted. and demodulating radio signals to recover the information Prior to the 1960s. history. and three-dimensional integrated circuits. including computers. micro-manipulators.of the current fed into them. as in telecommunications. signals. Probability. and in robotics. of telephone systems. and probability theory. as in television. and application of circuits and devices used in the transmission and processing of information. DC motors have also been made to run more efficiently this way. and vacuum tubes—assembled on a chassis and connected by wires to form a bulky devices on a single tiny chip of silicon or some other semiconductive material. Electric Power Systems. complex variables. there has been a revolutionary trend toward integrating electronic inductors. linear systems theory. and stored electronically on a scale unprecedented in unabated. and ultraclean chips. See also Electric Motors and Generators. passenger-actuated. design. circuits consisted of separate electronic devices—resistors. from fundamental questions such as “What is information?” to the highly practical. Matrix Theory and Linear Algebra. linear algebra. D2 Electronics Electronic engineering deals with the research. as systems for keeping spacecraft on course. environments. task of manufacturing these chips uses the most advanced technology. to the exotic. and there is every indication that the explosive rate of growth in this field will continue Electronic engineers design circuits to perform specific tasks. Information is now generated. The complex electron-beam lithography. in automated manufacturing. Much of the research in electronics is directed toward creating even smaller D3 Communications and Control Engineers in this field are concerned with all aspects of electrical communications.
and of peripheral devices (see Computer). engineers continue to work to squeeze greater and greater numbers of circuit elements onto smaller and smaller chips. operation. through creation of sophisticated programs or being in the realm of computer science.fiber optics are superseding copper cables. Digital systems offer far greater immunity to carrying capacity. Foremost among the avenues now being pursued are the design of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) and new computer architectures. paleontology. mineralogy. they also have tremendous D4 Computers Virtually unknown just a few decades ago. E Geological and Mining Engineering This branch of engineering includes activities related to the discovery and exploration of mineral deposits and the financing. who is also responsible for determining whether the geological structure F Industrial or Management Engineering This field pertains to the efficient use of machinery. The mining engineer is trained in historical geology. engineering geologist. It is particularly important from the viewpoint of costs and economics of machinery. electrical noise. of central processing units. purification. The electronics of computers involve engineers in design and manufacture of memory systems. recovery. the task of making computers more “intelligent” (artificial intelligence. Another trend is toward increasing the speed of computer operations through use of parallel processors. and raw materials in industrial production. and marketing of crude minerals and mineral products. Seismology). is generally regarded as One current trend in computer engineering is microminiaturization.). and the most advantageous deployment of automatic . The field of computer science is closely related to computer engineering. and geophysics. and the like. however. safety of human operators. development. computer engineering is now among the most rapidly growing fields. labor. processing. construction. The employs such tools as the seismograph and the magnetometer for the location of ore or surveying and drawing of geological maps and sections is an important part of the work of the of a given location is suitable for the building of such large structures as dams. and petroleum deposits beneath the surface of the earth (see Petroleum. development of higher level machine languages or other means. and are extremely light and inexpensive to manufacture. Using VLSI. Fiber optics are likewise immune to interference. production. superconducting materials.
A typical example of the complexity of modern mechanical engineering is the design of an automobile. therefore. the wheels. The mechanical engineer. The field is divided into (1) machinery. A mechanical engineer designs not only the machines that make products but the products themselves. and (2) heat as applied to engines. and the body. the controls.G Mechanical Engineering Engineers in this field design. hydraulics. test. work and energy. and thermodynamics and must be fully grounded in such subjects as metallurgy and machine design. hydraulics. and air conditioning. the lighting system. ventilating. and operate machinery of all types. must be trained in mechanics. mechanisms. including such details as the door latches and the type H Military Engineering . they also work on a variety of manufactured goods and certain kinds of structures. the gearing by which the engine's power is delivered to of seat upholstery. heating. and pneumatics. which entails not only the design of the engine that drives the car but also all its attendant accessories such as the steering and braking systems. build. materials. Some mechanical engineers specialize in particular types of machines such as pumps or steam turbines. and must design for both economy and efficiency.
and other communication. which applies mechanical engineering to the Signal Corps. which applies electrical engineering to all problems of telegraph. In the U. radio. harbors. depots. development of guns and chemical engineering to the development of propellants. It is generally divided into permanent land defense (see Fortification and Siege Warfare) and field engineering. and airfields. In war. military engineers also construct some public Military engineering has become an increasingly specialized science.. national monuments. and the I Naval or Marine Engineering . and dams (see Army Corps of Engineers).This branch is concerned with the application of the engineering sciences to military purposes. telephone. works. resulting in separate engineering subdisciplines such as ordnance. army engineer battalions have been used to construct ports.S.
To accomplish this. such as fluid mechanics. fast enough to perform the type of work intended for them. the marine engineer must choose a propulsion unit. ships must be designed and built so that they are safe. such as the production of commercial power from the energy generated by nuclear reactions and the use of nuclear reactors for propulsion and of nuclear radiation to induce chemical and biological changes. stable. and must how ships move through water. the naval architect design ships. have a thorough grounding in applied sciences. In helping diesel engine or geared steam turbine. as well as the projected costs of fuel and maintenance. needed to propel a ship. strong. See also Ships and Shipbuilding.Engineers who have the overall responsibility for designing and supervising construction of ships are called naval architects. In doing so. The ships they design range in size from ocean-going supertankers as much as 1300 feet long to small tugboats that operate in rivers and bays. both mechanical and electrical. the engineer must take into consideration how much the engine J Nuclear Engineering This branch of engineering is concerned with the design and construction of nuclear reactors and devices. that provides enough power to move the ship at the and fuel bunkers will weigh and how much space they will occupy. a naval Regardless of size. In addition to designing nuclear reactors to yield specified amounts of power. that bear directly on Marine engineering is a specialized branch of mechanical engineering devoted to the design and operation of systems. and the manner in which nuclear fission may find practical applications. nuclear engineers develop the special materials necessary to withstand the high . such as a speed required. and architect must be familiar with the variety of techniques of modern shipbuilding.
treatment. control of atmospheric pollution. The systems approach is a methodology of decision-making in design. workers compensation. and toxic materials in work areas. and insurance companies engaged in the field of National Safety Council. and roads. housing and institutional sanitation. and soils. Water Supply and Waterworks. It chiefly deals with problems involving water supply.temperatures and concentrated bombardment of nuclear particles that accompany nuclear fission and fusion. with pure water and for the disposal of sewage and other wastes are described separately. control of pollution of surface waterways. Safety engineers develop methods and procedures to safeguard workers in hazardous occupations. L Sanitary Engineering This is a branch of civil engineering. radiation produced by nuclear reactions and to ensure safe storage and disposal of fissionable K Safety Engineering This field of engineering has as its object the prevention of accidents. They also assist in designing machinery. machinery. Many large industrial and construction firms. factories. industrial hygiene. but because of its great importance for a healthy environment. See III MODERN ENGINEERING TRENDS Scientific methods of engineering are applied in several fields not connected directly to manufacture and construction. In recent years safety engineering has become a specialty adopted by individuals trained in other branches of engineering. it has acquired the importance of a specialized field. In the design of from accidental contact with the operator. Modern engineering is characterized by the broad application of what is known as systems engineering principles. The methods used for supplying communities Plumbing. known to result in traffic accidents. today maintain safety engineering departments. rural and recreational-site sanitation. groundwaters. noise. for example. See Nuclear Energy. and distribution. insect and vermin control. including control of light. disposal of community wastes and reclamation of useful components of such wastes. and other fields concerned with the control of environmental factors affecting health. to put cutoff switches within reach of the operator. especially in dense urban-population areas. Sewage Disposal. Water Pollution. vibration. milk and food sanitation. operation. In designing roads the safety engineer seeks to avoid such hazards as sharp turns and blind intersections. ships. or construction that adopts (1) the formal process . Solid Waste Disposal. the safety engineer seeks to cover all moving parts or keep them suggesting alterations and improvements to reduce the likelihood of accident. and to eliminate dangerous projecting parts. See Industrial Safety. Nuclear engineers also develop methods to shield people from the harmful materials.
encourages new research. but also determination determine. Computers are increasingly used for solving complex problems as well as for handling. transportation engineering in its broadest sense includes not only design of the traffic requirements of the route followed. and malfunctioning equipment. using specialists from not only the various engineering disciplines. This type of engineering work is called time-study engineering. and the interaction of the system with the community and the environment. therefore. A related field of engineering. or team. The National Academy of Engineering. Engineers in industry work not only with machines but also with people. storing. complicated control panels Among various recent trends in the engineering profession. A small change in the location of the controls of a machine or of its position with relation to other machines or equipment. principles of operations research. social. Human-factors engineering seeks to establish criteria for the that monitor and govern nuclear reactor operations. many engineers. and is concerned with the relationship of engineering to society. (2) an interdisciplinary. how machines can be operated most efficiently by the workers. design failures. approach. like doctors and lawyers.included in what is known as the scientific method. and behavioral fields as well. Today. . efficient. and generating the enormous volume of data modern engineers must work with. often results in greatly increased production. It is also concerned with setting up efficient and safe schedules. licensing and computerization are the most widespread. sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs. founded in 1964 as a private organization. also known as ergonomics. especially installations where public and worker safety is a consideration. The trend in modern engineering offices is overwhelmingly toward computerization. or a change in the muscular movements of the operator. for example. human-factors engineering. aesthetic. the large. to of the transportation system and building of its lines and rolling stock. (3) a formal sequence of procedure employing the In effect. are licensed by the state. but from legal. among other things. Approvals by professionally licensed engineers are required for construction of public and commercial structures. received wide attention in the late 1970s and the '80s when the safety of nuclear reactors was questioned following serious accidents that were caused by operator errors. human-centered design of.
Velocity (the time rate of change of position) is defined as the distance traveled divided by the time interval. For objects traveling at speeds close to the speed of light. stars travel in circles around the earth because it is the nature of heavenly objects to travel in The Italian physicist and astronomer Galileo brought together the ideas of other great thinkers of his time and began to analyze motion in terms of distance traveled from some starting position and the time that it took. branch of physics concerning the motions of objects and their response to forces. Modern descriptions of such behavior begin with a careful definition of such quantities as displacement (distance moved). following the ideas of Greek philosopher and scientist Aristotle. however. causes motion. Acceleration is defined as the time rate of change of velocity: the change of velocity divided by the time interval during the change. The English mathematician and physicist Sir Isaac Newton improved this analysis by defining force and mass and relating these to acceleration. If the object is large. For everyday phenomena. time. scientists reasoned that a cannonball falls down because its natural position is in the earth. and the perfect circles. For example. mass.Mechanics I INTRODUCTION Mechanics. the sun. For atomic and subatomic particles. motion was explained from a very different point of view. however. Regarding the size or weight of the moving object. called If the object is rotating. the motion of which can be described as characteristic of the whole object. acceleration. miles per hour. Velocity may be measured in such units as kilometers per hour. Acceleration may be measured in such units as meters per second per second or feet per second per second. velocity. Newton’s three laws of motion remain the cornerstone of dynamics. the moon. Newton’s laws were superseded by Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity. the center of mass. and force. Until about 400 years ago. . which is the study of what II KINETICS Kinetics is the description of motion without regard to what causes the motion. or meters per second. it contains one point. He showed that the speed of falling objects increases steadily during the time of their fall. no mathematical problems are presented if the object is very small compared with the distances involved. provided air friction (air resistance) is discounted. This acceleration is the same for heavy objects as for light ones. it is frequently convenient to describe its rotation about an axis that goes through the center of mass. Newton’s laws were superseded by quantum theory.
Because the velocity is changing. A heavy object falling freely this case the acceleration is 9. in point). end of the second second.” is the short way of notating t × t).8 m/sec/sec (32 ft/sec/sec). time. First. d. the average velocity is equal to the velocity at any particular time. for example. Because of gravitation. traveled at constant d = vt In the second special type of motion. in a circle of radius. Velocity. r. it will travel in a circle. a (uninfluenced by air friction) near the surface of the earth undergoes constant acceleration. In ball would have fallen 4. For constant acceleration. t.6 m/sec (64 ft/sec). is v = at The distance traveled during this time is d = at2 An important feature revealed in this equation is the dependence of distance on the square of the time (t2. If velocity. for example. If an object has constant speed but an acceleration always at right angles to its velocity. v. meters per second) and direction (measured. the ball undergoes a constant downward acceleration that first slows its original upward speed and then increases its downward speed as it falls back to earth. position would not change during the time interval. must be defined. is equal to the product of velocity and time. instantaneous velocity. t. then the distance. is measured with a clock starting at t = 0. In the simplest case. the instantaneous velocity at time. the centripetal acceleration is acceleration is directed toward the center of the circle and is called centripetal acceleration Another simple type of motion that is frequently observed occurs when a ball is thrown at an angle into the air.8 m/sec (32 ft/sec). starting with zero velocity ( v = 0) at t = 0. in degrees of arc from a reference Several special types of motion are easily described. or the velocity at a given instant. v. for example. With constant velocity. For an object traveling at speed. At the 19. velocity may be constant. or “t squared. At the end of the first second.6 m (64 ft) and would have a speed of Circular motion is another simple type of motion.To fully describe the motion of an object.9 m (16 ft) and would have a speed of 9. the ball would have fallen 19. a. The magnitude of velocity is called speed. The required (see Centripetal Force). acceleration is constant. has both magnitude (a scalar quantity measured. the direction of the displacement must be given. Meanwhile the horizontal component of the original velocity remains . the velocity might be zero.
and they can be analyzed separately. The resulting path of the ball is in the III DYNAMICS To understand why and how objects accelerate. For F = kx where k is a constant that depends on the nature of the spring material and its dimensions. A force can either distort something.constant (ignoring air resistance). a force is just a push or a pull. or accelerate an object. such as a spring. force and mass must be defined. the greater the stretch. independent. which can in turn be used to many springs. over a limited range. making the ball travel at a constant speed in the horizontal direction until it hits the earth. It can be measured in terms of either of two first effect can be used in the calibration of a spring scale. See Ballistics. The measure the amplitude of a force: the greater the force. F. The vertical and horizontal components of the motion are shape of a parabola. x. IV VECTORS . the stretch is proportional to the force effects. At the intuitive level.
its side. at the greatest distance from the hinges. the book is in equilibrium. For equilibrium to exist it is also necessary that the sum of the torques about any axis A torque is the product of a force and the perpendicular distance to a turning axis. then the object will remain at rest or remain moving at constant velocity. the book will remain motionless if the person’s hands are opposite each other. If. If the door were VI NEWTON’S THREE LAWS OF MOTION Newton’s first law of motion states that if the vector sum of the forces acting on an object is zero. all the horizontal components of the force must cancel one another. If the force were applied parallel to the door (that is. For example. however. edge on). Therefore. and all the vertical components must cancel one another as well. the clockwise torques about any axis must be canceled by the counterclockwise torques about that axis. it is necessary to add the forces as vectors. the torque would be only half of its previous magnitude. a torque is produced. See Vector. the torque would be zero. Without any . When calculating V TORQUE For equilibrium. The net force is zero. Thus. If the force exerted on an object is zero. a maximum torque is created. the net force on it must be zero. A book lying on a table is being pulled down by the earth’s gravitational attraction and is being pushed up by the molecular the net force. the object does not necessarily have zero velocity. For an object to be in equilibrium. This condition is necessary for equilibrium. one could prove that if the torques cancel for any particular axis. the force is exerted perpendicularly to the door and shoved with the same force at a point halfway between handle and hinge. (The net result is that the book is being squeezed). one hand is near the top of the book and the other hand near the bottom. and the book will fall on be zero. but not sufficient. if a person stands a book up on a table and pushes on the book equally hard with one hand in one direction and with the other hand in the other direction. When a force is applied to a heavy door to open it. they cancel for all axes. repulsion of the tabletop.If an object is motionless.
is that it is impossible to distinguish at a point whether the point is in a gravitational field or in B Friction . Mass is measured in kilograms. change its velocity. is measured in meters per second per second. acceleration. What is remarkable is that mass. light object. an object in motion will continue to travel at constant velocity. The acceleration will be proportional to the magnitude of the the object. A The Second Law Newton’s second law relates net force and acceleration. force. a. A net force on an object will accelerate it—that is. The proportionality constant is the mass. of F = ma In the International System of Units (also known as SI. A massive object will require a greater force for a given acceleration than a small. this is equivalent to about 0. Einstein made this one of the cornerstones of his general theory of relativity. m. The implication of this phenomenon an accelerated frame of reference. F. A newton is defined as the force necessary to impart to a mass of 1 kg an acceleration of 1 m/sec/sec.forces acting on it. force and in the same direction as the force. which is a measure of the inertia of an object (inertia is its exerts on other objects. which is the currently accepted theory of gravitation. after the initials of Système International). is also a measure of the gravitational attraction that the object gravitational property are determined by the same thing. It is surprising and profound that the inertial property and the reluctance to change velocity).2248 lb. in newtons. including friction.
Newton’s second law then becomes water or air (at subsonic speeds). The actual contact area—that is. and force is required to move the bumps past each other. however. The friction force is proportional to the total perpendicular force. The actual contact area depends on the perpendicular force between the object and sliding surface. the downward vertical component of the force will. If the object is pushed at an angle the weight of the object. the surface upon which it slides. the resulting friction is proportional to the square of the . in effect. where no lubrication is present. the friction force is almost independent of velocity. For most human-size objects moving in speed. however. For dry sliding friction. the area where the Also.Friction acts like a force applied in the direction opposite to an object’s velocity. (Acceleration will be constant in the direction of the effective force). When an object moves through a liquid. Where friction is present. add to The left side of the equation is simply the net effective force. the tiny bumps on the object and sliding surface collide. the friction force does not depend on the apparent area of contact between an object and microscopic bumps on the object and sliding surface are actually touching each other—is relatively small. Newton’s second law is expanded to to the horizontal. As the object moves across the sliding surface. Frequently this force is just the weight of the sliding object. the magnitude of the friction depends on the velocity.
thus decreasing their distance from the axis of rotation. Part of the mass is therefore at a large radius. is characteristic of the two materials that are sliding past each other. in addition to the force the adult imparts on the child. C The Third Law Newton’s third law of motion states that an object experiences a force because it is interacting with some other object. angular momentum is conserved despite the increasing speed. the product of the large mass and small velocity of the adult must equal the product of the small mass and large velocity of the child.The proportionality constant. Therefore. their initial velocities are zero. internal forces are at work between adult and child. thus adding to zero. k. however. spin. and the distance of the mass from the axis. For an isolated system. As the . Because the mass of the adult is larger. and depends on the area of contact between the two surfaces and the degree of streamlining of the moving object. a large adult gently shoves away a child on a skating rink. At the start of the skater’s arms are lowered. the acceleration of the adult will be smaller. When a skater standing on a friction-free point spins faster and faster. for example. Newton’s third law also requires the conservation of momentum. the skater’s arms are outstretched. with no external forces acting on it. The force that object 1 exerts on object 2 must be of the same magnitude but in the opposite direction as the force that object 2 exerts on object 1. Another conserved quantity of great importance is angular (rotational) momentum. In the example of the adult and child on the skating rink. and thus the initial momentum of the system is zero. During the interaction. The momenta are equal in magnitude but opposite in direction. the rotational speed must increase in order to maintain constant angular momentum. its mass. the child imparts an equal but oppositely directed force on the adult. or the product of mass and velocity. the momentum of the system must remain zero. After the adult pushes the child away. but net external forces equal zero. The angular momentum of a rotating object depends on its speed of rotation. the momentum must remain constant. If.
energy has been stored in the form of gravitational potential energy. work is defined as the product of force and the distance an object moves in the direction of the force. This friction is transformed into heat. the total energy is conserved. its gravitational potential energy is increased. When a force is exerted on an object but the force does not cause the object to move. no work is done. or molecular bonds. thermal energy. When the ball hits the ground. and mass itself. joules.VII ENERGY The quantity called energy ties together all branches of physics. In the field of mechanics. kinetic energy. it becomes distorted and thereby creates friction between the molecules of the ball material. the energy to another. In all transformations from one kind of to raise it. if work is done on a rubber ball gravitational potential energy is transformed to kinetic energy. for example. compressed gases. . or thermal energy. For instance. If work is done lifting an object to a greater height. energy stored in stretched springs. energy must be provided to do work. If the ball is then dropped. Many other forms of energy exist: electric and magnetic potential energy. Energy and work are both measured in the same units—ergs. or foot-pounds.
It can hinder the motion of an object or prevent an object from moving at all.Friction I INTRODUCTION Friction. object or objects. it hinders a process. such as ice. such as a refrigerator or bookcase. water. On a slick surface. the force depends upon the shape and speed Friction occurs to some degree in almost all situations involving physical objects. shoes slip and slide instead of gripping because of the lack of friction. In cases involving fluid friction. The strength of frictional force depends on the nature of the surfaces that are in contact and the force pushing them together. In many cases. This force is usually related to the weight of the of an object as it moves through air. reducing the engine’s efficiency. Friction also makes it difficult to slide a heavy object. Friction allows car tires to grip and roll . friction between the moving parts of an engine resists the engine’s motion and turns energy into heat. or other fluid. Friction results from two surfaces rubbing against each other or moving relative to one another. Friction between people’s shoes and the ground allows people to walk by pushing off the ground without slipping. such as in a running automobile engine. friction is helpful. force that opposes the motion of an object when the object is in contact with another object or surface. along the ground. making walking difficult. For example. In other cases.
along the road without skidding. Friction between nails and beams prevents the nails from Sliding out and keeps buildings standing.
When friction affects a moving object, it turns the object’s kinetic energy, or energy of motion, into heat. People welcome the heat caused by friction when rubbing their hands together to stay warm. Frictional heat is not so welcome when it damages machine parts, such as car brakes.
CAUSES OF FRICTION
Friction occurs in part because rough surfaces tend to catch on one another as they slide past each other. Even surfaces that are apparently smooth can be rough at the microscopic level. of the other, effectively creating a type of mechanical bond, or glue, between the surfaces. Two surfaces in contact also tend to attract one another at the molecular level, forming They have many ridges and grooves. The ridges of each surface can get stuck in the grooves
chemical bonds (see Chemistry). These bonds can prevent an object from moving, even when it is pushed. If an object is in motion, these bonds form and release. Making and breaking the bonds takes energy away from the motion of the object.
Scientists do not yet fully understand the details of how friction works, but through
experiments they have found a way to describe frictional forces in a wide variety of situations. The force of friction between an object and a surface is equal to a constant number times the force the object exerts directly on the surface. The constant number is called the coefficient of
friction for the two materials and is abbreviated µ. The force the object exerts directly on the
increasing the amount of force increases the amount of contact that the object has with the calculated from the following formula:
surface is called the normal force and is abbreviated N. Friction depends on this force because surface at the microscopic level. The force of friction between an object and a surface can be
In this equation, F is the force of friction, µ is the coefficient of friction between the object and the surface, and N is the normal force.
Scientists have measured the coefficient of friction for many combinations of materials.
Coefficients of friction depend on whether the objects are initially moving or stationary and on the types of material involved. The coefficient of friction for rubber sliding on concrete is 0.8 (relatively high), while the coefficient for Teflon sliding on steel is 0.04 (relatively low).
The normal force is the force the object exerts perpendicular to the surface. In the case of a level surface, the normal force is equal to the weight of the object. If the surface is inclined, only a fraction of the object’s weight pushes directly into the surface, so the normal force is less than the object’s weight.
KINDS OF FRICTION
Different kinds of motion give rise to different types of friction between objects. Static friction occurs between stationary objects, while sliding friction occurs between objects as they slide against each other. Other types of friction include rolling friction and fluid friction. The coefficient of friction for two materials may differ depending on the type of friction involved. Static friction prevents an object from moving against a surface. It is the force that keeps a up an object without the object slipping through your fingers. In order to move something, you must first overcome the force of static friction between the object and the surface on
book from sliding off a desk, even when the desk is slightly tilted, and that allows you to pick
which it is resting. This force depends on the coefficient of static friction (µs) between the object and the surface and the normal force (N) of the object.
A book sliding off a desk or brakes slowing down a wheel are both examples of sliding friction, It prevents the book or wheel from moving as fast as it would without friction. When sliding friction is acting, another force must be present to keep an object moving. In the case of a book sliding off a desk, this force is gravity. The force of kinetic friction depends on the
also called kinetic friction. Sliding friction acts in the direction opposite the direction of motion.
coefficient of kinetic friction between the object and the surface on which it is moving (µk) and the normal force (N) of the object. For any pair of objects, the coefficient of kinetic friction is book sliding than it does to keep the book sliding. usually less than the coefficient of static friction. This means that it takes more force to start a
Rolling friction hinders the motion of an object rolling along a surface. Rolling friction slows rolling along the ground. Another force must be present to keep an object rolling. For
down a ball rolling on a basketball court or softball field, and it slows down the motion of a tire example, a pedaling bicyclist provides the force necessary to the keep a bike in motion. Rolling friction depends on the coefficient of rolling friction between the two materials (µr) and the normal force (N) of the object. The coefficient of rolling friction is usually about that of than they will slide along it.
sliding friction. Wheels and other round objects will roll along the ground much more easily
Metals, group of chemical elements that exhibit all or most of the following physical qualities: they are solid at ordinary temperatures; opaque, except in extremely thin films; good electrical and thermal conductors (see Conductor, Electrical); lustrous when polished; and
have a crystalline structure when in the solid state. Metals and nonmetals are separated in the periodic table by a diagonal line of elements. Elements to the left of this diagonal are metals, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, polonium, and astatine—have both metallic and nonmetallic properties (see Periodic Law). The common metallic elements include the cobalt, copper, gold, iridium, iron, lead, lithium, magnesium, manganese, mercury, following: aluminum, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, chromium, molybdenum, nickel, osmium, palladium, platinum, potassium, radium, rhodium, silver, and elements to the right are nonmetals. Elements that make up this diagonal—boron, silicon,
sodium, tantalum, thallium, thorium, tin, titanium, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. Metallic elements can combine with one another and with certain other elements, either as compounds, as solutions, or as intimate mixtures. A substance composed of two or more alloys. Alloys of mercury with other metallic elements are known as amalgams.
metals, or a substance composed of a metal and certain nonmetals such as carbon are called
Within the general limits of the definition of a metal, the properties of metals vary widely. Most metals are grayish in color, but bismuth is pinkish, copper is red, and gold is yellow. Some metals display more than one color, a phenomenon called pleochroism. The melting
points of metals range from about -39° C (about -38° F) for mercury to 3410° C (6170° F) for tungsten. Osmium and iridium (specific gravity 22.6) are the most dense metals, and lithium (specific gravity 0.53) is the least dense. The majority of metals crystallize in the cubic system, but some crystallize in the hexagonal and tetragonal systems (see Crystal). Bismuth has the lowest electrical conductivity of the metallic elements, and silver the highest at ordinary temperatures. (For conductivity at low temperatures, see Cryogenics;
Superconductivity.) The conductivity of most metals can be lowered by alloying. All metals expand when heated and contract when cooled, but certain alloys, such as platinum and iridium alloys, have extremely low coefficients of expansion.
Metals are generally very strong and resistant to different types of stresses. Though there is considerable variation from one metal to the next, in general metals are marked by such the resistance to breakage; elasticity, the ability to return to the original shape after properties as hardness, the resistance to surface deformation or abrasion; tensile strength, deformation; malleability, the ability to be shaped by hammering; fatigue resistance, the breaking. See Materials Science and Technology.
ability to resist repeated stresses; and ductility, the ability to undergo deformation without
Metals typically have positive valences in most of their compounds, which means they tend to donate electrons to the atoms to which they bond. Also, metals tend to form basic oxides. Typical nonmetallic elements, such as nitrogen, sulfur, and chlorine, have negative valences in most of their compounds—meaning they tend to accept electrons—and form acidic oxides (see Acids and Bases; Chemical Reaction).
Metals typically have low ionization potentials. This means that metals react easily by loss of carbonates, for example) by serving as reducing agents (electron donors).
electrons to form positive ions, or cations. Thus, metals can form salts (chlorides, sulfides, and
In early attempts to explain the electronic configurations of the metals, scientists cited the consist of ionized atoms in which the free electrons form a homogeneous sea of negative
characteristics of high thermal and electrical conductivity in support of a theory that metals charge. The electrostatic attraction between the positive metal ions and the free-moving and atoms. Free movement of the electrons was then held to be responsible for the high thermal then have higher specific heats than they do.
homogeneous sea of electrons was thought to be responsible for the bonds between the metal and electrical conductivities. The principal objection to this theory was that the metals should
In 1928 the German physicist Arnold Sommerfeld proposed that the electrons in metals exist in a quantized arrangement in which low energy levels available to the electrons are almost fully occupied (see Atom; Quantum Theory). In the same year the Swiss-American physicist Felix Bloch and later the French physicist Louis Brillouin used this idea of quantization in the currently accepted “band” theory of bonding in metallic solids.
According to the band theory, any given metal atom has only a limited number of valence among individual atoms is therefore required. This sharing of electrons is accomplished
electrons with which to bond to all of its nearest neighbors. Extensive sharing of electrons through overlap of equivalent-energy atomic orbitals on the metal atoms that are immediately adjacent to one another. This overlap is delocalized throughout the entire metal sample to form extensive orbitals that span the entire solid rather than being part of individual atoms. Each of these orbitals lies at different energies because the atomic orbitals from which they were constructed were at different energies to begin with. The orbitals, equal in number to the number of individual atomic orbitals that have been combined, each hold two electrons, and are filled in order from lowest to highest energy until the number of available electrons has
been used up. Groups of electrons are then said to reside in bands, which are collections of that band; in some metals, there are energy gaps between bands, meaning that there are
orbitals. Each band has a range of energy values that the electrons must possess to be part of certain energies that the electrons cannot possess. The highest energy band in a metal is not filled with electrons because metals characteristically possess too few electrons to fill it. The may be promoted by absorption of thermal energy into these unfilled energy levels of the band. high thermal electrical conductivities of metals is then explained by the notion that electrons
Objects moving through a fluid experience fluid friction, or drag. Drag acts between the object and the fluid and hinders the motion of the object. The force of drag depends upon the object’s shape, material, and speed, as well as the fluid’s viscosity. Viscosity is a measure of a fluid’s resistance to flow. It results from the friction that occurs between the fluid’s molecules, and it differs depending on the type of fluid. Drag slows down airplanes flying through the air and fish swimming through water. An airplane’s engines help it overcome drag and travel forward, while a fish uses its muscles to overcome drag and swim. Calculating the force of
drag is much more complicated than calculating other types of friction. (see Aerodynamics)
EFFECTS OF FRICTION
Friction helps people convert one form of motion into another. For example, when people
walk, friction allows them to convert a push backward along the ground into forward motion. Similarly, when car or bicycle tires push backward along the ground, friction with the ground makes the tires roll forward. Friction allows us to push and slide objects along the ground without our shoes slipping along the ground in the opposite direction.
While friction allows us to convert one form of motion to another, it also converts some energy into heat, noise, and wear and tear on material. Losing energy to these effects often reduces the efficiency of a machine. For example, a cyclist uses friction between shoes and pedals, the
chain and gears, and the bicycle’s tires and the road to make the bicycle move forward. At the the cyclist and the air all resist the cyclist’s motion. As the cyclist pedals, friction converts
same time, friction between the chain and gears, between the tires and the road, and between some of the cyclist’s energy into heat, noise, and wear and tear on the bicycle. This energy of the energy in the fuel into heat, noise, and wear and tear on the engine’s parts. Excess engines makes it necessary to periodically replace some parts.
loss reduces the efficiency of the bicycle. In automobiles and airplanes, friction converts some frictional heat can damage an engine and braking system. The wearing away of material in
Sometimes the heat that friction produces is useful. When a person strikes a match against a
rough surface, friction produces a large amount of heat on the head of the match and triggers the chemical process of burning. Static friction, which prevents motion, does not create heat.
Reducing the amount of friction in a machine increases the machine’s efficiency. Less friction methods to reduce friction. The first method involves reducing the roughness of the surfaces
means less energy lost to heat, noise, and wearing down of material. People normally use two in contact. For example, sanding two pieces of wood lessens the amount of friction that occurs between them when they slide against one another. Teflon creates very little friction because it is so smooth.
Applying a lubricant to a surface can also reduce friction. Common examples of lubricants are oil and grease. They reduce friction by minimizing the contact between rough surfaces. The between the surfaces. Lubricants such as machine oil reduce the amount of energy lost to lubricant’s particles slide easily against each other and cause far less friction than would occur frictional heating and reduce the wear damage to the machine surfaces caused by friction.
work is the result of a force. with or without the inclined plane. consisting of a ramp or a similar wedge-shaped device. The same amount of work is accomplished in lifting the object which the force is applied. simple machine. are really alternate forms of the inclined plane. such as the effort of pushing or pulling something. the screw and the wedge. In physical terms. but because the inclined plane increases the distance over The inclined plane is one of the four simple machines (along with the lever. Some jacks that are used to lift II WORK AND MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE An inclined plane makes doing work easier by changing both the direction and the amount of effort that are used to lift an object. Work. the force needed is the effort required to lift the object. that makes doing a given amount of work easier. the wheel and axle. which allows people to move within a building from one floor to another with cars use threaded screws. the work requires less force. and the distance corresponds to the distance the object is lifted. in physics. One of the most common examples of an inclined plane is a staircase. A sharp knife is an everyday example of a wedge. an inclined plane allows a person to lift an object gradually (at an angle) applied to an object multiplied by the distance over which the force is applied. less effort than climbing straight up a ladder would require. that moves an object over a distance. Mathematically.Inclined Plane I INTRODUCTION Inclined Plane. . and the pulley). is defined as the amount of force this can be expressed by the following equation: Work = Force x Distance When lifting an object is the work being done. Two other simple machines. Rather than lifting an object straight up. An inclined plane makes it easier to lift heavy objects by enabling a person to apply the necessary force over a greater distance.
more gradual path to the same height as that of the steep hill. The actual MA of a machine is less than the theoretical MA because of friction. People also frequently build inclined planes with small rollers or casters built into the plane to reduce friction. and raises the automobile. large mechanical advantages can be achieved by using screws. Theoretical MA is the MA a machine would have if it were perfect. Turning the screw many times produces a small amount of vertical lift on the platform. around the axis. the inclined plane decreases the amount of force needed to do the same amount of work without the plane. Friction makes the process of moving objects. or pole. A jack has a large screw attached to a small platform. which equates with effort applied over a long distance. The mechanical advantage (MA) of an inclined plane measures how much the plane magnifies the effort applied to the machine. III MODIFIED INCLINED PLANES The screw and the wedge are common adaptations of the inclined plane. Since the pitch is generally small compared to the circumference. Screws are also . By increasing distance. However. be. The MA of an inclined plane without any friction is equal to the length of the plane divided by the height of the plane. sliding a load (especially a flat load such as a crate) up a plane creates friction and causes the plane to lose much of its MA. and therefore doing work. the mechanical advantage would be 1. In this case. more difficult. and some jacks used to lift automobiles rely on screws. lose some of their MA to friction. or spiral. the larger the MA will a vertical ladder. and the actual MA is close to the theoretical MA. If the length of a ramp was equal to its height. however. The mechanical advantage of a screw is related to the circumference of the screw divided by the pitch of the threads. The longer the inclined plane. like Friction is a phenomenon that reduces the efficiency of all machines. which is placed under a vehicle. or that the user needs to apply only half as much effort to lift an object to a desired height as he or she would without the ramp. the ramp would simply run straight up.over a greater distance. Screws are often used to raise objects. A screw is an inclined plane wrapped around an axis. The edge of the inclined plane forms a helix. This idea explains why climbing up a steep hill takes more effort (and seems more difficult) than walking up a longer. which means the ramp did not magnify the user’s effort. this allows heavy loads to be lifted with a small amount of effort. A ramp that is twice as long as it is high has a mechanical advantage of 2. The screw requires a lot of turning. a resistance created between objects when they move against each other. Walking up an inclined plane or rolling a load (such as a barrel) up a plane creates little friction. The pitch of a thread is the distance along the axis of the screw from one thread to the next. Increasing the ratio of the length of the ramp to the height of the ramp decreases the effort needed to lift an object. There are two kinds of MA: theoretical and actual. Wheels can be added to the load to decrease friction. All machines. This means that the ramp doubles the effort applied by the user.
These devices use friction to hold things together. There are indications that the Egyptians created earthen ramps to raise huge blocks of stone during the construction of the pyramids. Effort is applied directly to the wedge. Historians believe that Greek inventor Archimedes (287-212 BC) invented a screw-type device (known as Archimedes’ screw) for raising water. A person walking up a gradual path to the top of a mountain rather than climbing straight up a steep face is taking advantage of the principle of the inclined plane.useful as fastening devices. and turning the screw lifts water up the cylinder to a higher level. The joined inclined planes form a blunt end that wedge out to the sides of the wedge to help it cut through an object. This principle is still used in some pumps today. threaded nuts and bolts take advantage of the friction that results from the contact between A wedge is another form of inclined plane. The bottom end of the cylinder is set in water. The resulting pressure in the cracks caused the rocks to split. Evidence from drawings of that time indicates People used wedges in ancient times to split wood. Screws were used in ancient times as lifting devices. transferring the force they applied to the blunt edge out to the sides of the wedge. Screws driven straight into wood or other materials. narrows down to a tip. Since there is much friction involved. Wedges transfer downward effort applied to the blunt edge of the where two planes are joined at their bases. A wedge is essentially a double inclined plane. as well as the inclined plane and other objects. It consists of a cylinder with a wide-threaded screw inside. which differs from an inclined plane. to reduce the sliding friction and thus increase the efficiency of the inclined planes. where the effort travels along the plane. probably milk. A knife is also a form of wedge. They placed dry wooden wedges into cracks in rocks and then allowed the wedges to swell by absorbing water. BC to 1000 BC. The main benefit of the wedge is changing the direction of effort to help split or cut through an object. . People also used wooden wedges in prehistoric times to split rocks. Wedges are often used to split materials such as wood or stone. the mechanical advantage of a wedge is difficult to determine. The wedge shape of the knife edge helps the user cut through material. from about 2700 that the Egyptians used a lubricant. IV HISTORY The inclined plane is undoubtedly one of the first of the simple machines people ever used.
Today. Engineers use CAD and CAM together to create the design in CAD on one computer. and maps. then transmit the design to a second computer that creates the part using CAM. the application of computers in the design and manufacture of components used in the production of items such as automobiles and jet engines. In the design stage.Computer-Aided Design/ComputerAided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) I INTRODUCTION Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM). including the testing and handling of finished products. floor plans. such as a drill or a lathe. The first two steps in . it is much more efficient to change and distribute drawings by computer. CAM engineers similarly use computer modeling to determine the best overall manufacturing procedures for use in an industrial plant. CAM adds a computer to a machine tool. including ease of production and cost. such as those for automobile and airplane parts.and three-dimensional drawings. II COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN Engineers use CAD to create two. While it may be faster for an engineer to create an initial drawing by hand. CAD is software for creating precise engineering drawings. The CAD possible to perform the six-step "art-to-part" process with a computer. drafting and computer graphics techniques are combined to produce models of objects. Designers manipulate and test these models on video display screens until information is then combined with CAM procedures through shared databases. it is this process are the use of sketching software to capture the initial design ideas and to they incorporate the best balance of features.
called a toolpath display. much as print preview in a word- processing program displays a page before it is printed. The software generates an image. or wood. Massachusetts. Punching buttons on the computer’s front panel programmed the software for the machine. He designed CAD to replace the traditional drafting board and software ran on large. engineers use analysis software to ensure that the part is strong enough. Next. Since the the CAD software programs instead of through shared databases mid-1980s CAD and CAM have come closer together. produces a smooth finish. plastic stencil. or model. The manufacturing operations may include milling. which removes gouges. expensive computers. that shows how the tool will cut the material. and cleans up the part. CAM software selects the best cutting tools for the material and sets the most effective cutting speed. the rough cut. In the final step the CAM software controls the machine that produces the part. drilling. other tools drafters used. lathing. which are most often made of metal. III COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING CAM uses a computer to control the manufacture of objects such as parts. Early CAD The earliest CAM software was a simple computer attached to a milling machine. such as the ink pen. The tool's path has three stages: the containment area. as some CAM software operates within . Step five is the production of a prototype. and polishing. Today.produce accurate engineering drawings. plastic. and electric eraser. which removes large areas of material. The third step is rendering an accurate image of what the part will look like. IV HISTORY American Ivan Sutherland invented CAD in 1961 when he described a computerized sketchpad in a doctoral thesis while attending the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge. and the surface finish cut. engineers can run CAD software on personal computers or UNIX workstations. beyond which the tool may not cut.
As technology improved. The term robot originates from the robot has been used since to refer to a machine that performs work to assist people or work II HISTORY The concept of automated machines dates to antiquity with myths of mechanical beings brought to life.R.Robot I INTRODUCTION Robot. tasks that could be performed by either workers or machines were essential ingredients in the molds. Automata. however. and accomplish work while interacting with its environment. cheaply. An example of feedback control is a watering trough that uses a float to sense the water level.” It was first used in the 1921 play R. the float drops. and the division of work into smaller automation of factories in the 18th century. the balls swung out due to centrifugal force. When the water falls past a certain level. The word that humans find difficult or undesirable. opens a valve. medieval churches. the valve is closed and the water is shut off. As the water rises. also appeared in the clockwork figures of creatures. As the engine steam to the engine was decreased. invented in 1788 by the Scottish steam engine and also coupled to a valve that regulated the flow of steam. tasks more quickly. The flow of Feedback control. This device featured two metal balls connected to the drive shaft of a speed increased. thus regulating the speed. or manlike machines. computer-controlled machine that is programmed to move. When the float reaches a certain height. and releases more water into the trough. they could . specialized machines were developed for tasks such as placing caps on bottles or pouring liquid rubber into tire not reach for objects and place them in a desired location. the development of specialized tools. The first true feedback controller was the Watt governor. so does the float. (Rossum's Universal Robots) by the Czech novelist and playwright Karel Capek. meaning “compulsory labor. manipulate objects. had none of the versatility of the human arm.U. engineer James Watt. These machines. Robots are able to perform repetitive Czech word robota. and 18th-century watchmakers were famous for their clever mechanical Feedback (self-correcting) control mechanisms were used in some of the earliest robots and are still in use today. and accurately than humans. closing the valve.
are designed to mimic the grippers to grasp particular devices such as a rack of test tubes or an arc-welder. In most robots. The basic multijointed concept of the PUMA is the template III HOW ROBOTS WORK The inspiration for the design of a robot manipulator is the human arm. while a graduate student at Stanford University in California. developed a truly flexible multipurpose manipulator known as the Programmable Universal Manipulation Arm (PUMA). For example. PUMA was capable of moving an object and placing it with any orientation in a for most contemporary robots. . A primitive arm that could be programmed to perform specific tasks was developed by the American inventor George Devol. a robot arm can extend by telescoping—that is. but with some differences. or end effectors.The development of the multijointed artificial arm. changing its orientation. desired location within its reach. Many robots are equipped with special purpose The joints of a robotic arm are usually driven by electric motors. Grippers. by sliding cylindrical sections one over another to lengthen the arm.. In 1975 the American mechanical engineer Victor Scheinman. or manipulator. in 1954. the gripper is moved from one position to another. function and structure of the human hand. Jr. Robot arms also can be constructed so that they bend like an elephant trunk. led to the modern robot. A computer calculates the joint angles needed to move the gripper to the desired position in a process known as inverse kinematics.
such as blood or urine samples. with human beings.000 robots were operating in the industrialized world. or they must touch sensors on grippers that regulate the grasping force.000 were used in Japan. to avoid obstacles. robots are used in repetitive. controllers that receive input to the controller. Any robot designed to move in an unstructured or unknown environment will require multiple sensors and controls. Many robot applications are for tasks that are either dangerous or unpleasant for human beings. such as ultrasonic or infrared sensors. monotonous tasks in which human performance might degrade over time. require a multitude of sensors and powerful onboard computers to process the complex information that allows them mobility. the servo controller moves the joint until the arm's angle matches the from a computer. Safety must be integral to the design of human service robots. Over 500. Robots can perform these repetitive. or feedback. such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) planetary rovers. If the actual angle of the arm does not equal the computed angle for the desired position.000 in Western Europe. Each joint in the arm has a device to measure its angle and send that value computed angle. Controllers and associated computers also must process sensor information collected from cameras that locate objects to be grasped.000 in the United States. high- . Robots. such as robots that assist persons with disabilities and robots that deliver IV USES FOR ROBOTS In 1995 about 700. This is particularly true for robots designed to work in close proximity meals in a hospital. robots handle potentially hazardous materials. In other cases. about 120. In medical laboratories. and about 60.Some multijointed arms are equipped with servo.
Similarly. robots can explore distant planets. prospecting for underwater mineral deposits. Research in telesurgery V IMPACT OF ROBOTS Robotic manipulators create manufactured products that are of higher quality and lower cost. traveled to Jupiter in 1996 and performed tasks such as determining the chemical content of the Jovian atmosphere. in robot installation and maintenance. robots can assist surgeons with delicate operations on the human eye. Assembly is one of the painting and depends on low-cost sensor systems and powerful inexpensive computers. such as locating sunken ships. cleanup of nuclear waste. NASA's Galileo. A major user of robots is the automobile welding. industry. under the remote control of expert surgeons that may one day perform operations in distant battlefields. But robots can cause the loss of unskilled jobs.000 robots for tasks such as spot fastest growing industrial applications of robotics. an unpiloted space probe. These new jobs. parts transfer. however. . and assembly. New and in the conversion of old factories and the design of new ones. are ideally suited to robots. General Motors Corporation uses approximately 16. It requires higher precision than welding or Activities in environments that pose great danger to humans. Robots are used in electronic assembly where they mount microchips on circuit boards.precision operations 24 hours a day without fatigue. particularly on assembly lines in factories. and very high-precision uses robots. jobs are created in software and sensor development. painting. Robots are being used to assist surgeons in installing artificial hips. and active volcano exploration. machine loading.
These tiny robots may be used to move through blood machines to diagnose impending mechanical problems. and mow lawns. construct steel frameworks of buildings. providing them with new skills so that they VI FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES Automated machines will increasingly assist humans in the manufacture of new products. and machines are being developed that can perform cognitive tasks. and the care of homes and businesses. Technologically oriented societies must face the task can be employable in the industries of the 21st century. Increasingly. vessels to deliver medicine or clean arterial blockages.require higher levels of skill and training. the maintenance of the world's infrastructure. the management of a battlefield. . of retraining workers who lose jobs to automation. They also may work inside large Perhaps the most dramatic changes in future robots will arise from their increasing ability to reason. ranging in size from centimeters to millimeters. Robots will be able to make new highways. One important trend is the development of microelectromechanical systems. clean underground pipelines. such as strategic planning and learning from experience. The field of artificial intelligence is moving rapidly from university laboratories to practical application in industry. Prototypes of systems to perform all of these tasks already exist. diagnosis of failures in aircraft or satellites. or the control of a large factory will be performed by intelligent computers.
the automobile has brought noise and air pollution.Automobile I INTRODUCTION Automobile. minivans. can be called the Age of the Automobile. The typical automobile. including a driver. and automobile accidents rank among the elaborate road and highway systems. motorcar. sale. the 1900s and economy well into the 21st century. omnibuses. The manufacture. and cars will no doubt continue to shape our culture Automobiles are classified by size. and servicing of automobiles have become key elements of industrial economies. particularly in the United States and other industrialized nations. style. But along with greater mobility and job creation. number of doors. Those used to carry cargo are called pickups . auto. From the growth of suburbs to the development of modern landscape. and intended use. Larger vehicles designed to carry more passengers are called vans. self-propelled vehicle used primarily on public roads but adaptable to other surfaces. has four wheels and can carry up to six people. But for better or worse. or buses. and passenger car. Automobiles changed the world during the 20th century. also called a car. the so-called horseless carriage has forever altered the leading causes of death and injury throughout the world.
which include springs and shock absorbers. electricity. depending on their size and design. but some engines use diesel ethanol (grain alcohol). when rotated by powered axles. II POWER SYSTEM Gasoline internal-combustion engines power most automobiles. one or more driveshafts. Steering and braking systems provide control over controls many aspects of the vehicle’s operation. heavy loads. a differential gear. About 7. In 2001 manufacturing plants in more than 35 countries produced 39. air bags. Safety features such as bumpers. and powers such components as headlights and radios. lubricate its moving parts. fuel. Suspension systems. also known as SUVs.or trucks. and help protect the vehicle from being damaged by bumps. or fuels derived from methanol (wood alcohol) and . Sport-utility vehicles. and seat belts help protect occupants in an accident.3 million passenger vehicles were produced in North America in 2001. and remove exhaust gases it creates. cool it produces mechanical power that is transmitted to the automobile’s wheels through a during operation. An electrical system starts and operates the engine. solar energy. Minivans are van-style vehicles built on a passenger car frame that can usually carry up to eight passengers. Various systems supply the engine with fuel.5 million passenger cars. which includes a transmission. axles. and other stresses. see Automobile Industry. The engine drivetrain. direction and speed. are more rugged than passenger cars and are designed for driving in mud or snow. monitors and propel the vehicle forward or backward. cushion the ride and Wheels and tires support the vehicle on the roadway and. The automobile is built around an engine. For information on the business of making cars. natural gas.
Bolted to the top of the block. Fuel vapor enters and exhaust gases leave the combustion chamber through openings in the cylinder head controlled by valves. crankshaft. Lubricated bearings enable both ends of the connecting rod to The top of the piston forms the floor of the combustion chamber. which in turn causes the engine’s crankshaft to revolve. An electric current flows through a spark plug to ignite the vapor.Most gasoline engines work in the following way: Turning the ignition key operates a switch that sends electricity from a battery to a starter motor. houses the cylinders. the piston to the crankshaft. and camshaft. A rod connects the bottom of pivot. causes pistons. cylinder head. creating hot expanding gases that push the pistons down the cylinders and cause the crankshaft to rotate. and crankshaft. The pistons’ motion rotates the crankshaft at speeds ranging from about 600 to thousands of revolutions per minute (rpm). The block is manufactured with internal and formed with a set of round cylinders. depending on how much fuel is delivered to the cylinders. The motor to disengage from the flywheel. or combusts. Pistons compress air and fuel against the cylinder head prior to ignition. permitting the starter A Engine The basic components of an internal-combustion engine are the engine block. The typical engine valve is a metal shaft with a disk at one . pistons. cylinders. which are solid cylinders that fit snugly inside the engine’s hollow cylinders. The lower part of the engine. The rotating crankshaft move up and down. it seals the tops of the cylinders. The components of other engine passageways for lubricants and coolant. transferring the piston’s vertical motion into the crankshaft’s rotational force. valves. a carburetor deliver fuel vapor from the gas tank to the engine cylinders. in older cars. called the systems bolt or attach to the engine block. Engine blocks are made of cast iron or aluminum alloy The upper part of the engine is the cylinder head. engine block. Fuel-injection systems or. The fuel mixture explodes. or torque. pistons. crankshaft is now rotating via the up-and-down motion of the pistons. The starter motor turns a disk known as a flywheel. to The pistons compress the vapor inside the cylinders.
5. In-line designs are arranged so that the cylinders stand upright in a single line over the crankshaft. which have one or more elliptical chambers in which triangular-shaped rotors. or 8-cylinder engines. lobes on the camshaft cause valves to open and close at precise tightly to direct the force of the explosion downward on the piston. are similar to gasoline internal-combustion engines. the intake and outlet valves close B Engine Types The blocks in most internal-combustion engines are in-line designs or V designs. In a V design. 3. the shaft that transmits engine power to the axles. or chain links the camshaft to the crankshaft. By relying more on electricity and less on fuel combustion. and use more fuel. General Motors Corporation introduced a mass-production all-electric Automobiles that combine two or more types of engines are called hybrids. but they have a different ignition system. which rotates a driveshaft. The other end of the shaft is mechanically linked to a camshaft. and more cylinders. space. but car Diesel engines. two rows of cylinders are set at an angle to form a V. A gear wheel. Inlet valves open to allow fuel to enter the combustion chambers. 6-. Electric power supplied by batteries runs the motor. arrangement in which the crankshaft lies between two rows of cylinders. 2.end fitted to block the opening. These hybrids are known as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). The V design allows the same number of cylinders to spaces is a horizontally opposed. belt. At the bottom of the V is the crankshaft. When fuel vapor ignites. A typical hybrid is an electric motor with batteries that are recharged by a generator run by a small gas. In-line configurations of six or eight cylinders require long engine compartments found more often in trucks than in cars. a round rod with odd-shaped lobes located inside the engine block or in the cylinder head. Another engine design that fits into shorter. or flat. with greater force than a gasoline engine does. also known as Wankel engines. instead of pistons. common in large trucks or buses. HEVs have higher fuel efficiency and emit . available in the 1980s. Most modern vehicles in the United States have 4-. Some cars have rotary engines. Outlet valves open to let exhaust gases out. 12. shallower Engines become more powerful. fit into a shorter. although wider. rotate. moments in the engine’s cycle. Commercial electric car models for specialized purposes were car in the mid-1990s. increase. producing temperatures hot enough to ignite Electric motors have been used to power automobiles since the late 1800s. Diesels compress air inside the cylinders the diesel fuel on contact. as the size and number of cylinders engines have been designed with 1.or diesel-powered engine. When the crankshaft forces the camshaft to turn.
In 1997 Toyota Motor in Japan in 1997 and in North America in 2000. manifold.fewer pollutants. the Honda Insight. but most are operated or managed electronically. All new cars produced today are equipped with fuel injection systems instead of carburetors. Inside the carburetor. delivering better efficiency. The first hybrid available for sale in North America. Fuel injectors spray carefully calibrated bursts of fuel mist into cylinders either at or near the cylinders. to a fuel-injection system. fuel injection is more precise. A vacuum created by the downward strokes of pistons draws air through the carburetor and intake The intake manifold delivers the fuel vapor to the cylinders. Fuel is stored in a tank until it is needed. in newer cars. where it is ignited.. leading to the cylinders. It mixes fuel with air at the head of a pipe. or vapor. Fuel-injection systems vary widely.. was offered by Honda Motor Co. the Prius. easier to adjust. engine responsiveness. Corporation became the first to mass-produce a hybrid vehicle. called the intake manifold. Since the exact quantity of gas needed is injected into carburetor. Ltd. fuel and air in the cylinders’ combustion chambers. gas mileage. The carburetor controls the mixture of gas and air that travels to the engine. in 1999. Several automakers have experimented with hybrids. and pollution control. and more consistent than a openings to the combustion chambers. the airflow transforms drops of fuel into a fine mist. It became available C Fuel Supply The internal-combustion engine is powered by the burning of a precise mixture of liquefied then pumped to a carburetor or. .
these features produce greater horsepower. A cooling system conducts this heat away from the engine’s cylinders and radiates it into the air. In most automobiles today. making it A second. Exhaust gases leave the engine in a pipe. leaving only low-level heat to emerge from the tailpipe. smaller radiator is fitted to all modern cars. Chemical reactions inside the catalytic converter change most of the hazardous hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide produced by the engine into water vapor and carbon dioxide. Some contain partitions to help reduce engine noise. the coolant was water. The system generates sound waves 180 degrees out E Cooling and Heating System Combustion inside an engine produces temperatures high enough to melt cast iron. A pump sends the coolant from the engine to a radiator. III DRIVETRAIN . Turbochargers are turbine-powered compressors run by pressurized exhaust gas. that controls speakers near the tailpipe. called antifreeze that has a higher boiling point and lower freezing point than water. The conventional muffler is an enclosed metal tube packed with sound-deadening material. By increasing the air and fuel flow to the engine. D Exhaust System The exhaust system carries exhaust gases from the engine’s combustion chamber to the traveling through a catalytic converter and a muffler before exiting through the tailpipe. In early engines. which transfers heat from the coolant to the air. engine noise. Most conventional mufflers are round or oval-shaped with an inlet and outlet pipe at either end. Superchargers are compressors powered by the crankshaft. The sound wave data are sent to a computer of phase with the engine noise. which uses sensors to monitor the sound waves of the exhaust noise. In most automobiles. or muffles. a liquid coolant circulates through the engine. Car manufacturers are experimenting with an electronic muffler. The sound waves from the electronic muffler collide with the exhaust sound waves and they cancel each other out.High-performance automobiles are often fitted with air-compressing equipment that increases an engine’s output. they are designed so a flow of air can reach metal fins that conduct heat away from the cylinders. Some engines are air cooled. atmosphere and reduces. the coolant is a chemical solution effective in temperature extremes. This unit uses engine heat to warm the interior of the passenger compartment and supply heat to the windshield defroster. that is.
Gears are selected with a shift lever located on the floor next . By using gears of different sizes. Higher gears permit the car to travel faster. The various components that link the crankshaft to the drive or more driveshafts.The rotational force of the engine’s crankshaft turns other shafts and gears that eventually cause the drive wheels to rotate. automatic. As the engine’s crankshaft rotates. a transmission alters the rotational speed and torque of the gears provide more power for starting a car from engine passed along to the driveshaft. one A Transmission The transmission. There are three basic transmission types: manual. transfers power from the engine to the driveshaft. also known as the gearbox. while low a and for climbing hills. A manual transmission has a gearbox from which the driver selects specific gears depending on road speed and engine load. combinations of transmission gears pass the energy along to a driveshaft. differential gears. and continuously variable. and axles. The major parts of the drivetrain include the transmission. standstill The transmission usually is located just behind the engine. The driveshaft causes axles to rotate and turn the wheels. wheels make up the drivetrain. although some automobiles were designed with a transmission mounted on the rear axle.
Most automobiles either are frontwheel or rear-wheel drive. Releasing the clutch pedal presses the two disks together. The clutch disk attaches to the transmission’s input shaft. automatic transmissions use a hydraulic torque converter to transfer engine power to the transmission. engine automobiles as early as 1900. When the driver presses down on the clutch pedal to shift gears. others feature full-time. Commercial applications have been limited to small engines. transferring torque from the engine to the transmission. An automatic transmission selects gears itself according to road conditions and the amount of load on the engine. The wheels receiving power are called drive wheels: They propel the vehicle forward or backward. all-wh eel drive. or to all four wheels. .and Rear-Wheel Drive Depending on the vehicle’s design. In some vehicles. The driver presses on the clutch to disengage the transmission from the engine to permit a change of gears. Instead of making distinct changes from one gear to the next. Instead of a manual clutch.to the driver or on the steering column. four-wheel drive is an option the driver selects for certain road conditions. The transmission keeps the engine running at its most B Front. a mechanical lever called a clutch fork and a device called a throwout bearing separate the two disks. the rear wheels. It presses against a circular plate attached to the engine’s flywheel. Continuously variable transmissions appeared on machinery during the 19th century and on a few smallefficient speed by more precisely matching the gear ratio to the situation. engine power is transmitted by the transmission to the front wheels. a continuously variable transmission uses belts and pulleys to smoothly slide the gear ratio up or down.
without a system of severe bumps and bounces. contains springs that move up and down to absorb bumps and vibrations. dampen. Each not transferred across a common axle to the other wheel or the rest of the car. and air. Sports cars and sportutility vehicles have firmer suspensions to improve cornering ability and control over rough terrain. Four-wheel-drive vehicles have drive shafts and differentials for both axles. IV SUPPORT SYSTEMS Automobiles would deliver jolting rides. the differential is on the front axle and the connections to the transmission are much shorter.The differential is a gear assembly in an axle that enables each powered wheel to turn at different speeds when the vehicle makes a turn. output shaft to a differential gear in the axle. shock absorbers and other devices to protect the auto body and passenger compartment from A Suspension System The suspension system. Modern shock absorbers have a telescoping design and use oil. One shock absorber is installed at combination to absorb energy. Sensors. the sudden loading and unloading of suspension springs to reduce wheel bounce and each wheel. the driveshaft runs under the car to a differential gear at the rear axle. so the shock of one wheel hitting a bump is suspensions for automobiles and heavier vehicles use rigid axles with coil or leaf springs. or the shock transferred from the road wheels to the body. wheel suspension systems. In front-wheel drive. a long tube. has a shock absorber built into its center section. and sports cars feature independent rear- Active suspensions are computer-controlled adjustments of the downward force of each wheel as the vehicle corners or rides over uneven terrain. a pump. Universal joints at both ends of the driveshaft In rear-wheel drive. gas. much like the arrangement on horse-drawn buggies. especially on unpaved roads. Older automobiles were equipped with one-piece front axles attached to the frame with semielliptic leaf springs. The driveshaft connects the transmission’s allow it to rotate as the axles move up and down over the road surface. Many rear-axle However. and hydraulic cylinders. or strut. In one type of suspension system. or a Luxury sedans generally have a soft suspension for comfortable riding. advanced passenger cars. . part of the undercarriage of an automobile. Shock absorbers control. luxury sedans. Front wheels on wheel has its own axle and suspension supports. modern cars roll independently of each other on half-shafts instead of on a common axle.
and by stopping or slowing the speed at which the wheels rotate. traction and strength are primary requirements. and more expensive. In addition. fit on the outside rims of the wheels.all monitored and controlled by computer. more impact absorbent. Tire treads come in several varieties to match V CONTROL SYSTEMS A driver controls the automobile’s motion by keeping the wheels pointed in the desired direction. These controls are made possible by the steering and braking systems. Aluminum wheels are lighter. the driver controls the to the engine. so driving conditions. first patented in 1845. Tires help smooth out the ride and provide the automobile’s only contact with the road. enable the vehicle to lean into corners and compensate for the dips and dives that accompany emergency stops and rapid acceleration. Pneumatic (air-filled) rubber tires. Automobile wheels generally are made of steel or aluminum. B Wheels and Tires Wheels support the vehicle’s weight and transfer torque to the tires from the drivetrain and braking systems. vehicle’s speed with the transmission and the gas pedal. which adjusts the amount of fuel fed .
Another method was to use a lever to clamp a strap or brake shoes tightly around the driveshaft. requiring less effort by the driver. Most steering systems link the front wheels together by means of a tie-rod. in which friction pads clamp down on both sides of a disk attached to the axle. were in use by the 1950s. the driver pressed a block of friction between the wheel and the brake shoe caused the vehicle to slow down or stop.A Steering Automobiles are steered by turning the front wheels. called drum brakes. were replaced by asbestos after 1908. to motor instead of hydraulic pressure. An antilock braking system (ABS) uses a computer. wood. operated by the pressure or movement of a liquid. especially on uneven terrain. Depending on the steering mechanism. Automobiles are also equipped with a hand-operated brake used for emergencies and to foot pedal sets the brake. friction applied by linings. Introduced in the 1980s. Pulling on a lever or pushing down on a . By pulling a lever. against the wheel rims. Hydraulically assisted braking was introduced in the 1920s. leather. A brake system with shoes that pressed against the inside of a drum fitted to the wheel. although a few automobile types have The tie-rod insures that the turning of one wheel is matched by a corresponding turn in the other. and a hydraulic pump to stop the automobile’s forward motion without locking the wheels and putting the vehicle into a skid. known as the shoe. Since the drum and wheel rotate together. appeared in 1903. greatly extending the life of the brake the shoes inside the drum slowed or stopped the wheel. Cotton and leather shoe coverings. or metal. Disk brakes. ABS helps the driver maintain better control over the car during emergency stops and while braking on slippery surfaces. Conventional power steering uses hydraulic pressure. gears or other devices convert the rotating motion of the steering wheel into a horizontal force that turns the wheels. sensors. The first automobile brakes were much like those on horse-drawn wagons. Manual steering relies only on the force exerted by the driver to turn the wheels. When a driver turns the steering wheel. the mechanical action rotates a steering shaft inside the steering column. or mechanism. securely park the car. With sufficient pressure. augment that force. all-wheel steering. Electric power steering uses an electric B Brakes Brakes enable the driver to slow or stop the moving vehicle.
routes high-voltage current to the spark plugs. windshield wipers. An electric arc between two electrodes at the bottom of the spark plug ignites the fuel vapor. battery stores electricity for starting the car. significantly increase the current’s voltage. radio. The Early automotive electrical systems ran on 6 volts. There are many variations. and other accessories. In older vehicles. then deliver it to spark plugs that project into the combustion chambers. which is an electrical switching device. turn signals.VI ELECTRICAL SYSTEM The automobile depends on electricity for fuel ignition. Eventually. but all gasoline-engine ignition systems draw electric current from the battery. The distributor’s housing contains a switch called the breaker . headlights. horn. A battery and an alternator supply electricity. or 48-volt systems may become the standard as more computers and electronics are built into A Ignition System The ignition system supplies high-voltage current to spark plugs to ignite fuel vapor in the cylinders. recharging the battery and powering the rest of the car’s electrical needs. 24automobiles. The alternator generates electric current while the engine is running. a distributor. but 12 volts became standard after World War II (1939-1945) to operate the growing number of electrical accessories.
At impact. Seat belt and upper-body restraints that relax to permit comfort but tighten automatically belts that slide into position automatically when the car’s doors close. Air bags first appeared in the midsold in the United States. VII SAFETY FEATURES Manufacturers continue to build lighter vehicles with improved structural rigidity and ability to protect the driver and passengers during collisions.5-mph) collisions with no damage. government regulations required bumpers designed to withstand low-speed collisions with less damage. the bag inflates almost instantaneously. This high-voltage current passes back to the distributor. points from damage by the high-voltage surge. during an impact are now common. Passenger compartments overturns. while others can Modern vehicles feature crumple zones. and condenser have been replaced by solid-state electronics controlled by a computer. located in doors cushion between the occupant and the vehicle’s interior. The coil uses electromagnetic induction (see Electricity: Electromagnetism) to convert interruptions of the 12-volt current into surges of 20. Bumpers evolved as rails or bars to protect the front and rear of the car’s body from damage in minor collisions. coil. interrupting the supply of low-voltage current to a transformer called a coil. A condenser absorbs excess current and protects the breaker timing of the spark-plug discharges. points. Over the years. and protective beams in the doors to help protect passengers from side impacts. withstand 8-km/h (5-mph) collisions with no damage. which mechanically routes it through wires to spark plugs. Some automobiles have side-impact air bags. A computer controls the ignition system and adjusts it to provide maximum efficiency in a variety of driving conditions. portions of the automobile designed to absorb forces on many vehicles also have reinforced roll bar structures in the roof.000 volts or more. bumpers became stylish and. The distributor and other devices control the In modern ignition systems. not strong enough to survive minor collisions without expensive repairs.points. Some car models are equipped with shoulder-restraint An air bag is a high-speed inflation device hidden in the hub of the steering wheel or in the or seats. in case the vehicle that otherwise would be transmitted to the passenger compartment. in some cases. A rotating shaft in the distributor causes the switch to open and close. Some bumpers can withstand 4-km/h (2. the distributor. 1970s. available as an optional accessory. The inflated bag creates a dash on the passenger’s side. Eventually. Today they are installed on all new passenger cars . producing a spark that ignites the gas vapor in the cylinders.
44 km/h (121. Horse-drawn stagecoach companies and the new railroad vehicles. models had been developed. Illinois. including the creation of a wheel that turned under its own power. As early as 1801 successful but very heavy steam automobiles were introduced in England.Air bags inflate with great force. steam-powered vehicle carried four persons. In the early 15th century the Portuguese arrived in China and In 1769 French Army officer Captain Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built what has been called the first automobile. but it was another century before a full-sized engine-powered used for transportation in India. French engineer Onésiphore Pecqueur built one in 1828.2 km/h (2 mph) and had to stop every 20 minutes to build up a fresh head of steam. A Stanley Steamer established a world land speed record in 1906 of 205. By the 1600s small steam-powered engine vehicle was created. yet VIII HISTORY The history of the automobile actually began about 4. Some newer automobile models are equipped with switches to disable the passenger-side air research ways to make air-bag systems less dangerous for frail and small passengers.000 years ago when the first wheel was the interaction of the two cultures led to a variety of new technologies. built by American twin brothers Freelan and Francis Stanley. In 1804 American inventor Oliver Evans built a steampowered vehicle in Chicago. it had a top speed of a little more than 3. Designed to move artillery pieces. British inventor Walter Handcock built a series of steam carriages in the mid-1830s that were used for the first omnibus service in London. until 1932. bags when a child or infant is traveling in the passenger seat. which occasionally endangers a child or infant passenger. Steam power caught the attention of other vehicle builders. Automakers continue to effective in collisions. The tolls quickly drove the steam coach operators out of business. including the A Internal-Combustion Engine . By the mid-1800s England had an extensive network of steam coach lines. In 1802 a steam-powered coach designed by British engineer Richard Trevithick Laws barred them from public roads and forced their owners to run them like trains on private journeyed more than 160 km (100 mi) from Cornwall to London. tracks. Manufacturers produced about 125 models of steam-powered automobiles. Cugnot’s three-wheeled.573 mph). companies pressured the British Parliament to approve heavy tolls on steam-powered road During the early 20th century steam cars were popular in the United States. Most famous was the Stanley Steamer. Stanley.
in stroke three the vapor explodes and the hot gases push the pistons cylinders. the pistons move up to compress the vapor. In 1860 French inventor Jean-Joseph-Étienne Lenoir patented a one-cylinder engine that used kerosene for fuel. but less efficiently and with more exhaust emissions. The company’s first model was a gasoline-powered buggy steered by a tiller. French bicycle manufacturer Armand Peugeot saw the Panhard-Levassor car and designed an automobile using a similar Daimler engine. produced his first gasoline car in 1886. Fiat . In 1890 Daimler and Maybach started a Gottlieb Daimler and German inventor Wilhelm Maybach mounted a gasoline-powered engine which included a steering tiller and a four-speed gearbox. Engines with two or more cylinders are designed so combustion occurs in one steps. In France. Because the newer engines burned fuel in cylinders inside the engine. Instead of installing the engine under the seats. as other car designers had done. German engineer onto a bicycle. a vehicle powered by Lenoir’s engine reached a top speed of about 6. The Daimler Motor Company. Other French (Fabbrica Italiana Automobili di Torino) began building cars in 1899. the most direct ancestor to today’s automobile engines. down the cylinders. In 1864 Austrian inventor Siegfried Marcus built and drove internal-combustion engine that was displayed at the 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia. Benz. Panhard-Levassor also introduced a clutch and gears. and the car body. and separate construction of the chassis. in 1885. Pennsylvania. including Renault. creating a motorcycle. a carriage propelled by a two-cylinder gasoline engine. Two years later. a company called Panhard-Levassor began making cars in 1894 using Daimler’s patents. the company introduced the design of a front-mounted engine under the hood. The joint company makes cars today under the Mercedes-Benz nameplate (see DaimlerChrysler AG). In Italy. American George Brayton patented an In 1876 German engineer Nikolaus August Otto built a four-stroke gas engine. and in stroke four the pistons move up to push exhaust gases out of the cylinder after the other instead of in all at once. automobile manufacturers opened shop in the late 1800s. In 1891 this first Peugeot automobile paced a 1. Another German engineer.Development of lighter steam cars during the 19th century coincided with major developments in engines that ran on gasoline or other fuels. In 1887 they manufactured their first car. Karl successful car manufacturing company.4 km/h (about 4 mph). In a four-stroke engine the pistons move down to draw fuel vapor into the cylinder during stroke one. Two-stroke engines accomplish the same Automobile manufacturing began in earnest in Europe by the late 1880s.046-km (650-mi) professional bicycle race between Paris and Brest. in stroke two. they were called internal-combustion engines. which eventually merged with Benz’s manufacturing firm in 1926 to create Daimler-Benz. or underlying structure of the car.
170 were steam cars. Heavy cables top speeds of 48 km/h (30 mph). and electric motors. Ford and most other royalties for Ford-manufactured engines. Henry Ford believed Selden’s patent was invalid. Selden. Brothers Charles Edgar Duryea and James one-cylinder. a American industrialist Henry Ford built an internal-combustion engine from plans he saw in a B Early Electric Cars For a few decades in the 1800s. Selden sued when Ford refused to pay 1911 that Selden’s patent applied only to two-stroke engines. Electric automobiles were manufactured in quantity in the United States IX AUTOMOBILES IN THE 20TH CENTURY For many years after the introduction of automobiles. connected the batteries to a motor between the front and rear axles. Illinois. By 1899 an km/h (65. gasoline engines. and only 400 were gasoline cars. Gasoline-powered engines eventually became the nearly universal choice for automobiles because they allowed longer trips and faster speeds than engines powered by steam or electricity.79 mph). four-horsepower model. Selden saw a gasoline engine at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition in 1876. Although Selden did not manufacture engines or automobiles. . 1. The first Duryea. looked much like a Panhard-Levassor model. and Chicago. electric engines enjoyed great popularity because they were quiet and ran at slow speeds that were less likely to scare horses and people. electric car designed and driven by Belgian inventor Camille Jenatzy set a record of 105. Of these. Boston.300 automobiles were registered in New York City. In 1893 magazine. Most electric cars had needed recharging. He then designed a similar one and obtained a broad patent that for many years was interpreted to apply to all gasoline engines for automobiles.American automobile builders were not far behind.8810 Early electric cars featured a large bank of storage batteries under the hood. But development of gasoline cars in the early 1900s was hindered in the United States by legal battles over a patent obtained by New York lawyer George B. he collected royalties from those who did. so Selden could not charge them royalties. Frank Duryea built several gas-powered vehicles between 1893 and 1895. but could go only 80 km (50 mi) before their batteries until 1930. In 1896 he used an engine to power a vehicle mounted on bicycle wheels and steered by a tiller. three kinds of power sources were in common use: steam engines. 800 were electric cars. After eight years of court battles. Massachusetts. In 1900 more than 2. the courts ruled in manufacturers were using four-stroke engines.
Also introduced during the 1930s were stronger. Ford built 17. Electric headlights were introduced at about the same time. Ford’s company rolled out new car models each year. The 1902 Locomobile was the first American car with a four-cylinder. The company’s innovative assembly-line method of building By 1920 more than 8 million Americans owned cars. and the affordability of cars for the ordinary wage earner. which helped passengers get in and out of the vehicles usually sat on the right. automotive steering wheels were on the left in the United States. and mechanically operated From 1930 to 1937. Although drivers of horse-drawn In 1903 Henry Ford incorporated the Ford Motor Company. Company. improved carburetors. Ford’s share of the domestic automobile market had soared to 35 percent. when models R and S appeared. In 1906 gasoline-powered cars were produced that had a style all their own. and each model was named Ford’s famous Model T debuted in 1908 but was called a 1909 Ford. along with weather resistant tops and side curtains.771 Model the biggest-selling automobiles of all time. T’s and offered nine body styles. Ford sold more than 15 million before stopping the cars was widely adopted in the automobile industry. Independent front suspension. a hood covered the front-mounted engine. more reliable Mercedes introduced the world’s first diesel car in 1936. Many 12- and 16-cylinder cars were built. front-mounted gasoline engine. Built-in baggage compartments appeared in 1906. four-wheel hydraulic brake systems. Popularly known as the Tin Lizzy. the Model T became one of production of the model in 1927. Most automobiles at the turn of the 20th century appeared more or less like horseless carriages. the assembly-line method of building it. automobile engines and bodies became large and luxurious. vehicle. An electric self-starter was introduced in 1911 to replace the hand crank used to start the engine turning. in that same year. the Model A. In these new models. which developed more horsepower. comfortable. Improvements in engine-powered cars during the 1920s contributed to their popularity: synchromesh transmissions for easier gear shifting. appeared in 1933. which was hardly surprising since Ford had designed cars the previous year for the Cadillac Motor Car with a letter of the alphabet. watercooled. heaters. It closely resembled the 1903 Cadillac. very similar in design to most cars today. shatterproof glass. and higher-compression engines. The passenger compartment was behind the engine. which made the big cars more braking systems.Improvements in the operating and riding qualities of gasoline automobiles developed quickly after 1900. windshield wipers. which introduced its first automobile. Automobiles on both sides of the . Cars had fenders that covered the wheels and step-up platforms called running boards. By 1907. Major reasons for the surge in automobile ownership were Ford’s Model T. Two kerosene or acetylene lamps mounted to the front served as headlights. balloon tires.
Olds Motor Vehicle Company (Oldsmobile). Ford. but with increased engine size and horsepower. The first Japanese imports. 16 compact trucks. automobile designers borrowed features for their cars that were normally found on aircraft and ships. By 1960 sales of foreign and domestic compacts accounted for about one-third of all passenger cars sold in the United States. but the majority of designs still had separate fenders with pontoon shapes holding headlight assemblies. and Ford all built enormous cars. more power.500 lb). it did not attract buyers on a large scale until 1958. The first American car called a compact was the Nash Rambler.300 kg (2. Three companies. and its new styling was so well accepted the car continued in production virtually unchanged for three years. long hoods. The Europeans continued to produce small. Heating and ventilating systems became standard equipment on became widespread. including air conditioning and electrically operated car windows and seat adjusters. Introduced in 1950. Two schools of styling emerged in the 1950s. Only two were sold that year. American cars were built smaller. In the 1950s new automotive features were introduced. Nash.800 lb). The first import by German manufacturer Volkswagen AG. tubeless tires. In America. emerged from the factories of many major manufacturers. which gave better engine performance and more reliable operation of the growing number of electrical accessories. European sports cars of that era featured hand-fashioned aluminum bodies over a steel chassis and framework. smaller in overall size than a standard car but with virtually the same interior body dimensions. but American consumers soon began compacts. That prompted a downsizing of some American-made vehicles. Automatic transmissions. some weighing as much as 2. Cadillac Automobile Company. The Buick Motor Car Company. aerodynamic automobiles. Manufacturers changed from the 6-volt to the 12-volt ignition system. The 1949 Ford was a landmark in this respect. Styling sometimes prevailed over practicality—some cars were built in even the least expensive models. and the automatic transmission were introduced. and Hudson Motor Car Company. More the United States in 1949. arrived in buying the Beetle and other small imports by the thousands. Automobiles were produced that had more space. arrived in the United States in 1956. Some of the first vehicles to fully incorporate the fender into the bodywork came along just after World War II. one on each side of the Atlantic. power brakes. sealed-beam headlights. including tailfins and portholes. offered postwar designs that merged fenders into the bodywork. advertised as the Beetle. During the 1940s.495 kg (5. light cars weighing less than 1.Atlantic were styled with gracious proportions. selling more than 3 million. and pontoon-shaped fenders. and smoother riding capability. Creative artistry merged with industrial design to produce appealing. and power steering . Introduction of power steering and power brakes made bigger cars easier to handle.
the auto industry was hurt by the energy crisis. In the 1970s American manufacturers continued to offer smaller. long recharges. more fuel-efficient Digital speedometers and electronic prompts to service parts of the vehicle appeared in the cars and family minivans surged in popularity. The price of crude oil skyrocketed. technical problems related to the gas’s density and flammability remain to be solved. driving up the price of gasoline.864 mi) in Australia in six days. A redesigned. . and weak consumer interest. the bigger sedans that led their product lines. SunRaycer. board computer to monitor engine performance. lighter models in addition to to sell well. Back seats were designed with no legroom. Engines that run on hydrogen have been tested. while imported imports. traveled X NEW TECHNOLOGIES Pollution-control laws adopted at the beginning of the 1990s in some of the United States and in Europe called for automobiles that produced better gas mileage with lower emissions. Catalytic converters were introduced to help reduce exhaust emissions. Popular in trucks and heavy vehicles. and a water-vapor by-product. Diesel engines burn fuel more efficiently. A solar-powered vehicle. no carbon dioxide.which the engines had to be lifted to allow simple service operations. a cartel of oil-producing countries. created when the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). and produce fewer pollutants. Hydrogen combustion produces only a trace of harmful emissions. However. in passenger cars.000 km (1. sporty Advances in automobile technology in the 1980s included better engine control and the use of innovative types of fuel. In 1981 Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW) introduced an on3. The California Air Resources Board required companies with the largest market shares to begin selling vehicles that were pollution free—in other words. In 1996 General Motors became the first to begin selling an all-electric car. like changing the spark plugs. quieter diesel engine introduced by Volkswagen in 1996 may pave the way for more diesels. Japanese manufacturers opened plants in the United States. At the same time. and less pollution. the EV1. More buyers chose the smaller. but Japanese and European compacts continued During this period. to California buyers. Large cars were getting as little as 8 miles per gallon (mpg). 1980s. but they are noisy. diesel engines are only a small portion of the automobile market. electric. compacts were getting as much as 35 mpg. The allelectric cars introduced so far have been limited by low range. cut back on sales to other countries.
After being told the destination. the computer locates it Some cars now come equipped with GPS locator beacons. Prius hit automobile showrooms in Japan in 1997. in vehicle size are not practical. In the 1980s the reality. selling 30. and carbon composites. and air mixture ratios. and the information displayed in the vehicle’s Expanded use of computer technology. route directions. computers also control the air dashboard. and other data. destination the driver wants to reach. Further reductions plastics. The onboard navigation system uses an electronic satellite-aided global positioning system (GPS). development of stronger and lighter materials. The Honda (HEVs). Both vehicles. manufacturers trimmed 450 kg (1. The central processing unit (CPU) in modern engines manages overall engine performance. the sound system. doubled the gas mileage obtained by the average new car between 1974 and 1995. By using the vehicle’s location within a few meters. In many models. a computer in the automobile can pinpoint the compass. Computers manage fuel braking and traction control systems. Insight debuted in North America in late 1999. The Prius became available for sale in North America in 2000. direct repair or emergency workers to the scene.000 models in its first two years of production. coupled with more efficient engines. over the Internet and manage personal affairs while the vehicle’s owner is driving. and a display screen showing where the vehicle is relative to the and directs the driver to it. Microprocessors regulating other systems share data with the CPU. “smarter” automobiles. weather information. map its location. became available in the late 1990s. ignition timing. by the 1990s it had become Onboard navigation was one of the new automotive technologies in the 1990s. and if necessary. such as . aluminum alloys. in the engine and the rest of the vehicle. promised to double the fuel efficiency of conventional gasoline-powered cars while significantly reducing toxic emissions. notion that a car would “talk” to its driver was science fiction. known as hybrid electric vehicles Computer control of automobile systems increased dramatically during the 1990s. and research on pollution control will produce better. so the emphasis has shifted to using lighter materials. the Toyota Prius and the Honda Insight. digitized maps. They adjust the antilock conditioning and heating. Future built-in computer systems may be used to automatically obtain business information During the 1980s and 1990s. Two automobiles with such hybrid engines. others investigated ways to combine electricity with liquid fuels to produce low-emissions power systems. Less weight.While some developers searched for additional alternatives. Cars equipped with computers and cellular telephones can link to the Internet to obtain constantly updated traffic reports. and exhaust-emission levels. enabling a GPS system operator to locate the vehicle. offering alternative routes if needed.000 lb) from the weight of the typical car by making cars smaller.
Looking ahead. toothed wheel or cylinder used to transmit rotary or reciprocating motion from one part of a machine to another. Two or more gears. designed gears and flat-toothed sectors. or heat the converters more rapidly. and vice versa. The technology may be expanded to new vehicles. transmitting motion from one shaft to another. Spur gears transmit rotating motion between two shafts or other parts with parallel axes. New infrared sensors or radar systems may Catalytic converters work only when they are warm. Engineers are working on ways to keep the converters warm for longer periods between drives. but can. the driven shaft revolves in the opposite direction to the driving shaft. Gearing is chiefly used to transmit rotating motion. however. with suitably rotating motion. Now. In some. meshing teeth. the car’s brakes automatically slow the warn drivers when another vehicle is in their “blind spot. engineers are devising ways to reduce driver errors and poor driving habits.” vehicle if it is following another vehicle too closely. If . the word gearing is used only to describe systems of wheels or cylinders with constitute a gear train. Systems already exist in some locales to prevent intoxicated drivers from starting their vehicles. so most of the pollution they emit occurs in the first few minutes of operation. In simple spur gearing. be employed to transform reciprocating motion into II SIMPLE GEARS The simplest gear is the spur gear. a wheel with teeth cut across its edge parallel to the axis. Gear I INTRODUCTION Gear. At one time various mechanisms were collectively called gearing. Anticollision systems with sensors and warning signals are being developed.
gears are variations of the spur gear in which the teeth are cut on the driven by a pinion. driving a gear with 20 teeth will revolve twice as fast as the gear it is driving. an idler gear is placed between the driving gear and the driven gear. the bevel gears used are called miter gears. III HELICAL GEARS These have teeth that are not parallel to the axis of the shaft but are spiraled around the shaft in the form of a helix. This thrust can be avoided by using double helical. By using a train of several gears. These gears have cone-shaped bodies and straight teeth. A worm gear is a long. also called the screw gear. with a large reduction in speed. or annular. Internal gears usually drive or are straight line. the ratio of driving to driven speed may be varied within wide limits. Such gears are suitable for heavy loads because the gear teeth come the disadvantage of producing a thrust that tends to move the gears along their respective together at an acute angle rather than at 90° as in spur gearing. or herringbone. toothed bar that moves in a the rotation of a pinion to reciprocating motion. and a 20-tooth Internal. Simple helical gearing has shafts. A rack.rotation in the same direction is desired. A gear with 10 teeth gear driving a 10-tooth gear will revolve at half the speed. gears. across the teeth of the driven gear instead of exerting a direct rolling pressure. or vice versa. which have V-shaped teeth composed of half a right-handed helical tooth and half a left-handed helical tooth. operates like a gear wheel with an infinite radius and can be used to transform Bevel gears are employed to transmit rotation between shafts that do not have parallel axes. Worm gears . When the angle between the rotating shafts is 90°. thin cylinder that has one or more continuous helical teeth that mesh with a helical gear. a flat. In any form of gearing the speed of the driven shaft depends on the number of teeth in each gear. One of the most common uses of hypoid gearing is to rotation between shafts that are not parallel is often incorrectly called spiral gearing. The idler revolves in the opposite direction to the driving gear and therefore turns the driven gear in the same direction as the driving gear. connect the drive shaft and the rear axle in automobiles. Hypoid gears are helical bevel gears employed when the axes of the two shafts are perpendicular but do not intersect. Worm gears differ from helical gears in that the teeth of the worm slide are used chiefly to transmit rotation. Helical gearing used to transmit Another variation of helical gearing is provided by the worm gear. from one shaft to another at a 90° angle. a small gear with few teeth. inside of a ring or flanged wheel rather than on the outside.
is usually intended to be kept in one place. devices used to measure or indicate the passage of time. a watch is designed to be carried or worn. II MECHANISMS . as well as indicators to register the lapse of time units. A clock. Both types of timepieces require a source of power and a means of transmitting and controlling it. which is larger than a watch.Clocks and Watches I INTRODUCTION Clocks and Watches.
000 and 100. time may be shown by a display of numbers. As in spring-powered clocks. The quartz-crystal clock developed in 1929 for precision timekeeping employs a ring of quartz that is connected to an electrical circuit and made to oscillate between 10. the source of power may be produced by weight. or an electric current. reduced to a frequency more convenient for time measurement. The high-frequency oscillation is converted to an alternating current. The motive force generated by the power source in a mechanical clock is transmitted by a gear train and regulated by a pendulum or a balance and is registered visually by the rotation of wheels bearing numerals or by the position of wheel. force. Electric currents may also be used to keep the movements of several “slave” clocks synchronized with the pendulum in a master clock.In a clock. In self-winding watches. the time may be reported audibly by the striking of a gong or chime hands on a dial. with a balance wheel regulating the motive on a rotor that responds to the arm movements of the wearer. A mechanical watch uses a coiled spring as its power source. such as lifting the weight or tightening the spring. the watch conserves energy by means of a gear train.000 hertz (cycles per second). which is regulated to deliver an alternating current of precisely 60 cycles per second. a mainspring. periodic adjustments. a small motor runs in unison with the power- station generator. In such a clock. the mainspring is tightened automatically by means of a weight III ELECTRIC TIMEPIECES In the electric clocks used in homes today. In electric or electronic clocks. are needed. and thus made to . Except in electric or electronic clocks.
drive the motor of a synchronous clock or a digital display. or stopwatch. Various forms of chronographs exist. and the production counter. which indicates the number of products made in a given time. which not only provides accurate time but also registers elapsed time in fractions of a second. IV CHRONOMETERS Carefully constructed mechanical timepieces known as chronometers are precision devices used by navigators in the determination of their longitude at sea and by astronomers and jewelers for calibrating measuring devices. a form of chronograph used in athletic contests. These portable instruments are mounted on a box chronometer is a precision watch regulated in different positions and at various temperatures Another precision timekeeper is the chronograph. The first successful chronometer was constructed on gimbals so as to maintain the delicate movements in a level position. The modern wrist and certified by testing bureaus in Switzerland. The electric or electronic watch is powered by a small battery that functions for about one year without replacement. which determines pulse rate. in 1761 by English horologist John Harrison. the tachometer. or it may be used to drive the oscillations of either a small tuning fork or a quartz crystal. which measures the distance of an object from the observer. The V ATOMIC CLOCKS . including the telemeter. The battery may drive the balance wheel of an otherwise mechanical clock. the pulsometer. which measures speed of rotation. The maximum error of the most accurate quartz-crystal clocks is plus or minus one second in ten years. shows elapsed time without providing the time of day. timer.
many atoms make the transition to the new energy state. The frequency of the microwave radiation is then used to determine the period of the microwave.The most precise timekeeping devices are atomic clocks. the basic unit of time of the International System of Units. time. cesium-133 atoms in one hyperfine energy state are subjected to microwave radiation that is near the resonant frequency of the transition to another hyperfine energy state. energy states. Because the frequency of these waves is unaffected by external forces. which may vary by 4 to 5 milliseconds per day.192. Their uses include measuring the systems such as the global positioning system in computing distances. or hyperfine. and aiding navigational certain atoms or molecules make the transition between two closely spaced.770 periods of radiation. The cesium-atom clock is very accurate and remains stable over long periods of one million years. The microwave frequency is adjusted. The most stable cesium-atom clocks have an error of about plus or minus one second in . corresponding period of the waves can be used as a standard to define time intervals.631. Atomic clocks are tuned to the frequency of the electromagnetic waves that are emitted or absorbed when rotation of the earth. The second is defined as the duration of 9. the The cesium-atom clock is used to define the second. and when the correct frequency is reached. In this clock. or the time interval between wave crests.
8 m (32 ft). electromagnetic wave. When many atoms return to their original state. or clepsydra. The rubidium atoms. atoms are forced to change to a lower energy state. It employs the same basic principle as the cesium-atom clock. but they are more compact and less expensive. An Egyptian shadow BC was the hours in the absence of sunlight included the notched candle and the Chinese practice of by Chaldean astronomer Berossus. The first recorded examples are found or hour teller. or gnomon. cumbersome devices. A clock built in the 14th century by powered by a 227-kg (500-lb) weight that descended a distance of 9. which originally meant “bell. Clepsydras became more complicated. however. Until that time. Devices almost as old as the shadow clock and sundial include the hourglass. The hydrogen VI HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT BC. time has been measured by the movement of the earth relative to the sun and stars. Clockworks were initially heavy.The rubidium clock uses the transition of the rubidium-87 atom between two hyperfine energy states. and the water clock. Ancient methods of measuring is still in existence. anticipating the mechanical clock. The earliest type of timekeeper. in which the flow of water indicates passage of time. Rubidium clocks are not as stable or as accurate as cesiumatom clocks. dating from as far back as 3500 clock of the 8th century about the 3rd century BC shadow clock. the correct transition frequency has been reached and the period of the wave can be used to measure time. a weight falling under the force of gravity was substituted for the flow of water in time devices. Throughout history. a focused magnetic field selects hydrogen atoms in a specific hyperfine energy state. even to the inclusion of gearing in about 270 BC Eventually. These they begin to oscillate between the two states. are first forced to change their hyperfine energy state and are then subjected to microwave radiation to return them to their original state. The hydrogen clock and the ammonia clock rely on the maser principle. The period of this emitted wave is used to measure time. sense to the huge. The first hemispherical sundial was described burning a knotted rope and noting the length of time required for the fire to travel from one knot to the next. a time-measuring instrument was known as a horologium. a vertical stick or obelisk that casts a shadow. in which the flow of sand is used to measure time intervals. When many atoms make the transition.” was first applied in the present in the 14th century. mechanical time indicators installed in bell towers in the late Middle Ages. The name clock. The Henry De Vick of Württemberg for the royal palace (now the Palais de Justice) in Paris was . A The Mechanical Clock The historical origin of the mechanical clock is obscure. In a hydrogen clock. emitting energy in the form of an clock is very stable for several hours at a time. by Greek inventor Ctesibius of Alexandria.
included a spiral hairspring. B The Pendulum A series of inventions in the 17th and 18th centuries increased the accuracy of clockworks and the property of a pendulum. and crystals to protect both the dial and hands. and Switzerland also produced many fine artisans whose work was noted for beauty and a high degree of mechanical perfection. durable clocks and watches. Germany. Galileo had described late in the 16th century constant. founded in D Decorative Clocks The clock was often a decorative as well as a useful instrument. Jacob Zech of Prague. craftsmanship of a high order was required to manufacture accurate. About 1500 Peter Henlein. which permitted the use in clocks of a pendulum with a small arc of oscillation. to equalize the uneven pull of the spring. In 1657 Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens showed how a pendulum could be used to regulate a clock. stating that the period of the swing is reduced the weight and bulk of the mechanisms. or spiral pulley. is still in existence. and Minute and second hands. The Netherlands. Early clocks were highly ornamented. This type of spring was used in Italy about 1450. Many bore sculptured figures. for the balance wheel. Jeweled bearings to reduce friction and prolong the life of watchworks In the centuries that preceded the introduction of machine-made parts. 17th-century watches. Ten years later English physicist Robert Hooke invented an escapement. clockmaking and its apprenticeship. known as isochronism. Other improvements that increased the accuracy of watches a lever escapement devised by British inventor Thomas Mudge about 1765. invented a fusee. British of compensating for variations in the length of a pendulum resulting from changes in temperature. and clockworks were used in the towers of late . Clocks of that period had dials with only one hand. a locksmith in Nürnberg. Such local craft organizations as the Paris Guild of Clockmakers (1544) were organized to control the art of London in 1630. began producing portable timepieces known popularly as Nürnberg eggs. which indicated the nearest quarter hour. invented about 1660 by Robert Hooke. first appeared on were introduced in the 18th century. In 1525 another artisan. and John Harrison developed a means C Watches Watchworks were developed when coiled springs were introduced as a source of power.apparatus for controlling its rate of fall was crude and the clock inaccurate. Germany. clockmaker George Graham improved the escapement. A guild known as the Clockmakers Company.
Seth Thomas founded the Seth Thomas Clock Company. About the same time in American Revolution (1775-1783). together with the . were made in the Black Forest of Germany as early as 1730 and are still popular. Beginning in watch parts at home to be assembled and sold by a master watchmaker. Connecticut. and it continues to be a popular ornamental clock. Despite a reputation for depression of 1837. a major industry. The grandfather. Simon Willard of Roxbury. and a clock was installed in Independence Hall in Philadelphia. however. church tower. were made in the form of lanterns or birdcages. Swiss watchmaking by the 1850s had led to the development of a number of small factories and the foundation of earrings. Watches were not produced in significant volume in the United States until about 1800. Connecticut. before the introduction of the pendulum clock. a clock could be built in 1716 for the City Hall at Nassau and Wall streets. Connecticut. and Eli Terry of Connecticut evolved a shelf clock called the Plymouth Hollow (now Thomaston). Cuckoo clocks. Chauncey Jerome of Bristol. In 1650. one of the largest clock factories in the world. devised a rolled-brass clock movement that could be sold at a low price. The first public clock in New York City was Mass production of clocks with interchangeable parts began in the United States after the used for the movements. was designed before machine-cut gears were introduced. Connecticut. Massachusetts. well-seasoned wood was patented the popular banjo clock. Some early English clocks pendulum and weight exposed beneath a gear housing at the top of a tall cabinet. containing carved wooden birds. in the mid-20th century. Pennsylvania. which emerge and “sing” to tell the time. pillar-and-scroll clock. particularly in the villages of the Jura Mountains.medieval Europe to set in motion huge statues of saints or allegorical figures. clock. At first a cottage industry. Wristwatches became popular as watchworks became smaller. Such innovations. produced the first Americandesigned watch and the first containing a machine-made part. which temporarily crippled American industry. accuracy and durability. Switzerland became the center of a watchmaking industry. the manufacture of this watch was discontinued as a result of the During this period. Some modern Swiss watchworks are tiny enough to fit into pencil ends or in VII PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES European clockmakers and watchmakers brought their skills and mechanical ingenuity to colonial America. or case. established a factory with a capacity of 200 units a year. Massachusetts. with families manufacturing kept in a pocket. found in a Boston. Because of the scarcity of metals. which required winding only once a day. when Thomas Harland of Norwich. by 1753. In 1836 the Pitkin brothers of East Hartford. which has the Watches were originally shaped like drums or balls and were worn suspended from a belt or the 18th century. In the early 1800s. which was.
and for the first time most families could afford a clock. Watches wound with keys were replaced after 1875 by stem-wound types. Shortt in 1921 of the Shortt Free Pendulum. soon made the United States the leading clock-making country of the world. became known as the dollar watches. VIII RECENT DEVELOPMENTS The electric clock was an American innovation of the early 1900s. who induced producers of electric power to time the alternating-current cycles carefully so that synchronous motors could be used for clocks. a famous American pocket watch.economies of mass production. H. made possible the most accurate timekeeper until the introduction of the quartz clock in the United States in 1929. Watches also became cheaper as production rose. Later watches were even less expensive. invented by Henry E. could be sold for only $4 because it used a stamped-out mechanism without jewels. competition reduced the price of a clock to $1 or less. New designs reduced the number of parts required. The first Waterbury. . As production increased. The Ingersol and the Ingraham. invented and perfected automatic production machinery in the 1850s. Warren. The invention by W. American horologists Aaron Dennison and Edward Howard. for example. working in Massachusetts. developed in England in 1955. The first improvement over the quartz clock was the cesium atomic clock. first installed in the Edinburgh Observatory.
a quartz crystal provides the oscillations that are reduced to compute time. the alarm watch for the shows the day of month and the week. Scientific advances in metallurgy and other fields have led to many improvements in timekeeping devices of all types. body heat. which functions as a tiny. and raised dots on the dial to mark the hours. New sources of power. which has sturdy hands not jeweled bearings. and atomic energy. which . and the calendar watch. The LED. Other covered with a crystal. with a battery to power the transistorized oscillating circuit. uses the light-producing characteristics of certain semiconductors to illuminate its digital time display. are being investigated in current horological research. The LCD. produced in the 1970s. More recent developments have been the LED (light-emitting diode) and LCD (liquid crystal display) watches. portable alarm clock.Electric wristwatches appeared on the market in 1957. followed in 1959 by an electronic watch that substituted a small tuning fork for the usual escapement. such as sunlight. and cases have been perfected that seal out both dust and moisture. materials having optical properties similar to liquids and solid crystals. developed in the 1960s. uses liquid crystals. pocket or wrist. synthetics have replaced precious stones in special-purpose watches include the Braille watch for the blind. The mainsprings of present-day mechanical watches are made from metals that resist breakage and rust.
the upward force on the plane. to great jumbo jets. The wings alter the direction of the flow of air as it passes. ground using the jet thrust of their engines or rotors (rotating wings) and then switch to wing- II HOW AN AIRPLANE FLIES An airplane flies because its wings create lift. seaplanes (aircraft that take off from and land on water). such as helicopters. engine-driven vehicle that can fly through the air supported by the action of air against its wings. Today there are land planes (aircraft that take off from and land on the ground). The exact shape of the surface of a wing is critical to its ability to generate lift. control surfaces. as they interact with the flow of air around them. and weighing nearly 454 metric tons. and airplanes that can leave the borne flight. meant to carry a single pilot. and power plants. Modern airplanes range from ultralight aircraft weighing no more than 46 kg (100 lb) and several hundred tons of cargo.Airplane I INTRODUCTION Airplane. The speed of . capable of carrying several hundred people. which make it possible to guide their flight. or special engines that permit level or climbing flight. which are lighter than air. Airplanes are heavier than air. Airplanes are adapted to specialized uses. Airplanes also differ from other heavier-than-air craft. amphibians (aircraft that can operate on both land and sea). such as movable parts of the wings and tail. because they have rigid wings. in contrast to vehicles such as balloons and airships.
it is also creating a significant amount of drag. but because of its large size. A high-lift wing surface. the amount of drag associated with it. Designing a wing that is powerful enough to lift an airplane off the ground. When an airplane is level or rising. it will climb. either a propeller or jet engine or combination of the two.5 metric tons. . The third law of motion formulated by English physicist Isaac Newton specially designed shape of the wing. When thrust is greater than drag. A fourth force acting on all airplanes is drag. produces friction as it interacts with that fluid and because it must move the fluid out of its way to do its work. A steeper angle of attack will cause the wings to push states that every action produces an equal and opposite reaction (see Mechanics: The Third Law). for example. An airplane’s wings push down on the air flowing past them. The angle the wings make with the horizontal is called the angle of attack. and in reaction. with shapes that slip easily through the air. thrust. may create a great deal of lift for an airplane. such as an airplane through air. aerodynamic Managing the balance between these four forces is the challenge of flight. a crop duster.5 metric tons in order for the airplane to leave the ground. thick wing because high lift is more important than airplanes. Drag is created because any object moving through a fluid. The air on the top of an airplane wing moves faster and is at a lower pressure than the air underneath the wing. the upward force on the plane. may have a big. Weight is the force that offsets lift. which states that. If an airplane weighs 4. Lift is one of the four primary forces acting upon an airplane. Conversely. and yet efficient enough to fly at high speeds over extremely long distances. Drag is also minimized by designing sleek. the front edges of its wings ride higher than the rear edges. because it acts in the opposite direction. As the wings move through the air. Thrust is the force that propels an airplane forward through the air. is one of the marvels of modern aircraft technology. the wings pushing air downward is the action. This causes lift. and drag. the air pushes up on the wings. Lift is also often explained using Bernoulli’s principle. an airplane will accelerate. under certain circumstances. this angle causes them to push air flowing under them downward. and the air pushing the wings upward is the reaction. Thrust is provided by the airplane’s propulsion system. In this case. and the lift generated by the wing can be modeled using equations derived from Bernoulli’s principle. When lift is greater than weight. The others are weight. then the lift produced by its wings must be greater than 4. Air flowing over the top of the wing is also deflected downward as it follows the more air downward. That is why high-speed fighters and missiles have such thin wings—they need to minimize drag created by lift.the airflow and the angle at which the wing meets the oncoming airstream also contribute to the amount of lift generated. The weight of the airplane must be overcome by the lift produced by the wings. which flies at relatively slow speeds. a faster moving fluid (such as air) will have a lower pressure than a slower moving fluid.
and thereby reducing drag. a pilot can manipulate the balance of the four forces to change the direction or speed. Or. pilots lost control of the aircraft as shock waves built up on control surfaces.Using various control surfaces and propulsion systems. thrust. weight. which has the same effect as reducing thrust. by retracting the landing gear and flaps. In some cases. effectively locking the controls and leaving the crews helpless. and drag. but with commercial applications as well. The pilot can add thrust either to speed up or climb. tackled the realm of supersonic flight. designers . The pilot can lower the landing gear into the airstream and deploy the landing flaps on the wings to increase drag. modern airplanes have to contend with another phenomenon. The sound barrier is not a physical barrier but a speed at which the behavior of the airflow around an airplane changes dramatically. A pilot can reduce thrust in order to slow down or descend. III SUPERSONIC FLIGHT In addition to balancing lift. After World War II. Fighter pilots in World War II (1939-1945) first ran up against this so-called barrier in high-speed dives during air combat. primarily for military airplanes. the pilot can accelerate or climb.
a shock wave consisting of highly compressed air forms at the nose of the plane. sound travels through air at approximately 1. At sea level. At the speed .Supersonic flight is defined as flight at a speed greater than that of the local speed of sound. This shock wave moves back at a sharp angle as the speed increases.220 km/h (760 mph). of sound.
at Mach 2. speeds of Mach 5 and above are called hypersonic. which represent the ratio of the speed of the airplane to the speed of sound (subsonic). at Mach 1. Speeds at or near supersonic flight are measured in units called Mach numbers. sound as it moves air. an airplane is traveling at the speed of sound (transonic). but harder to manufacture and maintain. and the SR-71 spy plane. the XB-70 Valkyrie bomber. relatively inexpensive materials and fuels. Designers today believe they can help lessen the impact of sonic booms created by supersonic airliners but probably cannot eliminate them. the Anglo-French Concorde. For example. Sonic booms at low altitudes over populated areas are generally considered a significant problem and have prevented most supersonic boom. culminating in the 1960s and 1970s with Mach 3+ speedsters such as the Soviet MiG- The shock wave created by an airplane moving at supersonic and hypersonic speeds represents a rather abrupt change in air pressure and is perceived on the ground as a sonic distance of the observer from the flight path. which ended its regular passenger service in October 2003. An airplane traveling at less than Mach 1 is traveling below the speed of Mach 1 to 5 are referred to as supersonic. if the aircraft moved too fast. Titanium and other relatively exotic. For example. Above that speed. At such high speeds. One of the most difficult practical barriers to supersonic flight is the fact that high-speed flight produces heat through friction.Supersonic flight was achieved in 1947 for the first time by the Bell X-1 rocket plane. or to those over sparsely populated regions of the world. the exact nature of which varies depending upon how far away the aircraft is and the airplanes from efficiently utilizing overland routes. enormous temperatures are reached at temperature requirements. then the temperature rose above the surface of the craft. and expensive. and would most likely have to find a way IV AIRPLANE STRUCTURE . was generally limited to over-water routes. an airplane is traveling at twice the speed of sound (supersonic flight). Airplane designers have concluded that a speed of Mach 2. flown by Air Force test pilot Chuck Yeager.7 is about the limit for conventional. a commercial supersonic aircraft. aircraft. the Concorde was forced to fly a flight profile dictated by safe limits for the aluminum structure of the airplane. Speeds of Designers in Europe and the United States developed succeeding generations of military 25 Foxbat interceptor. constructed of more temperature-resistant materials. metals are more heat-resistant. an airplane would need to be to cool its fuel. This limitation impacted the commercial viability of the Concorde.
tail. A Fuselage .Airplanes generally share the same basic configuration—each usually has a fuselage. landing gear. wings. and a set of specialized control surfaces mounted on the wings and tail.
and engines. where the pilot controls the airplane. Others have minimal wings. In some of the sleekest of gliders and ultralight airplanes. or more spars that run from one end of the wing to the other. have wings. Perpendicular to the spar are a wing.The fuselage is the main cabin. wings were made of wooden ribs and spars (or beams). or trailing edge. Generally the fuselage has a cockpit section at the front end. B Wings All airplanes. Wood and fabric wings often used spruce for the structure. by definition. the fuselage may be nothing more than a minimal structure connecting the wings. to the rear. cargo. or leading edge. or wings that seem to be merely extensions of a blended. the fuselage may house the engines. because of that material’s relatively light weight and high strength. and a cabin section. In a military fighter plane. or both. or body of the airplane. and linen for the cloth covering. cockpit. The cabin section may be designed to carry passengers. A conventional wing has one series of ribs. covered with fabric that was sewn tightly and varnished to be extremely stiff. These are carefully constructed to shape the wing in a manner that determines its lifting . Before the 20th century. electronics. and some weapons. which run from the front. aerodynamic fuselage. tail. such as the space shuttle. Some are nearly all wing with a very small cockpit. of the properties. fuel.
except for flying wings. Moving the elevators up into the airstream will cause the tail to go down and the nose to pitch up. The elevators control the up-and-down motion. designers began moving toward wings made of steel and aluminum. .Early airplanes were usually biplanes—craft with two wings on each side of the fuselage. The rudder is at the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer and is used by the airplane to help control turns. which look like small wings. and 1940s. these designs created a great deal of drag. consisting of vertical and horizontal stabilizers. combined with new construction techniques. or single-wing airplane. or pitch. Popular magazines routinely show artists’ concepts of flying-wing into conventional airline and airport facilities. but airline and airport managers have been unable to integrate these unusual shapes C Tail Assembly Most airplanes. Flying wings. An airplane actually turns by banking. Rudder motion is usually controlled by two pedals on the floor of the cockpit. or stealth bomber. or moving. usually one mounted about 1. Over the years. After World War I (1914-1918). were first developed in the 1930s and 2 bomber. The stabilizers serve to help keep the airplane stable while in flight. Elevators are control surfaces at the trailing edge of horizontal stabilizers. weapons. A pilot controls pitch by moving a control column or stick. In pushing the they could build such wings relatively easily and brace them together using wires to connect many cables. many airplane designers have postulated that the ideal airplane would. advanced materials. which are pushed by the pilot. developed in the 1980s. Aircraft pioneers found the upper and lower wing to create a strong structure with substantial lift. but the rudder helps keep the turn coordinated by serving much like a boat’s rudder to move the nose of the airplane left or right. The components of the tail assembly are collectively referred to as the empennage. and fuel. of the airplane’s nose. A monoplane’s single wing gives it great advantages in speed. these materials enabled the development of modern all-metal wings capable not only of developing lift but of housing landing gear. be nothing but wing. airliners. the B- computerized flight controls. so aircraft engineers eventually pursued the monoplane. its wings laterally. wood. and fabric through the air. and visibility for the pilot. have a tail assembly attached to the rear of the fuselage. a rudder. has been a great success as a flying machine. American aerospace manufacturer Northrop Grumman Corporation’s flying wing. Moving an airplane’s nose left or right is known as a yaw motion. and. simplicity. as they are called. benefiting from modern computer-aided design (CAD). in fact. and elevators.5 m (about 5 to 6 ft) above the other.
wheels. Modern aircraft employ brakes. thereby increasing slightly the lift produced by the right wing. An airplane relies on the movement of air across its wings for lift. climb. or descend. they can be pulled up into the wing or fuselage after takeoff. To bank to the right. emergencies. which runs the length of the craft. which runs straight down through the middle of the airplane. and the airplane banks to the left. Push down on the left pedal. by the pilot. which may be thought of as a straight line running from wingtip to wingtip. The airplane will yaw. or deflected. vertical axis. often incorporating special heat-resistant materials. In order to bank and begin a turn. pitch. the left aileron is lifted up into the airstream over the left wing. banking its wings either left or right.D Landing Gear All airplanes must have some type of landing gear. The airplane may yaw its nose either left or right about the plane may fly steadily in one direction and at one altitude—or it may turn. or roll. To do so. The right wing then comes up. common on automobiles today. were originally developed for aircraft and are used to gain maximum possible braking power on wet or icy runways. the right aileron is pushed down into the airstream. the pilot must press upon rudder pedals on the floor of the cockpit. Antiskid braking systems. such as a 400-metric-ton airliner aborting a takeoff at the last possible moment. a plane may pitch its nose up or down. Larger and more complex aircraft typically have retractable landing gear—so called because reduces the drag generated by the wheel structures that would otherwise hang out in the airstream. At the same time. the pilot will manipulate controls in the cockpit that direct control surfaces on the wings and tail to move into the airstream. the ailerons In order to yaw. are moved in exactly the opposite fashion. Tires must be capable of going from a Brakes. Having retractable gear greatly E Control Components An airplane is capable of three types of motion that revolve around three separate axes. and the rudder at the trailing . In order to bank left. The An airplane may roll. creating a small amount of drag and decreasing the lift produced by that wing. a conventional airplane will deflect control surfaces on the trailing edge of the wings known as ailerons. and it makes use of this same airflow to move in any way about the three axes. must be able to handle standstill to nearly 322 km/h (200 mph) at landing. Finally. as well as carrying nearly 454 metric tons. the left wing goes down. and tires designed specifically for the demands of flight. depending on which control surfaces or combination of surfaces are moved. about the longitudinal axis. or turn the airplane’s nose left or right. moving about its lateral axis.
slats. high-speed jet aircraft have airspeed indicators that . an altimeter. thereby moving the elevators at the trailing edge of the horizontal stabilizer. lifting the tail and forcing the nose down. to change the way the air flows over the wing. On some airplanes. On some F Instruments Airplane pilots rely on a set of instruments in the cockpit to monitor airplane systems. and speed brakes. thereby increasing lift. Flaps and slats are at low speeds. Flaps also often serve to Trim tabs are miniature control surfaces incorporated into larger control surfaces. and fuel systems. (the angle of the airplane in relation to the Earth) for a given speed through the air. Pushing forward on the wheel causes the elevators to drop down. an aileron tab acts like a miniature aileron within the larger aileron. and a compass. A push on the right pedal causes the airplane to yaw to the right. the pilot usually pulls or pushes on a control wheel or stick. For example. as well as gas temperatures and fuel Flight instruments are those used to tell a pilot the course. spoilers. they also can be extended back generally used during takeoff and landing to increase the amount of lift produced by the wing beyond the normal trailing edge of the wing to increase the surface area of the wing as well as change its shape. hydraulic. an artificial horizon. the left rudder moves the nose of the plane to the left. In order to pitch the nose up or down. to control the flight of the aircraft.edge of the vertical stabilizer moves to the left. and attitude of the airplane. These instruments have many variations. the entire horizontal stabilizer moves in small increments to serve the same function as a trim tab. and to navigate. altitude. They may include an airspeed indicator. Piston-engine instruments monitor engine and exhaustgas temperatures. Elevator trim tabs are usually used to help set the pitch attitude airplanes. For example. Flaps usually droop down from the trailing edge of the wing. and oil pressures and temperatures. rotational speeds of the rotating blades in the turbines. pushing the tail down and the nose up. speed. Airplanes that are more complex also have a set of secondary control surfaces that may include devices such as flaps. Pulling back on the wheel deflects the elevators upward into the airstream. trim tabs. Leading-edge slats usually extend from the front of the wing at low speeds increase drag and slow the approach of a landing airplane. Systems instruments will tell a pilot about the condition of the airplane’s engines and electrical. although some jets have leading-edge flaps as well. Jet-engine instruments measure the flow. depending on the complexity and performance of the airplane. As in a boat. These kinds of controls are used to adjust more precisely the flight path of an airplane that may be slightly out of balance or alignment.
a turbine engine either turns a propeller through a gearbox. depending on its airspeed and momentum. An airplane with its nose up General-aviation (private aircraft). known as Instrument Landing to land during conditions of poor visibility. or diving. The Global Positioning System (GPS). . In smaller airplanes. developed for the United States military but now used by many civilian pilots. Many airplanes still employ radio receivers that tune to a satellite navigation systems and computers to navigate from any point on the globe to another ground-based radio-beacon system in order to navigate cross-country. a conventional gas-powered piston engine turns a propeller. which either pulls or pushes an airplane through the air. V PROPULSION Airplanes use either piston or turbine (rotating blades) engines to provide propulsion. Systems (ILS) and Microwave Landing Systems (MLS). in relation to the Earth. airplane is banking. and commercial airplanes also have instruments that aid in navigation. but many airplanes now employ without any help from the ground. Specially equipped airplanes can use ultraprecise radio beacons and receivers. or uses its jet thrust directly to move an airplane through the air. military.may indicate speeds both in nautical miles per hour (slightly faster than miles per hour used with ground vehicles) and in Mach number. provides an airplane with its position to within a few meters. combined with special cockpit displays. The compass is the simplest of these. climbing. In larger airplanes. The artificial horizon indicates whether the may or may not be climbing.
A rocket engine operates on the same principle. lighter weight. In a turbojet. and an exhaust nozzle. in the form of solid propellant or liquid oxidizer. many smaller general aviation aircraft. except that. produces a great deal of thrust In fact. which then explodes with great force rearward through the exhaust nozzle. machinery. There are several different types of jet engines. for combustion. this high-volume mass of air. which is usually driven by the jet . Thrust from the engine is derived purely from the acceleration of the released exhaust gases out the rear. in order to operate in the airless vacuum of space. Piston engines. The rearward force is balanced with an equal force that pushes forward the jet engine and the airplane attached to it. and released. the rocket must carry along its own air. This fan pulls an enormous amount of air into the engine case. they fall short of the higher performance possible with The turbine or jet engine operates on the principle of Newton’s third law of motion. only a relatively small fraction of which is sent through the core for combustion. The simplest is the ramjet. Aircraft designers throughout the 20th century and greater reliability. or fan-jet. some smaller jet engines are used to turn propellers. A jet sucks air into the front. a turbine to take some power out of the exhaust A modern derivative known as the turbofan. adds a large fan in front of the compressor section. eliminating the need for the spinning compressor section. compressor section. by itself. acting much like a propeller. a combustion chamber. This elegant simplicity is offset by the need to boost a ramjet to several hundred miles an hour before ram-air compression is sufficient to operate the engine. which takes advantage of high speed to ram or force the air into the engine. are still relatively complicated pieces of pushed their engineering colleagues constantly for engines with more power. accelerated rearward by the fan. burned. mixes it with fuel and ignites the mixture. Known as turboprops. squeezes the air by pulling it through a series of spinning compressors. these engines produce most of their thrust through the propeller. which states that for every action. all of the air taken into the compressor at the front of the engine is sent through the core of the engine. there is an opposite but equal reaction. The turbojet is based on the jet-propulsion system of the ramjet. even though it is never burned. The rest runs along the outside of the core case and inside the engine casing. the engine must provide enough power to move the weight of the airplane forward through the airstream. but with the addition of a and spin the compressor.In either case. with many precision-machined parts moving through large ranges and in complex motions. Although enormously improved over the past 90 years of flight and still suitable for modern jet propulsion and required for commercial and military aviation. where it cools and quiets the exhaust noise. however. This fan flow is mixed with the hot jet exhaust at the rear of the engine. In addition. These piston engines are examples of internal-combustion engines. The earliest powered airplanes relied on crude steam or gas engines.
usually into the fuselage or wings. Landing gear may be fixed. take off. short takeoff and landing (STOL). together with the associated brakes. but their capabilities and uses make A Land Planes Land planes are designed to operate from a hard surface. The wheels are sometimes referred B Carrier-Based Aircraft . as in some general-aviation airplanes. As a power source for a propeller. although some specialized aircraft operating in to as the undercarriage. retractable. and space them seem only distantly related. or and commercial aviation. the landing gear. although they are often called. shuttles all take advantage of the same basic technology. They are particularly efficient at lower altitudes and medium speeds up to 640 VI TYPES OF AIRPLANES There are a wide variety of types of airplanes.engine through a set of gears. typically a paved runway. Land planes. and land.to 70-passenger-capacity range use km/h (400 mph). turboprops. Some land planes are specially equipped to operate from grass or other unfinished surfaces. a turbine engine is extremely efficient. carrier-based airplanes. amphibians. A land plane usually has wheels to taxi. vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL). as in more-sophisticated airplanes in general the Arctic or Antarctic regions have skis in place of wheels. and many smaller airliners in the 19. seaplanes.
made by using a hook attached to the underside of the aircraft’s tail to catch one of four wires strung across the flight deck of the carrier. Carrier airplanes have a strengthened structure. in which the C Seaplanes . and arrested landings. craft is launched by a steam-driven catapult. including their landing gear.Carrier-based airplanes are a specially modified type of land plane designed for takeoff from and landing aboard naval aircraft carriers. to handle the stresses of catapult-assisted takeoff.
a VTOL airplane usually transitions to wing-borne flight in order to cover a longer distance or carry a significant load. some flying boats were fitted with so-called beaching gear. to take off and land straight up and down. cases. a system of rolled onto land. Known as flying boats. sometimes called floatplanes or pontoon planes. After taking off. A number of seaplanes fuselages that resemble and perform like ship hulls. they may have D Amphibians Amphibians. but the weight of the airplane is borne by the floating hull. Historically. .Seaplanes. which then allowed the aircraft to be E Vertical Takeoff and Landing Airplanes Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) airplanes typically use the jet thrust from their engines. A helicopter is a type of VTOL aircraft. an amphibian is a true seaplane. are often ordinary land planes have been designed from scratch to operate only from water bases. like their animal namesakes. pointed down at the Earth. modified with floats instead of wheels so they can operate from water. Such seaplanes have small floats attached to their outer wing panels to help steady them at low speeds on the water. operate from both water and land bases. but there are very few VTOL airplanes. In many landing gear that can be extended to allow the airplane to taxi right out of the water onto land. with a boat hull and the addition of specially designed cradles on wheels positioned under the floating aircraft.
propeller-like rotating wings or rotors driven by jet engines at the wingtips. For takeoff and landing. it flies like a rocket . India. which has large. a military attack plane that uses rotating nozzles attached to its jet engine to direct the engine exhaust in the appropriate direction. and United Kingdom. much like a helicopter. as well as in Spain.One unique type of VTOL aircraft is the tilt-rotor. is an aircraft unlike any other because it flies as a fixed-wing airplane within the atmosphere and as a spacecraft outside Earth’s atmosphere. After takeoff. the engine/rotor combination tilts forward. Flown in the United States by the Marine Corps. Italy. and the wing takes on the load of the craft. G Space Shuttle The space shuttle. The most prominent example of a true VTOL airplane flying today is the AV-8B Harrier II. although some serve in a passenger-carrying capacity as well. or it can be flown to operating areas near the ground troops it supports in its ground-attack role. as distinguished from an airplane that has a wing optimized for high-speed cruise at high altitude. flown by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). STOL airplanes are usually cargo airplanes. where it was originally developed. the engines and rotors are positioned vertically. however. F Short Takeoff and Landing Airplanes Short Takeoff and Landing (STOL) airplanes are designed to be able to function on relatively short runways. the Harrier can take off vertically from smaller ships. Their designs usually employ wings and high-lift devices on the wings optimized for best performance during takeoff and landing. When the space shuttle takes off.
with wings. During landing.175 metric tons of thrust generated by its solid-fuel rocket boosters and liquid-fueled main engines to power its way up. by Transport Canada. by other national aviation authorities. and and operating rules. Today’s . all of which fall under different government-mandated certification A Commercial Airplanes Commercial aircraft are those used for profit making. They are strictly regulated—in the United States. general-aviation airplanes. and in other countries. military. VII CLASSES OF AIRPLANES Airplanes can be grouped into a handful of major classes. in Canada. by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). the shuttle becomes the world’s most sophisticated glider. atmosphere. such as commercial. Modern large commercial-airplane manufacturers—such The Boeing Company in the United jet airliners carry anywhere from 100 passengers to more than 500 over short and long distances. and out of the landing without propulsion. through. relying on the 3. States and Airbus in Europe—offer a wide variety of aircraft with different capabilities. usually by carrying cargo or passengers for hire (see Air Transport Industry).
Fighters are designed to engage in air combat have been capable of Mach 2+ flight (a Mach number represents the ratio of the speed of an role as well and are designed to carry both air-to-air weapons. Declining ticket sales for the high-priced service. The Concorde flew for British Airways and Air France. cargo. Some fighters have a ground-attack . in either defensive or offensive situations. A fatal air sharp decline in airline travel following the September 11 terrorist attacks. and air-towith other airplanes. flag carriers States had an SST program. such as missiles. Combat airplanes are generally either fighters or bombers. although some airplanes have both capabilities. combined with higher costs led to the Concorde’s demise. but it was ended because of budget and environmental concerns in 1971. The United at twice the speed of sound.000 and up crash in 2000 grounded the Concorde for a full year. Since the 1950s many fighters airplane to the speed of sound as it travels through air). which cost about $9. training.Beginning in 1976 the British-French Concorde supersonic transport (SST) carried passengers of the two nations that funded its development during the late 1960s and 1970s. It returned to service only to witness a B Military Airplanes Military aircraft are usually grouped into four categories: combat. profitability. The Concorde ended its regular passenger service in October 2003 due to its lack of for a round-trip fare. and observation (see Military Aviation).
ground weapons. such as the B-2. Bombers such as the B-52 are designed to fly fast at low altitudes. while others. the MiG-29 Fulcrum. may use sophisticated . order to fly under enemy radar defenses. Some well-known bombers include the Boeing B-52. and the Su-27 Flanker. following the terrain. the Boeing F-15 Eagle. the Lockheed-Martin F-16 Falcon. such as bombs. Bombers are designed to carry large air-to-ground-weapons loads and either penetrate or avoid enemy air defenses in order to deliver those weapons. in radar-defeating technologies to fly virtually unobserved. and the Northrop-Grumman B-2 stealth bomber. the Boeing B-1. Fighters include aircraft such as the Panavia Tornado.
Today’s military cargo airplanes are capable of carrying enormous tanks. Cargo planes such as the giant Lockheed C- . artillery pieces. and even smaller aircraft. armored personnel 5B and Boeing C-17 were designed expressly for such roles. Some cargo planes can serve a dual role as aerial gas stations. refueling different types of military airplanes while in flight. Such tankers include the Boeing KC-135 and KC-10. carriers.
000 m (80. and capable of hauling several hundred pounds VIII HISTORY . They typically begin the flight training in relatively simple. or reconnaissance. ultralight airplanes to sleek twin turboprops capable of carrying eight people. also carry weapons that can be fired by ground operators using the aircraft’s video and infrared cameras to locate their targets. Large farms require efficient ways to spread fertilizer and insecticides over a large area. They relay video and battlegrounds during the day or at night.All military pilots go through rigorous training and education programs using military training airplanes to prepare them to fly the high-performance aircraft of the armed forces. These unpiloted aircraft are flown by software programs infrared images in real time to military commanders. With the advent of the Lockheed U-2 spy plane in the 1950s. aircraft. Inc. uses specialized engines and fuel to reach altitudes greater than 25. providing instantaneous views of Vehicles (UCAVs). made by General Atomics Aeronautical Systems. appointments. Lockheed’s SR-71. observation airplanes were developed solely for highly specialized missions. A final category of military airplane is the observation. factor. Some military trainers include the T-34 Mentor. known as Unmanned Combat Aerial C General-Aviation Aircraft General-aviation aircraft are certified for and intended primarily for noncommercial or private operations. Most business airplanes require more reliable performance and more range and Another class of general-aviation airplanes is used in agriculture. Business aircraft transport business executives to all-weather capability. bombers. a two-seat airplane. crop dusters lack sophisticated navigation aids and complex systems. of chemicals. They can be seen swooping low over farm fields. or transports. California. Not intended for serious crosscountry navigation. the T-37 and T-38.. A very specialized type of airplane. propeller airplanes and move into basic jets before specializing in a career path involving fighters.000 ft) and speeds well over Mach 3. containing navigational instructions and operated from the ground. and the Boeing T-45 Goshawk. UAVs include the Predator drone. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) also were developed for reconnaissance in situations considered too dangerous for piloted aircraft or in instances where pilot fatigue would be a based in San Diego. crop dusters are rugged. Some UAVs. highly maneuverable. Pleasure aircraft range from simple single-seat.
and the model helicopter. an early airplane wing. in his third full-size machine. during the 15th century. and designed airplanes with rigid wings to provide lift. the kite. pitch. technical value to experimenters but was a source of inspiration to aspiring engineers. when it could furnish little of A The First Airplanes Between 1799 and 1809 English baronet Sir George Cayley created the concept of the modern by the wings. Cayley laid the foundations inclined plane to provide lift. Apart from Leonardo’s efforts. and with separate airplane. One was the Italian Renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci. He demonstrated. in which both lift and thrust are provided propelling devices to provide thrust. streamlining. few people had applied themselves to the study of flight. Cayley sent his unwilling coachman on the . and other devices and first gliding flight in history. Cayley abandoned the ornithopter tradition. His aeronautical work lay unknown until late in the 19th century. the use of the rudder-elevator unit mounted on a universal joint. three devices important to aviation had been invented in Europe in the Middle Ages and had reached a high stage of development by Leonardo’s time—the windmill. Leonardo was preoccupied chiefly with bird flight and with flapping-wing machines. an early propeller.Before the end of the 18th century. practices. In 1853. flight control by means of a single of aerodynamics. both with models and with full-size gliders. and roll stability. Through his published works. called ornithopters.
Between 1891 and 1896 German aeronautical engineer Otto Lilienthal made thousands of successful flights in hang gliders of his own design. The Aerodrome never successfully carried a person. the unpiloted Aerodrome. self-propelled craft. 1903. circle. as Langley called it. unpiloted aircraft. Orville Wright made the first successful flight of a piloted. the flight was not sustained. and wheeled landing gear. Ohio. suffered from design faults. of sound scientific research and engineering. make figure eights. heavier-than-air. which the Wrights constructed in 1905. B The First Airplane Flight American aviators Orville Wright and Wilbur Wright of Dayton. and the airplane brushed the ground over a distance of 50 m (160 ft). He was killed in a gliding accident American inventor Samuel Pierpont Langley had been working for several years on flying machines. on December 17. a reliable transmission and efficient propellers. North Carolina. heavier-than-air craft. but it represented the beginning of a new age in technology and human achievement. turn. called the Flyer. and thus prevented Langley from earning the place in history claimed by the Wright brothers. The third Flyer. Lilienthal and legs in the direction he wished to go. The distance was less than the wingspan of many modern airliners. Virginia. Their fourth and final flight of the day lasted 59 seconds and covered only 260 m (852 ft). That first flight traveled a distance of about 37 m (120 ft). up to half an hour on occasion. the Wright brothers put together the combination At Kitty Hawk. hung in a frame between the wings and controlled his gliders entirely by swinging his torso control system and a reliable method for powering the craft. his designs lacked a in 1896. an effective system for controlling the aircraft. While successful as gliders. are considered the fathers of the first successful piloted heavier-than-air flying machine.In 1843 British inventor William Samuel Henson published his patented design for an Aerial airplane—a fixed-wing monoplane with propellers. and remain in the air for as long as the fuel lasted. powerful engine. Inventors continued to pursue the dream of sustained flight. and in 1896 made the first sustained flight of any mechanically propelled heavier-than-air craft. Langley began experimenting in 1892 with a steam-powered. Launched by catapult from a houseboat on the Potomac River near Quantico. and with flight control by means of rear elevator and rudder. It could bank. Steam Carriage. and a wing and structure that were both strong and lightweight. Steam-powered models made by Henson in 1847 were promising but unsuccessful. . Henson’s design did more than any other to establish the form of the modern In 1890 French engineer Clément Ader built a steam-powered airplane and made the first actual flight of a piloted. was the world’s first fully practical airplane. Through the disciplines of critical characteristics that other designs of the day lacked—a relatively lightweight (337 kg/750 lb). fuselage. However.
1909. European designers such as Louis Blériot and Dutch-American engineer Anthony Herman Fokker exploited basic concepts created by the Wrights and developed ever faster. . Orville crashed while carrying an army observer. and other stunts proved the maneuverability of France to Egypt. and this potential was further demonstrated in 1910 and 1911. Selfridge On July 25.” Aerobatics. the airplane was relegated mostly to the county-fair circuit. loops.000 were subsequently built. the airplane was used in its first wartime operation when an Italian captain flew over and observed Turkish positions during the Italo-Turkish War of 1911 to 1912.E.S. were considered superior to their Allied competition. airplanes. 2c version of this airplane was so successful that nearly 2.000-km (2. when monoplane of his own design. the most successful fighter in the skies. and deadlier combat airplanes. Also in 1911. Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge. French engineer Louis Blériot crossed the English channel in a Blériot XI. 2 proved itself to be the first naturally stable airplane in the world. In 1915 Fokker mounted a machine gun with a timing gear so that the gun could fire between the rotating propellers. Blériot’s channel crossing made clear to the world the airplane’s American pilot Eugene Ely took off from and landed on warships. more capable. a wartime potential. Long-distance flights made in 1913 included a 4.S. or acrobatic flying. During the very early 1900s. One exception was the United States War Department. was not immediately recognized for its potential. In 1911 the U. from France to Tunisia. with many stops. D Planes of World War I During World War I.500-mi) flight from was introduced. for a time. The B. The resulting Fokker Eindecker monoplane fighter was. That same year. such as the D-VII and D-VIII flown by German pilots. Virginia. and the first nonstop flight across the Mediterranean Sea. Fokker’s biplanes. In September of that year. Army used a Wright brothers’ biplane to make the first live bomb test from an airplane. which had long been using balloons to observe the battlefield and expressed an interest in heavier-thanSignal Corps at Fort Myer. while circling the field at Fort died from his injuries and became the first fatality from the crash of a powered airplane. a modified Farnborough B.C Early Military and Public Interest The airplane.E. The year 1913 became known as the “glorious year of flying. American inventor and aviator Glenn Curtiss introduced the first practical seaplane. where daredevil pilots drew large crowds but few investors. In Britain. This was a biplane with a large float beneath the center of the lower wing and two smaller floats beneath the tips of the lower wing. air craft as early as 1898. prior to World War I (1914-1918). like many other milestone inventions throughout history. the development of the airplane accelerated dramatically. In 1908 the Wrights demonstrated their airplane to the U. and upside-down flying. Army’s Myer.
proved the value of Sperry’s instruments by taking off. low-wing monoplane. travel at 145 km/h (90 mph) and was light. for an alternative. The DC-3 carried 21 passengers. The Moth could Instrument flying became practical in 1929. Post Office for airmail.000-horsepower engines. The DC-3 quickly came to dominate commercial aviation in the late 1930s. the DC-1. all without visual reference to the Earth. liquid- introduced in 1925. fuel. put flying within the financial reach of many enthusiasts. E Development of Commercial Aviation Commercial aviation began in January 1914. Light and powerful. an American pilot and army officer. and some DC- . these engines gave strong competition to the older. and club and private pleasure flying became popular. and landing. Notable French fighters included the Spad (1916) and the Nieuport 28 (1918). which became. an all-metal. It was for ten passengers. both warring sides had fighters that could fly at altitudes of 7. approached airplane manufacturer Donald Douglas in Long and the DC-3. During World War I. used powerful. The inexpensive DeHavilland Moth biplane. when the American inventor Elmer Sperry perfected the artificial horizon and directional gyro. and room production line and led indirectly to the development of perhaps the most successful propeller Beach. driven by the two world wars and service demands of the U. Commercial aviation developed slowly during the next 30 years. California.S. 1929. James Doolittle. an insulated cabin. along with its streamlined cowling. An order from United Air Lines for 60 planes of this type tied up Boeing’s airliner in history. with retractable landing gear. 1. Boeing’s Model 247 was considered the first truly modern airliner. outstanding early British fighters included the Sopwith Pup (1916) and the Sopwith Camel (1917). Introduced in 1933. In the mid-1920s light airplanes were produced in great numbers. the Douglas DC-3. or cooled engines. engine casing. Trans World Airlines.800 m (19. not willing to wait for Boeing to finish the order from United.The concentrated research and development made necessary by wartime pressures produced great progress in airplane design and construction. just 10 years after the Wrights pioneered the skies. in quick succession. the DC-2. By the end of World War I in 1918.600 m (25.000 ft) and had a top speed of 190 km/h (120 mph). flying over a predetermined course. On September 24. Florida. which flew as high as 5. although it had to stop many times for 3s are still in service today. strong. and could travel across the country in less than 24 hours of travel time. In the early 1920s the air-cooled engine was perfected. and easy to handle. The first regularly scheduled passenger line in the world operated between Saint Petersburg and Tampa.000 ft) and speeds up to 250 km/h (155 mph).
that the airline industry really prospered. the war ended.000 ft) and F Aircraft Developments of World War II It was not until after World War II (1939-1945). A large number of sophisticated new transports. four-engine jet. in less than eight hours. When the United nearly 50. pressurized air transports States entered World War II in 1941. four-engine 707s and DC-8s had established themselves. such as the jet engine. used in wartime for troop and cargo carriage. half the propeller-airplane time. and reached a rate of became available in large numbers. early versions of which carried troops and VIPs during the war. the Stratoliner could carry 33 passengers at altitudes up to 6. and air travel changed dramatically almost overnight. an 885-km/h (550-mph).000 m (20.Boeing provided the next major breakthrough with its Model 307 Stratoliner.000 a year by the end of the war. This complication gave American manufacturers Boeing and Douglas time to bring the 707 and DC-8 to the market. Boeing’s new 707 carried 112 passengers at high speed and quickly brought an end to the propeller era for large commercial airplanes. England. Pan American World Airways inaugurated Boeing 707 jet service in October of 1958. G The Jumbo Jet Era . and Boeing and Douglas delivered. shorter-range jets. airlines clamored for smaller. Douglas produced the DC-9 and Boeing both the 737 and the trijet 727. there were fewer than 300 planes in airline service. a pressurized derivative of the famous B-17 bomber. became available to commercial operators after Constellation. entering service in 1940. With its regulated cabin air at speeds of 320 km/h (200 mph). Airplane production concentrated mainly on fighters and bombers. Jet transportation in the commercial-aviation arena arrived in 1952 with Britain’s DeHavilland Comet. Pressurized propeller planes such as the Douglas DC-6 and Lockheed paying passengers on transcontinental and transatlantic flights. The Comet quickly suffered two fatal crashes due to structural problems and was grounded. After the big. pressure. Transatlantic jet service enabled travelers to fly from New York City to London. now carried Wartime technology efforts also brought to aviation critical new developments. when comfortable.
a four-engine airplane for longer routes. The L-1011 is no longer in production. In 2000 the company launched production of the A380. was the age of the jumbo jet. 80. Airbus had developed the A300 wide-body twin during the 1970s. and Lockheed-Martin no longer builds commercial airliners. In the 1980s McDonnell Douglas introduced the twin-engine MD-80 family. Airbus also introduced the larger A330 twin and the A340. During the 1980s and 1990s Airbus expanded its family of aircraft by introducing the slightly smaller A310 twin jet and the narrow-body A320 twin. and Lockheed all produced wide-body airliners. produced later in an updated version known as the MD-11. In 1997 Boeing acquired longtime rival McDonnell Douglas. a unique. three-engine jet called the DC-10. Lockheed built the L-1011 Tristar. McDonnell Douglas built a somewhat smaller. lighter. the jet will be the world’s largest passenger airliner. McDonnell Douglas. both of which extend the entire length of the fuselage. Boeing. Boeing introduced the 777. MDits efforts on developing a midsize passenger airplane. sometimes called jumbo jets. so-called fly-by-wire aircraft with sidestick controllers for the pilots rather than conventional control columns and wheels. a trijet that competed with the DC-10. and a year later the company announced its intention to halt production of the passenger workhorses MD-11.The next frontier. pioneered in the late 1960s. Boeing developed and still builds the 747. a superjumbo jet that will seat Scheduled to enter service in 2006. on which passenger loads are somewhat 555 passengers on two decks. in 1995. and Boeing brought online the narrow-body 757 and wide-body 767 twin jets. The company ceded the superjumbo jet market to Airbus and instead focused . and MD-90. a wide-body jumbo jet that can hold up to 400 passengers.
under the control of a set of instructions called a program. Computers perform a wide variety of activities reliably. accurately. and quickly. machine that performs tasks. The program results II USES OF COMPUTERS . computer and are retrieved and processed by the computer’s electronics.Computer I INTRODUCTION Computer. such as calculations or electronic communication. such as video display monitors or printers. Programs usually reside within the are stored or routed to output devices.
and transfer funds electronically. In business. with computer-controlled projection units. tell the time. exist to aid every level of education. thereby increasing gas mileage. the output devices. operate home security systems. or model systems that are too costly or impractical to build.People use computers in many ways. check the credit status of customers. computers track inventories with bar codes and scanners. such as testing the air flow around the next generation of aircraft. or applications. Educators use computers to can add graphics. Computers are used extensively in scientific research to solve mathematical problems. the central processing unit (CPU) that carries out program instructions. such as a keyboard or mouse. they Instruction). and animation to their communications (see Computer-Aided track grades and communicate with students. Computer programs. Computers in automobiles regulate the flow of fuel. and to keep III HOW COMPUTERS WORK The physical computer and its components are known as hardware. investigate complicated data. In homes. The military employs track of personnel and supplies. computers in sophisticated communications to encode and unscramble messages. sound. such as printers . from programs that teach simple addition or sentence construction to programs that teach advanced calculus. Computers also entertain. tiny computers embedded in the electronic circuitry of most appliances control the indoor temperature. Computer hardware includes the memory that stores data and program instructions. creating digitized sound on stereo systems or computer-animated features from a digitally encoded laser disc. that allow the user to communicate with the computer. the input devices. and turn videocassette recorders (VCRs) on and off.
such as Microsoft Windows and the Macintosh system (Mac OS). to display and modify a photograph. the user clicks the mouse on the icon or carry out these tasks via voice. have commands. one of the first sets of these instructions is a special program called the operating system. stores and manages data. body. and buses (hardware lines or wires) that connect these and other computer components. Popular operating systems. or other input methods. The programs that run the computer are called software. to control the arm of a robot to weld a car’s of the computer. or to direct the general operation A The Operating System When a computer is turned on it searches for instructions in its memory. or icons. and controls the sequence of the software and hardware actions. Some operating systems allow the user to B Computer Memory . which is the software that makes the computer these commands and other operations. These instructions tell the computer how to start up. reports the results of operating system loads the program in the computer’s memory and runs the program. graphical user interfaces (GUIs)—that use tiny pictures. the work. It prompts the user (or other machines) for input and commands. touch. to represent various files and presses a combination of keys on the keyboard. that enable the computer to present information to the user. To access these files or commands. When the user requests that a program run. to write a letter.and video display monitors. Usually. Software generally is designed to perform a particular type of task—for example.
or part of a larger number. resulting in four possible the number of combinations. a byte has 256 possible combinations of 0s and 1s. data are stored in a computer in the form of binary digits. 10. characters such as . in lower and upper cases. A third bit added to this two-bit representation again doubles 110. as well as numeric digits. a megabyte can store about 1 million characters. or bits. or 111. combinations: 00. which can be read by . which can be read or changed by the user or computer. 101. resulting in eight possibilities: 000. 010. and a terabyte can store about 1 trillion characters.024 bytes—can store about 1. Numbers can represent anything from chemical bonds to dollar figures to colors to sounds. or read-only memory (ROM). including non-English patterns to represent the entire alphabet. If a second bit is added to a single bit of information. the number of representations is doubled. Each time a bit is added. or 11. 011. a gigabyte can store about 1 billion characters.To process information electronically. called a byte. the number of possible patterns is doubled. A byte also can be interpreted as a pattern that represents a number between 0 and 255. See also Expanded Memory. A byte is a useful quantity in which to store information because it provides enough possible punctuation marks. 001. each having two possible representations (0 or 1). a single number. 01. and several character-sized graphics symbols. 100. Eight bits is Extended Memory. as a single character. A kilobyte—1. Computer programmers usually decide how a text. a character within a string of The physical memory of a computer is either random access memory (RAM).000 characters. given byte should be interpreted—that is.
and digital video discs (DVDs). compact discs (CDs). a 16-bit bus. Each wire can carry one bit. with 16 parallel wires. such as graphics. One way to store memory is within the circuitry of the computer. allows the simultaneous transmission of 16 bits (2 bytes) of information from one component to another. temporarily storing instructions or data.the computer but not altered in any way. which senses the placement of a user’s finger and can be used to execute commands or access files. A single CD can store nearly as much information as several hundred floppy disks. Memory also can be stored outside the circuitry of the computer on external storage devices. When a program is running. The . and a microphone. Modern designs typically use many buses. such as magnetic floppy disks. permit the computer user to communicate with the computer. and some DVDs can hold more than 12 times as much data as a CD. used to input sounds such as the human voice which can activate computer commands in conjunction with voice recognition software. Information is stored in a CPU memory location called a register. so the bus can transmit many bits along the cable at the same time. a scanner. Early computer designs utilized a single or very few buses. such as the CPU and the memory circuits. E The Central Processing Unit Information from an input device or from the computer’s memory is communicated via the bus to the central processing unit (CPU). The CPU is a microprocessor chip—that is. a touch panel. The memory within these computer chips is RAM. which is the part of the computer that translates commands and runs programs. The bus is usually a flat cable with numerous parallel wires.5 gigabytes of information. some of them specialized to carry particular forms of data. a rodlike device often used by people who play computer games. to communicate as program instructions are being carried out. which can store gigabytes of information. “Tablet” computers are being developed that will allow users to interact with their screens using a penlike device. microscopically wired electrical components. Registers can be thought of as the CPU’s tiny scratchpad. hard drives. a single piece of silicon containing millions of tiny. which can store about 2 megabytes of information. Other input devices include a joystick. one special register called the program counter keeps track of which program instruction comes next by maintaining the memory location of the next program instruction to be executed. which converts images such as photographs into digital images that the computer can manipulate. which can store 8. D Input Devices Input devices. such as a keyboard or mouse. which can store up to 680 megabytes of information. usually in tiny computer chips that hold millions of bytes of information. For example. C The Bus The bus enables the components in a computer.
A CPU has a limited set of instructions known as machine code that it is capable of understanding. The CPU executes the instruction. In a typical sequence. Typical instructions are for copying data from a memory location or for adding the code instructions are few in number (roughly 20 to 200. overhead projectors. the program may request that the information be communicated to an output device. This is called pipeline processing. called an instruction cycle. and speakers. the CPU locates the next instruction in the appropriate memory device. videocassette IV PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES Programming languages contain the series of commands that create software. computer can understand it. The current instruction is analyzed by a decoder. liquid crystal display.CPU’s control unit coordinates and times the CPU’s functions. and the results are stored in another instruction will do. These instructions are specific to the individual computer’s CPU and associated hardware. where it is executed next. The CPU can understand only this language. such as a video display monitor or a flat recorders (VCRs). Meanwhile. This entire sequence of steps is each at a different stage in its instruction cycle. for example. The translation can lead to code that may be less efficient to run A Machine Language Computer programs that can be run by a computer’s operating system are called executables. Intel Pentium and Power PC microprocessor chips each have different machine languages and require different sets of codes to perform the same task. An executable program is a sequence of extremely simple instructions known as machine code. stored in a special instruction register. prefer to use other computer languages that use words or other commands because they are easier to use. See also Input/Output Devices. Machine CPU). and it uses the program counter to locate and retrieve the next instruction from memory. which determines what the CPU’s registers. the program counter changes—usually increasing a small amount—so that it contains the location of the instruction that will be The instruction then travels along the bus from the computer’s memory to the CPU. several instructions may be in process simultaneously. however. Other output devices are printers. depending on the computer and the . F Output Devices Once the CPU has executed the program instruction. Computer programmers. These other languages are slower because the language must be translated first so that the than code written directly in the machine’s language. All other programming languages must be converted to machine code for them to be understood. Any data the instruction needs are retrieved via the bus and placed in the register or copied to specific memory locations via a bus. Frequently.
“cout” sends the greeting message to the “standard output” (usually the computer . This command directs the computer’s CPU to display the greeting. these languages are not CPU-specific. Instead. and it will work no matter between the quotes will be displayed. In addition. because assembly-language instructions are a series of abstract codes and each instruction carries out a relatively simple task. Because these sequences are long strings of 0s and 1s and are usually not easy to understand. When this statement is executed. B Assembly Language Assembly language uses easy-to-remember commands that are more understandable to programmers than machine-language commands. Each machine language instruction has an statement “MOV A. to display a greeting need include only the following command: cout << ‘Hello. in one Intel assembly language. Instead.contents of two memory locations (usually registers in the CPU). Assembly language is sometimes inserted into a high-level language that are executed frequently. For example. the text that appears statement appear cryptic. B” instructs the computer to copy data from location A to location B. Although the “cout” and “endl” parts of the above For example. CPUs use different machine languages and therefore require different programs and different program to carry out specific hardware tasks or to speed up parts of the high-level program C High-Level Languages High-level languages were developed because of the difficulty of programming using assembly languages. programmers quickly become accustomed to their meanings. Machine code instructions are binary—that is. a programmer writing in the high-level C++ programming language who wants what type of CPU the computer uses. however. Complex tasks require a sequence of these simple instructions. computer programmers write code in languages known as an assembly language or a high-level language. In addition. computer instructions usually are not written in machine code. it is converted to a machine-language program by another program called Assembly language is fast and powerful because of its correspondence with machine language. equivalent command in assembly language. Encarta User!’ << endl. different assembly languages. The same instruction in machine code is a string of 16 0s and 1s. the program is written. they contain general commands that work on different CPUs. Once an assembly-language an assembler. High-level languages are easier to use than machine and assembly languages because their commands are closer to natural human language. sequences of bits (0s and 1s). For example. It is still difficult to use.
“First actual case of a bug being found. Inc. (IBM) developed Fortran. in 1957. For example. BASIC is turned into machine language line by line as the program runs. FLOW-MATIC. Hopper taped the moth into her notebook and wrote. It became a its variations are still in use today. Fortran and VII BASIC Kurtz at Dartmouth College in Hanover. developed BASIC (Beginner’s Allpurpose Symbolic Instruction Code) in 1964. interactive nature and its inclusion on into machine code first. A compiler turns a high-level program into a CPU-specific machine language.user’s screen) and “endl” is how to tell the computer (when using the C++ language) to go to a new line after it outputs the message. computer (PC). This simplifies the programmer’s V FLOW-MATIC American naval officer and mathematician Grace Murray Hopper helped develop the first commercially available high-level software language. For example. This is the task of a special program called a compiler. such as a Sun Microsystems work station or a personal task and makes the software more portable to different users and machines. including one based strictly on incorrect instructions in software. standard programming language because it could process mathematical formulas. an acronym for Formula Translation.” VI FORTRAN From 1954 to 1958 American computer scientist John Backus of International Business Machines. Unlike languages that require all their instructions to be translated closeness to natural human language. She documented the event in her laboratory notebook. which indicates a computer malfunction. high-level languages also must be translated. Hopper is credited for inventing the term bug. in 1945 she mechanical relays. BASIC commands typify high-level languages because of their simplicity and their can be written as Hungarian-American mathematician John Kemeny and American mathematician Thomas early personal computers. Like assembly-language instructions. a program that divides a number in half 10 INPUT “ENTER A NUMBER. and the term discovered a hardware failure in the Mark II computer caused by a moth trapped between its eventually came to represent any computer error. New Hampshire. a programmer may write a program in a high-level language such as C++ or Java and then prepare it for different machines. using compilers designed for those machines.” X 20 Y=X/2 . especially in physics. The language was easier to learn than its predecessors and became popular due to its friendly.
but so can 0. written. Virtually all modern computers are digital. Objects. graphics. Classes of objects can inherit features from other classes of objects. but they have become increasingly sophisticated.” Y The numbers that precede each line are chosen by the programmer to indicate the sequence a question mark to prompt the user to type in the number labeled “X. especially for users of the World Wide Web. have properties such as the radius of the circle and the command that draws it on the computer screen.30 PRINT “HALF OF THAT NUMBER IS. The first line prints “ENTER A NUMBER” on the computer screen followed by program demonstrates how data are stored and manipulated in most high-level programming VIII OTHER HIGH-LEVEL LANGUAGES Other high-level languages in use today include C.14). Analog refers to circuits or numerical values that have a continuous range.5. or a number like (approximately 3. which represent switches that are turned on or off by electrical current. Markup languages are often not considered A Object-Oriented Programming Languages Object-oriented programming (OOP) languages. programming languages. but nothing in between 0 and 1. such as C++ and Java. of the commands. Even though BASIC is rarely used today. LISP. This makes the programmer’s task easier. are intended to display data. are based on traditional high-level languages. COBOL. Reusable code allows a programmer to use code that has already been reliable and efficient programs. XML. Prolog. that number is divided by two and stored as “Y.5. and tested. and Java. such as the “markup languages” known as HTML.” In the next line. Digital refers to the processes in computers that manipulate binary numbers (0s or 1s). this simple languages.” In the third line. and it results in more IX A TYPES OF COMPUTERS Digital and Analog Computers can be either digital or analog. For example. C++. Pascal. but they enable a programmer to think in terms of collections of cooperating objects instead of lists of commands. 1. Some languages. Ada. This set of programming classes simplifies the programmer’s task. a class defining squares can inherit features such as right angles from a class defining rectangles. and their variants. such as a circle. and media selections. Visual Basic. Both 0 and 1 can be represented by analog computers. . A bit can have the value 0 or the value 1. the result of the operation is displayed on the computer screen. resulting in more “reusable” computer code. designed.
they can connect to worldwide computer networks to small computers. Most modern computers. the slide rule is analog. These bits can be combined to denote information such as numbers. letters. a mouse. exchange information regardless of location. delivering doses of medicine. B Range of Computer Ability Computers exist in a wide range of sizes and power. and a video display monitor or liquid crystal display (LCD) to display programs and documents. sound. such as tuning to a particular television frequency. Hand-held game devices are also examples of Portable laptop and notebook computers and desktop PCs are typically used in businesses and at home to communicate on computer networks. are digital machines whose components have a finite number of states—for example. is. or keeping accurate time. They can be in the 20th century was the slide rule. trackball. They are used as notepads. or other information. is analog. Most sources consider the terms “laptop” and “notebook” synonymous. to track finances. They have large amounts of internal memory to store hundreds of pointing device. if equipped with a cellular phone. such as televisions and wristwatches. The smallest are embedded within the circuitry of appliances. because the amount of light can vary continuously from on to off and all intensities Analog computer systems were the first type to be produced. lightweight LCDs instead of television-like video display monitors. If the lamp has a simple on/off switch. A popular analog computer used a narrow. however. and program instructions. particularly in areas such as neural networks. and physical size.A desk lamp can serve as an example of the difference between analog and digital. and address books. but they are more compact and have flat. These computers are typically preprogrammed for a specific task. speed. the user slides been shown recently in analog computers. Because the sliding is continuous and there is no mechanism to stop at any exact values. If a dimmer replaces the on/off switch. scheduling systems. and for entertainment. their programs are represented as circuits that cannot be reprogrammed. New interest has are specialized computer designs that attempt to mimic neurons of the brain. graphics. because the lamp either produces light at a given moment or it does not. then the lamp system is digital. or on or off bits. Laptop and notebook computers usually have hardware and software similar to PCs. then the lamp in between. These built to respond to continuous electrical signals. gauged wooden strip inside a rulerlike holder. for word processing. They generally are “hard-wired”—that Programmable computers vary enormously in their computational power. They are equipped with a keyboard. To perform calculations with a slide rule. . the 0 or 1. memory. Some small computers can be held in one hand and are called personal digital assistants (PDAs).
industrial. and it simplifies each individual workstation or PC. . This reduces the cost of the maintenance of software because the software resides only on the server rather than on Mainframe computers and supercomputers commonly are networked. Such computers are called parallel processors. In this scenario. and the military use them. the central computer. These computers have increased in sophistication. speed. drive) specific to itself. consists of several PCs or workstations connected to a special computer called a server. a local area network (LAN). process complex and time-consuming calculations. such as those used to create weather predictions. can be shared. These “dumb” terminals are used only to enter data into. They are typically found in scientific. The performance of various tasks and types of computing have also moved X NETWORKS Computers can communicate with other computers through a series of connections and associated hardware called a network. such as stock exchanges—that require complex and fast computations. scientific computers break a task into small pieces. One type of network.Workstations are similar to personal computers but have greater memory and more extensive exchange data. and each CPU processes a portion of the task to increase overall speed and efficiency. and capabilities than workstations and are usually shared by multiple users through a series of interconnected computers. each PC may have “local” memory (for example. or receive output from. A server often contains all of a storage capabilities. Networks also allow remote use of a computer by a user who cannot physically access the computer. For example. Some supercomputers have many sets of CPUs. As institutions. a hard the workstation or PC because less expensive computers can be purchased. The most powerful mainframe computers. called supercomputers. The server stores and manages programs and data. or terminals that have no computational abilities of their own. They may be connected to PCs. mathematical abilities. Large businesses. and software and hardware resources. such as hard-disk space or printers. become less rigid. networked PCs can work together on a given task in a version of parallel processing known as distributed computing. the boundaries between the various types have from one type of computer to another. and business environments— especially financial ones. workstations. but the bulk of storage resides on the server. They control businesses and industrial facilities and are used for scientific research. and they are connected to other workstations or personal computers to Mainframe computers have more memory. The advantage of a network is that data can be exchanged rapidly. often within the same building or office networked group’s data and enables LAN workstations or PCs to be set up without large complex.
but most served as curiosities in parlors of the wealthy. a person in Washington. a global consortium of networks linked by common communication programs and protocols (a set of established standards that enable computers to communicate with each other). is a system of information resources accessed primarily through the Internet. For example. multiply and divide. In 1623 German scientist Wilhelm could add. and scientific agencies. highlighted text. and utilities. The World Wide Web. Seventeenth-century German mathematician Gottfried Leibniz designed a special gearing system to enable multiplication on Pascal’s machine. and physicist Blaise Pascal invented a machine in 1642 that added and subtracted. graphics. In 1984 the development of Internet technology was creating the Internet in 1973 as part of the United States Department of Defense Advanced turned over to private. Pascal built 50 copies of his machine. mathematician. The largest WAN is the Internet. Users can obtain a variety of information in the form of text. D. government. enabling users to browse (transfer their attention from one information site to another) via buttons. developed in the 1980s by British physicist Timothy Berners-Lee. or sophisticated searching software known as search engines. These data are extensively cross-indexed. sounds. American computer scientist Vinton Cerf was largely responsible for Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The Internet is a mammoth resource of data. XI A HISTORY Beginnings The history of computing began with an analog machine. Schikard invented a machine that used 11 complete and 6 incomplete sprocketed wheels that French philosopher.C. and with the aid of logarithm tables. Computers can Los Angeles can browse through the computerized archives of the Library of Congress in connect to these networks to use facilities in another city or country. or video. automatically carrying and borrowing digits from column to column.Wide area networks (WANs) are networks that span large geographical areas. B First Punch Cards . programs.
still used today. more than 30. he fled for his life from the city of Lyon pursued by weavers however: When Jacquard died. She prepared extensive notes concerning Babbage’s ideas and the Analytical Engine. The looms are C Precursor to Modern Computer Another early mechanical computer was the Difference Engine. its . Although Jacquard was rewarded and admired by French who feared their jobs were in jeopardy due to Jacquard’s invention. countess of Lovelace. The loom prevailed. Although the Analytical Engine was never built. especially in the manufacture of fine furniture fabrics. considered the mechanical precursor of the modern computer. designed in the early 1820s by British mathematician and scientist Charles Babbage. the Difference Engine was intended to be a machine with a 20-decimal capacity that could solve mathematical problems.000 of his looms existed in Lyon. The Analytical Engine Augusta Ada Byron. Although never completed by Babbage. the Analytical was designed to perform all arithmetic operations efficiently. was a personal friend and student of Babbage. Babbage also made plans for another machine.In the early 19th century French inventor Joseph-Marie Jacquard devised a specialized type of computer: a silk loom. Jacquard’s loom used punched cards to program patterns that helped the loom create woven fabrics. Babbage’s lack of political skills kept him from obtaining the approval and funds to build it. however. Lovelace’s conceptual programs for the machine led to the naming of a programming language (Ada) in her honor. emperor Napoleon I for his work. She was the daughter of the famous poet Lord Byron and one of only a few woman mathematicians of her time. Engine.
meteorology. Tabulating Machine Company eventually merged with two companies to form the Computing- In 1936 British mathematician Alan Turing proposed the idea of a machine that could process an automatic typewriter that used symbols for math and logic instead of letters. insisting that the integrity of the machine could be maintained only through a strict separation of program instructions from data. Aiken obsessively numbers. development of computers. an American inventor. His computer had to read instructions from punched cards. and the ability to print. such as the capacity to store instructions. New Jersey. economics. the modern digital computer. The machine (now known as a Turing machine) resembled intended the device to be a “universal machine” that could be used to duplicate or represent the function of any other existing machine. can be found in many modern computers. Aiken used vacuum tubes and solid state transistors (tiny electrical switches) to manipulate the binary science program at Harvard University in Cambridge. Hungarian-American mathematician John von Neumann developed one of the first computers used to solve problems in mathematics. which was built by IBM. and it made the computational time three to four times shorter than the time previously needed for hand counts. used an idea similar to Jacquard’s loom when he combined the use of punched cards with devices that created and electronically read the cards.key concepts. and hydrodynamics. In later machines. Turing’s machine was the theoretical precursor to theorists. Turing equations without human direction. which could be stored away from the computer. Hollerith’s Tabulating-Recording Company. Hollerith’s tabulator was used for the 1890 U. In 1924 the company changed its name to International Business Machines (IBM). This electronic calculating machine used relays and electromagnetic components to replace mechanical components. insisting that there would never be a need for more than five or B EDVAC. census. Massachusetts. He also urged the National Bureau of Standards not to support the six of them nationwide. Von Neumann's 1945 design for the Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer (EDVAC)—in stark contrast to . The Turing machine model is still used by modern computational In the 1930s American mathematician Howard Aiken developed the Mark I calculating machine. XII A DEVELOPMENTS IN THE 20TH CENTURY Early Electronic Calculators Herman Hollerith. ENIAC. the use of punched cards as a primitive memory.S. and UNIVAC At the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. Aiken also introduced computers to universities by establishing the first computer mistrusted the concept of storing a program within the computer.
He helped build it along with American engineer John Presper Eckert. The first UNIVAC was delivered to the Between 1937 and 1939. This machine led to several others. By 1957. They produced the Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC). which was United States Census Bureau in 1951.. and MANIAC. but it is not clear whether a functional version was ever built.000 kg (60. vacuum tubes. incorporate a program stored entirely within its memory. used for a broader variety of commercial applications. JOHNNIAC. Atanasoff developed the concepts that were data processing from memory. with the help of his assistant. Atanasoff’s device was the first computer to separate ABC. American physicist John Vincent Atanasoff built a prototype computing device called the Atanasoff-Berry Computer. or later used in the design of the ENIAC. It occupied 167 sq m (1. Roughly 2. patent on ENIAC was settled.000 lb). Since ENIAC was initially not a Eckert and Mauchly eventually formed their own company. his contemporary—was the first electronic computer design to some with clever names like ILLIAC. the Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer. weighed more than 27. which was then bought by the Rand Corporation.000 team of six technicians. Clifford Berry. and contained more than 18. while teaching at Iowa State College. when a lawsuit regarding the XIII THE TRANSISTOR AND INTEGRATED CIRCUITS TRANSFORM COMPUTING .the designs of Aiken. Atanasoff did not receive credit for his contributions until 1973. such as stored program machine. It is regarded as the first successful. Many of ENIAC’s first tasks were for military purposes. Jr. ENIAC was operational in 1945 and introduced to the public in 1946. there were 46 UNIVACs in use.000 of the computer’s vacuum tubes were replaced each month by a calculating ballistic firing tables and designing atomic weapons. at the Moore School of Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. general digital computer.800 sq ft). it had to be reprogrammed for each task. American physicist John Mauchly proposed the electronic digital computer called ENIAC.
replacing costly. Inc. and Linux enables computer users to run programs and manipulate data in ways that were unimaginable in the mid-20th century. and unreliable vacuum tubes. independent work of Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments and circuits became miniaturized. and William Bradford Shockley developed the transistor.. then later with the inclusion of video displays. electric switch. Modern microprocessors can contain more than 40 million transistors. had 256 bytes of RAM. John Bardeen. received input through switches on the front panel. a device that can act as an energy-inefficient. The first of these so-called personal computers (PCs)—the Altair 8800—appeared in 1975. sold by Micro Instrumentation Telemetry Systems (MITS). the Mac OS. Graphical user interfaces were first designed by the Xerox Corporation. better storage devices. The Altair used an 8-bit Intel 8080 microprocessor. Today the development of sophisticated operating systems such as Windows. and CPUs with more computational used successfully by Apple Computer.In 1948. . In the late 1960s integrated circuits (tiny transistors and other electrical components arranged on a single chip of silicon) replaced individual transistors in computers. integrated circuits that contained thousands of transistors. In the 1970s refinements in integrated circuit technology led to the development of the modern microprocessor. more components could be designed into a single computer circuit. American physicists Walter Houser Brattain. Refinements in the PC continued abilities. at Bell Telephone Laboratories. As integrated resulted from the simultaneous. The transistor had a tremendous impact on computer design. Integrated circuits Robert Noyce of the Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation in the late 1950s. Manufacturers used integrated circuit technology to build smaller and cheaper computers. and displayed output on rows of light-emitting diodes (LEDs).
particle called a glueball.Several researchers claim the “record” for the largest single calculation ever performed. One large single calculation was accomplished by physicists at IBM in 1995. The computer had the ability to compute more than 100 million chess positions per second. the reigning world chess champion. In a 1997 rematch Deep Blue defeated Kasparov. rather than one programmed XIV THE FUTURE OF COMPUTERS . and the United States are collaborating to develop new In 1996 IBM challenged Garry Kasparov. to a chess match with a supercomputer called Deep Blue. is whether a computer can be to solve a specific set of tasks. Italy. Their analysis demonstrated the existence of a previously hypothetical subatomic supercomputers that will run these types of calculations 100 times faster. They solved one million trillion mathematical subproblems by continuously running 448 computers for two years. Japan. Many experts predict these types of parallel processing machines will soon surpass human chess playing ability. however. Deep Blue serves as a prototype for future computers that will be required to solve complex problems. becoming the first computer to win a match against a reigning world chess champion with regulation time controls. developed with the ability to learn to solve problems on its own. and some speculate that massive calculating power will one day replace intelligence. At issue.
Computer hackers—people who illegally gain access to computer systems—often violate privacy and can tamper with or destroy records. Future uses of . erasing information or causing malfunctions. These laws allow quantum computers could include code breaking (see cryptography) and large database quantum computers to examine all possible answers to a query simultaneously. exotic models of computation are being developed. This is now known as Moore’s Law. are being reexamined in light of the digital revolution.In 1965 semiconductor pioneer Gordon Moore predicted that the number of transistors contained on a computer chip would double every year. are limited in abilities or are strictly theoretical. computers simplify day-to-day life. and it has proven to be somewhat accurate. and Computers will become more advanced and they will also become easier to use. Virtual Reality Modeling language (VRML)—are currently in use or are being developed for the World Wide Web. Standards for virtual-reality program languages—for example. which describes the behavior of subatomic particles magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compute at a molecular level. Improved speech recognition will make the operation of a computer easier. Quantum computers may one day be thousands to millions of times faster than current computers. Unfortunately. Long-standing issues. including biological computing that uses living organisms. as computer use becomes more widespread. Components continue to shrink in size and are becoming faster. Other. companies. cheaper. the basic unit of heredity. will also contribute to better human and computer interfaces. and more versatile. New ethical issues also have arisen. Programs called viruses or worms can replicate and spread from computer to computer. Virtual reality. because they take advantage of the laws that govern the behavior of subatomic particles. Scientists use a branch of (particles that make up atoms). such as privacy and freedom of governments are working to solve these problems through informed conversation. as the basis for quantum computing. compromise. molecular computing that uses molecules with particular properties. Other individuals Security). speed of microprocessors currently doubles approximately every 18 months. and carry out operations. These are examples of possible future computational platforms that. the physical limitations of miniaturizing circuits embedded in silicon. expression. to store data so far. better computer security. so do the opportunities for misuse. There are also limitations Intriguing breakthroughs occurred in the area of quantum computing in the late 1990s. The number of transistors and the computational With their increasing power and versatility. and regulatory legislation. the technology of interacting with a computer using all of the human senses. such as how to regulate material on the have used computers to electronically embezzle funds and alter credit histories (see Computer Internet and the World Wide Web. and computing that uses deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Scientists investigate them because of related to heat generated by even the tiniest of transistors. Quantum computers under development use components of a chloroform molecule (a combination of chlorine and hydrogen atoms) and a variation of a medical procedure called physics called quantum mechanics. Individuals.
Theorists of chemistry. and physics are now working to determine the possibilities and limitations of quantum computing. computer science. Communications between computer users and networks will benefit from new technologies such as broadband communication systems that can carry significantly more data faster or more conveniently to and from the vast interconnected databases that continue to grow in number and type. mathematics.queries. .
The word laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. from II PRINCIPLES OF OPERATION .Laser I INTRODUCTION Laser. Laser light is very pure in color. compact disc (CD) players. a device that produces and amplifies light. Lasers can generate light beyond the range visible to the human eye. Masers are similar devices that produce and amplify microwaves. Lasers are used in many modern technological devices including bar code readers. and can be directed with great accuracy. can be extremely intense. the infrared through the X-ray range. and laser printers.
The nucleus makes up more than 99. which have a positive charge. inducing the electrons to emit the absorbed energy as light. Enlarge an atom up to the size of Yankee . A Excited Atoms At the heart of an atom is a tightly bound cluster of particles called the nucleus.9 percent of the atom’s mass but Stadium and the equally magnified nucleus is only the size of a baseball.Lasers generate light by storing energy in particles called electrons inside atoms and then all matter on Earth and are a thousand times smaller than viruses. Electrons are the underlying source of almost all light. Atoms are the building blocks of Light is composed of tiny packets of energy called photons. which occupies only a tiny part of the atom’s space. and neutrons. made up of two types of particles: protons. Lasers produce coherent light: light that is monochromatic (one color) and whose photons are “in step” with one another. This cluster is have no charge.
Usually. color. equivalently. An excited atom can then be “stimulated” by a photon of exactly the same spontaneously. When two photons are in step. An atom with at least one electron that occupies a higher energy level than it normally would is said to be excited. Neon signs and fluorescent lamps glow with this kind of light as B Stimulated Emission Lasers are different from more familiar sources of light. An atom can become excited by absorbing a photon whose energy equals the difference between the two energy levels. giving off the extra energy as many electrons independently emit photons of different colors in all directions. or energized. Excited atoms in lasers collectively emit photons of a single color. the same wavelength) as the photon this atom is about to emit energy source. to an excited state by an color (or.Electrons. Electrons can move from a low to a high energy level by absorbing energy. Electrons travel in complex orbits and exist only in certain specific energy states or levels (see Quantum Theory). light (see Photoelectric Effect). frequency. This stimulated emission is the key to laser operation. electrons quickly jump back to the low energy level. The new light . tiny particles that have a negative charge. If the photon approaches closely enough. whirl through the rest of the space inside atoms. the photon can stimulate the excited atom to immediately emit light that has the same wavelength and is in step with the photon that interacted with it. The electrons in the atoms of a laser are first pumped. and wavelength are directly related: All photons of a given energy are the same color and have the same frequency and wavelength. all traveling in the same direction and all in step with one another. the peaks and troughs of their waves line up. A photon’s energy.
(Both men won Nobel Prizes in physics for their work. Gould eventually won a partial patent covering several types of III TYPES OF LASERS Lasers are generally classified according to the material. in 1917. Translating the idea of stimulated emission into a working model. called the medium.adds to the existing light. who had written down some ideas and laser. Solid-state. and single-colored laser light finally escapes through this slightly transparent mirror. is achieved with brilliant strobe light from xenon flash tubes. coined the word laser in 1957. In 1960 American physicist Theodore Maiman of Hughes Aircraft Corporation constructed the first working laser from a ruby rod. . highly reflective mirrors facing inward at each end. In a gas laser. The phenomenon snowballs into an amplified. The Albert Einstein first proposed stimulated emission. One of the mirrors is only partially intense. They are usually pulsed to generate a very are useful for studying physical phenomena of very brief duration. and free electron are all common types of lasers. The most common solid laser media are rods of ruby crystals and neodymium-doped glasses and crystals. arc lamps. directional. and the two photons go on to stimulate other excited atoms to give up their extra energy. they trigger further stimulated emissions and the light gets brighter and brighter with each pass through the excited atoms. called pumping. The patent for the laser was granted to Townes and Schawlow. the underlying process for laser action. they use to produce the laser light. however. brief burst of light. A Solid-State Lasers Solid-state lasers produce light by means of a solid medium. allowing a small amount of light to pass through rather than reflecting it all. This procedure. Townes in 1964 and Schawlow in 1981). the photons usually zip back and forth in a gas-filled tube with parallel mirrors. The ends of the rods are fashioned into two parallel surfaces coated with a highly reflecting nonmetallic film. The escaped light forms the laser beam. liquid. semiconductor. coherent beam of light: laser light. gas. or metal-vapor lamps. Bursts as short as 12 × 10-15 sec have been achieved. As the photons bounce between the two silvered. for example. These short bursts One method of exciting the atoms in lasers is to illuminate the solid laser material with higherenergy light than the laser produces. but it was later challenged by the American physicist and engineer Gordon Gould. required more than four decades. The working principles of lasers were outlined by the American physicists Charles Hard Townes and Arthur Leonard Schawlow in a 1958 patent application. again in step. Solid-state lasers offer the highest power output.
Some dye lasers are tunable. electric current. These lasers are so tiny that more than a million of them can fit Common uses for semiconductor lasers include compact disc (CD) players and laser printers. Two mirrors are located light. or chemical reactions. Free electron lasers employ an array of magnets to excite free electrons (electrons not bound to atoms). Gas lasers can be pumped by ultraviolet turning the energy used to excite their atoms into laser light. meaning that the color of the laser light they emit D Semiconductor Lasers Semiconductor lasers are the most compact lasers. wave mode. First developed in 1977. They can be Scientists have developed extremely tiny semiconductor lasers. lasers that emit light continuously rather than in pulses. Semiconductor lasers also form the heart of fiber-optics communication systems (see Fiber Optics). electron beams. E Free Electron Lasers. . A typical semiconductor laser consists of a junction between two flat layers of gallium arsenide. cavity surface-emitting lasers. They are pumped by intense flash lamps in a pulse mode or by a separate gas laser in the continuous can be adjusted with the help of a prism located inside the laser cavity. a mixture of gases. C Liquid Lasers The most common liquid laser media are inorganic dyes contained in glass vessels.B Gas Lasers The lasing medium of a gas laser can be a pure gas. they are now becoming important research instruments. they are the most powerful continuous wave (CW) lasers—that is. The medium is usually contained in a cylindrical glass or quartz tube. or even metal vapor. Gallium arsenide is the most common semiconductor used. Semiconductor operated in the continuous wave mode with better than 50 percent efficiency. called quantum-dot verticalon a chip the size of a fingernail. Only a small percentage of the energy used to excite most other lasers is converted into light. Carbon dioxide lasers are very efficient at outside the ends of the tube to form the laser cavity. lasers are pumped by the direct application of electric current across the junction. The helium-neon laser is known for its color purity and minimal beam spread. Consequently. One layer is treated with an impurity whose atoms provide an extra electron. and the other with an impurity whose atoms are one electron short.
for example. to induce controlled nuclear fusion (see Nuclear Energy). to drill holes in diamonds. electron lasers can function even in the The free electron laser facility at the University of California at Santa Barbara uses intense farinfrared light to investigate mutations in DNA molecules and to study the properties of semiconductor materials. melt. infrared through ultraviolet wavelengths. trim microelectronics. Free electron lasers should also eventually become capable of near-infrared beams from a free electron laser could defend against a missile attack. Lasers have become valuable tools in industry. producing very high-power radiation that is currently too expensive to produce. communications. to shape machine tools. The devices become more difficult to operate at higher energies but generally work successfully from X-ray range. medicine. Lasers have been used. Theoretically. and to attempt to . A Industry Powerful laser beams can be focused on a small spot to generate enormous temperatures. scientific research. Consequently. or vaporize material. and the arts. IV LASER APPLICATIONS The use of lasers is restricted only by imagination. to cut fashion patterns.Free electron lasers are tunable over a broader range of energies than dye lasers. the military. to synthesize new material. the focused beams can readily and precisely heat. At high power.
Lasers are used in this way for monitoring small movements associated with plate tectonics and for geographic surveys. By measuring the scattering and color shifts. Lasers are also the most effective Scientists use lasers to make extremely accurate measurements. for example. laser pulses also make high-speed photography with exposure times of only several trillionths B Scientific Research Because laser light is highly directional and monochromatic. Photochemistry). Powerful. Chemical reactions can be selectively induced. existence of trace substances in samples can be detected.Highly directional laser beams are used for alignment in construction. Earth and the Moon. Scientists also have used lasers to determine the speed of light to an unprecedented accuracy. short of a second possible. scientists can study molecular structures of matter. and in precise tests to confirm Einstein’s theory of relativity. and the detectors of certain types of air pollution. Perfectly straight and uniformly sized tunnels. (see Chemical Analysis. Lasers have been used for precise determination (to within one inch) of the distance between . extremely small amounts of light scattering and small shifts in color caused by the interaction between laser light and matter can easily be detected. may be dug using lasers for guidance.
Lasers have been used to “weld” the retina.Very fast laser-activated switches are being developed for use in particle accelerators. Lasers are therefore ideal for space communications. Lasers are also used to play audio D Medicine Lasers have a wide range of medical uses. Laser techniques have also been used for high-density information recording. Laser techniques have also been developed for lab tests of small E Military Applications . healthy tissues. laser light simplifies the recording of a hologram. from which a threeCDs and videodiscs (see Sound Recording and Reproduction). Scientists also use lasers to trap single atoms and subatomic particles in order to study these C Communications Laser light can travel a large distance in outer space with little reduction in signal strength. bore holes in the skull. Low-loss optical addition. tiny bits of matter (see Particle Trap). For instance. Laser surgery has virtually replaced older surgical biological samples. and cauterize blood vessels. narrow beams of laser light can cut and cauterize certain body tissues in a small fraction of a second without damaging surrounding lesions.000 times the television channels today carried by fibers have been developed to transmit laser light for earthbound communication in telephone and computer systems. vaporize procedures for eye disorders. Intense. In microwave signals. high-energy laser light can carry 1. dimensional image can be reconstructed with a laser beam.
Canada uses the same Protection Bureau.S. more efficient ways to separate isotopes for construction of nuclear weapons. High-powered lasers of the Class IV type (the highest classification is then attached to the laser as a sticker. The higher its potential to injure. burn flesh. The use of laser beams to destroy hostile ballistic Ronald Reagan and the Ballistic Missile Defense program supported by President George W. the chief danger in working with lasers is eye damage. president be fitted with laser sights and range finders. as in the Strategic Defense Initiative urged by U. the enforced by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH). The higher the laser’s energy. Bush. or diffused. their emission duration. laser light should not be viewed either directly or reflected. Guns can missiles has been proposed. The CDRH has divided lasers into six groups. a department of the Food classification) generate a beam of energy that can start fires. depending on their power output. and cause permanent eye damage whether the light is direct. aircraft. classification system. and the energy of the photons they emit. Lasers sold and used commercially in the United States must comply with a strict set of laws and Drug Administration. Therefore.Laser guidance systems for missiles. and laser use in Canada is overseen by Health Canada’s Radiation . The ability of tunable dye lasers to selectively excite an atom or molecule may open up V LASER SAFETY Because the eye focuses laser light just as it does other light. and satellites have been constructed. reflected.
Even with goggles. and other nonmetals in applications formerly reserved for metals. and metallurgy. Using the finding new ways of using plastics. gave materials science its first major impetus. direct exposure to laser light should be avoided. including levitating trains and superfast computers. Materials Science and Technology I INTRODUCTION Materials Science and Technology. ways that metals could not. scientists are II RECENT DEVELOPMENTS The rapid development of semiconductors (see Semiconductor) for the electronics industry. new applications. ceramics. If the temperature at which these new materials become superconductive can be raised high enough. and how they can be adapted and fabricated to meet the needs of modern technology. laboratory techniques and research tools of physics. chemistry. the study of materials. Having discovered that nonmetallic materials such as silicon could be made to conduct electricity in tiny integrated circuits (see Integrated Circuit) on a small chip of silicon. scientists and engineers devised ways of fashioning thousands of In the late 1980s. This then made it possible to miniaturize the components of electronic devices such as computers. nonmetallic as well as metallic.Goggles blocking the specific color of photons that a laser produces are mandatory for the safe use of lasers. materials science research was given renewed emphasis with the discovery of ceramics that display superconductivity at higher temperatures than metals do. are possible. beginning in the early 1960s. .
torsion. the material returns to its original size and form when the external force is lifted). Under tension. such as titanium alloys. Knowledge of tensile stress. and the deformation of components of machines and engines are all noticeable examples of creep. and under even greater forces the Compression is the decrease in volume that results from the application of pressure. When a rod is bent. the material ruptures. one side of it Creep is a slowly progressing. permanent deformation. composite materials that are lighter.Although the latest developments in materials science have tended to focus on electrical properties. compressive forces are simultaneously at work. It occurs when a mechanical part is subjected to a repeated or cyclic stress. for example. . or fracture. and the other side is compressed. The gradual loosening of bolts. both tensile and is stretched and subjected to a tensional force. shearing. In many cases the slow deformation stops because the force causing the creep is eliminated by material. mechanical properties are also of major. and easier to fabricate than the aluminum and III MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS Engineers must know how solid materials respond to external forces. an example is the force in a cable holding a weight. No deformation is apparent during fatigue. such as vibration. Even when the maximum stress never exceeds the elastic limit. With some metals. Tension is a pulling force that acts in one direction. or torsional (twisting) force. material does not return completely to its original condition. Under larger tensions. stronger. continuing importance. fatigue can be avoided by keeping the cyclic force below a certain level. but small localized cracks develop and propagate through the material until the remaining cross-sectional area cannot support the maximum stress of the cyclic force. and shear. for instance. Creep extended over a long time eventually leads to the rupture of the Fatigue can be defined as progressive fracture. compression. returning to its original length if the force does not exceed the material's elastic limit (see Elasticity). scientists have been developing. Time-dependent effects of external forces are creep and fatigue. and engineers testing. elastic limits. a material usually stretches. Solid materials respond to these forces by elastic deformation (that is. which are defined below. bending. When a material is subjected to a bending. nonmetallic other metals currently used to form the outer skin of aircraft. failure of the material can occur even after a short time. the sagging of long-span cables. permanent deformation that results from a steady force acting on a material. See also Metals. such as tension. and the resistance of materials to creep and fatigue are of basic importance in engineering. the deformation itself. Materials subjected to high temperatures are especially susceptible to this deformation. For the aircraft industry.
it sublimes directly from the solid to vapor phase at a temperatures during the period of sublimation. in which it evaporates to a gas and then condenses back again to a liquid in a continuous cycle. or providing an atmosphere conducive to bodily comfort. The vapor next is drawn into a . In order to melt. furs. expansion valve. Foodstuffs maintained at this temperature or slightly above have an increased storage life. and evaporator. process of lowering the temperature and maintaining it in a given space for the purpose of chilling foods. The use of natural or manufactured ice for refrigeration was widespread until shortly before World War I. In the evaporator the refrigerant is vaporized and heat is absorbed from the material contents or the space being cooled. preserving certain substances. now employed largely for heat-operated air-conditioning units but formerly also used for heat-operated domestic units.1 kJ/kg (143. used in domestic units for large coldstorage applications and for most air conditioning. when mechanical or electric refrigerators became available.I INTRODUCTION Refrigeration. or power. Having no liquid phase at temperature of -78. ice must absorb heat amounting to 333. and the absorption system. Solid carbon dioxide. is used also as a refrigerant. condenser. or other items under refrigeration is commonly known as cold storage. Dry ice is effective for maintaining products at low In mechanical refrigeration.3 Btu/lb). Such refrigeration checks both bacterial growth and adverse chemical reactions that occur in the normal atmosphere. All that is required to maintain cooling is a constant supply of energy. Melting ice in the presence of a dissolving salt lowers its melting point by several degrees. The two main types of mechanical refrigeration systems used are the compression system. the refrigerant lasts indefinitely throughout the entire life of the system. II COMPRESSION SYSTEMS Compression systems employ four elements in the refrigeration cycle: compressor.5° C (-109. constant cooling is achieved by the circulation of a refrigerant in a closed system. If no leakage occurs.3° F). Storing perishable foods. normal atmospheric pressure. Ice owes its effectiveness as a cooling agent to the fact that it has a constant fusion temperature of 0° C (32° F). known as dry ice. pharmaceuticals. and a method of dissipating waste heat.
3 kPa (19. or vaporization. called the freezer.9 psi) would condense at 37. which raises its temperature.2 psi) is required with Refrigerant-12. The condenser. known refrigerant would. and after compression to 909. which passes into a condenser. for example. The resulting condensed liquid would then enter the expansion valve to drop to evaporator pressure and repeat the cycle of absorbing heat at low temperature and low pressure and dissipating heat at the much higher condenser pressure and temperature.2 kPa (131. in which its resulting superheated. With air-conditioning units the condenser heat must be dissipated out of doors or directly into cooling water. and the ammonia is driven off as a vapor. to maintain a temperature of -23. vaporize at -6. In some cases this space constitutes the whole refrigerator cabinet.3° C (-10° F) an evaporator pressure of 132. For example. One popularly as Refrigerant-12. to form the strong ammonia solution.7° C (20° F) in its evaporator under a pressure of 246. A similar pressure-temperature relationship holds in the condenser. weak solution . The lower temperatures. This process of evaporator. the condenser heat is dissipated into the kitchen or other room housing the refrigerator. the motor driving the compressor is controlled by a thermostatic switch. Instead of the gas being inducted into a compressor on exit from the returning from the generator. This synthetic chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) when used as a of the most widely used refrigerants for many years has been dichlorodifluoromethane. so that it is only necessary to control the pressure in the evaporator to obtain a desired temperature. so that if it ran continuously it would produce progressively temperature range. In small domestic refrigerators used for food storage.motor-driven compressor and elevated to high pressure. From the condenser the liquid flows through an expansion valve. In order to maintain the interior of the box within the desired compressor is usually oversized. A frozen-food refrigerator resembles the household refrigerator except that its compressor and motor must be of sufficient size to handle the larger gas volume of the refrigerant at its lower evaporator pressure.8° C (100° F) in the condenser. In such gas refrigerators a strong solution of ammonia in water is heated by a gas flame in a container called a generator. III REFRIGERANTS For every refrigerant there is a specific boiling. In a domestic refrigeration system the evaporator. IV ABSORPTION SYSTEM A few household units. is always placed in an insulated space. however. the ammonia gas is reabsorbed in the partially cooled.7 psi). the ammonia flows to the evaporator as in the compression system. Changed to a liquid state in the condenser. temperature associated with each pressure. operate on the absorption principle. called gas refrigerators. high-pressure gas is then condensed to liquid in an air.2 kPa (35.or water-cooled pressure and temperature are reduced to the conditions that are maintained in the evaporator.
for which purpose refrigerant temperatures of 45° to 50° F (7. are currently the major compounds used in the cooling and insulation systems of home refrigeration units. Increasing use of absorption refrigeration now occurs in refrigeration units for comfort space cooling.0 kPa (1. This solution is then pumped into the generator.0 kPa (0.reabsorption occurs in a container called the absorber. A search has therefore begun for replacements. as the absorbent material.2° to 10° C) are suitable. at elevated temperature. In this temperature range. this solution. that CFCs are posing a major threat to the global environment through their role in the destruction of the ozone layer. the generator and condenser operate at about 10. The very cold boiling water from the evaporator is absorbed in concentrated salt solution. Refrigerant-11 and Refrigerant-22. . the surplus water is boiled off to increase the salt concentration of the solution.145 psi). water can be used as a refrigerant with an aqueous salt solution. The units are usually direct-fired or use steam generated in a boiler. and some manufacturers of CFCs have already pledged to phase out these products by the end of the century. It has been found. usually lithium bromide. from which the enriched liquid flows back to the generator to complete the cycle. after cooling. recirculates back to the absorber to complete the cycle. where.45 psi). V REFRIGERANTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT Refrigerant-12 and related CFCs. however. The system operates at high vacuum at an evaporator pressure of about 1.
braziers of various types that were developed by the ancient Romans are still employed in . either separately or in combination with the heating or air-conditioning system. as in a central system in which steam. controls both the supply and exhaust of air within given areas in order to provide sufficient oxygen to the occupants and to eliminate odors. air handled or stored there. Air conditioning designates control of the indoor environment year-round to create and maintain desirable temperature. and Air Conditioning (HVAC).Heating. or indirect. Ventilating. as from a fireplace or stove in an individual room. Ventilating. or heated air passing through pipes or other ducts transports thermal energy to all the rooms of a building. related processes designed to regulate ambient conditions within buildings for comfort or for industrial purposes. and purity for the occupants of that space or for the industrial materials that are II HEATING The heating process may be direct. and Air Conditioning (HVAC) I INTRODUCTION Heating. Ventilation. circulation. The earliest heating system was the open fire with which people warmed their dwellings. heated water. humidity. Heating an area raises temperature in a given space to a more satisfactory level than that of the atmosphere. Stoves and some parts of the world.
coke. some modern fireplaces are built with an arrangement of interior ducts in which cold air from the room is warmed and then recirculated through the room. coke. These devices promote combustion by permitting The useful heat given off by a fireplace consists of both direct radiation from the burning fuel from the burning fuel is lost in the combustion gases that go up the chimney. raised on legs. The first fireplaces were hearths. Grates are used for such fuels as coal. peat. gas. or a pair of metal charcoal. To and indirect radiation from the hot sidewalls and back wall. an enclosure of metal or ceramic materials in which fuel is burned. B Stoves The stove. The fuels used include wood. An efficient stove delivers about 75 percent of the energy of the burning fuel. and kerosene. and andirons are used for wood.A Fireplaces The fireplace was developed as a method of heating rooms by means of an open fire. is an improvement over the fireplace because its surfaces are in contact with the air of the room and by convection deliver heat to the air passing over them. coal. Fireplaces with chimneys sufficiently high above the roof of the building to provide adequate draft for the fire were introduced during the 12th century. . From 85 to 90 percent of the heat improve heating efficiency. however. and the circulation of air under the fuel. Fireplaces are included in modern houses mainly for aesthetic reasons rather than thermal efficiency. recessed into the walls of buildings. On the hearth is either a metal grate. Ordinary fireplaces consist of a hearth enclosed on three sides with brick and surmounted by a completely enclosed chimney or flue that carries away the smoke and other combustion supports called firedogs or andirons. products of the fire. with short flues that communicated with the open air.
S. introduced in 1835. were developed in the 1800s. was used to a limited extent in Britain about 1816. Steam heating was developed about 1850. hotels. In large systems steam or hot water is usually employed to distribute even groups of buildings. or even Most furnaces. in which one centrally located heating unit is used to warm several rooms or an entire house. . Furnaces that use solid fuels. using hot water. the fuel burns. Furnaces for heating systems conventionally are fired with such fuels as oil. require the admission of additional fuel to the system. are automatically responsive to remote thermostats that control their operation. The removal of ashes from the stoker or grates is also essential. but the first successful central in the U. and or a group of buildings. as are office buildings. Oil. used warm air. system.C Central Heating Central-heating systems. gas. large and small. it heats metal surfaces that in turn transfer the heat to water. The combustion firebox and the associated boiler are customarily enclosed in an insulated casing. however.or gas-fired furnaces only need the control of burners to regulate heat. As air in some residential furnaces. Most dwellings are provided with central heat. such as those in shopping malls. or coal. steam. This system subsequently came into extensive use Present-day central-heating systems provide heat from a central furnace for a single building the heat. A type of centralized heating. The term district heating is applied to systems in which a large number of buildings are supplied with steam from central boiler rooms operated by a public utility.
and factories are often equipped with so-called Although heat is provided in part by radiation in all forms of direct heating. Efficiency is high because radiant heat raises the inside-surface temperature. Often the furnace is arranged so the warm air passes over a water pan in the furnace for humidification before circulating through the house. which tends to rise. ensures the circulation of a large amount of air even under unfavorable conditions. forced-circulation systems may be used effectively for heating and cooling. The grills or registers can be The chief problem in this type of system lies in obtaining adequate air circulation. heat is provided largely by convection. In a forced-circulation system a fan or blower is placed in the furnace casing. such a system may be included in the system to ensure the cleanliness of the air. mounted on a wall. rather than by radiation. individual grills or registers in each room of the upper floors. Radiant heating provides uniform C1 Warm-Air Systems The simplest warm-air heating system consists of a firebox and waste-gas passage set within the warm air. the system may not heat a house adequately. humidifying. is admitted between the a sheet-metal casing. When combined with cooling. thereby providing comfort at a lower room-air temperature than other systems. Dust filters residential installations. and ducts leading to the various rooms. If electricity is used for heating. or ceilings are used as the radiating units. warehouses. Unless the warm-air ducts are comparatively large in diameter. As the air is heated. walls. The convector enclosures designed to permit air circulation. either from within the house or from outdoors. thus. baseboard. Ordinary radiators consist of a consists of a network of finned steel or nonferrous-metal tubes. unit heaters in which an electric fan or blower forces air through heating coils.The devices generally employed to transfer heat from the heating system to the area to be warmed are known commonly as radiators and convectors. and properly insulated to prevent heat losses. the panels containing heating elements are heat and has a comparatively low cost of operation. and dehumidifying units. Steam or hot-water pipes are placed in the walls or floors during construction of the building. To ensure natural circulation of firebox and the casing and is heated by contact with the hot surfaces of the furnace. Forced-circulation warm-air systems are popular for through the year. Cold air. primarily because the same equipment can provide air conditioning . slanted upward from the furnace. Stores. the furnace usually is situated below the first floor of the house. it passes through the ducts to opened or closed to control the temperature of the rooms. These units are placed in series of cast-iron grids or coils having a comparatively large total surface area. or the ceiling of the room. the term radiant heating is applied popularly to systems in which floors.
The two-pipe system is thus more efficient and easier compensate for variations in the volume of water in the system. Circulation of the hot water can be because it provides flexibility and control. The steam condenses in the radiators. The vapor system is a two-pipe arrangement in which steam passes into the radiator through an inlet valve. The one-pipe air-vent system is an arrangement in which the force of gravity causes the condensate to flow from the radiator to the boiler in the same pipe through which steam reaches the radiator. The disadvantage of this arrangement is that the water becomes each radiator from the supply side of the main pipe. Closed expansion tanks contain about 50 percent air. vapor systems. Modern systems of this type employ a boiler. The condensate is returned to the boiler. The water is then circulated by means of pipes to radiators located in the various rooms. but the pipes must be large to accommodate both the steam and the condensate.or two-pipe systems may be used. giving up its latent heat (see Heat: Latent Heat). and flows increasingly cool as it flows away from the furnace. a subatmospheric type is less used. which compresses and expands to compensate for volume changes in the water. In both systems an expansion tank is required to furnace through a common return pipe. in which water is heated to a temperature of from 60° to 83° C (140° to 180° F). Air vents on each radiator permit air to be forced out of the radiator by the steam during the warm-up period and also during operation. accomplished by pressure and gravity. systems. Three main types of steam systems are used: air-vent systems. and air and condensate are delivered to the return pipe by means of a steam trap on the radiator. and hence the radiators farthest from the furnace must be larger than those nearer the furnace in order to deliver the same amount of heat. condensation. In the one-pipe system. water is admitted to back into the same pipe. C3 Steam Systems Steam-heating systems closely resemble hot-water systems except that steam rather than hot water is circulated through the pipes to the radiators. Both one-pipe and two-pipe arrangements are employed for circulating the steam and for returning to the boiler the water formed by and vacuum. circulates through the radiator. but forced circulation using a pump is more efficient Either one. In the two-pipe system all radiators are supplied with hot water at the same temperature from a single supply pipe.C2 Hot-Water Systems In the first hot-water heating systems the waters of natural hot springs reputedly were used as a source of heat. or mechanical-pump. and the water from all the radiators flows back to the to control than the one-pipe system. and the air is discharged either . This is the least expensive system to install.
The condensate and air return to a central point from which the the pump a partial vacuum is maintained in the system so that the steam. With circulate more readily. as does a furnace. Heating elements or wires can even be incorporated in heating can be substantially reduced through the use of a heat-pump system. Like furnaces. or as baseboard ceilings or floors to radiate low-temperature heat into a space. and condensate condensate is pumped back into the boiler and the air is expelled into the atmosphere. but the convenience. most heat pumps are controlled by thermostats. To air condition a space. cleanliness. such as Freon. Electric heating generally costs more than energy obtained from combustion of a fuel. flows first to a compressor. is more less fuel. well water. It then vapor before it flows to an indoor coil. A vapor system. The refrigerant is cold. and reduced space needs of electric heat can often justify its use. having given up much of its heat. The overall cost of electric C5 Heat pump A heat pump is a system designed to provide useful heating and cooling. varying patterns—for example. the heat pump transfers heat from one place to another.through one central air vent in the basement or. is pumped through a coil that is outside the area to be heated. a liquid refrigerant. The heat can be provided from electric coils or strips used in radiation in part or all of a room. Instead of creating heat. convectors in or on the walls. through a vent for each zone heated by the system. economical because it can be operated on the low-firing cycle of the furnace and thus requires Vacuum systems resemble vapor systems in that each radiator is equipped with an inlet valve and a steam trap. the ground. so radiators can be situated either above or below the boiler. If the system is constructed with light joints. C4 Electric Heating The practice of using electric energy for heating is increasing not only in residences but in public buildings as well. in larger installations. The refrigerant. valves reverse the flow so that the refrigerant picks up heat from inside and discharges it outside. . which raises its temperature and pressure so that it becomes other space to be heated. or some other source. then flows so it absorbs heat from the outside air. the rate at which air reenters the system is so reduced that minimal pressure is required to propel the steam. although more expensive to install than the one-pipe system. under windows. With a full vacuum system the condensate does not have to be returned by gravity. and its actions are essentially the same for either process. In heating season. air. There the warmth is radiated or blown into the room or through a valve where its pressure and temperature are lowered further before it liquefies and is pumped into the outdoor coil to continue the cycle. but they differ in having a vacuum pump installed in the return piping.
thus warming glass or quartz in which resistance wires are embedded. time of year. a supplementary heat source for the water is usually provided. Some radiant heaters include a fan. The entire plate or tube is warmed by the wires and gives off radiant heat. drawing in cool air through vents in the bottom of the stove and emitting heated air from top vents. C6 Solar heating During each sunlight hour of the day approximately 0. The most common types are kerosene stoves and electric heaters. which circulates air around the heating unit. Proper placement of the glazing in any house can also greatly reduce the heating need D Portable Heating Units Houses lacking central-heating systems are equipped with various types of portable and semiportable heating devices. In colder water circuits. Known generally as space heaters. The water. Kerosene stoves heat both by radiation and by convection. by convection as well as by radiation.Most heat pumps use atmospheric air as their heat source. latitude.9 kw per sq m (280 Btu per hour per sq ft) of solar energy reaches the surface of the earth. The simplest electric heaters are radiant heaters having a resistanceheating unit in front of a reflector. this water becomes a source of heating for the house. which concentrates the radiant heat into a narrow beam. Kerosene stoves should be used with adequate outside ventilation because combustion gases can be harmful. making it difficult to raise the temperature and pressure of the refrigerant. Another type consists of a plate or tube of heat-resistant . The actual energy received varies with time of day. A common method employed uses roof panels with built-in elsewhere in the house. provided enough solar absorbing surface can be installed and enough heat storage is made available to carry the building during periods of darkness and inclement weather. cold. A number of such systems are in successful operation. The usual kerosene stove is made of sheet metal and contains one or more wick burners that heat metal flues within the stove. particularly in areas where the weather is not severely from fuels or electric power in winter. large stoves of this general pattern can provide adequate heat for several rooms. This presents a problem in areas where winter temperatures frequently drop below freezing. many of which can be moved from room to room as needed. it is safer to use. the Heat-pump systems are now being used extensively not only in residences but also in commercial buildings and schools. clarity of the atmosphere. For economical heating performance. then flows into insulated tanks or pools located climates. Because the heater has no incandescent wires. delivered heat should amount to more than twice the heat purchased from the power source. This energy can often be more than enough to heat a well-designed building. heated by the sun. and the direction relative to the sun that an absorbing surface faces at any given time.
natural flow of air. regardless of weather conditions. Ventilating systems may be combined with heaters. however. Such haphazard for factories. and minimize unpleasant odors. filtered air. heat exchangers. thereby increasing the IV AIR CONDITIONING Theoretically. in particular. humidity. Nearly all chemical processes generate hazardous waste gases and vapors. and engineers. but not for public buildings such as offices and theaters. or that about 280 to 850 liters (about 10 to 30 cu ft) of outside air per minute should be supplied for each occupant. or Factory ventilation systems must remove hazardous airborne contaminants from the workplace.Electric-steam radiators are used to supplement other heating systems. or both. Many so-called air-conditioning units consist merely of blowerequipped refrigerating units that provide only a flow of cool. Radiators filled with oil that is heated electrically are also available. filters. the term air conditioning often is applied improperly to air cooling. These use outgoing air to heat or cool incoming air. A certain ventilation may suffice for homes. miniature steam-heating systems in which an electrical-heating unit generates enough steam necessary. Many systems include efficiency of the system by reducing the amount of energy needed to operate it. No pipe connections are outlet. Engineers estimate that for adequate ventilation the air in a room should be changed these must be removed from the workplace environment in a cost-effective manner. an air-conditioning system consists of centralized equipment that provides an atmosphere with controlled temperature. . or cooling devices. and purity at all times. humidity controls. are involved in ventilation design for factories and refineries. dilute the amount of air movement or ventilation ordinarily is provided by air leakage through small crevices in the building's walls. Chemical completely from one and a half to three times each hour. In popular usage. concentration of carbon dioxide and water vapor. especially around windows and doors. Providing this amount of ventilation usually requires mechanical devices to augment the Simple ventilation devices include fans or blowers that are arranged either to exhaust the stale air from the building or to force fresh air into the building. These radiators are to warm a small conventional radiator partially filled with water. and the units can be moved from place to place and plugged into any electrical III VENTILATION Buildings in which people live and work must be ventilated to replenish oxygen.
blowers. and printed matter. system is used during the winter. stores. and the nature of their activity. the amount of space to be cooled. In older buildings. in recent years. and ventilation. and a plenum chamber in which air from the interior of the building is mixed with outside air. the air- conditioning system is designed to include some type of filter. require air conditioning for the control of conditions during manufacture. dust is removed Centralized air-conditioning systems. air ducts. Air is humidified by circulation through water baths or sprays. The air is passed through water electrostatically by means of precipitators (see Electrostatic Precipitator). through a labyrinth of oil-covered plates. providing fully controlled heating. When dry air is required. restaurants. sprays or. being complex. as required. these systems have increasingly been automated by computer technology for purposes of energy conservation. and the regular heating refrigerating unit and blower in a compact cabinet that can be mounted in a window. in some filters. single apartments or suites of offices may be equipped with a refrigerating unit. generally must be installed when the building is constructed. Air conditioning of this kind usually is based on adjusting the humidity of the circulated air. or an indoor office . such as those used in the production of paper. it is usually dehumidified by cooling or by dehydration. and other public buildings. textiles. Such systems. as is necessary in the manufacture of certain drugs and medical supplies. the number of occupants. A room or building with large windows exposed to the sun.A number of manufacturing processes. cooling. When air must be completely free of dust. In the latter process it is passed through chambers containing adsorptive chemicals such as silica gel. A smaller apparatus for cooling single rooms consists of a The design of an air-conditioning system depends on the type of structure in which the system is to be placed. in others. Such installations are used for cooling and dehumidifying during the summer months. are employed widely in theaters.
which properly should be expressed in kilowatt units. but in laboratories or constant supply of cooled or heated fresh air must be supplied.45 kg) of Horsepower ratings were formerly used for small air conditioners. but the term is misleading because under usual summer conditions a motor of one horsepower could support 3. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. the equivalent of a ton of refrigeration. no air can be recirculated. most of the cooled or factories employing processes that generate noxious fumes. 12.746 kw) represents work power and not cooling. because a horsepower (or 0.5 kw of cooling.5 kw—a Btu is the amount of heat removed from 1 lb (0. In homes or apartments. equal capacity in which smoking is prohibited.space with many heat-producing lights.000 Btu/hour equal to 3. and a Air-conditioning units are rated in terms of effective cooling capacity. . All rights reserved. The circulation of air must be greater in a space in which the occupants are allowed to smoke than in a space of heated air can be recirculated without discomfort to the occupants. requires a system with a larger cooling capacity than an almost windowless room in which cool fluorescent lighting is used. It came into use Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005. Usage still supports the term ton of refrigeration. or water when its temperature is lowered by 1° F (5/9° C). which implies the amount of heat that would have to be absorbed to melt a ton of water-ice in 24 hours.
such as filtration and electronic flash. and lenses. information on motion picture technology and history. method of picture making developed in the early 19th century. For the purpose of producing a photograph. For Pictures. and surveys how photographic technologies have evolved since the medium's invention.Photography I INTRODUCTION Photography. The word photography comes from Greek words and means “drawing with light. cameras. History of Motion II GENERAL PRINCIPLES Light is the most essential ingredient in photography. The compounds most widely used today are silver halide crystals. see Motion Pictures. Photosensitive materials abound in nature. and chemistry. historical documents. or iodine). For information on the history of photography and its artistic practice. see History of Photography. conveyers of news. optics. these silver salts are distributed in gelatin to make a mixture called an emulsion. Millions of people around the made with still cameras. and records of family life. which is applied to film or another supporting material in a thin . every year more than 10 billion exposures are This article discusses how photographs are produced using film. works of art. The films used in photography depend on a limited number of chemical compounds that darken when exposed to light. chlorine. plants that close their based on the fact that certain chemicals are photosensitive—that is. they change in some way blooms at night are one example. which are salts consisting of silver and chemicals called halogens (usually bromine. based on principles of light.” Photographs serve as scientific evidence. world own cameras and enjoy taking pictures. It also outlines techniques of modern photography. Nearly all forms of photography are when exposed to light.
person. A device called a shutter controls how long light strikes the film. The camera’s glass or plastic lens down on the other side of the lens. or scene in front of the camera—onto the inside of the box. shutter speed—influences the appearance of the photograph as much stood in the same spot to take photographs of the Grand Canyon over the years. lens aperture. Light passing through the lens casts an image of the camera’s subject—the object. thousands of people have III PHOTOGRAPHIC FILMS . project a temporary image of something they wanted to draw. the bending of light. In both the camera obscura Cameras work on the basic principle of the camera obscura. which in a modern camera contains film. but their photographs look different because the photographers made different choices with these controls. The area where they re-form an image of the subject bends the light rays reflected from the subject so that these rays cross and reappear upsideinside the camera is called the plane of focus. a device that artists once used to and the modern camera. The diaphragm controls the size of the aperture. The amount of light that a lens allows to fall on the film is controlled by a lens diaphragm. When the emulsion is exposed to light. lenses that take in a narrow angle make the subject seem magnified. or an automatic mechanism focus falls exactly where the film lies. the shutter speed can range from a small fraction of a second (1/1000 or less) to minutes or even hours. mechanism built of overlapping metal blades. focus. To take one example. the silver halide crystals undergo chemical changes and. Lenses that take in a wide angle of view make the subject seem farther away. must adjust the distance between the lens and the film so that the plane of Various types of lenses admit different amounts of light and permit different angles of view. from which a positive final copy can be printed on sensitized paper. The dense (or dark) areas of the negative translate into light areas on the final photograph. in some cameras. Almost all modern photography relies on this negative-to-positive process. The combination of choices that a photographer makes—film type. the denser or more opaque that part of the film becomes. making the resulting image appear in focus. a or circular opening of the lens. The photographer. Most types of film produce a negative image. angle of view. after further processing. camera size. as the choice of subject and the time of day. The stronger the light that strikes the crystals. The purpose of the lens is refraction. light passes through a lens fitted into an otherwise lightproof box.layer. The camera and lens control how much light strikes the film in what is called an exposure. In most cases the camera and its lens determine the appearance of the photographic image. an image becomes visible. The photographer can switch a modern zoom lens from wide to narrow angles of view by turning a collar or pressing a button.
Beginning in 1850 glass replaced paper as a support for the negative. version of this system. positive image on a shiny copper plate small enough to be held in the hand. color print. which has been coated with one or more light-sensitive emulsions. in the back of a camera obscura. and the silver salts were suspended in collodion. another copper plates and from bitumen to silver chloride. pieces of glass coated in advance with an emulsion of gelatin and silver bromide. Daguerreotypes remained popular through the 1850s. While they succeeded in producing a negative image. In 1889 he were invented in 1878. experimenters sought a dry version of the same process. or color A A Brief History of Film Scientists recognized the photosensitivity of certain silver compounds. Dry plates. the entire surface blackened after continued exposure to light. He achieved this by placing a pewter plate coated with bitumen. because the details were no longer lost in the texture of the Because the wet collodion (or wet plate) process required photographers to coat the glass support just before taking a picture. English inventor William Henry Fox Talbot devised this process and perfected it in the 1840s. Within each film format there are a range of film types (black and white. Niépce later switched from pewter to Daguerre continued Niépce’s pioneering work and in 1839. He exposed silver- sensitized paper briefly to light and then treated it with other chemicals to produce a visible image. a thick liquid. painted image onto leather or paper. In the early 19th century English scientists Thomas Wedgwood and Sir Humphry Davy used silver nitrate in an attempt to transfer a was not permanent. This refinement became known as the wet collodion process. a type of roll film that incorporates various conveniences for amateur photographers. which he called the daguerreotype. light-sensitive material. a long paper strip that could replace the glass plate. it A French inventor. producing the first . announced an The daguerreotype process produced a detailed. is credited with having made the first successful photograph in 1826. after Niépce's death. Typical formats are 35-millimeter and 6-centimeter roll films. from which he could produce any number of paper positives. usually acetate.Modern film consists of a transparent material. sharper images than paper ones. It is available in a variety of shapes and sizes determined by the format of the camera. The smooth glass negatives could produce paper. Advanced Photo System (APS). Talbot’s process produced a paper negative. called film speeds. Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. that are appropriate for different lighting conditions. 4-by-5 and 8-by-10 inch sheet films. during the 18th century. French painter Louis Jacques Mandé improved version of the process. A few years later American inventor George Eastman devised a flexible improved on this by using a type of plastic called celluloid instead of paper. and most recently. transparency) and sensitivity levels. particularly silver nitrate and silver chloride. but were eventually replaced by a negative/positive process.
the blue flowers would appear too light. or slides. specialized compounds called dye sensitizers were incorporated into the emulsion. yellow. and to prevent light from scattering within Color transparency films produce a positive color image for viewing with the help of a slide projector or an illuminated surface called a light table. with a few specialized exceptions. flowers. B1 Dyes and Emulsions Photographic films vary in the way they react to different wavelengths of visible light. called Autochrome. Eastman's invention paved the way for all modern films. which gave amateurs the same negative/positive process they had long B How Film Works To understand how film works. red.photographic film. became available in 1907 and was based on a process devised by French inventors Auguste and Louis Lumière. The first commercially successful material for making color photographs. Other layers act as the film. films are sensitive to all colors of the visible spectrum. Each emulsion responds to only one color of light and is coupled with a dye layer. green. Even black-and-white films record colors as different shades of gray. Light is the visible portion of a broad range of energy called electromagnetic radiation. gamma rays. The narrow band of electromagnetic waves that the human eye can detect is called the visible spectrum. which we see as colors. X rays. which are made of acetate or polyester. and blue in between. Today. To correct this. The Kodak company introduced Kodacolor film for color enjoyed in black and white. whereas the red and orange flowers would look unrealistically dark. yellow. color films were not invented until the 20th century. the shortest as violet. Most color films are coated with three emulsions. filters to screen the light these emulsions receive. Except for some isolated experiments. So. plastics that are less flammable than celluloid. and magenta (a purplish red). which also includes invisible energy in the form of radio waves. for example. Kodachrome color film in 1935 and Agfacolor in 1936. Early primarily to light perceived as blue. which produces the actual color that resembles what the eye sees. These films are also known as reversal . Both of these films produced positive negatives in 1942. in a picture of blue. typically cyan (a greenish blue). it is first necessary to understand a few things about light. But the era of color photography did not really begin until the advent of color transparencies. and orange black-and-white films were sensitive to only the shorter wavelengths of the visible spectrum. Our eyes perceive the longest (A rainbow or a prism shows all the colors of the visible spectrum. and infrared and ultraviolet radiation.) wavelengths as red. with orange.
exhibit dye images rather than silver images.films because the initial developed image is chemically reversed during processing. B2 Positive/Negative Development When film is processed in a chemical agent called a developer. the colored dyes on the negative would be a blue-green color called cyan (the original scene. The dyes in some brands of transparency film are added during development. called chromogenic film. During processing. which is red. yellow. and yellow dye images. areas in the subject that were dark appear light on the negative. Chromogenic color films. As these remaining silver halides are converted to metal. in which the dye is built in. final print. and areas that were bright appear dark. negative are reversed again in the printing process—or in the case of transparencies (slides). they are built into the film itself. the colors return to One type of black-and-white film. When exposed to conventional blackand-white photo paper. and blue. if you took a picture of the Ecuadorian flag. magenta. As with some transparency films. Color negative films. But in color processing the developer also stimulates dye couplers (chemicals that react to a specific color of light and cause corresponding dyes to be released) to form cyan. while exposure to dim light or exposure for a very short time causes just a few particles to form. The silver is then removed. The resulting image produced on the film is called a negative because the tonal values of the subject photographed are reversed. positive form. But when exposed to paper for printing color photographs it produces an image composed of different shades of a single color. turning what would otherwise be a negative image into a positive one. yellow. When light shines through this negative onto color-sensitive print paper. Exposure to lots of light causes many particles to form. also known as print films. leaving a negative image in the three colors. dyes built into the emulsion chemically react with the silver salts that form the image. the chemical action of the developer creates initial images in metallic silver. For instance. and the print shows a flag properly striped with red. large particles of metallic silver form in areas of the film that were exposed to light. In color transparency films. the negative provides an image nearly identical to that of conventional black-and-white film. The colors on the processed negative are the complements of the colors in the and blue. makes use of color-film technology to produce a negative that has just a single dye layer. and yellow (the complement of blue). they . produce positive prints. The tonal values of the during the development of the film—creating a positive image. unexposed silver halide crystals that are not converted during a second development. just as in black-and-white processing. blue (the complement of yellow). although silver is also essential to the process. complement of red). in others. Different combinations of those colors create the more complex colors visible on the to metallic silver and washed away during the initial development remain to be converted again combine with dye couplers to form the final color image. before the second layer of metallic silver is also washed away.
The so-called paper support (today. When these papers are exposed to light shone through C Film Characteristics Certain characteristics help people determine which film will work best in a particular situation. which Each of these kinds of light has a distinct characteristic referred to as color temperature. be designed to respond to the specific quality or energy of light illuminating the scene. as C2 Exposure Latitude In any lighting situation there is an optimal exposure that will produce a perfect image on film. which produce negatives. pictures with unpleasant green or purple casts when taken indoors under fluorescent light. or electronic flash. see the Filtration section of this article. a negative. incandescent lamps. but generally require fewer layers. C1 Sensitivity and Color Balance Most films now in use are panchromatic. For more information about eliminating color casts. Tungsten films are designed to be used indoors without flash. meaning that they respond to all colors of light and can record each color’s relative strength with a fair degree of accuracy. which produce direct positive images that cannot be altered. commonly made of plastic or paper) is coated with a lightcolor papers have at least three layers. the practical concept is simple: color films are balanced to perform best in specific lighting conditions. .Photographic print papers are constructed much like films. specifically with Distinguishing between daylight and tungsten film types is important mainly with transparency or slide films. can be adjusted during printing to compensate for different lighting conditions. which shows most visibly as insufficient contrast between dark and light. The color in print films. are designed for both outdoor photography and pictures taken indoors with certain types of bulbs manufactured for such situations called photofloods. just as films are. Too short an exposure and the image is underexposed. So-called daylight films. the most widely used. Color films also must may be outdoor sunlight. because print films are balanced for daylight. Nonetheless. All color films will produce in an office. pictures from them often have an orange cast when taken indoors without flash. Films may vary in their sensitivity to different kinds of light and in their ability to record fine details or quickly moving subjects. the end result is a positive. sensitive emulsion. electronic flash. Film exposed to light for a longer than optimal time is said to be overexposed and produces prints that look bleached out and blurred. Black-and-white papers have a single layer of emulsion. While the theory of color temperature is complicated.
slow-speed films typically have a rating between ISO 25 and ISO 100. and low Today. but films that are even slower exist. For this reason. exposure time and aperture size need to be precisely set to fit the lighting conditions. slow-speed film generally has a higher resolution—that is. With some cameras the photographer will need to manually adjust the ISO number. Film grain is the visible trace of the metallic silver that forms the image. But to achieve the best-possible image quality. cameras. For each film. The manufacturer of the film assigns it a standardized Organization). The wider a film's latitude. photographs taken with slowspeed film appear less grainy. with other adjustment for you. setting an exposure compensation dial will trick the camera into making this lengthened to compensate for the underexposure. The photographer must then make sure that the development time is Whether fast or slow. With films that have a narrow exposure latitude. an exposure adjusted for a shady area is likely to result in overexposure of adjacent sunny in a range of lighting conditions. such as when photographing a rapidly moving subject.Every film has a characteristic exposure latitude. In addition. areas. a range of settings within which it can accurately render the color and tonal values (contrasts of light and dark) of the subject photographed. a rating that provides a measure of the film’s sensitivity to light. slow films. Because of the small size of its silver with greater sharpness. Slow-speed film also produces a smoother range of tones and more films in certain situations. Despite these advantages. slow films are not as desirable as fast C4 DX Coding . the greater its ability to provide satisfactory prints or slides Films that produce negatives generally offer much greater latitude than transparency films. including full detail throughout the picture. halide grains. fast films. many high-speed films have a greater exposure latitude than slower films. it renders fine details intense colors than fast film. Staying within a given film’s exposure latitude can ensure an acceptable range of tones in the picture. subject under a given lighting condition. the C3 Speed and Grain Film is also classified by speed. Films in the ISO 125 to ISO 200 range are considered medium speed. while films above ISO 200 are considered fast. A photographer can push the limits of a film by overriding the recommended exposure for that film speed and shortening the exposure time. this rating determines the amount of exposure required to photograph a numerical rating known as the ISO number (ISO stands for the International Standards numbers to less sensitive. The individual grains of silver are generally larger and more obvious in faster film than in slower film. High ISO numbers correspond to highly light-sensitive. the margin for error is small. all films exhibit a pattern called grain. especially when enlarged.
Today Polaroid films . reversal films. and 400 are the most common.DX coding is a recent innovation in film and camera technology that eliminates the need to set film. manufacturers print a checkerboard pattern that corresponds to an electronic code. These types include color print films. Films are available in several sizes. takes one or more minutes. used to make color slides and larger transparencies. duplication. 200. which provide better color and smaller grain size. D Color Films in Use Today A range of color film types is available to photographers. Each manufacturer supplies its brand in several speeds: ISO 100. Although the process are available in both black-and-white and color. Polaroid films. Both daylight and tungsten versions of these films are generally available. This the film speed by hand in the camera's built-in exposure meter. a type of photography that produces prints almost immediately after exposure. Manufacturers also design films for such specific tasks as slide ISO 3200. Film speeds of slide films commonly range from a very slow ISO 25 to a very fast D3 Polaroid In 1947 American physicist Edwin Herbert Land invented the Polaroid process. D2 Slide Films Kodachrome. which produce prints through the classic negative-to-positive process. and Agfachrome are examples of films that produce 35-millimeter slides and larger transparencies. and Agfacolor. Ideal for amateur use. they are designed to provide excellent color rendition out of doors and with electronic flash. Most cameras with electronic controls are equipped with DX sensors that can read this information and automatically adjust exposures accordingly. Ektachrome. include such brand names as Kodacolor. develop into prints without additional processing. The DX code is also placed on the film itself to inform the developing laboratory of this information. On cartridges of 35-millimeter code tells the camera’s computer the ISO rating of the film as well as the number of frames on the roll. Fujicolor. which ray and infrared. and a number of specialty films such as X- D1 Print Films Color print films. it was quickly dubbed instant photography. or formats. for both special Polaroid cameras and for standard-format cameras (see Polaroid Corporation). Fujichrome. Manufacturers also offer premium films in most formats. including the popular 35-millimeter format (in which a single frame of the film is 35 millimeters wide).
with some pleated leather sides called bellows. devices that could limit the time of exposure to a fraction of a second. producing a print. A chemical diffusing agent transfers the negative image to the paper. The mirror reflected an image onto a this device to help them draw more accurately. and users can watch the image develop before their eyes. Over the course of three centuries the camera obscura evolved into a handheld box with a lens device was a darkened room with a tiny hole in one wall. X-ray. a large-format camera known as the view camera. Improvements in camera photographs. was used throughout the 19th century. Long before film was invented artists used The inventors of photography in the early 19th century adapted the camera obscura by adding a device for holding sensitized plates in the back of the box. At first the shutter was simply a blind dropped in front of the lens by the force of .The processing chemicals and conventional silver halide emulsions in instant film are combined in a self-contained paper envelope or within the print itself. a camera is a lighttight box with a lens on one side and light-sensitive film on the other. Polaroid SX-70 film. technology over the years have given photographers more control over the quality of their A A Brief History of Cameras Today’s cameras all derive from the 16th-century camera obscura. Older Polaroid films use a system in which the negative peels away from the final print. Film manufacturers also design specialized emulsions for medical and scientific films that IV CAMERAS The most important tool of photography is the camera itself. D4 Infrared. Infrared film responds to the invisible. They placed thin paper onto the viewing screen and could easily trace the reflected image. One notable enhancement for the box. Professional photographers still use a similar camera In the 1880s the invention of more sensitive emulsions and better lenses led to the development of lens shutters. ground-glass viewing screen on the top of the box. allowed the photographer to easily adjust the distance today. on the other hand. has no separate negative. improvements. The earliest form of this hole and projected an upside-down image of the subject onto the opposite wall. Light entered the room through this replacing the pinhole and an angled mirror at the back. This kind of camera. infrared portion of the spectrum in addition to visible respond to X rays and other forms of electromagnetic radiation. Basically. light. between the lens and the plane of focus. and Special Films Some special-purpose films are sensitive to wavelengths beyond the visible spectrum of light.
a fixed. a small-sized film initially designed for motion pictures. which used a cylindrical shutter that the photographer turned by pulling a string on the front of the camera. the user turns over the entire camera to a processing lab for development. the photographer can do little to control the results. a viewfinder window.gravity. the focal-plane shutter allows photographers to switch lenses safely in the middle of a film roll. a waterproof body. or the ability to show panoramic views in B2 View Cameras . Box cameras consist photographer looks to frame the scene. Whereas cameras once required many decisions on the part of photographers. one of the first cameras to use 35-millimeter film. B1 Box Cameras The Eastman Kodak Company introduced one of the first box cameras in 1888. when the camera is used outdoors in the sun. Because it blocks light from the film even when the lens is removed. the Leica and other 35-millimeter cameras became popular with both amateur and professional photographers. or by a spring. the lens is set to an aperture and focus that produce reasonably sharp pictures of a subject at least 2 m (about 6 ft) away. These cardboard-covered. B Modern Camera Types Cameras come in a variety of forms. All but the earliest Leicas used a focal-plane shutter. The Kodak was one of the earliest handheld cameras. The modern-day equivalents of the old Kodak box cameras are the disposable cameras now sold at drugstores and tourist shops. and a shutter with one or possibly two speeds. and the of a rigid box or body. After taking a roll of pictures. In 1888 George Eastman introduced the first Kodak camera. located just in front of the film. simple lens. Later designs featured a set of blades just behind the optical lens. But because these settings are not adjustable. In 1925 the Leitz Company in Germany introduced the Leica. most of today’s cameras offer a range of automated features that greatly simplify picture taking and reduce the likelihood of error. It made photography available to amateurs for the first time and created a snapshot craze at the turn of the 20th century. plastic cameras come loaded with 35-millimeter color print film. models—offering built-in flash. through which the simplicity of this easy-to-use design has assured its popularity ever since. Manufacturers now reuse or recycle many of the parts inside these cameras. On most box cameras. Because of its compactness and economy. Single-use cameras are also available in several advanced extra-wide prints.
) . The cameras work with all types of 35-millimeter film. and the space in between is enclosed in an expandable leather bellows. the rear holds a ground-glass panel. and some professionals still use it. Unlike point-and-shoot cameras. rangefinder cameras can be inaccurate for framing close-up shots. The photographer can shift. and film rewinding. To focus the camera. It has two capture far greater detail than 35-millimeter films. some also use a newer film type called Advanced Photo System (APS). the photographer the focus to precisely match the distance of the subject. Rangefinders are available in two formats. It has a number of automatic features that make it practically foolproof to operate while producing pictures of high quality. B4 Point-and-Shoot Cameras The most popular camera type today is the point-and-shoot camera. at which point the camera has set show the scene through the lens. is extremely adjustable. Since the viewfinder window does not Rangefinder cameras were once very popular with amateur photographers. The photographer frames and focuses the scene that appears in the glass panel at the back. window-like lens through which the photographer sees and frames the subject. The viewfinder adjusts a ring or collar until the two views appear as one.View cameras are larger and heavier than most amateur cameras but allow for maximum precision in focus. see the Recent Developments: APS section of this article. a separate. but today’s pointworks well under certain circumstances. focusing. (For more information. Point-and-shoot cameras feature battery-operated electronic systems that may are available with a fixed single-focal-length lens or a zoom lens. aperture. and takes the picture. landscapes. The body configuration of the view camera. which are able to unlike that of most general-purpose cameras. flash. allowing for great variation in perspective and focus. and framing. but it is ideal for carefully arranged studio shots. B3 Rangefinder Cameras Rangefinder cameras were the first cameras to have an optical viewfinder—that is. the modern rangefinder camera centimeter film. for use with either 35-millimeter film or the larger format 6- and-shoot cameras have largely replaced them. independently moveable elements that ride on a track: The front element holds the lens and shutter. then inserts a film holder in front of the glass. Nevertheless. modern rangefinders feature lenses that can be removed from the camera body so that photographers can choose a lens specifically suited to the subject. They use large-format films. is paired with an adjacent window called a rangefinder. raise. but only one that closely approximates it. The gap in time between framing and exposure makes the view camera useless for action shots. tilt. They removed from the body. or architectural photography. film winding. or swing the front and rear elements separately. the lenses cannot be include automatic controls for exposure.
Most modern cameras have focal-plane or leaf shutters.B5 Single-Lens-Reflex Cameras With the single-lens-reflex (SLR) camera. C Modern Camera Features Modern cameras feature several components to help photographers control their results under widely varying conditions. Increasingly. the image recorded on the film is almost taking situations. width. In the leaf shutter. a great advantage in many picture- Most SLRs are precision electronic instruments equipped with fast focal-plane shutters. When released. exactly what the photographer sees in the viewfinder. The mirror is hinged. In today’s cameras many of these features are automated. The focal-plane shutter consists of a black shade with a variable-size slit across its the slit moves. the shade moves quickly across the film. camera manufacturers are producing SLRs with automatic focusing. keeps light from entering the camera except during the interval of exposure. a spring-activated mechanical device. at the moment of exposure. the photographer uses a single lens for both viewing the scene and taking the picture. Some viewfinders consist of a simple window on top of the camera that only approximates the view through the lens. exposing it progressively as C3 Built-in Meters and Automatic Exposure . Because of this system. C1 Viewfinders A viewfinder enables photographers to frame their subject the way they would like it to appear in the finished photograph. and built-in flash controls. C2 Shutters The shutter. an innovation originally reserved for less sophisticated cameras. described above. a cluster of meshed blades springs apart to uncover the full lens aperture and then springs shut. which then reflects it through a five-sided prism into the viewfinder. precise automatic exposure systems. at the moment the photographer snaps the picture. a spring automatically pulls the mirror out of the path between lens and film. Light comes through the lens onto a mirror. A more complex and more accurate viewfinding system is the single-lens-reflex system.
called active and passive. With 35-millimeter film. used in more sophisticated cameras. Passive systems. If the primary subject is off to one side of the frame. Today all but C4 Autofocusing Autofocus cameras use electronics and a small computer processor to automatically sample The computer then signals a small mechanism that turns the lens barrel to this point. most autofocusing systems will ignore it. Automatic cameras wind the film into position when the back is closed and cameras. When the light or sound waves bounce off the subject and return to the camera. Passive systems require a certain amount of detail—usually there must in the subject. then drops the cartridge into a slot on rewind the exposed film into the cartridge when all exposures have been taken. only professional photographers using sheet films still need to load their cameras in the dark. emits either an infrared light beam or high-energy (ultrasonic) sound waves. photographers were able to take precise readings of the light level and essentially an educated guess. to that subject. With older . By the 1960s camera companies had begun to build exposure meters right into the camera body. for example. There are two widely used methods for determining the focus automatically. The point of maximum contrast corresponds to the point of greatest sharpness. from the cartridge to a spool at one side of the camera. the distance between camera and subject and from this determine the exact plane of focus. be discernable lines present in the target zone for this system to determine maximum contrast C5 Film Loading and Transport Most people today buy film in the form of lighttight cartridges or cassettes that they can insert into the camera in daylight. the user must use a crank to rewind the film. A passive system would have trouble setting the correct focus. they give an accurate reading of the distance focus of the lens until sensors detect that maximum contrast has been reached inside a rectangular target at the center of the focusing screen. which interrupts their beams. in electronics. the camera could adjust itself to produce an appropriate exposure. the user attaches a leader extending the other side. An active autofocus system. for a photograph in which the plain white sails of a boat took up the center of the frame. automatically adjust the Neither method is foolproof. such systems typically required the user to center a needle over a pointer inside the viewfinder. Active systems can be fooled by window glass. In the 1980s this process became automated: With builtthe most inexpensive cameras feature such a system of automatic exposure. But with the development of handheld photoelectric exposure adjust the exposure accordingly. for instance. used in most point-and-shoot cameras. setting the correct aperture and shutter speed for an exposure was meters in the 1930s.For early photographers.
the more light the lens will admit. as many as three to five pictures per second can be taken this way. A A Brief History of Lenses The modern camera’s predecessor. a more rapid way of advancing the film. the camera obscura. and the second was the discovery of ways to combine several pieces of glass. The focusing ring is used to focus the image on the film plane by changing the distance between the element groups. The the aperture. consisted of a simple pinhole in the side of a room or box. A camera can have a single lens or a complex set of lenses. sharper image by fitting a camera obscura with a convex (outward-curving) lens. By turning the aperture ring. These elements. In the 17th century people discovered they could produce a brighter. each group is then assembled in what is called a lens barrel. the lens barrel incorporates an aperture ring and a focusing ring. Over the next 300 years. Focal length is the distance from the optical center of the lens to the image formed inside the camera. On a manually controlled camera. the lens controls the amount of light that enters the camera. Quality modern lenses are made of many individual elements of ground and polished glass (6 to 14 elements is common). the photographer adjusts the opening of the lens diaphragm. Motor drives allow the photographer to snap a sequence of exposures in rapid succession while V LENSES The lens is the eye of the camera. Some cameras come with a motor drive. to control optical distortion. Its function is to bring light from the subject into focus on the film. interest in telescopes and With the invention of photography in the 19th century. The first microscopes led to the development of better and brighter lenses. or elements. Together with the shutter. the need for camera-specific lenses increased. which determines how much light reaches the film.Most cameras now automatically advance the film to the next frame after an exposure has been made. the larger the image inside the camera will be. focal length ratings are defined by measuring the longer the focal length. The greater the size of . such lens came from a pair of eyeglasses. These developments took place along two fronts: The first was the invention of new types of glass that refracted light more effectively. holding a finger on the shutter-release button. are cemented into groups. each of a different shape and purpose. B Focal Lengths Camera lenses are categorized according to their focal lengths and maximum apertures. leading to rapid developments in the field of lens making. Because this distance varies depending on how the camera is focused.
must refocus as the focal length changes—a disadvantage only if the camera does not offer automatic focusing. these are no substitute for a true macro lens because. and is one of the most popular types of lenses today. at best. To cope with these small subjects. seen through a telephoto lens. such as a microscope. for subjects ranging from flowers to coins. with the addition of an extension ring.distance when the focusing ring is set for photographing a distant subject (indicated on the focusing ring with the symbol ∞. macro lenses were developed for single-lens-reflex cameras. a fixed position. reproduce an object at one-fifth its actual size. reproduce an object on film at one-half its actual size. The aperture size is measured by numerical settings called f-stops. It operates in conjunction with the shutter. before framing the picture at a different focal length. Typical f-stops . Extension rings or simple close-up lenses also D Aperture The lens diaphragm controls the size of the aperture. objects photographed with a wide-angle lens will seem farther away than with together). Many modern zoom lenses come with a macro setting that allows a limited range of close-up focusing. A lens with a short focal length is commonly called a wide-angle lens. called infinity). The wide-angle can take in a broader angle of view than the eye can see. On their own they can the camera can picture an object at life size. So-called true zooms maintain focus while changing the focal length. The most common specialized task is close-up photography. The user can change the focal length by simply pushing a button or turning a ring on the lens barrel. Magnification of a subject to greater than its actual size calls for more specialized equipment. and thus the amount of light that passes through the lens. with a long focal length. With the camera in a normal lens. the varifocal C Macro Lenses Some photographic subjects require task-specific optics. the same objects will seem closer (and closer telephoto narrows this view. Focal length determines the magnification and angle of view of the image. and is called photomicrography. Macro lenses for 35millimeter cameras extend the focusing range to a matter of inches. On a traditional. However. Another type of zoom lens. Lenses that approximate the angle of view of the human eye are called normal lenses. they only can attach to a normal lens to allow close-ups. manually controlled camera the f-stops are inscribed on an adjustable ring that fits around the lens. while the The zoom lens offers a range of focal lengths. or lens opening. a telephoto lens. this allows photographers with single-lens-reflex cameras to focus precisely at high magnification lens.
Lenses come with a rating for their maximum aperture. . f/16 a small aperture. This term refers to a zone of focus—that is. A picture with a shallow depth of field might be a close-up portrait. in practice we call a picture “in focus” when it appears reasonably sharp at a given magnification and viewing distance. in which objects in the background are purposely blurred. To reduce their bulkiness and complexity. and focal length. f/5. adjustment. However. With simple automatic-exposure cameras. E Focusing Technically. A telephoto lens requires a larger lens diameter and greater length to aperture changes as the focal length of the lens goes from wide-angle to telephoto settings. the maximum aperture also influences how bright the image appears in the viewfinder. f/2. zoom lenses are also physically large. depth of field will be greatest when photographing a distant subject. f/8. Most lenses will focus from a few feet in front of the camera to a point in the far F Depth of Field To help determine what will appear in focus in a picture. f/11. called infinity. photographers make use of a concept called depth of field. depth of field will be most shallow when photographing a subject at close range. many manufacturers now design zoom lenses with a variable maximum aperture: The size of the with a smaller aperture. using a short focal length (wide-angle) lens. film captures only one plane of a picture in perfect focus. All other factors being equal. But most of today's cameras with built-in lenses will adjust the lens automatically. indicating how much light can reach the film when the lens diaphragm is wide open. a lens with a large maximum aperture will have a larger diameter and weigh more than a lens let in the same amount of light as a normal or wide-angle lens.are f/2. using a long focal length (telephoto) lens. Until recently photographers had to bring an image into focus manually.6. Like telephoto lenses. The setting f/2 represents a large aperture. With single-lens-reflex cameras. The factors that determine depth of field are lens aperture. Conversely. thus the aperture ring has disappeared from many of today's lenses. f/4. by turning a ring or a focusing collar on the camera lens. a computer sets the aperture size. and a small aperture. Cameras with interchangeable lenses still have focusing collars to allow for manual distance. with a wide aperture. A picture with a deeper zone of focus might be a landscape in which both the trees in the foreground and the mountains in the background appear in sharp focus. the area between the closest and farthest objects that will appear sharply focused in the photograph.8. through use of a mechanism connected to an autofocusing sensor. Within lens types. and f/16. focusing distance.
coatings enhance the contrast of the film image and account for the characteristic green and VI EXPOSURE All light-sensitive photographic materials—film or photographic print paper—produce their development. These purple hues visible when one looks into the front of a modern lens. a depth-of-field scale shows the approximate sharp-focus zone for the different aperture settings. Automatic cameras are designed to focus precisely on a single subject at the center of the frame or. does not necessarily provide the greatest depth of field. is the technical key to excellent photographs. photographers can obtain the maximum depth of field by turning the focusing collar until the infinity sign aligns with the outside depth-of-field mark for the f/stop they have chosen. Precise exposure. With manual focusing. A variant of this manual-focusing technique is called zone focusing: The photographer chooses an aperture and a focusing distance that together cover the range of distances at which the subject is likely to appear. For capturing the image of a moving subject. In most cases. finest results when given the optimum exposure. To decrease the incidence prevents sunlight from striking the glass surfaces. Flare is especially obvious when of flare. manually adjusted lenses. certain cameras with motor Focusing precisely on a central subject. coupled with consistent A photographer can change the amount of exposure the film receives by adjusting either the shutter speed or the aperture setting. A one-stop change in shutter speed is equivalent to an .A photographer using a single-lens-reflex camera or view camera can judge the approximate depth of field by looking directly through the lens with the aperture set to the desired f-stop. G Lens Hoods and Coatings One of the worst enemies of photographers is flare. however. In cameras with removable. to focus on a band of details across the central picture area. photographers can shade the front of the lens with a collar called a lens hood that photographing with the sun in front of or just to the side of the lens. Zone focusing is especially useful for candid photography. because they must angle away from the lens enough to accommodate the lens's widest angle Lens makers also combat the more subtle effects of flare by coating the exterior and interior surfaces of the lens’s glass elements with thin layers of reflection-absorbing material. in more sophisticated designs. Hoods for zoom lenses are less effective of view. unwanted light that enters the lens and causes strange reflections and a loss of contrast on the film. button part way. the photographer locks in the focus by pressing the shutter drives will adjust the focus continuously while the photographer tracks the subject.
between exposure and density. the incident-light meter. an exposure at f/5. At first these meters were independent. this rule is less consistent and the resulting images will A Light Metering To help photographers determine the ideal exposure. If the photographer is using a tripod to hold the camera still and provides greater depth of field. manufacturers introduced photoelectric exposure meters in the 1930s. in which the and lens aperture. later they were incorporated into the camera itself. unless the print exposure time is doubled.6 at 1/15 second allows the same amount of light to strike the film as an exposure of f/2. However. movement of the camera or of the subject is likely to blur the image.aperture change of one f-stop. because at speeds below 1/60 second. basing the exposure on this average reading produces ideal results: the negative receives just the right amount of light. Thus. The exposures are thus comparable. (Another type.) Most of these devices are also amount of light reflected into the lens by the subject. an exposure of f/5. for a given lighting situation several the film. The meters built into modern cameras are called reflected light meters: They measure the measures the light that is falling on the scene or subject. In most situations. camera uses data from its built-in exposure meter to automatically adjust the shutter speed All metering systems share one principle: They respond to the world as if it were a uniform shade of gray. and therefore a print made from it will be twice as light. handheld devices. but they produce different preferable. For example. and vice versa. called averaging meters because they read a broad angle of the scene. photographing a still subject. called reciprocity. different combinations of f-stop and shutter speed result in the same amount of light hitting For example. the first option may be preferable because the smaller aperture When film is developed according to the manufacturer's specifications. The final development was automatic exposure. At the extremes of very little be noticeably underexposed. every stop of increase in the exposure (one step up in either f-stop or shutter speed) effectively doubles the density of an exposure at the same f-stop for 1/30 second. those that read a . If the photographer is holding the camera by hand the second option is speed is two stops faster. of the negative. This shade (called 18 percent gray for its ratio of reflection) represents the average amount of light reflected by an average outdoor subject. there are limits to this relationship. with a sensor measuring the light as it came through the lens. and to help them avoid the problems associated with extremely high or extremely low exposure levels.6 for 1/15 second produces twice the density and very great amounts of exposure.8 at 1/60 second—the aperture is two stops larger. but the pictorial results.
Averaging meters provide somewhat less accuracy than spot meters but are easy to use. when a person is surrounded by a bright background. development can be adjusted to compensate for certain variations in exposure. In backlit conditions. exposure and image density. Likewise. which otherwise would appear too dark. if the main subject is a snowman in a field of snow. Lengthening development time lightens the resulting images. most meters will recommend too little exposure. neither very dark nor very light skin tones reflect 18 percent of the light. pushed—that is. Spot meters give very precise readings. It then compares the results to a computerized formula to determine the best overall exposure. view camera photography and is the foundation C Long and Short Exposure Times Most films are intended for use at shutter speeds between 1/2 and 1/1000 second. a sophisticated photographer might overexpose the negative and then shorten its development time to subdue the harsh light. For example. Despite all the advances in exposure technology. Pictures taken at either very fast or very slow speeds tend . With color films. but the photographer must know how to correctly interpret these readings. have its development time extended during processing to produce reasonable results. By the For example. This type of system measures the light coming through the lens from several different areas within the picture frame. Newer. more sophisticated single-lens-reflex cameras try to increase the accuracy of their automatic-exposure systems with what is called a multipattern metering system. such as an overly bright sky. a roll of ISO 100 slide film exposed by mistake at a rating of ISO 200 can be same token. This technique is often used in large-format. fails. so portrait photographers have to adjust their exposures to compensate. resulting in high contrast between light and dark areas. Based on the data gathered. If the lighting is harsh. or one-to-one relationship between to result in underexposed images. these meters try to guess the kind of picturetaking situation at hand and compensate for some problems. automatic exposure systems will assume that the snow is an average shade of gray and underexpose it. B Development and Exposure Perfectly exposed film will produce imperfect pictures if it is not developed properly. meter readings are not foolproof. of the method used by American wilderness photographer Ansel Adams.narrow angle are called spot meters. the colors may also shift. At significantly slower or faster speeds the reciprocity. it is common to adjust the exposure and development of each picture individually to compensate for varying contrast conditions. In black-and-white photography.
D Flash Photography In the absence of adequate daylight.Exposure meters do not compensate for reciprocity effects. called dedicated flash units. Flash photography can produce an effect equivalent to shorter exposure times. When a brief jolt of electricity is applied to the electrodes sealed at the ends of the tube.000 second. light source. camera-mounted units to large studio units that plug into an electric wall socket. American engineer Harold produced flashes of 1/500. An electronic flash unit consists of a glass quartz tube filled with an inert gas—usually xenon. but to illuminate a large scene evenly and with a single burst of light. without wearing out the tube. Setting the shutter speed is important because the shutter and the flash need to be synchronized—that is. the shutter must be open for the duration of the flash. Most flash exposures last from 1/1000 to 1/5000 second. photographers use artificial light to illuminate scenes. Another once-popular alloy wire. the maximum speed at which synchronization is possible is usually 1/125 second. sometimes in rapid succession. Camera-mounted flashes are adequate for snapshots of family and friends. The most commonly used sources of artificial illumination are electronic flash. In cameras with a focal-plane shutter (this includes most commonly used cameras). . The process can be repeated thousands of times. the photographer must compensate by manually adjusting the exposure according to charts supplied by the film manufacturer. the gas produces an intense burst of light of very short duration.000 second is Eugene Edgerton. the flashbulb. Flash units are designed either as part of the camera mechanism or as accessories. the larger the unit.000 second. both indoors and outdoors. and quartz lamps. Special electronic flash units are able to limit the duration of their light output to as little as 1/100. battery-powered. the greater the intensity of light produced. are made for use with a particular camera model and have circuitry that sets the shutter speed and illuminates a light in the viewfinder when the tube is ready to fire again. enabling him to capture the image of a bullet in flight. instead. Some designs. In 1931 the inventor of the electronic flash. Generally speaking. developed an electronic strobe light (see Stroboscope) with which he now readily available. has gone the way of the dinosaur. a disposable bulb filled with oxygen and a mass of fine magnesium Flash units vary in size from small. development times must also be increased. With black-and-white film. tungsten lamps called photofloods. although a duration of 1/100. For some fast-moving subjects—such as the wings of a hummingbird in flight or a golf club as a golfer swings it—even a shutter-speed setting of 1/1000 second is not sufficient to capture the image in focus. a powerful studio unit is needed.
They have a sensor that determines the appropriate amount of light from the flash tube. Flash can also be used in daylight to fill in foreground areas where shadows may be too required for the existing light. camera. medium-yellow filter is often used for outdoor black-and-white photography because it renders Another type of filter. as well as built-in camera units. flat lighting. A yellow filter produces a less extreme effect because more blue light is transmitted to the film. color filters transmit light of one color while blocking light of a contrasting color. for example. In a landscape photograph taken with a red filter. which is balanced for sunlight at noon. more even light and eliminates red eye. For this type of picture. lightens shadows without same as daylight so the two light sources do not produce noticeable color differences. This sensor is commonly located inside the invented. are balanced for use indoors with light from photofloods or incandescent lightbulbs. much of the blue light of the sky is blocked. changes the color balance of light when it is radically different from that of the film. called fill-flash.Modern dedicated flash units. depending on the aperture set on the lens. A series 80 conversion filter corrects this problem. for example. Photographers also use CC filters to make small changes in color rendition on . it was not possible to adjust the flash output. A series 85 conversion filter can correct this. The color temperature of electronic flash is practically the E Filters Filters added to the front of a camera lens change the quantity or quality of the light that contrast or brightness. Exposed in daylight. This technique. contain automatic flash systems. which can adjust tungsten film designed for one Color-compensating (CC) filters help balance fluorescent light for daylight film or indoor (tungsten) film. Similar type of artificial light to work with a second type of artificial light. photographers could control the exposure only by adjusting the aperture. minimize haze. filters may alter the color balance of light. causing the sky to appear darker and thereby emphasizing clouds. it produces a softer. Before automatic flash was Flash aimed directly at the subject usually produces harsh. they produce pictures with a bluish cast. called a conversion filter. or create special effects. As light bounces from ceiling to subject. When photographing people or animals in very dim conditions. With some flash units it is possible to achieve more pleasant results indoors by aiming the flash at the ceiling. change photography. In black-and-white reaches the film. using flash also causes a condition known as red eye. strong. Tungsten films. The the tone of a blue sky in much the same way as the human eye does. the exposure generally should be set to half of what would be overriding the main source of light. has a yellow-amber cast when exposed indoors under incandescent light or photofloods. where it can gauge the amount of light at the film plane. to conversion filters are light-balancing filters. making the centers of the subject’s eyes appear red. Made of gelatin or glass. Daylight film.
All filters reduce the amount of light reaching the lens to some degree—with a polarizing filter the reduction can amount to two stops or more of exposure. many photographers traveled with many people have a home darkroom built in their basement.the film or when printing in the darkroom. filter factors are less relevant. but they still require slower shutter speeds or larger apertures. The enlarger light shines through the negative. certain precautions are necessary: the darkroom should have an exhaust During the process of exposing and developing black-and-white printing paper. In the early days of the medium. called filter the light after it has come through the lens. It must completely seal out light from outside the room. film is customarily developed in a lighttight tank. But during the processing of black-and-white films. Photographers make prints with an enlarger. which measures VII DARKROOM PROCESSING A darkroom is a room for processing photography materials. They filter ultraviolet of a lens. an upright device that functions much like a camera except that it contains its own light source. Some professional transparency films require CC filtration as a matter of course. factors. Because many processing fan to expel fumes and dust. because these materials are panchromatic—that is. With automatic exposure. which holds metal reels onto which the exposed film has been wound. the darkroom must be totally dark. chemicals are toxic. a UV filter eliminates most of the excess blue that appears in distant landscape photographs and secondarily provides a transparent protective cap for the lens. the wet side contains a sink with temperature-controlled running water. and the photographer should always wear latex gloves when handling wet materials and a dust mask when mixing powdered chemicals with water. portable darkrooms. In color photography. which is invisible to humans but which can register on film as blue. Skylight. The dry side is used for loading. In the home darkroom. Screwed into the end A polarizing filter reduces reflections from the surfaces of shiny subjects such as windows. or ultraviolet (UV). they are sensitive to all types of light. must be calculated into manual exposures. light. the enlarger lens focuses this . and is used for the chemical processing of films and prints. a special orange-colored light bulb called a safelight can provide some illumination. filters are familiar amateur accessories. which were housed in horse-drawn wagons or carried by servants. All such reductions. polarizing filters also produce more intense colors. laundry room. Today enlarging. and preparation. color films. or closet. and color printing papers. A darkroom is divided into a dry side and a wet side.
and a large image of the negative projects onto the printing paper. photographers first place the negative in the enlarger and place a piece of sensitized printing material on the flat easel at its base. bathing the processed film in a washing aid promotes uniform drying and prevents formation of water spots or streaks. This technique is known as dodging when used to lighten an area and as burning when making . This solution reactivates the process begun by the action of light when the film was exposed. The solution used for this process is commonly referred to as hypo. they place the emulsion side of the negative in contact with the printing material and expose the two together to a source of light. The density of silver deposited in each area depends on the amount of light the area received during exposure. a fixer remover. thus lightening or darkening those areas in the final print. they apply another chemical solution to the negative image to fix it—that is. which chemically neutralizes the developer. it darker. which shows all the exposures from a For projection printing. In order to arrest the action of the developer. is applied to clear any remaining fixer from the film. Finally. as residual fixer tends to destroy negatives over time. Photographers with 35-millimeter cameras commonly single roll of film in small size. use this method to print what is called a contact sheet. A Developing the Film Photographers develop film by treating it with an alkaline chemical solution called a developer. or hypo-clearing agent. Using this method. which sits on a flat easel at the base of the enlarger. Switching on the enlarger light source projects an enlarged image of the negative onto the paper. a visible image develops on the film. After rinsing the residual silver halide crystals unexposed to light. to remove After a short rinse. B Printing the Photos Photographers produce prints by either of two methods: contact or projection. film. The film must then be thoroughly washed in water. As large particles of silver begin to form. along with a timer connected to the enlarger light. photographers transfer the film to a solution called the stop bath. By blocking part of the light source with hands or small tools. It encourages large grains of silver to form around the minute particles of metal that already make up the latent (not yet visible) image.light. the photographer can reduce or increase the amount of light falling on selected portions of the image. The exposure commonly lasts from ten seconds to a minute. or fixer. The contact method works for making prints of exactly the same size as the negative. An aperture on the enlarging lens controls the exposure.
well-exposed prints than with 35-millimeter processing. APS film is APS cameras magnetically encode information onto the exposed film that automated easier to load. digital systems. other film and camera makers also adopted the system. dozens of APS cameras are now available. this technology challenges conventional 35-millimeter photography on several fronts. including several single-lens-reflex models. APS cameras are slightly smaller and lighter. In comparison to 35-millimeter point-and-shoot models. Called the Advanced Photo System (APS). including silver halides and dye couplers. And photofinishing machines can read. less sensitive to light. which are explained in the next section. And although APS film is of a smaller Soon after Kodak’s introduction of APS. prints are made on sheets of paper or plastic that have been coated with a light-sensitive emulsion. but are changing photography in such image-making systems. APS is not a digital photography system. To process blackor automatic roller processor is preferred. Electronic technologies have not only changed the way that most cameras work. After exposing the print. the target market for APS remains the point-and-shoot camera user. unlike film technology. However. Instead. this results in a higher percentage of format than 35-millimeter film. fundamental ways that the distinction has begun to blur between photography and other A APS In the early 1990s the Eastman Kodak Company introduced a new line of cameras and film designed for amateur photographers. for color prints. APS employs well-established color B Digital Photography Digital photography is a method of making images without the use of conventional photographic film. a machine called a scanner records visual information and converts . such as computers and the graphic arts. This coating is similar to that used for film but is much positive image by a process very similar to that used for developing film. the photographer can then develop and fix the and-white prints. the paper is usually placed in a series of open trays. One of the biggest differences between APS and conventional photography is that photographers can have their pictures processed conventionally or have them scanned onto a compact disc (CD) for use with a computer. a drum VIII RECENT DEVELOPMENTS The technology of photography continues to develop rapidly.For either printing process. since the APS film cartridge has no leader to thread into a take-up spool. According to Kodak. it is capable of results that nearly match the precision and sharpness of the older format.
Others accept a disc or similar portable storage unit to achieve the same purpose. Digital photography was widely used in advertising and graphic design in the late 1990s. with automatic focus. or digital dots of color (see Computer Graphics). The original high-resolution image can later be reproduced in ink (in a magazine. Photographs in digital form can be manipulated by means of various computer programs. full-color digital photograph. so the whole family can look at snapshots together. . Alternatively. and built-in electronic flash. The more expensive professional cameras function as sophisticated 35-millimeter cameras but record the picture information as pixels. stored on disks. or sent to friends via electronic mail. Some digital cameras are able to transfer their large picture files directly into a computer for storage. for example) or as a conventional silver halide print Digital cameras aimed at the amateur photography market function much as point-and-shoot cameras do. and was quickly replacing conventional photographic technology in areas such as photojournalism. There can be several million pixels in a high-resolution.it into a code of ones and zeroes that a computer can read. After taking pictures. automatic exposure. Pictures from these cameras contain fewer pixels than those from a more expensive camera and are therefore not as sharp. the user can connect the camera directly to a television set or video cassette recorder. image files can be transferred to a home computer. Digital cameras are now available for both professional photographers and amateur enthusiasts.
The nervous systems of animals work by means of weak electric signals converted into heat. technology. but the positive charge of the proton is exactly opposite the negative charge of the electron. and mechanical power. particles that make up the atoms of all ordinary matter. televisions. as in an electric current. light. as Electrical activity takes place constantly everywhere in the universe. Electricity provides light. Electrical forces hold transmitted between neurons (nerve cells). it is said to be an object contains as many protons as electrons. Static electricity consists of electric charges that stay in one place. electricity plays a part in nearly every aspect of modern computers. transmitted. positively charged. and other forms of energy through natural processes. It makes telephones. if it has more electrons than protons. the charges will cancel each other and the object is said to be uncharged. Electricity can also be converted efficiently into other forms of energy. It can be sent almost instantaneously over long distances. Electricity is generated. If an object has more protons than electrons. . motion. Electric charges can be stationary. Electric charge comes in two forms: positive and negative. Electrons and protons both carry exactly the same amount of electric charge. it is said to be negatively charged. An electric current is a flow of electric charges between objects or locations. protons. a property of certain elementary particles such as electrons and protons. Electricity is associated with electric charge. and other particles. two of the basic in static electricity. It can be generated in many ways and from many different sources. or moving. and countless other necessities and luxuries possible. and well as by devices built by people. and it can be stored. as Electricity is an extremely versatile form of energy. heat. Because of this versatility.Electricity I INTRODUCTION Electricity. one of the basic forms of energy. If Electricity occurs in two forms: static electricity and electric current. II ELECTRIC CHARGE Electricity consists of charges carried by electrons. molecules together. or electrically neutral.
The object that gives up electrons becomes positively charged. the amount of charge that an object receives depends on its ability to store charge. that hang from one end of a metal rod. if a nylon comb is run through clean. Electrons move from the surface of one object to the surface of the other if the second material holds onto its electrons more strongly than the first does. and fur (or hair). which the leaves remain apart because they retain their charges. The electroscope has thus been charged by contact with the comb. materials are named in decreasing order of their ability to hold electrons: rubber. glass. a charge flows from the first to the second object for a brief time. earlier in the list becomes negative. called leaves. The A Charging by Contact Objects become electrically charged in either of two ways: by contact or by induction. A charged object transfers electric charge to an object with lesser charge if the two touch. silk. the material materials should be clean and dry. The following flannel. The ability to store charge is called capacitance and is measured in units called farads. some of the charges on the comb flow to the leaves. For example. and the material later in the list becomes positive. since it now has more electrons than protons. When this happens. separate because they now hold like charges and repel each other. The comb becomes negatively charged and the hair becomes positively charged. If the comb is removed. If any two of these materials are rubbed together.III STATIC ELECTRICITY Static electricity can be produced by rubbing together two objects made of different materials. When the charged comb touches the ball. some of the electrons on the hair are transferred to the comb. The object that gains electrons becomes negatively charged. dry hair. When charge flows between objects in contact. Charging by contact can be demonstrated by touching an uncharged electroscope with a charged comb. Charges in motion form an electric current. A metal ball is at the other end of the rod. An electroscope is a device that contains two strips of metal foil. .
24 × 1018 protons (or electrons). Coulomb’s law. allow an electric current to flow through them easily. through the air to another object without touching it directly. Lightning is an example of a discharge. The greater the other.This flow of charge between objects with different amounts of charge will occur whenever possible. that one object has a charge of +4 coulombs and the other a charge of +8 coulombs. The unit of electric charge. the air becomes a conductor. also named after Coulomb. called conductors. However. This law states that and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. is equal to the combined charges of 6. the larger the force between them. When the charge is large enough. for example. Suppose. part of the charge may jump. B Coulomb’s Law Objects with opposite charges attract each other. or discharge. formulated by French physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb during the the force between two charged objects is directly proportional to the product of their charges charges on the objects. the greater the distance between the objects. it requires a pathway for the electric charge to move along. strongly resist the passage of an electric current. When they touch. the lesser the force between them. materials. and objects with similar charges repel each late 18th century. air is an insulator. However. charge will flow from the 8-coulomb object to the 4-coulomb . quantifies the strength of the attraction or repulsion. If two charged objects in contact have the same capacitance. Some materials. called insulators. Other Under normal conditions. if an object gains a large enough charge of static electricity. they divide the charge evenly.
. If an object with a capacitance of 10 farads touches an object with a capacitance of 5 farads. Because electrons leave the far side of the neutral object while its protons remain stationary. no charge would flow between them. that side becomes positively charged. If two objects have different capacitances. For example.object until each has a charge of +6 coulombs. the 10-farad object will have a charge of +8 coulombs and the 5- C Charging by Induction A charged object may induce a charge in a nearby neutral object without touching it. Their total charge is therefore +12 farad object will have +4 coulombs. the electrons in the the neutral object that is nearest to the positive object. Some of these electrons flow to the side of accumulates electrons and becomes negatively charged. This side of the neutral object neutral object are attracted to the positive object. Suppose that the objects are oppositely charged and that one has a charge of +20 coulombs and the other a charge of -8 coulombs. if a positively charged object is brought near a neutral object. they divide the charge in proportion to their capacitances. If each object originally had a charge of +6 coulombs. After they touch. coulombs. the 10-farad object will end up with twice the amount of charge of the 5-farad object.
B has a positive charge. the charge on the far side. being neutral. As before. As soon as the charged object is again becomes neutral. is flow to the other side of B. has an enormous capacitance. A. remains positive because the wire has been disconnected and B cannot regain electrons from IV ELECTRIC CURRENT . the electrons on B are repelled as far as possible from A and conductor. such as a metal wire. when a negatively charged object is brought near a neutral object. Similarly. the positively charged side and the positive object. Object B is said to be grounded by the wire connecting it to Earth. If a negatively charged object. the electrons on the other object redistribute themselves evenly over it. Even if A is subsequently removed. attraction between this side and the positive object is greater than the repulsion between the negative object induces a positive charge on the near side of the neutral object and a negative The induced charges described above are not permanent. B. The ground can receive almost any amount of charge because Earth. The net effect is an attraction between the objects. If that side of B is then connected to the ground by a good brought near a neutral object. so that it An object can also be charged permanently by induction. the net effect is an attraction between the objects. taken away. If this wire is then removed. B still Earth to neutralize its positive charge. since it has lost electrons to Earth.Since the negatively charged side of the neutral object is closest to the positive object. the electrons flow out through the wire into the ground. Thus B has been permanently charged by induction.
Electricians wear rubber gloves so that electric current will not pass from electrical equipment to their bodies. then an electric current flows from one object to the other through the wire. is called alternating current. but not in contact with.An electric current is a movement of charge. each point of a wire every second. If 2 coulombs flow C Voltage . If two objects are connected by a material that lets charge flow easily. Electric current can be demonstrated by connecting a small light bulb to an electric battery by two copper wires. The amount of current. and resistance in any circuit are all A Conductors and Insulators Conductors are materials that allow an electric current to flow through them easily. Current that flows in one direction only. glass. current flows through the wires and the bulb. Alternating current. an electric current flows from one object to the other until the charge is distributed according to the capacitances of the objects. In the dark. and air are common insulators. Rubber. Direct current. through an insulator to another object. Most metals are good conductors. Current that flows back and forth. is easier to understand than alternating current. a metal doorknob or radiator. if you shuffle across a wool rug and then hold your finger very close to. Substances that do not allow electric current to flow through them are called insulators. such as the current in a battery-powered flashlight. such as a copper wire. current will arc through the air from your finger to the doorknob or radiator. will be discussed in the Alternating Current section of this article. Most of the following discussion focuses on direct current. if an object contains a sufficient amount of charge. When the connections are properly made. See also Electric Meters. Other properties that are used to quantify and compare electric currents are the voltage (also called electromotive force) driving the current and the resistance of the conductor to the related through an equation called Ohm’s law. is called direct current. the current is 2 amp. even though air is an insulator. which is used in most devices that are “plugged in” to electrical outlets in buildings. the wire is carrying a current of 1 amp. causing the bulb to glow. or jump. the charge can arc. When two objects with different charges touch and redistribute their charges. which is used in most battery-powered devices. or dielectrics. If 1 coulomb of charge flows past past each point in a second. However. nonconductors. voltage. B Measuring Electric Current Electric current is measured in units called amperes (amp). the passage of the current through the air is visible as a tiny spark. reversing direction again and again. For example. passage of the current.
A good conductor is one that has low resistance. The more willing the terminals are to give up and receive electrons. Collisions between the electrons and the atoms of the conductor interfere with the flow of electrons. voltage. At commonly encountered temperatures. the greater its resistance. the longer wire offers twice as much resistance as the sectional area is twice that of another wire of equal length and similar material has only half the resistance of the thinner wire. and area by saying that resistance is proportional to length and inversely proportional Usually. A thicker wire. the higher the voltage. V = IR. This phenomenon is known as superconductivity. Electric wires are usually made of copper. Voltage is measured in units called volts. silver is the best conductor and copper is the second The resistance of a piece of wire depends on its length. The symbol for ohms is the Greek letter omega. length. and resistance is given by Ohm’s law. the greater its resistance. between the terminals. The longer the wire is. and its cross-sectional area. or thickness. If one wire is twice as long as a shorter one. because a thick wire offers more room for an electric current to pass through than a thin wire does. E Ohm’s Law The relationship between current. A good insulator has a very high resistance. V = IR can also be written R = V/I and I = V/R. If any . to cross-sectional area. an electric current flows through the conductor. I is the amount of current in amperes that is flowing between these two points. or potential difference.When the two terminals of a battery are connected by a conductor. This phenomenon is known as resistance. The resistance of some materials drops to zero at very low temperatures. however. while the other continuously receives electrons from it. but it does not permit the current to flow with perfect freedom. best. Ù. The current flow is caused by the voltage. has less resistance. where V is the difference in volts between two locations (called the potential difference). which is less expensive than silver. the higher the temperature of a wire. D Resistance A conductor allows an electric current to flow through it. Resistance is measured in units called ohms. This law states that the amount of current passing through a conductor is directly proportional to the voltage across the conductor and inversely proportional to the resistance of the conductor. Another name for a voltage produced by a source of electric current is electromotive force. A wire whose cross- wire of identical diameter and material. Scientists describe this relationship between resistance. Ohm’s law can be expressed as an equation. and R is the resistance in ohms of the conductor between the two locations of interest. One terminal continuously sends electrons into the conductor.
Under normal conditions. the flow is in one direction only. the free electrons tend to drift toward one end. Energy is required to drive an electric current through a resistance. however. for example. the greater the heat. This energy is supplied by is supplied to a device is called power. If V = 110 and R = 11. a two-directional flow is made possible by the process of ionization (see Electrochemistry). The other end is said to be at a lower potential . When an electric current flows in a solid conductor. since I = V/R = 220/11 = 20 amp. The greater the current passing through the conductor. gases. Also. enabling current to flow. some are free to move from atom to atom. If the voltage is raised to 220 in the example above. The current I will be doubled. as many of them are moving in one direction as in another. are tightly bound to individual copper atoms. and liquids. The rate at which energy power P supplied by a current of I amp passing through a resistance of R ohms is given by P = I2R. then R is still 11. the greater the heat. because the current is carried entirely by electrons. V HOW ELECTRIC CURRENT IS CONDUCTED All electric currents consist of charges in motion. electric current is conducted differently in solids. The the source of the current. if a potential difference of 110 volts sends a 10-amp current through a conductor. However.two of the quantities are known. Ordinarily the motion of the free electrons is random. such as a battery or an electric generator. then the resistance of the conductor is R = V/I = 110/10 = 11 ohms. This end is said to be at a higher potential and is called the positive end. For example. that is. if a voltage is applied to the two ends of a copper bar by means of a battery. A Conduction in Solids The conduction of electric currents in solid substances is made possible by the presence of free electrons (electrons that are free to move about). Most of the electrons in a bar of copper. F Heat and Power A conductor’s resistance to electric current produces heat. the third can be calculated. resistance is constant in conductors made of metal. However. however. However. A current of I amp passing through a resistance of R ohms for t seconds generates an amount of heat equal to I2Rt joules (a joule is a unit of energy equal to 0. then I = V/R = 110/11 = 10 amp. and it is often measured in units called watts. the greater the resistance.239 calorie). In liquids and gases.
The function of a battery or other source of electric current is to maintain potential difference. An example is ordinary table salt. such as glass. while the ions move toward the low-potential (more negative) point. said to be ionized. substances are called semiconductors. A perfect insulator would allow no charge to be forced through it. The electrons move toward the high-potential (more positive) point. and negative chlorine ions. The gas atoms become positively charged ions and the gas is free electrons are accelerated by the potential difference and collide with the atoms of the gas. An electric current in a gas is composed of these opposite flows of charges. while water that is absolutely pure is an insulator. A battery does this by supplying electrons to the negative end of the bar to replace those that drift to the positive end and also by absorbing electrons at the positive end. If two points in the solution are at different potentials. such as silicon and germanium. When a strong potential difference is applied between two points inside a container filled with a gas. the electric current is composed of these flows of opposite charges. When sodium chloride dissolves in water. but a lower resistance than an insulator. This separation is called electrolysis. the few knocking free more electrons. Semiconductors generally have a higher resistance to B Conduction in Gases Gases normally contain few free electrons and are generally insulators. while the positive ions drift toward the negative point. Insulators cannot conduct electric currents because all their electrons are tightly bound to substance is known at room temperature. Na+. the substance is gradually separated into two parts. VI SOURCES OF ELECTRIC CURRENT . the negative ions drift toward the positive point. The best insulators offer high but not infinite resistance at room temperature. C Conduction in Liquid Solutions Many substances become ionized when they dissolve in water or in some other liquid. it separates into positive sodium ions.and is called the negative end. As in gases. water that contains even a slight impurity of an ionized substance is a conductor. Such the flow of current than does a conductor. such as copper. can conduct electric currents when small amounts of certain impurities are added to them. sodium chloride (NaCl). but no such Some substances that ordinarily have no free electrons. Since the positive and negative ions of a dissolved substance migrate to different points when an electric current flows. Thus. Cl-. their atoms.
such as water pouring through a dam or the motion of a turbine driven by steam. for example. Fuel cells. The electric outlets on the walls of homes and to giant generators located in electric power stations. Unlike electrolytic cells. Certain sources of electric current operate on the principle that some metals hold onto their strongly than aluminum does. for example. electrons more strongly than other metals do. other buildings. electrolytic cell produce a potential difference between the cell’s terminals. A Generators Generators use mechanical energy. The two most common sources are generators and electrolytic cells. Chemical reactions within an consists of a cell or group of cells connected together.There are several different devices that can supply the voltage necessary to generate an electric current. fuel cells do not store chemicals and therefore must be constantly refilled. the platinum loses electrons and becomes positive. some electrons will flow from the platinum to the aluminum. from which electricity to operate lights and appliances is drawn. If a strip of platinum and a strip of aluminum are pressed together under the proper conditions. produce electricity through chemical reactions. As the aluminum gains electrons and becomes negative. See Electric Power Systems. are connected voltage between the terminals drives an electric current through the appliance that is plugged B Electrolytic Cells Electrolytic cells use chemical energy to produce electricity. to produce electricity. The into the outlet. Each outlet contains two terminals. however. An electric battery C Other Sources There are many sources of electric current other than generators and electrolytic cells. holds its electrons less . Platinum.
current flows and the bulb lights. Some microphones VII ELECTRIC CIRCUITS An electric circuit is an arrangement of electric current sources and conducting paths through which a current can continuously flow. A switch can be placed in one of the connecting wires. the connection is broken. the filament heats up and the bulb lights. A flashlight is an example of such a circuit. In a simple circuit consisting of a small light bulb. . and two pieces of wire. Some substances emit electrons when they are struck by light. and the bulb does not light. When the switch is open. electrons will pass from one strip to the other. If two strips of different metals are joined and the joint heated. through one piece of connecting wire. Electricity produced directly by heating is called thermoelectricity. through the bulb filament (also a type of wire). When the switch is closed. develops across them. the electric current flows from the negative terminal of the battery. Electricity produced in this way is called photoelectricity. When pressure is applied to certain crystals. electric current cannot flow through the circuit. When the electric current flows through the filament. and back to the positive terminal of the battery. Electricity thus produced is called piezoelectricity. a battery. a potential difference work on this principle.The strength with which a metal holds its electrons varies with temperature. through the other piece of connecting wire.
When objects are connected in series. then against the resistance of the next object. bulb.The bulb filament may burn out if too much electric current flows through it. It also includes the connecting wires. the objects are said to be connected in series. When too much current flows through the fuse. fuses. then flows through The current is the same throughout the circuit. A Series Circuits If various objects are arranged to form a single conducting path between the terminals of a source of electric current. thereby breaking the circuit and melt. fans. switch. and other devices. such as lights. In the example of the light bulb. The wire in the fuse is designed to melt before the filament would The part of an electric circuit other than the source of electric current is called the load. To prevent this from happening. The electron current first passes from the negative terminal of the source into the first object. One arrangement is called a series circuit. The load includes all appliances placed in the circuit. as well as switches. There are two basic ways in which the parts of a circuit are arranged. and finally returns to the positive terminal of the source. and toasters. and fuse are connected in series. buzzers. The load forms a continuous conducting path between the terminals of the current source. a wire in the fuse heats up and melts. the other objects one after another. the electric current flows through them against the resistance of the first object. stopping the flow of current. and the other is called a parallel circuit. radios. . and so on. the wires. a fuse (circuit breaker) may be placed in the circuit.
the current merges again before reentering the current source. whereas a series circuit has only one path for all the current. Each separate path is called a flowing through the separate branches. In a series circuit the sum of the voltage drops across the objects always equals the total voltage supplied by the source. they are said to be connected in parallel. V is The total resistance of a parallel circuit can be calculated from the equation where R is the total resistance and R1. Voltage drop can be calculated current. from the equation V = IR. are the resistances of the branches. and 30 ohms. the current in each branch can the voltage.. R2. This is because a parallel circuit offers more than one branch (path) for the electric current. and gives a total drop of 100 volts. . If the voltage is 100 volts. then the current in each will be equal. Current from the source splits up and enters the various branches. After The total resistance of objects connected in parallel is less than that of any of the individual resistances. The electric current through a parallel circuit is distributed among the branches according to the resistances of the branches. where V is the voltage drop across the object. If each branch has the same resistance. If the branches have different resistances. If three objects with resistances R1. The voltage that each object uses up is called the voltage drop across that object. Adding up the voltage drops (2 + 2 + 96) B Parallel Circuits If various objects are connected to form separate paths between the terminals of a source of electric current. the total current of 100/50 = 2 amp will flow through the circuit.. a Voltage can be thought of as being used up by the objects in a circuit. then . the voltage drop in each wire is V = IR = 2 × 1 = 2 volts. their total resistance is R1 + R2 + R3. R2. the voltage drop in the motor is 2 × 48 = 96 volts. and R is the resistance of the branch. For example. if a motor with a resistance of 48 ohms is connected to the terminals of a current source by two wires. For example. each with a resistance of 1 ohm. resistance of the motor and wires is 48 + 1 + 1 = 50 ohms. where I is the amount of current in the branch. and R3 are connected in series. and R is the resistance of the object. 15. if a parallel circuit consists of three branches with resistances of 10.Therefore the total resistance to the current is equal to the sum of the individual resistances. I is the amount of In the example of the motor. be determined from the equation I = V/R. branch of the circuit.
In this circuit. the net sum of the voltage encountered will be equal to the net sum of the products of the resistances encountered and the currents flowing through them. Similarly. which is the value obtained by dividing the voltage by the total resistance. and the 30-ohm branch receives 5 amp. but also to any given section of a D Series and Parallel Sources Sources of electric current can also be connected in various ways. These branch currents add up to a total current C Series-Parallel Circuits Many circuits combine series and parallel arrangements. if the positive terminal of battery A is connected to the negative terminal of battery B. a series circuit may Complicated series-parallel circuits may be analyzed by means of two rules called Kirchhoff’s part of any circuit. would receive a current of V/R = 150/10 = 15 amp. may have within it several objects in a series. and the positive terminal of battery B to the negative terminal of battery C. If a parallel circuit of three branches. R = 5 ohms. words. amp. In other circuit. These rules make it possible to find the amount of electric current flowing through each second law states that. Ohm’s law applies not only to a circuit as a whole. then batteries A. the 15-ohm branch receives 10 of 30 amp. The laws. For example. and C are in series. The first of Kirchhoff’s laws states that at any junction in a circuit through which a steady current is flowing. The resistances of these objects must at one point divide into two or more branches and then rejoin. On the other hand. for example. a voltage of 150 volts would produce an electric current of I = V/R = 150/5 = 30 amp. as well as the voltage across it. One branch of a parallel circuit. is connected to a 150-volt source. . the smaller the portion of the electric current and 30 ohms.Therefore. 15. with resistances of 10. Sources can be arranged in series by connecting a terminal of one source to the opposite terminal of the next source. the sum of the currents flowing to the junction is equal to the sum of the currents flowing away from that point. The branches are parallel and must be treated by the rules for parallel circuits. The greater the resistance of a given branch. B. The load is then placed between the positive terminal of battery C and the negative terminal of battery A. be combined according to the rules for a series circuit. the branch with a resistance of 10 ohms flowing through that branch. starting at any point in a circuit and following any closed path back to the starting point.
and it will demonstrate this ability as soon as another charge is brought near it. connected in parallel. If the load is 9 ohms. The ability to attract or repel can be thought of as being charge. stored in the region around the charge.5-volt batteries are parallel unless they have approximately the same voltage. This region is called the electric field of force of the A Lines of Force .5 volts.5/9 = 0.5-volt batteries connected in series furnish a total of 4. If a high voltage battery is current through the low voltage battery and damage it. the batteries send a current of 4. Current sources may be arranged in parallel by connecting all the positive terminals together terminals and the group of negative terminals. If three 1. Batteries should not be connected in connected in parallel with a low voltage battery. their total voltage is equal to the sum of their individual voltages.5 volts.When sources of electric current are connected in series. the high voltage battery will force an electric VIII ELECTRIC FIELDS A single electric charge can attract or repel. All charged objects have electric fields around them.5 amp through the load. the total voltage is still 1. three 1. and all the negative terminals together. For example. The load is then placed between the group of positive Arranging sources in parallel does not increase the voltage.
Near a charge. if a point charge of 1 coulomb is subjected to a a charge of 5 coulombs would be subjected to a force of 50 newtons at the same point. Where the lines are close together. If two objects with similar charges are Lines of force are only imaginary. Each line corresponds to the path that a positive charge would take if placed in the field on that line. This direction is called the direction of the field at that charge.An electric field can be visualized as consisting of imaginary lines called lines of force. For example. point. A magnet has two opposite poles. exactly as happens with electric charges. The field direction can be represented graphically by the lines of force near an electric C Field Strength The strength. The lines in the field around a positively charged object radiate in all directions away from the object. referred to as north and south. The field strength values that the lines represent are relative. the field is strong. or intensity. Opposite magnetic poles attract each other. since a field can be drawn with as many lines as desired. the field weakens and the lines are not as close together. of a field at any point is defined as the force exerted on a charge of 1 coulomb placed at that point. B Field Direction When a charge is placed at any given point in an electric field. since the object repels positive charges. the field is strong and the lines are close together. the idea of lines of force helps in visualizing an electric field. the lines in the field around a negatively charged object are directed toward the object. are placed near each other. the lines do not connect. . If a positive and a negative object placed near each other. An object with Field strength is represented graphically by the closeness (density) of the lines of force. force of 10 newtons. their lines of force connect. At greater distances from the charge. the field is weak. Lines of force never cross each other. IX ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM Many similarities exist between electric and magnetic phenomena. it is acted on by a force that tends to push it in a certain direction. the electric field is 10 newtons per coulomb at that point. Nevertheless. Where they are far apart. Conversely. and similar magnetic poles repel each other.
demonstrated by the fact that a magnetic field exists around any electric current. The similarities between electric and magnetic phenomena indicate that electricity and magnetism are related.The force with which magnetic poles attract or repel each other depends on the strength of the poles and the distance between them. This relationship is similar to the Coulomb’s inverse square law for electric charges. See also Quantum Electrodynamics. The relationship between electricity and magnetism is called electromagnetism. A Magnetic Effects of Electricity It has been noted that an electric field exists around any electric charge. The field can . they constitute an electric current. See also Magnetism. The magnetic effect of electricity is be detected when a magnet is brought close to the current-carrying conductor. If electric charges are moving. Electricity produces magnetic effects and magnetism produces electric effects.
behaves in the same way as a of force tend to go through the center of the coil from one end to the other rather than around magnet and is the basis for all electromagnets. The polarity of the coil can be determined by applying the left-hand coil rule.) of the lines of magnetic force. the magnetic fields interact to produce a force that tends to push the wire out of the Motors and Generators. If the left hand grasps the coil in such a way . See also Electric C Solenoids If a wire is bent into many continuous loops to form a long spiral coil. To apply this rule. is used in electric motors. The end from which the lines exit is the north pole and the end into which the lines reenter is the south pole.The magnetic field around an electric current can be thought of as lines of magnetic force that form closed circular loops around the wire that carries the current. field. known as the motor effect. a magnetic field exists around a wire carrying an electric current. called a solenoid. Such a coil. The direction of the fingers then indicates the direction negative. the thumb of the right hand is pointed in the direction in which the current is flowing and the fingers are curled around the wire. and a magnetic field exists between the two poles of a magnet. (The right-hand rule assumes that current flows from positive to B Motor Effect As already stated. then the magnetic lines the individual loops of wire. If the wire is placed between the poles. The direction of the magnetic field can be determined by a convenient rule called the right-hand rule. This phenomenon.
that the fingers curl around in the direction of the electron current. the flow of current in the conductor will reverse direction as often as the physical motion of the conductor reverses direction. and use. the lines of magnetic force are cut by the wire and an electric current is induced in the wire. This surging back and forth can occur at a very rapid rate. immediately starts flowing in the opposite direction. In the Although direct and alternating currents share some characteristics. most currents have a frequency of 60 cycles per second. some properties of alternating current are somewhat different from those of direct current. are called a cycle. Some of the unique traits of alternating A Amperage and Voltage . D Electric Effects of Magnetism If a wire is moved through a magnetic field in such a way that it cuts the magnetic lines of force. builds up to a maximum in that direction. This current is called an induced current. Lenz’s law expresses an important fact concerning this magnetic field: The motion of an induced current is always in such a direction that its magnetic field opposes the magnetic field that is causing the current. The current flows first in one direction. Alternating currents current make it ideal for power generation. also produce phenomena that direct currents do not. When a conductor is moved back and forth in a magnetic field. then the thumb points in the direction of the north pole. If a magnet is moved near a stationary wire. It does not matter whether the wire moves or the magnetic field moves. a voltage is created across the wire. an induced current generates a magnetic field around it. provided that the wire cuts through lines of force. and the induction of a current in this manner is called electromagnetic induction. transmission. Then it immediately starts in the first direction again. Two consecutive surges. X ALTERNATING CURRENT An alternating current is an electric current that changes direction at regular intervals. completed by an electric current in one second is called the frequency of the current. and dies down to zero. builds up to a maximum in that direction. Like any electric current. The number of cycles United States and Canada. one in each direction. Most electric power stations supply electricity in the form of alternating currents. It then and again dies down to zero. An electric current will flow through the wire if the two ends of the wire are connected by a conductor to form a circuit.
if there are fewer turns in the second coil. electric connection with it. These effects depend on the frequency of the current and on an alternating current is called impedance. or induced. When an coil expands and collapses and then expands in a field of opposite polarity and again collapses. other words. but not in direct in the second coil. however. the magnetic field about the any value desired by means of a simple electromagnetic device called a transformer. and together they are called reactance. Conversely. of an alternating current varies continuously between zero and a maximum. where V is the effective voltage in volts. In same rate as 1 amp of direct current flowing through the same conductor.000 watts of power is supplied to a power line. I is the effective current in amperes (amp). It is equal to the resistance plus the reactance. Like a direct current. The most important of these characteristics is that the voltage or the current may be changed to almost alternating current surges back and forth through a coil of wire. The power lost in the line through heating. In addition. both for industrial installations and in the home. however. or amperage. the secondary. The effective amperage of an alternating scientists simply deal with the effective amperage.The strength. In a transformer. because power is equal to the product of voltage and current. it may be equally well supplied by a potential of 200. the voltage of an alternating current is considered in terms of the effective voltage. is equal to the square of the current times the .000 volts and a current of 100 amp. alternating current is hindered by the resistance of the conductor through hinder the alternating current. The total hindering effect on The relationship of effective current. produces heat as it passes through a conductor. If 200.000 volts and a current of 1 amp or by a potential of 2. C Advantages of Alternating Current Alternating current has several characteristics that make it more attractive than direct current as a source of electric power. Similarly. effective voltage. 1 effective amp of alternating current through a conductor produces heat at the B Impedance Like direct current. and Z is the impedance in ohms. which it passes. If the second coil has more turns than the first. various effects produced by the alternating current itself the design of the circuit. Since it is inconvenient to take into account a whole range of amperage values. the voltage induced in the number of individual conductors. and impedance is expressed by V = IZ. voltage will be smaller than the primary voltage. The movement of the magnetic field induces an alternating current second coil will be larger than the voltage in the first. an alternating current current is equal to the amperage of a direct current that produces heat at the same rate. because the field is acting on a greater The action of a transformer makes possible the economical transmission of electric power over long distances. a coil of wire is placed in the magnetic field of the first coil.
Theophrastus. Frenchman Charles Dufay observed that electric charges are of two kinds. who observed conduction in a linen thread. little progress was made in the study of electricity.resistance. or half the distance transmission. Gray also noted that some substances are good conductors while Also during the early 1700s. The object that loses electric fluid acquires a resinous charge. which Franklin called positive charge. since it could make The ancient Greeks observed that amber. which is derived from the Greek word elektron (which means “amber”).000-volt line will be 100. The fact that electricity can flow through a substance was discovered by 17th-century German physicist Otto von Guericke. a charge was induced on the sphere. He found that opposite kinds attract each other while similar kinds repel. available power. when two objects are rubbed together. Dufay called one kind vitreous and the other kind resinous. BC For almost 2. .000-volt line will be 10 watts. In 1600 English physician William Gilbert published a book in which he noted that many substances besides amber could be charged by rubbing. which Franklin called negative charge. The object that gains electric fluid acquires a vitreous charge. Conduction was rediscovered independently by Englishman Stephen others are insulators. the loss on the 200. but scientists did not make great progress in understanding electricity until the 1700s. whereas the loss on the 2. The word electricity was first used by English writer and physician Sir Thomas Browne in 1646. About other objects move. light objects. Gray during the early 1700s. American scientist Benjamin Franklin theorized that electricity is a kind of fluid. A 600 Early Theories Greek philosopher Thales of Miletus held that amber had a soul. Von Guericke also described the first machine for producing an electric charge in 1672. stated that other substances also have this power. if the resistance of the line is 10 ohms.000 years after Theophrastus. When a hand was held against the sphere. According to Franklin’s theory. when rubbed. He gave these substances the Latin name electrica. The machine consisted of a sulfur sphere turned by a crank. Accordingly. electric fluid flows from one object to the other. In a treatise written about three centuries later. attracted small. Thus. power companies tend to favor high voltage lines for long XI HISTORY Humans have known about the existence of static electricity for thousands of years. another Greek philosopher.000 watts.
When the string became wet enough to conduct. put his hand near a metal key attached to string to the key and then jumped across an air gap to flow to the ground through Franklin’s charged by touching it to the key when electric current was flowing down the string. Franklin also showed that a Leyden jar. In 1752 he constructed a kite and flew it during a storm. The same effect was discovered a year later by English scientist Michael useful in the study of electricity. Danish physicist Hans Christian Oersted demonstrated that electric currents are surrounded by magnetic fields in 1819. which solenoids. Shortly afterward. a form of electric battery. a device able to store electric charge. Galvani had found earlier that the muscles in a frog’s B 19th and 20th Centuries In 1800 another Italian scientist. Faraday introduced the concept of lines of force. In 1827 Ohm published his results. announced that he had created the voltaic pile. who stood the string. André Marie Ampère discovered the relationship known as Ampere’s law. gives the direction of the magnetic field. Priestley measure accurately the force exerted by electric charges. including the relationship now In 1830 American physicist Joseph Henry discovered that a moving magnetic field induces an electric current.Franklin demonstrated that lightning is a form of electricity. With this apparatus he confirmed the product of the individual charges. could be Around 1766 British chemist Joseph Priestley proved experimentally that the force between also demonstrated that an electric charge distributes itself uniformly over the surface of a hollow metal sphere and that no charge and no electric field of force exists within such a sphere. Priestley’s observations and also showed that the force between two charges is proportional to In 1791 Italian biologist Luigi Galvani published the results of experiments that he had leg would contract if he applied an electric current to them. performed on the muscles of dead frogs. investigated the conducting known as Ohm’s law. a German high school teacher. Ampère also demonstrated the magnetic properties of abilities of various metals. a concept that proved extremely About 1840 British physicist James Prescott Joule and German scientist Hermann Ludwig circuits obey the law of the conservation of energy. steady source of current. Georg Simon Ohm. Electric charge gathered by the kite had flowed down the wet under a shed and held the string by a dry silk cord. French physicist Charles Augustin de Coulomb reinvented a torsion balance to electric charges varies inversely with the square of the distance between the charges. Alessandro Volta. A spark jumped. body. Ferdinand von Helmholtz demonstrated that electricity is a form of energy and that electric . The voltaic pile made the study of electric current much easier by providing a reliable. Faraday. Franklin.
who produced and detected electric waves in the atmosphere in 1886. The widespread use of electricity as a such as Thomas Alva Edison. Maxwell summed up almost all the laws of electricity and magnetism in four mathematical equations. The electron theory. . who harnessed these waves in 1895 to produce the first practical radio signaling system. Nikola Tesla. which is the basis of modern electrical theory. British physicist James Clerk Maxwell investigated the properties of electromagnetic waves and light and developed the theory that the two are identical. His work paved the way for German physicist Heinrich Rudolf Hertz. was first advanced by Dutch physicist Hendrik Antoon Lorentz in 1892. American physicist Robert Andrews Millikan source of power is largely due to the work of pioneering American engineers and inventors and early 20th centuries. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. and Charles Proteus Steinmetz during the late 19th Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005.Also during the 19th century. accurately measured the charge on the electron in 1909. and for Italian engineer Guglielmo Marconi.
the gear moves one tooth forward.WWW. A mechanical odometer is another place that uses a lot of worm gears: . In a worm gear. If the gear has 40 teeth. Each time the shaft spins one revolution. a threaded shaft engages the teeth on a gear.COM Worm Gears If you want to create a high gear ratio. nothing beats the worm gear. Here's one example from a windshield wiper.HOWSTUFFWORKS@YAHOO. you have a 40:1 gear ratio in a very small package.
Planetary gears solve the following problem. you can use a planetary gear system. In that case. imagine that you want the axis of the output gear to be the same as that of the input gear. The size of the red gear is not important because it is just there to reverse the direction of rotation so that the blue and yellow gears turn the same way. Planetary Gears There are many other ways to use gears. A common place where this same-axis capability is needed is in an electric screwdriver. Let's say you want a gear ratio of 6:1 with the input turning in the same direction as the output.There are three worm gears visible in this odometer. One way to create that ratio is with the following three-gear train: In this train. However. One specialized gear train is called a planetary gear train. the blue gear has six times the diameter of the yellow gear (giving a 6:1 ratio). as shown here: . See How Odometers Work for more information.
subtracting one revolution from the sun gear. Another interesting thing about planetary gearsets is that they can produce different gear ratios depending on which gear you use as the input. and a three-stage plenetary gear system of the sprinkler page. This would give you a 1. if the input is the sun gear. we get a different gear ratio. For instance. gears are often connected together in gear trains.17:1 gear reduction. this gear train is extremely rugged. You could rearrange things again. Because there are three red gears instead of one.this gives the same 6:1 gear ratio. and the planet carrier is held stationary -. Gear Trains To create large gear ratios. it has to spin seven times. the planet carrier and planets orbit the sun gear. and this time hold the sun gear stationary. we get a 7:1 reduction. using clutches and brake bands to hold different parts of the gearset stationary and change the inputs and outputs. as shown here: . and we hold the ring gear stationary and attach the output shaft to the planet carrier. take the output from the planet carrier and hook the input up to the ring gear. The output shaft is attached to the blue ring gear. An automatic transmission uses planetary gearsets to create the different gear ratios. and they engage the inside of the blue gear (the ring) instead of the outside. the yellow gear (the sun) engages all three red gears (the planets) simultaneously. You can see a picture of a two-stage planetary gear system on the electric screwdriver page. This is because the planet carrier circled the sun gear once in the same direction as it was spinning. so instead of the sun gear having to spin six times for the planet carrier to make it around once. which gear you use as the output. So in this case. You also find planetary gear systems inside automatic transmissions. All three are attached to a plate (the planet carrier). In this case. and which one you hold still.In this gear system.
The right-hand (purple) gear in the train is actually made in two parts. as shown above. . as shown in the next two figures. Gear trains often consist of multiple gears in the train. A small gear and a larger gear are connected together. one on top of the other.
with the gears having a ratio of 10:1. That means that if you connect the purple gear to a motor spinning at 100 revolutions per minute (rpm). you could attach a 2. the green gear will turn at a rate of 500 rpm and the red gear will turn at a rate of 2. the purple gear turns at a rate twice that of the blue gear. The gear train shown below has a higher gear ratio: In this train.In the case above.500 rpm. If you can see inside your power meter and it's of the older style with five mechanical dials. The red gear turns at twice the rate as the green gear. the smaller gears are one-fifth the size of the larger gears. In the same way. The green gear turns at twice the rate of the purple gear. Because the dials are directly connected . you will see that the five dials are connected to one another through a gear train like this.500-rpm motor to the red gear to get 100 rpm on the purple gear.
You can place a big gear between them if you want them to have the same direction of rotation: Or you can use two equal-sized gears if you want them to have opposite directions of rotation: However. in both of these cases the extra gears are likely to be heavy and you need to create axles for them. they spin in opposite directions (you will see that the numbers are reversed on dials next to one another). In these cases. but they are some distance apart. the common solution is to use either a chain or a toothed belt.to one another. as shown here: . An Example Imagine the following situation: You have two red gears that you want to keep synchronized.
the same toothed belt might engage the crankshaft. and the ability to connect many gears together on the same chain or belt. in a car engine. check out the links on the next page! . two camshafts and the alternator. it would be a lot harder.The advantages of chains and belts are light weight. the ability to separate the two gears by some distance. If you had to use gears in place of the belt. For more information on gears and their applications. For example.
the pulley. .Machine I INTRODUCTION Machine. The advantage that a machine gives its user by affecting the amount of force needed is called the machine’s mechanical advantage. Work. Two Some common examples of simple machines are the shovel (a form of lever). the pulley at the top of a flagpole. perform work by lengthening the distance over which the force is applied. the screw and the wedge. simple device that affects the force. no matter how complicated a machine is. in physics. Distance refers to the distance a load is moved by the force. no other simple machines have been discovered. Machines lessen the force needed to is subsequently used. are really adaptations of the inclined plane. which combines a lever (the hinged handle). the inclined plane. needed to do a certain amount of work. such as automobiles or power tools. or MA. An everyday example of a complex machine is the and a wedge (the sharpened cutting disk). Machines can make a tough job seem easier by enabling a person to apply less force or to apply force in a direction that is easier to manipulate. Although these simple machines have been other common simple machines. However. Although less force There are four types of simple machines: the lever. are complex machines wheel and axle. it is composed of some combination of the four simple machines. is the amount of force used to move an object multiplied by Force is defined as a push or a pull exerted on one body by another. or effort. and the wheelchair ramp (a form of inclined plane). This can be written in mathematical terms: Work = Force × Distance move objects. a wheel and axle (the turning knob). II WORK Machines help people do work by changing the amount of force and the distance needed to the distance over which the force is applied. composed of many parts. known and used for thousands of years. Each machine affects the direction or the amount of effort needed to do work. the amount of work that results remains the same. Machines can also increase the speed at which work makes an object travel. but increasing speed requires the application of more effort. the steering wheel of an automobile (a form of wheel and axle). Knowing the mechanical advantage of a machine allows a user to predict how much force is needed to lift a given object. can opener. such as a hand pushing a book across a table. and the Most mechanical machines.
or rapid burning. Some machines can actually speed up a task. such as airplane fuel or the energy stored in electricity. then the force must therefore be increased to keep work constant.A How Machines Work A machine can make a given task seem easier by reducing the amount of force needed to move an object. Applying effort over a greater distance takes more time. over which the effort is applied. but the effort needed to reach the top is less. A complex machine. Friction results from two bodies moving against each other in different . of airplane fuel to power the engine that turns the propeller. the main source of imperfection is friction. to make manual chores easier. but spreading the necessary effort out over a longer distance makes the task seem easier. Scientists find the mechanical advantage of a machine by dividing the force the machine delivers by the effort put into the machine. usually powered by electricity. is made up of many simple machines. Other gears require less effort and are useful for climbing hills. In simple machines. A machine decreases the amount of force needed by increasing the distance over which the effort is applied to move the object. The that of the wheel and axle. by changing the direction in which the force must be applied. The amount of work needed to overcome gravity and lift a given load always remains the same. to pull cables that raise and lower the elevator car. B Mechanical Advantage and Friction Measuring the mechanical advantage (MA) is a mathematical way to determine how much a machine affects the amount of force needed to do work. An elevator uses large engines. and this slows down the speed of work. to do work. Complex machines often use the energy stored in chemical substances. A gentle slope is a form of inclined plane. or by doing both. The distance walked on the gentle slope is longer. The mechanical energy in a person’s muscles makes the machine do work. Some gears require more effort. but they make the bicycle travel faster on flat terrain. Not all machines use muscle power. The theoretical. however. or ideal. Airplane engines and elevators are not powered by hand. to provide the necessary force to do work. If the distance in the equation defining work (Work = Force × Increasing the speed at which a task is performed requires more force than would otherwise be necessary. They do this by reducing the distance Distance) is reduced. Electricity also powers the levers that help open and shut the elevator doors. This is why walking gradually up a gentle slope is easier than walking up a steep slope. various gears on a multispeed bicycle (another complex machine) work in a manner similar to People use simple machines. An airplane engine uses the combustion. such as levers and pulleys. such as an airplane engine or an elevator. The wheel and axle and certain types of levers are simple machines that can either speed up a task (requiring more effort) or slow down a task (requiring less effort). mechanical advantage of a machine is the advantage it would produce if the machine were perfect.
A perfect machine would be 100 percent efficient. All four of these machines can be used to decrease the amount of force needed to do work or to change the direction of the force. however. but doing so A Inclined Plane Ramps and staircases are simple examples of inclined planes. but they all change the direction or the amount of effort put into them. but they always lose some efficiency due to friction. This increase in distance allows a person to move a large object to a certain would need to lift with a force equal to the entire weight of the object. An inclined plane is an object that decreases the effort needed to lift an object by increasing the distance over which the effort is applied. or 2. rather than lifted straight up. a person with the inclined plane. This means that the work was twice as easy. and some levers can also be used to increase the speed of performance of a task. For example. The wheel and axle always increases the amount of force needed. An inclined plane . Because of the inclined plane. or that only half as much effort was needed to raise the load. Friction always opposes motion and makes doing work harder. the load needed to be pushed twice as far to end up 5 C Efficiency Another factor that people sometimes compute for machines is their efficiency. Moving the load along a 10-m (32-ft) inclined plane would provide a mechanical advantage of 10 divided by 5. meters above the ground. or an the distance the effort is applied by the distance the load actually travels. one way to compute theoretical mechanical advantage is to divide a load 5 m (16 ft) off the ground is easier if the load is moved up a gradual slope. Most simple machines are very efficient. An automobile engine is much less efficient dissipating from the engine. the person must move the object a farther distance.) The tradeoff is that also changes the direction—from straight up to along the angle of the plane—of the effort height while applying less force than would otherwise be needed. the actual mechanical advantage is always less than the Because simple machines increase mechanical advantage by increasing the distance over which the effort is applied. the work that results to the amount of work put into the machine. or the ratio of is usually expressed as a percentage and can vary from 5 percent to 95 percent.directions. raising inclined plane. The efficiency of a machine because much of the energy used to move the crankshaft is lost to friction in the form of heat III TYPES OF SIMPLE MACHINES The four simple machines each function in different ways. Since friction is theoretical mechanical advantage. present in almost every machine. (Without the plane.
Examples of fastening screws are wood or metal screws. A wedge is a changing the downward direction of the force from a sledgehammer to a sideways force A screw is a form of inclined plane in which the plane is wrapped around an axis.applied. The materials are held together by a combination of friction on the threads and compression of the screw by the materials. The amount of work done is the same whether the person lifts the object straight up or along an inclined plane. toward the wood being split. than a steep inclined plane. There are two different types of screws: fastening screws and lifting screws. sometimes called machine screws or bolts. because the effort is applied over a greater distance. The MA of an inclined plane equals the length of the plane divided by the height to which the object is raised. have threads that are matched by the threads on the inside of a nut. Lifting screws are used to lift loads or to exert forces on other bodies. Lifting screws are usually lubricated to the load. Other screws. A long inclined plane at a small angle has a greater mechanical advantage double inclined plane. reduce friction. or pole. An example of a lifting screw is the screw jack used to change tires on a car. Fastening screws are used to join things together. Wedges are often used to split wood. The MA of a screw is related to the pitch of the threads (the distance along the axis of the screw from one thread to the next) and the diameter of the axis. which have threads that dig into the materials being joined. but some friction with lifting screws is helpful so that the screw can safely hold B Lever . with a plane on each side.
Using a combination of pulleys that results in three strands of rope attached to the results in an MA of 3. they can have mechanical advantages greater than 1. and the only example. a small effort can move a large C Pulley The pulley is a special type of wheel. and this limits the number of pulleys that can be used. as in a seesaw. which means that one-third as much effort is required to move the load. A lever consists of a bar that rotates around a pivot point. Tweezers are another example of a Class 3 lever. as is the steering wheel of a car. and the forearm muscles apply the effort between the elbow and hand. The MA of a lever is the distance from the fulcrum to the point where the force is applied divided by the distance from the fulcrum to the load. and the effort is applied in the middle. the fulcrum is again at one end. to raise window blinds. which is called the fulcrum. a downward pull on a cord is required. as in a wheelbarrow. because they increase the distance the rope travels. The MA of a wheel and axle is equal . In a Class 2 lever. and the muscles apply the force needed to lift weight or move objects. D Wheel and Axle The wheel and axle is similar in appearance to a pulley. The human forearm is a Class 3 lever. Pulleys are used at the top of flagpoles and in some types of window blinds. the fulcrum lies at one end. cable. The rope on a pulley causes a good deal of friction. The object being lifted is called the load.One of the most commonly used simple machines is the lever. In a Class 3 lever. The elbow is the fulcrum. A user applies effort to the large outer wheel of the steering wheel to move the load at the axle. with one major difference: the wheel is fixed to the axle. If a single pulley is used. The MA of a block and tackle is equal to the number of strands of rope on the part of the block and tackle that is attached load requires the user to pull the rope three times farther than the load actually moves. but the load is at the other end. For When multiple pulleys are combined (in what is called a block and tackle). or chain. which vary in the placement of the effort. advantage of using the pulley is that the direction of the force needed is changed. and the load is in the middle. The MA is maximized when the load is close to load. and the fulcrum along the bar. In this case. One of the limitations of levers is that they only operate through relatively small angles. called a sheave. In a Class 1 lever. The human arm is actually a lever. the effort is applied at the other end. The force applied by the user is the effort. There are three classes of levers. thereby increasing the distance over which the effort is applied. A seesaw is an example of a lever. the mechanical advantage is 1. which has a groove cut into the edge to guide a rope. the fulcrum lies between the effort and the load. the load. the fulcrum and the effort is far from the fulcrum. This to the load.
A computer. the speed and direction of the rotation of the axles can be controlled. The difference in the sizes of the wheel and axle can result in a a round water faucet handle. Such combinations are known as complex machines. the distance over which the effort is applied is much greater than the distance the load. Two gears of the gears. moves. which is thought of as an electronic device.to the radius of the wheel divided by the radius of the axle. Therefore. The transmission uses gears. wheels and axles. Pliers usually as the cutting edge. which are a form of inclined plane. which is a form of wheel. the motor shaft turns the fan. This placement decreases the distance near the tip of the scissors. The engine contains many levers. Some common examples of a wheel and axle are a doorknob and IV COMPLEX MACHINES Many everyday objects are really combinations of simple machines. This fan is a complex machine in which to turn the disk and a system of levers to position the heads that read and write the data on the disk. Cutting something thick or hard is easier when the scissors are opened wide and the object is placed near the pivot pin. large mechanical advantage. which is placed at the axle. The levers move the bolt and unlatch the door. The whole engine is held together by threaded bolts. and therefore its circumference. A pair of pliers is really two Class 1 levers with the same fulcrum (the pivot pin). has a cooling fan. have a mechanical advantage of 5 or higher. A pair of scissors is a pair of pliers with wedges between the load and the fulcrum. fit together and transfer force and power from one gear shaft to another. is usually much larger than the radius of the axle. The doorknob is a wheel and axle system that transfers the force applied by a person to a system of levers. By choosing the size Even devices that do not seem to be mechanical use simple machines. An automobile is one such machine. and pulleys. The disk drive uses a wheel and axle . which are a form of wheel and axle with specially shaped teeth on the outside of the wheels. The radius of the wheel. giving the scissors a higher MA than if the cutting was done Some complex machines are very complicated.
Metal or stone wedges have been used since ancient times for splitting wood. Contributed By: Odis Hayden Griffin. which is used to pump water produce electricity. the mechanical reaper (used to cut grain). According to legend. as early as 2000 Chariots in Asia Minor BC. Grinding wheels connected to waterwheels can grind grain for making The windmill also uses the same wheel and axle principle to magnify and change the direction flour or power large saws for sawing wood. first used in ancient Greece and Rome. shorter path would have been taking advantage of an inclined plane. Microsoft ® Encarta ® Reference Library 2005. However. used spoked wheels. the lever is believed to be the first simple machine that was utilized by humans. such as the cotton gin (used to separate cotton fibers from seeds). People also used such a device for lifting soldiers over battlements. someone choosing a long. People used a counterbalanced lever called a shadoof in ancient Egypt for lifting irrigation water. © 1993-2004 Microsoft Corporation. and later adopted by Europeans in the 12th century. Later Industrial Revolutions elsewhere brought about the invention of even more complex machines. . All rights reserved. into work. for raising water. and the automobile. Jr. The first levers were probably branches or logs used to lift heavy objects. from the ground. developed a screw-type device known as Archimedes’ screw The Greek Machines can transform natural energy. People used wooden wedges to swell by absorbing water. used the water falling from a waterfall to turn large wheels (see Waterpower). such as wind and falling water. Pumps connected to windmills transform the rotary motion of a windmill into reciprocating (back and forth) motion. Although the date of the first use of simple machines is not known. Archimedes also used a block and tackle to pull ships onto dry land. Some modern water pumps still use this principle. gradual approach up a mountain rather than walking up a steeper. which were lighter than solid wheels. Historians believe the people of ancient Mesopotamia (an early civilization near modern-day Iraq) used wheels as early as 3500 inventor Archimedes (287-212 BC) split rocks by placing dry wooden wedges into cracks in rocks and then allowing the wedges to BC. Waterwheels and windmills can also be connected to electrical generators to Complicated machines such as the power loom (patented in 1786) helped cultivate the improvements seen in Great Britain during the first Industrial Revolution at the end of the 18th century. Waterwheels. of force to do work.V HISTORY The history of machines dates back thousands of years.
like all simple machines. in physics. by using the lever the force was spread out over a greater nail is much closer to the fulcrum than is the hand applying the force. The away from the fulcrum. The head of the hammer is the fulcrum. However. the distance over which the force is applied must be increased. The user’s hand applies force to the handle at one end of the lever. By varying the distances between the force and the fulcrum and between the load and the fulcrum. The human arm is also a lever.Lever I INTRODUCTION Lever.) Work is defined in physics as example of a lever is the seesaw. simple machine consisting of a rigid bar that rotates about a fixed point. the result of a force. In order to reduce the force needed. such as a person lifting. force is applied to one end of the the other end of the lever. A common II WORK AND MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE A lever makes work easier by reducing the force needed to move a load. the amount of effort needed to move the load can be decreased. Work. the load to be moved must be close to the fulcrum and the force must be applied far from the fulcrum. except when friction is present. makes doing work easier To increase this distance. To move an object with a lever. Since the hand is farther . (The other three are the pulley. This relationship can be written mathematically as: Work = Force × Distance The amount of work needed to move an object a given distance always remains the same by reducing the force needed to move an object. making the job easier. and the inclined plane. and the nail at the other end of the lever is the load to be moved. that moves an object over a distance. or effort. is the product of the force used to lift a load multiplied by the distance the force. the force travels a greater distance than does the load as the nail is pried loose. and are used to lift heavy objects. called a fulcrum. with the fulcrum somewhere between the two. the wheel and axle. or force. The lever. The same amount of work would have been done if the nail had been pulled directly out by hand. Levers affect the effort. where the elbow is the fulcrum and the muscles apply the force. A good example is a claw hammer used to pry nails loose. lever. and the object to be moved (referred to as the resistance or load) is usually located at Physicists classify the lever as one of the four simple machines used to do work. needed to do a certain amount of work. is applied.
the load at the other end. and the force in the middle. The MA of a lever is the ratio of the distance the force travels to the distance the load travels. Another example is a seesaw. A common example is the wheelbarrow. The force of a smaller person can balance and even lift the load of a larger person as the smaller person moves farther away from the fulcrum. and the load in the within the box. Each class of lever affects force in a different way. that person that the system is again in balance. The human forearm is a class 3 lever. the best wheelbarrow design is one where the wheel is directly under the load. When two fulcrum. where the wheel is the fulcrum. people of equal weight use the seesaw. When a heavier person sits on one end. depending on the arrangement of the force. the less the effort needed to move a load. as in a seesaw.distance. Many wheelbarrows and garden carts are C Class 3 Levers A class 3 lever has the fulcrum at one end. load. and the muscles of . which gives a mechanical advantage to the lighter person so B Class 2 Levers The class 2 lever has the fulcrum at one end. To reduce the force required by the user even more. and the system is balanced. the MA may be less than or III TYPES OF LEVERS There are three different classes of levers. Depending on the class of lever and the location of the fulcrum. the force at the other end. It is possible for a class 1 lever to have a significant mechanical advantage. In practical terms. they position themselves an equal distance from the usually moves toward the center. A class 2 lever always has a middle. greater than 1. and the fulcrum along the lever bar. the MA is the distance of the force to the fulcrum divided by the distance of the load to the fulcrum. the and each class has different applications. The greater the MA. distance from the load to the fulcrum almost to zero. and so less force was needed. and the force is the lift supplied by the user. The mechanical advantage (MA) of a lever tells how much the lever magnifies effort. reducing the designed in that manner to make them easy for the user to move. the load rests mechanical advantage of greater than 1. A Class 1 Levers The class 1 lever has the fulcrum between the force and the load. The elbow is the fulcrum.
These weights are called counterweights. The keys of a piano use levers to transmit force . In both of those applications. used to till soil for planting crops. speed at which a load is moved. with which a greater effort results in a smaller load moving at a greater speed. the lever magnifies the force In addition to using human power as the force applied to the lever. often use a series of levers to transfer force. class 3 levers are useful for increasing the IV HISTORY The first levers were probably branches or logs used to lift heavy objects. A baseball bat and a broom are also examples of class 3 levers. the work requires more effort than would ordinarily be needed.the forearm apply the force between the elbow and the hand. Balance scales use levers to find the mass of an object. Waterwheels installed near large grindstones for grinding grain into flour. Learning to use those simple tools led to the development of other applications of the lever. The class 3 lever always has a mechanical advantage of less than 1. A counterbalanced lever called a shadoof was used in ancient Egypt for lifting irrigation water from the Nile River up onto land. During the Middle Ages. attacking armies used a similar device for lifting soldiers over fortress walls. Although they boost the amount of effort needed. Consequently. followed by sticks applied by a human. The principle of the lever was often utilized through the rotary motion of the wheel and axle. Complex machines from the keys to the hammers that strike the strings. waterfalls used the continuous force of moving water to provide the necessary leverage to turn A crowbar and the claw of a hammer used to pry loose nails are both common examples of levers in action. and it is still used today. because the load travels a greater distance than the force travels. people added weights so that the force they had to exert was lessened.
Work is the product of the effort.Pulley I INTRODUCTION Pulley. Combining pulleys increases the amount of rope needed to lift an object. rope or cable moves over it. pulleys make it easier to apply the force because it is more convenient to pull down than to pull up. the wheel and axle. The disk of the pulley rotates as the object. Pulleys reduce the effort to lift an object by increasing the distance over which the effort is applied. the inclined plane) used to do work. force. Mechanical advantage (MA) is a term that describes how much a machine magnifies effort. Pulleys are used for lifting by attaching one end of the rope to the A single fixed pulley changes the direction of the force applied to the end of the rope. A common example of a pulley can be found at the top of a flagpole. Multiple pulleys can change both the direction of the applied force and the amount of systems to reduce the amount of force needed to lift heavy equipment. or force. By changing the direction of a force. The greater the MA. Pulleys increase distance by requiring additional rope to be pulled to lift an object. Increasing the distance reduces the amount of force needed for the job. Pulling down on the rope causes the flag to go up because the pulley changes the direction of the force applied to the flag. so that less force is needed to lift an object. Work is defined in physics as the result of a force. The relation of work to force and distance can be show as an equation: Work = Force × Distance A pulley makes work easier by increasing the distance over which effort is applied. a person must do some work. Construction cranes use multiple pulley The pulley is one of the four simple machines (along with the lever. applied to an object multiplied by the distance the force is applied. There are two types of MA: . and pulling on the other end of the rope. so heavy loads can be lifted with even less effort. the less the effort needed to lift a given load. simple machine used to lift objects. and a rope or cable threaded around the disk. threading the rope through the pulley (or system of pulleys). A pulley consists of a grooved wheel or disk within a housing. that moves an object across a distance. such as II WORK AND MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE To lift any object. and the effort of pulling on a rope.
A single fixed pulley. III PULLEY SYSTEMS Systems of pulleys have been used for centuries to move loads. Effort is not magnified in this case. Two common types of pulley systems are the block and tackle and the chain hoist. one end of the rope is tied to a fixed anchor on the and back up to the user. A Block and Tackle . the result of two bodies rubbing against each other. Therefore. The load that can be lifted is equal to the force that is applied by the user. The actual MA. which is always less than theoretical MA. because of the friction of the rope against the pulley and the friction between the pulley and Pulleys can offer MAs of greater than 1 if they are movable. while a block and tackle system is often used with an engine or motor. which means for each distance of rope the user travels. any effort applied is doubled. takes into account imperfections in simple machines. the easier it is to do work. Since both strands of rope coming from the pulley equally support the load. much rope. The primary benefit of a single pulley is to change the direction of the force or to move a load to a point (such as the top of a flagpole) that cannot be reached by the user. the flag rises the same distance. In reality. the user must pull and take in twice as deck. The MA of a movable pulley (or a movable part (the load being lifted). has a theoretical MA of 1. and is present to some degree in almost every machine. Lubricants and bearings are often used in pulleys to reduce friction. the actual MA is slightly less than 1 the axle on which it turns. The rope leads from the anchor down through the pulley (which is attached to the load). For a single movable pulley to work. when placed on the object to be moved. Theoretical MA is the MA most commonly referred to. Friction always opposes motion. the pulley system must also double the distance the effort travels. meaning that twice the load can be lifted with the same amount of effort. Friction is a major problem in pulleys MA is generally determined by dividing the distance the effort travels by the distance the load top of a flagpole. in order to raise a load a given distance. Since a pulley system with an MA of 2 increases the force by a factor of 2. provides an MA of 2. The main source of imperfection is friction. because of the weight on the rope and the movement of the rope on the pulley. system of pulleys with a movable part) equals the number of strands of rope coming from the A movable pulley can be used to lift a heavy load from the bottom of a cargo ship up to the deck. The higher the MA. It is the MA a machine would have if it were perfect.theoretical and actual. such as that at the pulls in. A movable pulley is one that is attached to the load to be lifted and therefore moves with the load as the rope is pulled. Chain hoists are usually operated by hand. Even a single pulley.
When a user pulls on the chain hanging down from the large pulley. have to pull a greater length of rope to accomplish this. They will. however. The top has a large pulley and a small pulley bottom section of a chain hoist is a movable pulley attached to the load. When the chain is pulled. joined side by side on the same axle. Legend has it that the Greek inventor used a block and tackle system to pull ships onto dry land.When several movable and fixed pulleys are used together. and can increase MA considerably. IV HISTORY As is the case with all the simple machines. The chain threading through the movable pulley is fed from the small pulley on top. sailors can exert large forces. By using these devices. When early the idea of a single fixed pulley to change the direction of a force. that pulley pulls in chain from the movable pulley. and so the load is raised. A block and tackle typically houses several pulleys. This is often necessary because of the large friction losses in such systems. A chain hoist is made up of two sections. Since the effort travels a greater distance than the load. the entire system is usually called a block and tackle. The pulleys on a chain hoist have teeth that hold the chain. the chain hoist multiplies force. they used BC Mesopotamia used rope pulleys for hoisting water. The MA of a block and tackle is equal to sails. The The chain hangs down from the large pulley on one side. On sailing ships. Block and tackle systems are commonly used on sailing ships to lift heavy of the pulleys in place. Tackle is a term traditionally used to refer to a sailing ship’s rigging. The large and small pulleys turn together as a unit. But since there was no wheel to turn. the large pulley brings in more chain than the small pulley lets out. and then threads back up around the small pulley. a block and tackle is used to apply forces to another block and tackle to gain an even greater MA. this use resulted in considerable friction. which are usually made of wood with some metal parts. the origin of the pulley is unknown. and back up to the large pulley. Chain hoists are sometimes used to lift automobile engines out of cars. their housings and a rope used to apply the forces. The MA of a chain hoist depends on the diameters of the large and small pulleys. much like the sprockets that hold a bicycle chain in place. people in . B Chain Hoist A chain hoist is a pulley system joined together by a closed loop of chain that is pulled by hand. down through the movable pulley. The term block refers to the case that houses the pulleys side by side and holds the axle which was usually made of rope. Thus the block and tackle consists of a system of pulleys in the number of strands of rope coming from the moveable set of pulleys attached to the load. It is believed that by 1500 Archimedes (287-212 BC) peoples lifted heavy objects by throwing vines or other crude ropes over tree limbs.
the user only has to push a button to lift or lower the load.Modern pulley systems are often combined with motors to create hoists for lifting heavy loads. An elevator in a building uses a pulley system to raise and . Construction cranes and cranes used at shipyards move heavy loads using block and tackle systems lower the elevator cars. connected to powerful motors. By using a motor.
the force needed is the effort required to lift the object. Two other simple machines. The mechanical advantage (MA) of an inclined plane measures how much the plane magnifies the effort applied to the machine. an inclined plane allows a person to lift an object gradually (at an angle) over a greater distance. The same amount of work is accomplished in lifting the object which the force is applied. with or without the inclined plane. and the pulley). but because the inclined plane increases the distance over The inclined plane is one of the four simple machines (along with the lever. An inclined plane makes it easier to lift heavy objects by enabling a person to apply the necessary force over a greater distance. the wheel and axle. the inclined plane decreases the amount of force needed to do the same amount of work without the plane. . Work. lose some of their MA to friction. The actual MA of a machine is less than the theoretical MA because of friction. Theoretical MA is the MA a machine would have if it were perfect. applied to an object multiplied by the distance over which the force is applied. that moves an object over a distance. is defined as the amount of force this can be expressed by the following equation: Work = Force x Distance When lifting an object is the work being done. such as the effort of pushing or pulling something. A sharp knife is an everyday example of a wedge. in physics. however. Mathematically. more difficult. the screw and the wedge. One of the most common examples of an inclined plane is a staircase. There are two kinds of MA: theoretical and actual. and therefore doing work. All machines. are really alternate forms of the inclined plane. Rather than lifting an object straight up. simple machine. Friction makes the process of moving objects.Inclined Plane I INTRODUCTION Inclined Plane. work is the result of a force. consisting of a ramp or a similar wedge-shaped device. the work requires less force. less effort than climbing straight up a ladder would require. In physical terms. By increasing distance. which allows people to move within a building from one floor to another with cars use threaded screws. Some jacks that are used to lift II WORK AND MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE An inclined plane makes doing work easier by changing both the direction and the amount of effort that are used to lift an object. and the distance corresponds to the distance the object is lifted. that makes doing a given amount of work easier. a resistance created between objects when they move against each other.
Screws driven straight into wood or other materials. or pole. The joined inclined planes form a blunt end that wedge out to the sides of the wedge to help it cut through an object. which equates with effort applied over a long distance. threaded nuts and bolts take advantage of the friction that results from the contact between A wedge is another form of inclined plane. The pitch of a thread is the distance along the axis of the screw from one thread to the next. and some jacks used to lift automobiles rely on screws. and the actual MA is close to the theoretical MA. like Friction is a phenomenon that reduces the efficiency of all machines. Wedges are often used to split materials such as wood or stone. which differs from an inclined plane. Screws are also useful as fastening devices. around the axis. The edge of the inclined plane forms a helix. These devices use friction to hold things together. The screw requires a lot of turning. This means that the ramp doubles the effort applied by the user. and raises the automobile. Wheels can be added to the load to decrease friction. Effort is applied directly to the wedge. A ramp that is twice as long as it is high has a mechanical advantage of 2. Increasing the ratio of the length of the ramp to the height of the ramp decreases the effort needed to lift an object. Since the pitch is generally small compared to the circumference. as well as the inclined plane and other objects. However. Wedges transfer downward effort applied to the blunt edge of the where two planes are joined at their bases. People also frequently build inclined planes with small rollers or casters built into the plane to reduce friction. be. Turning the screw many times produces a small amount of vertical lift on the platform. III MODIFIED INCLINED PLANES The screw and the wedge are common adaptations of the inclined plane. Screws are often used to raise objects. or that the user needs to apply only half as much effort to lift an object to a desired height as he or she would without the ramp. If the length of a ramp was equal to its height. this allows heavy loads to be lifted with a small amount of effort. A wedge is essentially a double inclined plane. where the effort travels along the plane. This idea explains why climbing up a steep hill takes more effort (and seems more difficult) than walking up a longer. Since there is much friction . more gradual path to the same height as that of the steep hill. or spiral. the mechanical advantage would be 1. large mechanical advantages can be achieved by using screws. narrows down to a tip. Walking up an inclined plane or rolling a load (such as a barrel) up a plane creates little friction. which means the ramp did not magnify the user’s effort.The MA of an inclined plane without any friction is equal to the length of the plane divided by the height of the plane. A screw is an inclined plane wrapped around an axis. sliding a load (especially a flat load such as a crate) up a plane creates friction and causes the plane to lose much of its MA. which is placed under a vehicle. The longer the inclined plane. A jack has a large screw attached to a small platform. the larger the MA will a vertical ladder. the ramp would simply run straight up. In this case. The mechanical advantage of a screw is related to the circumference of the screw divided by the pitch of the threads.
It consists of a cylinder with a wide-threaded screw inside. The wedge shape of the knife edge helps the user cut through material. The main benefit of the wedge is changing the direction of effort to help split or cut through an object. There are indications that the Egyptians created earthen ramps to raise huge blocks of stone during the construction of the pyramids. The resulting pressure in the cracks caused the rocks to inventor Archimedes (287-212 BC) invented a screw-type device (known as Archimedes’ screw) for raising water. IV HISTORY The inclined plane is undoubtedly one of the first of the simple machines people ever used. People also used wooden wedges in prehistoric times wedges to swell by absorbing water. transferring the force they applied to the to split rocks. Evidence from drawings of that time indicates People used wedges in ancient times to split wood. A knife is also a form of wedge. They placed dry wooden wedges into cracks in rocks and then allowed the split. and turning the screw lifts water up the cylinder to . BC to 1000 BC. probably milk. This principle is still used in some pumps today.involved. from about 2700 that the Egyptians used a lubricant. The a higher level. to reduce the sliding friction and thus increase the efficiency of the inclined planes. bottom end of the cylinder is set in water. Historians believe that Greek blunt edge out to the sides of the wedge. the mechanical advantage of a wedge is difficult to determine. A person walking up a gradual path to the top of a mountain rather than climbing straight up a steep face is taking advantage of the principle of the inclined plane. Screws were used in ancient times as lifting devices.
or open a water valve. Mathematically. Work. the formula to compute work can be expressed as: Work = Force × Distance For a wheel and axle. turn) an object. The object to be moved is a resistance. There are two kinds of MA: theoretical and actual. Because the circumference of will always move a greater distance than the load at the axle. located at the axle. the pulley. or load. and are the basis for all other machines. The much larger handle turns a much smaller axle to move a door latch. where the driver exerts a force on the outer edge of the wheel to II WORK AND MECHANICAL ADVANTAGE A wheel and axle makes work easier by changing the amount of force applied to a load. a greater distance than would be possible if the force were applied directly to the axle. The wheel enables a user to apply the force over way. The mechanical advantage (MA) of a wheel and axle measures how much the machine the wheel is always larger than the circumference of the axle. any effort applied to the wheel multiplies the force applied by the user. and steering wheel of a car. that moves an direction of the force applied to move (or in this case. object over a distance. The wheel and axle is used to make doing a given amount of work easier. in physics. such as the effort of pushing or pulling. is defined as the amount of force applied to an object multiplied by the distance over which that force is applied. and the distance corresponds to how far the wheel is turned as effort is applied. in the case of a doorknob. in the case of a faucet. The wheel and axle makes the effort move a greater distance than the load. A round doorknob and a round Work is the result of a physical force. simple machine. All simple machines change the amount of effort needed to do work. The force needed is the effort required to turn the load. . Another common example of a wheel and axle is the cause the load at the axle (the front wheels) to turn. and so less effort is needed to move the load. the inclined plane). consisting of a circular object—the wheel—with a shaft—the water faucet are both examples of wheels and axles. a wheel and axle reduces the effort needed to move a load. A wheel and axle makes work easier by changing the amount and axle—running through and attached to the center of the wheel. In this The wheel and axle is one of the four simple machines (along with the lever.Wheel and Axle I INTRODUCTION Wheel and Axle. usually located at the axle. the work to be done is the moving or turning of a load. A force applied at the outer edge of the wheel moves or turns the load located at the axle.
If the gears are the same size. However. This produces a If a wheel can rotate independently about the axle. and therefore doing work. since actual MA can be difficult to calculate. freely rotating wheels and axles are used frequently to reduce friction. Gears. propeller move much faster than the small axle in the middle. However. are often used in automobiles to transmit the rotary power from the engine to fans or other devices. Turning the The mechanical advantage of this type of wheel and axle can be very large. Theoretical MA is the one most commonly referred to. III WHEEL AND AXLE APPLICATIONS Wheels and axles are used in one form or another in most complex machines. then the MA of a wheel and axle equals the radius of the wheel divided by the radius of the axle. larger handle of the screwdriver is much easier than trying to turn the smaller screw by itself. Friction is a resistance created between objects when they move against each other. In the previous examples. Wheels and axles used in this fashion often obtain force generated by fuel-powered engines. Rolling is easier than pushing or dragging an object. since the force will always travel a greater distance on the larger wheel than will the load at the smaller axle. Force can also be applied at the axle to move a load at the wheel. they turn at the same speed. If force is applied to the wheel. such as those used in a mechanical clock. because it does not change force. closed loops of rope or rubber. force applied at the wheel moved a heavy load at the axle. When one gear turns. Friction makes the process of moving objects. This will always produce an MA greater than 1. The wheel (the handle) transmits the user’s force to the axle (the screwdriver shaft) to turn a screw. When force is applied at MA less than 1. Wheel and axle combinations also can be used with belts or chains (as on a bicycle) to transmit the forces from one wheel to the other. but it takes the power of an the axle. more difficult.Theoretical MA is the MA that would exist if the machine were perfect. the MA is the radius of the axle divided by the radius of the wheel. if one gear is larger than the other. . A screwdriver is a type of wheel and axle. then the device is not a true machine. the distance the effort travels is divided by the distance the load travels. Belts. The large blades of an airplane engine to turn the axle. the smaller gear turns faster than the larger gear. and means that speed will be gained. the other gear turns in the opposite direction. but all machines lose some of their MA to friction. This requires more force to move the wheel. but one benefit is that the wheel will move much faster. To find the MA of a simple machine. are actually wheels with teeth around the edge. A wheel that drives or is driven by a chain is usually referred to as a sprocket.
The steam locomotive operate in this way. grinding grain. A likely early use of the fixed wheel and axle to multiply force was the winch. The pistons in an automobile engine are connected to a process is also used in reverse so rotary motion can be changed to reciprocating motion. usually made of stone and used to make pottery. One of the first uses of the wheel as a tool was the potter’s wheel. A small force applied at the outer edge of a winch handle is changed into a large force at the axle. Winches can be used to haul heavy buckets of water up from wells. The drive wheels of an old-fashioned crankshaft. Wheels used for transportation are believed to have been used on carts in Mesopotamia as early as 3500 BC.Wheels and axles are also used to change the direction of applied force. The use of wheels to reduce friction while moving objects was one of the most important inventions in human civilization. Windmills and waterwheels (both forms of wheel and axle) were combined with gearing to make mills for bolts. because it made transportation much easier. This of a jigsaw blade or a sewing-machine needle. Most mechanical devices make some use of the wheel and axle. The back and forth motion (called reciprocating motion) of a piston in an engine can be changed into rotary motion by connecting the piston to the edge of a wheel. or move other large objects. It was invented about the same time as the wheel used in transportation. method is used to convert the rotary motion of an electric motor into the up-and-down motion IV HISTORY Wheels and axles have been used for centuries to magnify force. a special type of axle that provides the rotary motion to the wheels of a car. The wrench uses the principle of the wheel and axle to turn screws or tighten . which can be used with a rope to pull heavy objects with less effort.
The propeller is essentially a screw that. if there is no slippage. or thrust. Marine propellers are frequently termed screws. is called the geometric screw. when turned. The distance that the propeller actually moves through the air or water in one rotation . each of which is a section of a helix. A propeller.Propeller (mechanics) I INTRODUCTION Propeller (mechanics). mechanical device that produces a force. acts as a windmill when placed in a wind current. Propellers may operate in either air or water. The distance that a propeller or propeller blade will move forward when the pitch. mounted on a high-speed wheel geared to a generator. pulls itself through the air or water in the same way that a bolt pulls itself through a nut. gas or liquid. which is the geometric form of a screw thread. along the axis of rotation when rotated in a fluid. this corresponds to the pitch. except gliders. of a simple propeller shaft is given one complete rotation. and aircraft propellers are termed airscrews in Britain. Typical propellers consist of two. or the distance between adjacent threads. virtually all aircraft. inefficient in the other. three. Virtually all ships are equipped with propellers. or four blades. and until the although a propeller designed for efficient operation in one of these media would be extremely development of jet propulsion. were also propelled in the same way.
when all the blade elements and the number of blades are accounted for. creates lift and drag. and the peripheral velocity due to the rotation of the in recent years. the criterion of propeller efficiency is not slip. propellers are often operated at efficiencies as high as 86 percent. The forces created by the motion of the propeller are resolved into a component. . perpendicular and parallel to the air velocity relative to a section of the blade (see Aerodynamics. in general. or the turning force.is called the effective pitch. an efficient propeller slips little. In general. Another method of analysis of propeller action is based on the changes in blade. which. when driven through the air. thrust in the direction of the flight. This approach was originally used by the British engineer and naval architect William Froude but. The complete motion of a blade element involves a combination of the forward velocity represented by the flight speed. it is not as comprehensive as the blade-element theory. Airplane). but marine propellers II AIRCRAFT PROPELLERS An aircraft propeller blade is aerodynamically similar to a wing. but the ratio of propulsive energy produced to energy consumed in rotating the propeller shaft. and the difference between effective and geometric pitch is called slip. however. Aircraft operate at lower efficiencies. The other component in the plane of rotation represents the force that must be overcome by the torque. This simple concept of propeller action has been extensively refined by aerodynamicists momentum of the flow as it passes through the propeller disk. of the driving engine. and the effective pitch is almost equal to the geometric pitch.
The propellers are equipped with deicing equipment. with a severe corresponding drop in the blade's efficiency. and produces lift. The blades are usually built of copper alloys to resist corrosion. If. while at the same time the angle of the resultant velocity vector with the plane of rotation is also increased. Thus. III SHIP PROPELLERS A ship propeller operates in much the same way as the airplane propeller. that is. The rotor of an autogiro or helicopter is essentially similar to an ordinary aircraft propeller in The blades are not twisted. the angle between the velocity vector and the blade will become so large as to cause the blade to stall. the propeller would be in static balance. in which the blade can be rotated in the hub so as to alter the effective pitch. both statically and dynamically. a 57-g (2-oz) weight were attached to the middle of one blade of a two-bladed propeller. it would not rotate if the propeller shaft were placed on knife edges with the blades in any position. and because of the high frictional resistance of water. In order to adapt a given propeller to aircraft with different flight characteristics. The speed of sound in water is much higher than the speed in air. each shaped like an airfoil in cross section. although the have been achieved with experimental propellers. that it consists of several blades. This operation must be accomplished on the ground with the propeller removed from the aircraft. as the forward speed is decreased. however. A more effective procedure is to use a variable-pitch propeller with the pitch or blade angle controllable in flight so as to maintain operating conditions very close to the optimum. Although efficiencies as high as 77 percent of about 56 percent. their pitch may be varied. Controllable-pitch propellers direction. The capability of setting the blade in a negative pitch condition may also be included in Modern propeller blades are usually made either of solid aluminum alloy or of hollow steel. are usually capable of being feathered. most ship propellers operate at efficiencies . that is. like ordinary aircraft propeller blades. if the blade has a fixed pitch. however. it would not. adjustablepitch propellers are sometimes used. be in dynamic balance. On the other hand. the top speed never approaches the speed of sound. so as to prevent windmilling that could otherwise occur in the event of an engine the design so as to provide negative thrust and aerodynamic braking action in landing. the blade angle can be set parallel to the flight failure. and would vibrate if rotated at high speed. and a 28.For a given rotational speed. a condition will eventually be reached at which the blade will produce little or no thrust. The propeller must be very precisely balanced. but. each blade is very broad (from leading to trailing edge) and very thin. Propellers of this type are usually operated at a constant rotational speed by means of either a hydraulic or electrical governing mechanism. for example. the resultant velocity at a blade element increases in magnitude as the forward speed is increased.5-g (1-oz) weight were attached to the tip of the other blade. In the ship propeller. Clearance is also less of a problem on ship propellers.
blade. which leads to excessive slip.diameter and position of the propeller are limited by the loss in efficiency if the propeller blades come anywhere near the surface of the water. a serious disadvantage on submarines. loss of efficiency. The principal problem of ship-propeller design and operation is cavitation. It also causes . the formation of a vacuum along parts of the propeller excessive underwater noise. and pitting of the blades.
chemical.Machine Tools I INTRODUCTION Machine Tools. electrical. or drawing energy. employ a number of different shaping processes. and high-energy particle beams to shape the exotic materials and II HISTORY . especially metals. Conventional chip-making tools shape the workpiece by cutting away the unwanted portion in the form of chips. pressing. stationary power-driven machines used to shape or form solid materials. and unconventional machine tools. including shearing. and sonic alloys that have been developed to meet the needs of modern technology. Machine tools form the basis of modern industry and are used either directly or indirectly in the manufacture of machine and tool parts. Machine tools may be classified under three main categories: conventional chip-making machine tools. Unconventional machine tools employ light. The shaping is accomplished by removing material from a workpiece or by pressing it into the desired shape. superheated gases. presses. Presses (elongating).
S. grinders. During the 19th century. and their use became widespread in the industrializing nations. His work was of great value because precise methods of measurement were necessary for the subsequent mass production of articles having interchangeable parts. when the English inventor John Wilkinson constructed a horizontal boring machine for producing internal cylindrical surfaces. These specialized machine tools made it possible to manufacture rigid machine tools were built to utilize effectively the greatly improved cutting materials that standardized products very economically. government to produce 10. The machines lacked flexibility. all with interchangeable parts. As a result. measuring instruments accurate to a millionth of an inch. These efforts relied on the use of so-called filing jigs. Joseph Whitworth speeded the wider use of Wilkinson's and Maudslay's machine tools by developing. The first true mass- production system was created by the American inventor Eli Whitney. The earliest attempts to manufacture interchangeable parts occurred almost simultaneously in Europe and the United States. planers. became more specialized in their applications. who in 1798 obtained a contract with the U. now widely used. Later. using relatively unskilled labor. in 1830. such standard machine tools as lathes. After 1920 they and saws and milling. and they were not adaptable to a variety of products or to variations in manufacturing standards. drilling. From about 1930 to 1950 more powerful and had become available. About 1794 Henry Maudslay developed the first engine lathe. During the early part of the 20th century. and boring machines reached a fairly high degree of precision. making possible the economical manufacture of products of complex design.000 army muskets. with which parts could be hand-filed to substantially identical dimensions.Modern machine tools date from about 1775. machine tools were enlarged and made even more accurate. shapers. however. Such tools are III CONVENTIONAL MACHINE TOOLS . in the past three decades engineers have developed highly versatile and accurate machine tools that have been adapted to computer control.
the oldest and most common type of turning machine. valuable for tool and die because few identical pieces are being made. and various metal-forming machines. It is. the shaper is seldom found on a production line.Among the basic machine tools are the lathe. and then cuts on the next surface composed of straight-line elements. B Shaper The shaper is used primarily to produce flat surfaces. because it depends on reciprocating (alternating forward and return) strokes. With special attachments. The tool may be moved parallel to or across the direction of rotation to form parts that have a cylindrical or conical shape or to cut threads. as a milling machine does. the planer. however. a lathe may also be used to produce flat surfaces. the shaper. A Lathe A lathe. rooms and for job shops where flexibility is essential and relative slowness is unimportant . saws. The tool slides against the stationary stroke after a slight lateral displacement. returns to its starting position. grinders. holds and rotates metal or wood while a cutting tool shapes the material. For this reason. In general. the shaper can produce almost any workpiece and cuts on one stroke. or it may drill or bore holes in the workpiece. Auxiliary to these are drilling and boring machines. and the milling machine. It uses a single-point tool and is relatively slow.
horizontal. or by tapping . and machine tools. and recess cuts can be made by using various cutters. It is D Milling Machine In a milling machine. The workpiece is held on a table that controls the feed against the vertical. The table conventionally has three possible movements: longitudinal. Unlike the shaper. the planer is intended to produce vertical. E Drilling and Boring Machines Hole-making machine tools are used to drill a hole where none previously existed. the workpiece is advanced laterally to expose a new section to the tool. gear teeth. hole in accordance with some specification (by boring or reaming to enlarge it. to alter a to cut threads for a screw). a workpiece is fed against a circular device with a series of cutting edges on its circumference. horizontal. Flat or contoured surfaces may be machined with excellent finish and accuracy. Like the shaper. which moves a tool past a fixed workpiece. or diagonal cuts. After each reciprocating cycle. Milling machines are the most versatile of all Angles. or to lap or hone a hole to create an accurate size or a smooth finish. in some cases it can also rotate. cutter. slots.C Planer The planer is the largest of the reciprocating machine tools. the planer moves the workpiece past a fixed tool. also possible to mount several tools at one time in any or all tool holders of a planer to execute multiple simultaneous cuts.
Drilling machines vary in size and function, ranging from portable drills to radial drilling machines, multispindle units, automatic production machines, and deep-hole-drilling machines. See Drill.
Boring is a process that enlarges holes previously drilled, usually with a rotating single-point borers and vertical and horizontal boring mills.
cutter held on a boring bar and fed against a stationary workpiece. Boring machines include jig
Grinding is the removal of metal by a rotating abrasive wheel; the action is similar to that of a each grain acting as a miniature cutting tool. The process produces extremely smooth and accurate finishes. Because only a small amount of material is removed at each pass of the
milling cutter. The wheel is composed of many small grains of abrasive, bonded together, with
wheel, grinding machines require fine wheel regulation. The pressure of the wheel against the workpiece can be made very slight, so that grinding can be carried out on fragile materials that cannot be machined by other conventional devices. See Grinding and Polishing.
Commonly used power-driven saws are classified into three general types, according to the
kind of motion used in the cutting action: reciprocating, circular, and band-sawing machines.
They generally consist of a bed or frame, a vise for clamping the workpiece, a feed mechanism, and the saw blade.
Cutting Tools and Fluids
Because cutting processes involve high local stresses, frictions, and considerable heat
generation, cutting-tool material must combine strength, toughness, hardness, and wear
resistance at elevated temperatures. These requirements are met in varying degrees by such cutting-tool materials as carbon steels (steel containing 1 to 1.2 percent carbon), high-speed steels (iron alloys containing tungsten, chromium, vanadium, and carbon), tungsten carbide, and diamonds and by such recently developed materials as ceramic, carbide ceramic, and aluminum oxide.
In many cutting operations fluids are used to cool and lubricate. Cooling increases tool life and helps to stabilize the size of the finished part. Lubrication reduces friction, thus decreasing the heat generated and the power required for a given cut. Cutting fluids include water-based solutions, chemically inactive oils, and synthetic fluids.
Presses shape workpieces without cutting away material, that is, without making chips. A press consists of a frame supporting a stationary bed, a ram, a power source, and a mechanism that moves the ram in line with or at right angles to the bed. Presses are equipped with dies (see Die) and punches designed for such operations as forming, punching, and for only one stroke of the ram. shearing. Presses are capable of rapid production because the operation time is that needed
UNCONVENTIONAL MACHINE TOOLS
Unconventional machine tools include plasma-arc, laser-beam, electrodischarge,
electrochemical, ultrasonic, and electron-beam machines. These machine tools were
developed primarily to shape the ultrahard alloys used in heavy industry and in aerospace microprocessors.
applications and to shape and etch the ultrathin materials used in such electronic devices as
Plasma-arc machining (PAM) employs a high-velocity jet of high-temperature gas (see
Plasma) to melt and displace material in its path. The materials cut by PAM are generally those that are difficult to cut by any other means, such as stainless steels and aluminum alloys.
Laser-beam machining (LBM) is accomplished by precisely manipulating a beam of coherent light (see Laser) to vaporize unwanted material. LBM is particularly suited to making accurately placed holes. The LBM process can make holes in refractory metals and ceramics and in very thin materials without warping the workpiece. Extremely fine wires can also be welded using LBM equipment.
Electrodischarge machining (EDM), also known as spark erosion, employs electrical energy to remove metal from the workpiece without touching it. A pulsating high- frequency electric and vaporize small areas of the workpiece. Because no cutting forces are involved, light, delicate operations can be performed on thin workpieces. EDM can produce shapes unobtainable by any conventional machining process. current is applied between the tool point and the workpiece, causing sparks to jump the gap
Electrochemical machining (ECM) also uses electrical energy to remove material. An
electrolytic cell is created in an electrolyte medium, with the tool as the cathode and the
workpiece as the anode. A high-amperage, low-voltage current is used to dissolve the metal
and to remove it from the workpiece, which must be electrically conductive. A wide variety of and milling.
operations can be performed by ECM; these operations include etching, marking, hole making,
Ultrasonic machining (USM) employs high-frequency, low-amplitude vibrations to create holes and other cavities. A relatively soft tool is shaped as desired and vibrated against the workpiece while a mixture of fine abrasive and water flows between them. The friction of the abrasive particles gradually cuts the workpiece. Materials such as hardened steel, carbides, rubies, quartz, diamonds, and glass can easily be machined by USM.
In electron-beam machining (EBM), electrons are accelerated to a velocity nearly three-fourths that of light. The process is performed in a vacuum chamber to reduce the scattering of electrons by gas molecules in the atmosphere. The stream of electrons is directed against a precisely limited area of the workpiece; on impact, the kinetic energy of the electrons is converted into thermal energy that melts and vaporizes the material to be removed, forming holes or cuts. EBM equipment is commonly used by the electronics industry to aid in the etching of circuits in microprocessors. See Microprocessor.
Microprocessor, electronic circuit that functions as the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer, providing computational control. Microprocessors are also used in other advanced electronic systems, such as computer printers, automobiles, and jet airliners.
Hand-Held Computer The hand-held computer attests to the remarkable miniaturization of computing hardware. The early computers of the 1940s were so large that they filled entire rooms. Techonological innovations, such as the integrated circuit in 1959 and the microprocessor in 1971, shrank computers’ central processing units to the size of tiny silicon chips.Photo Researchers, Inc. The microprocessor is one type of ultra-large-scale integrated circuit. Integrated circuits, also known as microchips or chips, are complex electronic circuits consisting of extremely tiny components formed on a single, thin, flat piece of material known as a semiconductor. Modern microprocessors incorporate transistors (which act as electronic amplifiers, oscillators, or, most commonly, switches), in addition to other components such as resistors, diodes, capacitors, and wires, all packed into an area about the size of a postage stamp.
Microprocessor Microprocessors, also called silicon chips, are typically embedded in a protective casing. The wires radiating from the silicon chip above connect to short metal legs that are soldered into integrated circuit boards.The Image Bank/Jean-Pierre Horlin A microprocessor consists of several different sections: The arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) performs calculations on numbers and makes logical decisions; the registers are special memory locations for storing temporary information much as a scratch pad does; the control unit deciphers programs; buses carry digital information throughout the chip and computer; and local memory supports on-chip computation. More complex microprocessors often contain other sections—such as sections of specialized memory, called cache memory, to speed up access to external data-storage devices. Modern microprocessors operate with bus widths of 64 bits (binary digits, or units of information represented as 1s and 0s), meaning that 64 bits of data can be transferred at the same time. A crystal oscillator in the computer provides a clock signal to coordinate all activities of the microprocessor. The clock speed of the most advanced microprocessors allows billions of computer instructions to be executed every second. II COMPUTER MEMORY Because the microprocessor alone cannot accommodate the large amount of memory required to store program instructions and data, such as the text in a word-processing program, transistors can be used as memory elements in combination with the microprocessor. Separate integrated circuits, called random-access memory (RAM) chips, which contain large numbers of transistors, are used in conjunction with the microprocessor to provide the needed memory. There are different kinds of randomaccess memory. Static RAM (SRAM) holds information as long as power is turned on
and is usually used as cache memory because it operates very quickly. Another type of memory, dynamic RAM (DRAM), is slower than SRAM and must be periodically refreshed with electricity or the information it holds is lost. DRAM is more economical than SRAM and serves as the main memory element in most computers. III MICROCONTROLLER A microprocessor is not a complete computer. It does not contain large amounts of memory or have the ability to communicate with input devices—such as keyboards, joysticks, and mice—or with output devices, such as monitors and printers. A different kind of integrated circuit, a microcontroller, is a complete computer on a chip, containing all of the elements of the basic microprocessor along with other specialized functions. Microcontrollers are used in video games, videocassette recorders (VCRs), automobiles, and other machines. IV SEMICONDUCTORS sidebar SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES Manufacturing an Integrated Circuit Beginning in the late 20th century, integrated circuits based on silicon chips shrank rapidly in price and size while expanding in capacity. These advances in chip technology contributed to a boom in the computer industry. The creation of a single silicon chip requires hundreds of manufacturing steps. In this Scientific American article, Intel Corporation president and chief operating officer Craig R. Barrett describes the chip manufacturing process from design through completion. open sidebar All integrated circuits are fabricated from semiconductors, substances whose ability to conduct electricity ranks between that of a conductor and that of a nonconductor, or insulator. Silicon is the most common semiconductor material. Because the electrical conductivity of a semiconductor can change according to the voltage applied to it, transistors made from semiconductors act like tiny switches that turn electrical current on and off in just a few nanoseconds (billionths of a second). This capability enables a computer to perform many billions of simple instructions each second and to complete complex tasks quickly. The basic building block of most semiconductor devices is the diode, a junction, or union, of negative-type (n-type) and positive-type (p-type) materials. The terms n-type and p-type refer to semiconducting materials that have been doped—that is, have had their electrical properties altered by the controlled addition of very small quantities of impurities such as boron or phosphorus. In a diode, current flows in only one direction: across the junction from the p- to n-type material, and then only when the p-type material is at a higher voltage than the n-type. The voltage applied to the diode to create this condition is called the forward bias. The opposite voltage, for which current will not flow, is called the reverse bias. An integrated circuit contains millions of p-n junctions,
each serving a specific purpose within the millions of electronic circuit elements. Proper placement and biasing of p- and n-type regions restrict the electrical current to the correct paths and ensure the proper operation of the entire chip. V TRANSISTORS The transistor used most commonly in the microelectronics industry is called a metaloxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). It contains two n-type regions, called the source and the drain, with a p-type region in between them, called the channel. Over the channel is a thin layer of nonconductive silicon dioxide topped by another layer, called the gate. For electrons to flow from the source to the drain, a voltage (forward bias) must be applied to the gate. This causes the gate to act like a control switch, turning the MOSFET on and off and creating a logic gate that transmits digital 1s and 0s throughout the microprocessor. VI CONSTRUCTION OF MICROPROCESSORS Microprocessors are fabricated using techniques similar to those used for other integrated circuits, such as memory chips. Microprocessors generally have a more complex structure than do other chips, and their manufacture requires extremely precise techniques.
Economical manufacturing of microprocessors requires mass production. Several hundred dies, or circuit patterns, are created on the surface of a silicon wafer simultaneously. Microprocessors are constructed by a process of deposition and removal of conducting, insulating, and semiconducting materials one thin layer at a time until, after hundreds of separate steps, a complex sandwich is constructed that contains all the interconnected circuitry of the microprocessor. Only the outer surface of the silicon
ion implantation. changes when exposed to light. in a process known as wet etching. is placed between each conductive layer on the wafer.01 mm/0. A coating on the surface of the wafer.wafer—a layer about 10 microns (about 0. or by means of chemical-vapor deposition. Usually this is done in a process known as photolithography.5 microns. The rooms used for microprocessor creation are called clean rooms because the air in them is extremely well filtered and virtually free of dust. indicating that there is no more than one speck of dust per cubic foot of air. The oxygen combines with the silicon to form a thin layer of oxide about 75 angstroms deep (an angstrom is one ten-billionth of a meter). or about one-tenth the thickness of a human hair—is used for the electronic circuit. whereby the material condenses from a gas at low or atmospheric pressure. The most important type of dielectric is silicon dioxide. The ions become embedded in the surface of the wafer. the resist is removed from the wafer either by chemicals. which is analogous to transforming the wafer into a piece of photographic film and projecting a picture of the circuit on it. the largest wafers used in industry are 300 mm (12 in) in diameter. or by exposure to a corrosive gas. Because the shortest wavelength of visible light is about 0. In the next step of the process. After photolithography. an electrically nonconducting layer. oxidation. Nearly every layer that is deposited on the wafer must be patterned accurately into the shape of the transistors and other electronic elements. At present. lithography. In each case. The purest of today's clean rooms are referred to as class 1. Microprocessor features are so small and precise that a single speck of dust can destroy an entire die. impurities such as boron and phosphorus are introduced into the silicon to alter its conductivity. short-wavelength ultraviolet light must be used to resolve the tiny details of the patterns. the wafer is etched—that is. The first step in producing a microprocessor is the creation of an ultrapure silicon substrate. the film must be of high purity and its thickness must be controlled within a small fraction of a micron. called a dielectric.) . The processing steps include substrate creation. called the photoresist or resist. In the oxidation step. in a special vacuum chamber. which is “grown” by exposing the silicon wafer to oxygen in a furnace at about 1000°C (about 1800°F). and film deposition. a typical home is class one million or so. The thin layers used to build up a microprocessor are referred to as films.13 microns in size.0004 in) thick. etching. the films are deposited using sputterers in which thin films are grown in a plasma. a silicon slice in the shape of a round wafer that is polished to a mirror-like smoothness. also called doping. This is accomplished by ionizing the boron or phosphorus atoms (stripping off one or two electrons) and propelling them at the wafer with an ion implanter at very high energies. called a plasma. making it easy to dissolve in a developing solution. (For comparison. These patterns are as small as 0. ion implantation. whereby the material is melted and then evaporated coating the wafer. In the final step of the process. by means of evaporation.
4 million transistors. or icons with a pointing device known as a mouse. and the Digital Equipment Corporation's Alpha 21164A. containing 5. 8080).500 transistors and could execute 200.000 instructions per second. developed jointly by Apple. and it manages hardware errors and the loss of data. it contained 2.© Microsoft Corporation. the UltraSparc-II. and revolutionary for its time.000 operations per second. digital video disc. and Motorola./Michael W. the basic software that controls a computer. transferred 64 bits of data at once. Operating System (OS). further reading These sources provide additional information on Microprocessor. produced in 1971. In 1965 Moore predicted that the number of transistors on a computer chip would double every year. All Rights Reserved. The operating system has three major functions: It coordinates and manipulates computer hardware.3 million transistors. disks. hard drive.VII HISTORY OF THE MICROPROCESSOR Pentium Microprocessor The Pentium microprocessor (shown at 2. developed in 1974. in computer science. containing 7 million transistors. such as computer memory. and performed billions of instructions per second. The rate of change followed an early prediction made by American semiconductor pioneer Gordon Moore. and tape. compact disc. In the mid-1990s chips included the Intel Pentium Pro. a prediction that has come to be known as Moore’s Law. by Sun Microsystems. which contained 4. a computer user can easily execute commands by clicking on pictures.5 million transistors. developed in 1972 to run computer terminals. By 1989. 32-bit microprocessors containing 1. was the 8-bit Intel 8080 (see Microprocessor. although nearly all computer chips are made from silicon. the PowerPC620. II HOW AN OS WORKS . keyboard.2 million transistors and capable of executing 20 million instructions per second had been introduced. words. In the 1990s the number of transistors on microprocessors continued to double nearly every 18 months. and monitor. The first truly general-purpose microprocessor. The first 8-bit microprocessor was the Intel 8008. Davidson The first microprocessor was the Intel 4004. An Operating System Interface A screen shot from the Windows XP operating system displays icons and other images typical of the graphical user interface (GUI) that makes computers easy to use.300 transistors on a 4-bit microprocessor that could perform only 60. Inc. Originally developed for a calculator.5X magnification) is manufactured by the Intel Corporation. The Intel 8008 contained 3. such as floppy disk. printers. The most common semiconductor materials used in making computer chips are the elements silicon and germanium. With a GUI. It contains more than three million transistors.Photo Researchers. mouse. IBM.300 transistors. it organizes files on a variety of storage media. By the end of the decade microprocessors contained many millions of transistors. containing 5. containing 9.
UNIX. so a multitasking OS creates the illusion of several processes running simultaneously on the CPU. The processes appear to run simultaneously because the user's sense of time is much slower than the processing speed of the computer. The more primitive singletasking operating systems can run only one process at a time. an on-screen picture that represents a specific command. but many experienced computer users prefer text-oriented command interpreters. All modern operating systems are multitasking and can run several processes simultaneously. Operating systems are either single-tasking or multitasking. For instance. The OS performs the “bookkeeping” that preserves a suspended process. is a popular operating system among academic computer users.). called a scheduler. The most common mechanism used to create this illusion is time-slice multitasking. UNIX and its clones support multitasking and multiple users. it cannot start another process or respond to new commands until the printing is completed. Inc. however. so performance of the computer slows. it is suspended and another process is run. This exchanging of processes is called context switching. Operating systems can use a technique known as virtual memory to run processes that require more main memory than is actually available. If the process is not completed within the allotted time. space on the hard drive is used to mimic the extra memory needed. Inc. however. that determines which process will be run next. enabling the user to communicate with the computer. Software for the Internet was initially designed for computers that ran UNIX. when the computer is printing a document. The scheduler runs short processes quickly to minimize perceptible delay. One important process is interpreting commands. Some command interpreters are text oriented. In most computers. To implement this technique. requiring commands to be typed in or to be selected via function keys on a keyboard. developed in 1969 at AT&T Bell Laboratories. Its popularity is due in large part to the growth of the interconnected computer network known as the Internet.Operating systems control different computer processes. III CURRENT OPERATING SYSTEMS Operating systems commonly found on personal computers include UNIX. the computational and control unit of the computer). Xenix (distributed by Microsoft Corporation). Macintosh OS. whereby each process is run individually for a fixed period of time. and Windows. there is only one central processing unit (CPU. Variations of UNIX include SunOS (distributed by SUN Microsystems. Other command interpreters use graphics and let the user communicate by pointing and clicking on an icon. and Linux (available for download free of charge and distributed commercially by companies such as Red Hat.). such as running a spreadsheet program or accessing information from the computer's memory. It also has a mechanism. Accessing the hard drive is more time-consuming than accessing main memory. Its file system provides a simple means of organizing . Beginners generally find graphically oriented interpreters easier to use.
However. however. software has been developed that can be taught to recognize an individual's handwriting. In a distributed OS. it is not the operating system of choice for the general public. more memory. and recovering data in the event of a partial failure— become more complex in distributed systems. which make computer technology more accessible. collection of computers that share resources such as hard drives. . A recently developed type of OS called a distributed operating system is designed for a connected. but independent. and higher-quality monitors—than do command-oriented operating systems. advances in this field have led to systems that can recognize a small number of words spoken by a variety of people. such as Windows and the Macintosh OS. Research is also being conducted that would replace the keyboard with a means of using voice or handwriting for input. graphical systems generally have the disadvantage of requiring more hardware—such as faster CPUs. making it difficult for a computer to recognize the same input from different users. The commands in UNIX are not readily apparent. although UNIX is popular for professionals. In addition. ensuring reasonable behavior. Consequently. However. Currently these types of input are imprecise because people pronounce and write words very differently. IV FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES Operating systems continue to evolve. are widely used in personal computers (PCs). All basic OS functions—such as maintaining file systems. Instead. windowing systems with graphical interfaces. and mastering the system is difficult.disk files and lets users control access to their files. a process can run on any computer in the network (presumably a computer that is idle) to increase that process's performance.
often with an admixture of other elements. A malleable iron. is used in the manufacture of iron and steel alloys. containing virtually no carbon. Steels of various types contain from 0. Open-hearth iron and wrought iron contain only a few hundredths of 1 percent of carbon. II HISTORY . technology related to the production of iron and its alloys. Cast iron. The differences between the various types of iron and steel are sometimes confusing because of the nomenclature used. such as manganese. particularly those containing a small percentage of carbon. or chromium. special form of malleable iron.Iron and Steel Manufacture I INTRODUCTION Iron and Steel Manufacture.25 percent of carbon. silicon. known as ferroalloys. is known as white-heart Some alloys that are commercially called irons contain more carbon than commercial steels.04 percent to 2. and pig iron contain amounts of carbon varying from 2 to 4 percent. A special group of iron alloys. Steel in general is an alloy of iron and carbon. they contain from 20 to 80 percent of an alloying element. malleable cast iron.
by accident. the iron ore in the upper part of the furnace was first it by the blast. Occasionally this technique of ironmaking produced. all the iron alloys made until about the 14th century mass of iron ore and charcoal in a forge or furnace having a forced draft. Pig iron (so called because it was usually cast in Modern steelmaking employs blast furnaces that are merely refinements of the furnaces used by the British inventor Sir Henry Bessemer who developed the Bessemer furnace. This sponge of iron was removed from the furnace while still AD. The giant steel mills remain essential for the production of steel from iron III PIG-IRON PRODUCTION . or by the old ironworkers. The process of refining molten iron with blasts of air was accomplished converter. round ingots known as pigs) was then further refined to make steel. an alloy that melts at a lower stubby. Since the 1960s. in 1855. Such mills are an important component of total U. Ironworkers learned to make process the iron absorbed enough carbon to become a true steel.S. In these larger furnaces. BC. several so-called minimills have been producing steel from scrap metal in electric furnaces. the comparatively The alloys produced by early iron workers. would be classified today as wrought iron. By this After the 14th century the furnaces used in smelting were increased in size. steel by heating wrought iron and charcoal in clay boxes for a period of several days. steel production. They were made by heating a incandescent and beaten with heavy sledges to drive out the slag and to weld and consolidate the iron. and increased draft was used to force the combustion gases through the “charge.The exact date at which people discovered the technique of smelting iron ore to produce date from about 3000 about 1000 BC. and. The product of these furnaces was pig iron. usable metal is not known. The earliest iron implements discovered by archaeologists in Egypt advanced technique of hardening iron weapons by heat treatment was known to the Greeks and iron ornaments were used even earlier. The iron produced under these conditions usually contained about 3 percent of slag particles and 0. reduced to metallic iron and then took on more carbon as a result of the gases forced through temperature than steel or wrought iron.” the mixture of raw materials. Under this treatment the ore was reduced to the sponge of metallic iron filled with a slag composed of metallic impurities and charcoal ash. ore.1 percent of other impurities. indeed. a true steel rather than wrought iron.
is nonmetallic substance such as firebrick. iron silicate would be formed. which is about 27 m (about 90 ft) in height. which is any is widest at a point about one-quarter of the distance from the bottom. and above this hole. it has the equation: Fe2O3 + 3CO = 3CO2 + silicate.5 A typical blast furnace consists of a cylindrical steel shell lined with a refractory. reducing them to metallic iron. is equipped with several tubular openings or tuyeres through pig iron flows when the furnace is tapped. phosphorus. Calcium silicate plus other impurities form a slag that floats on top of the molten metal at about 92 percent. Ordinary pig iron as produced by blast furnaces contains iron. brought up to the hoppers in small dump cars or skips that are hauled up an inclined external . Without the limestone. 0. 3 or 4 percent. with a resulting loss of metallic the bottom of the furnace.5 to 3 percent. manganese. percent. silicon. as it burns. contains vents for the escaping gases. coke. and a trace of sulfur. 0. 0. called the bosh. The top of the furnace.04 to 2 percent. The shell is tapered at the top and at the bottom and which the air blast is forced. and a pair of round hoppers closed with bellshaped valves through which the charge is introduced into the furnace. but below the tuyeres. which combines with the iron oxides in the ore. iron.25 to 2.The basic materials used for the manufacture of pig iron are iron ore. The limestone in the furnace charge is used as an additional source of carbon monoxide and as a “flux” to combine with the infusible silica present in the ore to form fusible calcium is the basic chemical reaction in the blast furnace. The coke is burned as a fuel to heat the furnace. and limestone. the coke gives off carbon monoxide. Near the bottom of the bosh is a hole through which the molten another hole for draining the slag. carbon. The materials are skip hoist. The lower portion of the furnace. This 2Fe.
The molten metal from several IV OTHER METHODS OF IRON REFINING Although almost all the iron and steel manufactured in the world is made from pig iron produced by the blast-furnace process. Slag is drawn off from the top of the melt about once every 2 hr. One such method is the so-called direct method of making iron and steel from ore. and the iron itself is drawn The air used to supply the blast in a blast furnace is preheated to temperatures between approximately 540° and 870° C (approximately 1. brick-lined metal container. have also shown that the output of blast furnaces can be increased by enriching the air blast The process of tapping consists of knocking out a clay plug from the iron hole near the bottom of the bosh and allowing the molten metal to flow into a clay-lined runner and then into a as much as 100 tons of metal. The pressurizing technique makes possible better combustion of the coke and higher output of pig iron. In such blast furnaces may be mixed in a large ladle before it is converted to steel. the pressure within the furnace may be built up to 1. off or tapped about five times a day. In this process iron ore and coke are mixed in a revolving kiln and heated to a temperature of about 950° C (about 1.000° and 1. Carbon monoxide is given off from the heated coke just as in the blast furnace and reduces the oxides . plants the molten pig iron is used to charge the steel furnaces. was introduced after World War II. By “throttling” the flow of gas from the furnace vents. weight of air used in the operation of a blast furnace exceeds the total weight of the other raw An important development in blast furnace technology. the pressurizing of furnaces.740° F). to minimize any irregularities in the composition of the individual melts. Then the flame is turned off and the air for the blast is blown through the stove.600° F). The heating is performed in stoves. The raw material to be fed into the furnace is divided into a number of small charges that are introduced into the furnace at 10.7 atm or more.Blast furnaces operate continuously. which may be either a ladle or a rail car capable of holding Modern-day blast furnaces are operated in conjunction with basic oxygen furnaces and sometimes the older open-hearth furnaces as part of a single steel-producing plant. Experimental installations with oxygen. Any slag that may flow from the furnace with the metal is skimmed off before it reaches the container. other methods of iron refining are possible and have been practiced to a limited extent. The output of many blast furnaces can be increased 25 percent by pressurizing.to 15-min intervals. The bricks in the stoves are heated for several hours by burning blast-furnace gas. The container of molten pig iron is then transported to the steelmaking shop. The materials employed. cylinders containing networks of firebrick. large. the waste gases from the top of the furnace. without making pig iron.
One difficulty in the manufacture of developed. do not occur. which is roofed over at a height of about 2. by passing an electric current through a solution of ferrous chloride. Neither the direct nor the electrolytic processes has yet achieved any great commercial significance. about 1. and the kiln produces so-called sponge iron of much higher purity than pig iron. Virtually pure iron is also produced by means of electrolysis (see Electrochemistry).370° C (about 2. this furnace can be operated at a high temperature by regenerative preheating of the fuel gas and air used for combustion in the furnace. Through this method open-hearth furnaces can reach temperatures as high as 1. however. furnace is reversed and the fuel and air pass through the heated chambers and are warmed by The furnace itself consists typically of a flat.5 m (about 8 ft). To overcome this difficulty the open-hearth furnace was excess carbon and other impurities present in the iron. rectangular brick hearth about 6 m by 10 m (about 20 ft by 33 ft). The entire . the exhaust gases from the furnace are drawn through one of a series of chambers containing a mass of brickwork and give up most of their heat to the bricks. which prevents the use of ordinary fuels and furnaces. Then the flow through the the bricks. In regenerative preheating.000° F). V OPEN-HEARTH PROCESS Essentially the production of steel from pig iron by any process consists of burning out the steel is its high melting point.of the ore to metallic iron.650° C (approximately 3.500° F). The secondary reactions that occur in a blast furnace. In front of the hearth a series of doors opens out onto a working floor in front of the hearth.
the furnace is tapped through a hole at the rear. The water-cooled tip of the lance is usually about 2 m (about 6 ft) above the charge although this distance can be varied according to requirements. These reactions take place while the metal in the furnace is at melting heat. the reversed by the operator to provide heat regeneration.540° and 1.000 lb) of limestone. and 230 kg (500 lb) of fluorspar.000° F) for many hours until the molten metal has the desired carbon content. These ingots. From the ladle the steel is poured into cast-iron molds that form ingots usually about 1. charging and pouring. 45.hearth and working floor are one story above ground level. scrap steel. A furnace of this size produces about 100 metric tons of steel every 11 hr.000 furnace is lighted and the flames play back and forth over the hearth as their direction is Chemically the action of the open-hearth furnace consists of lowering the carbon content of the charge by oxidization and of removing such impurities as silicon. that could be tilted sideways for united chemically with the impurities and carried them off. After the furnace has been charged. 11. made use of a tall.800° and 3. Thousands of cubic meters of oxygen are blown into the furnace at supersonic speed. and the space under the hearth is taken up by the heat-regenerating chambers of the furnace. The proportions of the charge vary within wide limits. pear-shaped furnace.25 metric tons in this size. When by its appearance. 11.000 lb) of cold pig iron. The oxygen combines with . which combine with the limestone to form slag. weigh approximately 2. the raw material for all forms of fabricated steel.750 kg (125. cooling it.400 kg (100. methods have been put into practice for the continuous processing of steel without VI BASIC OXYGEN PROCESS The oldest process for making steel in large quantities. The furnace is charged with a mixture of pig iron (either molten or cold). phosphorus.000 lb) of scrap steel.650° C (2. an oxygen lance is for charging and pouring. first having to go through the process of casting ingots. Great quantities of air were blown through the molten metal. Recently. Limestone is added for flux and fluorspar to make the slag more fluid. and the furnace is held between 1. the Bessemer process. Air. and iron ore that provides additional oxygen. lb) of iron ore. After the furnace has been charged and turned upright. manganese. its oxygen In the basic oxygen process.350 kg (25. steel is also refined in a pear-shaped furnace that tilts sideways pure oxygen. 900 kg (2.800 kg (26. has been replaced by a high-pressure stream of nearly lowered into it.000 lb) of molten pig iron.5 m (about 5 ft) long and 48 cm (19 in) square. and sulfur. The molten steel then flows through a short trough to a large ladle set below the furnace at ground level. called a Bessemer converter. Experienced open-hearth operators can often judge the carbon content of the metal the furnace. and subjecting it to physical examination or chemical analysis. but the melt is usually tested by withdrawing a small amount of metal from the carbon content of the melt reaches the desired level. however. but a typical charge might consist of 56.
The additional alloying refined metal. tees. rapidly burns out impurities from the pig iron and converts it into steel. later. electric furnaces are particularly valuable for producing stainless steels and other highly alloyed steels that must be made to exacting specifications. Because refining conditions in such a furnace can be regulated more strictly than in open-hearth or basic oxygen furnaces. The working of steel also improves the quality of the steel by refining its crystalline structure and making the metal tougher. flows through the resistance to the flow of current through the charge. are added in elements go either into the charge or. Most often the charge consists almost entirely of scrap. the scrap must first be analyzed and sorted. because its alloy content will affect the composition of the order to help remove carbon and other impurities that are present. electrodes are lowered close to the surface of the metal. This heat. See Electric Furnace. and then arcs back to the next electrode. raising the temperature of the furnace and decreasing the time needed to produce the finished steel. where temperatures and other conditions are kept under rigid control by automatic devices. VIII FINISHING PROCESSES Steel is marketed in a wide variety of sizes and shapes. . During the early stages of this refining process. high-purity oxygen is injected through a lance. and I-beams. The quantity of oxygen entering the furnace can always be closely controlled. After the furnace is charged. The metal. into the refined steel as it is poured into the ladle. heat is generated in a coil. pipes. channels. approximately 275 metric tons of steel can be made in an hour. Other materials. thus keeping down undesirable oxidizing reactions. quickly melts the metal. electricity instead of fire supplies the heat for the melting and refining of steel. The refining process VII ELECTRIC-FURNACE STEEL In some furnaces. These shapes are produced at steel mills by rolling and otherwise forming heated ingots to the required shape. such as rods. Before it is ready to be used. arcs to the metallic charge. Heat is generated by the overcoming of current enters through one of the electrodes. Refining takes place in a tightly closed chamber. railroad rails. In another type of electric furnace.carbon and other unwanted elements and starts a high-temperature churning reaction that takes 50 min or less. such as small quantities of iron ore and dry lime. together with that coming from the intensely hot arc itself.
The distance between the rollers diminishes for each successive pair as the steel is elongated and reduced in thickness. The rollers of mills used to produce railroad rails and such structural shapes as I-beams. From the blooming mill. and the square billets of steel that the ingot produces are known as blooms. and angles are grooved to give the required shape. heated to bright-red heat in a furnace called a soaking pit and is then passed between a series The first pair of rollers through which the ingot passes is commonly called the blooming mill. In hot rolling the cast ingot is first of pairs of metal rollers that squeeze it to the desired size and shape.The basic process of working steel is known as hot rolling. H-beams. . the steel is passed on to roughing mills and finally to finishing mills that reduce it to the correct cross section.
In electrolytic processing. descaling devices. A slab of hot steel over 11 cm (about 4. Sheet steel is kilogram of tin will coat more than 18. IX PIPE Cheaper grades of pipe are shaped by bending a flat strip. The edging rollers are sets of vertical rolls set opposite each other at either side of the sheet to ensure that the width of the sheet is maintained. less than half a molten tin. In some mills steel sheets that have been hot-rolled and then cold-rolled are coated by passing them through a bath of slowly unrolled from its coil and passed through a chemical solution. The most common method of coating is by the electrolytic process. Such mills process thin sheet steel rapidly. of hot steel into cylindrical form and welding the edges to complete the pipe. Continuous mills roll steel strips and sheets in widths of up to 2. In 1989. Continuous mills are equipped fed through a series of rollers which reduce it progressively in thickness to 0. The pressure on the rollers is great enough to weld the edges together. or skelp. loosening it by means of an air blast.210 ft).5 in) thick is and increase its length from 4 m (13 ft) to 370 m (1. before it cools and becomes unworkable. Meanwhile.6 sq m (more than 200 sq ft) of steel. Using conventional thin enough to enter a continuous mill. pair of inclined rollers that have a pointed metal bar.05 in) with a number of accessory devices including edging rollers. For the smaller sizes of pipe. The “tin” can is actually more than 99 percent steel. set between them in such a X TIN PLATE By far the most important coated product of the steel mill is tin plate for the manufacture of containers. For the product . a current of electricity is passing through a piece of pure tin into the same solution. Seamless pipe or tubing is made from solid rods by passing them between a way that it pierces the rods and forms the inside diameter of the pipe at the same time that the rollers are forming the outside diameter. casting methods. a steel mill in Indiana became the first outside Europe to adopt this new system. the edges of the skelp are usually overlapped and passed between a pair of rollers curved to correspond with the outside diameter of the pipe. ingots must still be passed through a blooming mill in order to produce slabs By devising a continuous casting system that produces an endless steel slab less than 5 cm (2 in) thick.Modern manufacturing requires a large amount of thin sheet steel.127 cm (0.4 m (8 ft). The completed coils of sheet are dropped on a the sheet by knocking it off mechanically. German engineers have eliminated any need for blooming and roughing mills. A more efficient way to produce thin sheet steel is to feed thinner slabs through the rollers. or bending the conveyor and carried away to be annealed and cut into individual sheets. Descaling apparatus removes the scale that forms on the surface of sheet sharply at some point in its travel. or mandrel. and devices for coiling the sheet automatically when it reaches the end of the mill. causing the tin to dissolve slowly and to be deposited on the steel.
As the gas is evolved the slag puffs up and the level of the charge rises. and has become moderately heated. strikes the arched roof. and finally the bath drops to its former level. replaced in nearly all applications by low-carbon steel.known as thin tin. . The furnace is then min the iron is melted and the puddler adds more iron oxide or mill scale to the charge. usually hematite ore. and drawing the steel through dies (see Die). After the furnace is lit the hearth and walls with a paste of iron oxide. a treatment that makes the steel plate extra tough as well as extra thin. however. or furnace operator. of about 80 to 90 kg (about 180 to 200 lb) each. Because this process. founding. yet they contain less steel. The resulting pasty. After about 30 working the oxide into the iron with a bent iron bar called a raddle. production of wrought iron in tonnage quantities was impossible. required a great deal of Wrought iron is no longer produced commercially. and the carbon starts to burn out as carbonoxide gases. other forms of steel making. with a resultant saving in weight and cost. “fettles” it by plastering charged with about 270 kg (about 600 lb) of pig iron and the door is closed. Lightweight packaging containers are also being made of tin-plated steel foil that has been laminated to paper or cardboard. and “reverberates” upon the contents of the hearth. The iron is then cut into flat pieces that are piled on one another. a machine in which the greater part of the intermingled siliceous slag is expelled from the ball and the grains of pure iron are thoroughly welded together. sheet and strip are given a second cold rolling before being coated with tin. As the iron increases in carbon is burned away the melting temperature of the alloy increases and the charge becomes purity. because it can be effectively is typically of more uniform quality than wrought iron. the puddler. Cans made of thin tin are about as strong as ordinary tin cans. The silicon and most of the manganese in the iron are oxidized and some sulfur and phosphorus are eliminated. XI WROUGHT IRON The process of making the tough. The development of new processes using Bessemer converters and open-hearth furnaces allowed the production of larger quantities of wrought iron. spongelike mass is separated into lumps. malleable alloy known as wrought iron differs markedly from hand labor. separated by a wall from the combustion chamber in which bituminous coal is burned. the puddler stirs the charge with the raddle to ensure uniform composition and proper balls. arched roof and a depressed hearth on which the crude metal lies. As the more and more pasty. The temperature of the furnace is then raised slightly. known as puddling. The flame in the combustion chamber surmounts the wall. The balls are withdrawn from the cohesion of the particles. Other processes of steel fabrication include forging. called furnace with tongs and are placed directly in a squeezer. which is less expensive to produce and The puddling furnace used in the older process has a low.
roller skates. Machines. it is less . XII A CLASSIFICATIONS OF STEEL Steels are grouped into five main classifications. C High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels Called HSLA steels. Automobile gears and axles. which is usually prepared by melting iron ore. molybdenum. bobby pins are among the products made of carbon steels. and sand in an open-hearth furnace. the metal solidifies almost instantly. They have been specially processed. They cost less than the regular alloy steels because they contain only small amounts of the expensive alloying elements.60 percent silicon. The molten slag is maintained in a ladle at a temperature several hundred degrees below the temperature of the molten iron. agglomerating into a spongy mass similar to the balls produced in a puddling furnace. This rolling process is sometimes repeated to improve the quality of the product. releasing the dissolved gas. also. which carries a large amount of gas in solution. to have much more strength than carbon steels of the same weight. ship hulls. and carving knives are some of the many things that are made of alloy steels. however.60 percent copper.heated to welding temperature. or other elements. freight cars made of HSLA steels can carry larger loads because their walls are thinner than would be necessary with carbon steel of equal strength. After the slag has been poured off the top of the ladle. bedsprings. The modern technique of making wrought iron uses molten iron from a Bessemer converter and molten slag. Carbon Steels More than 90 percent of all steels are carbon steels. because an HSLA freight car is lighter in weight than the ordinary car.65 percent manganese. as well as larger amounts of manganese. mill scale. They contain varying amounts of carbon and not more than 1. 0. When the molten iron. The force exerted by the gas shatters the metal into minute particles that are heavier than the slag and that accumulate in the bottom of the ladle. and 0. and copper than do the regular carbon steels. silicon. For example. is poured into the ladle containing the molten slag. and B Alloy Steels These steels have a specified composition. they are the newest of the five chief families of steels. most structural steel for buildings. and then rolled into a single piece. the ball of iron is removed and squeezed and rolled like the product of the puddling furnace. automobile bodies. containing certain percentages of vanadium.
8 percent of carbon. nickel. molybdenum. and physical characteristics intermediate between its two constituents. Some stainless steels are very hard. If the steel is . it is entirely composed of pearlite. Because of their shining surfaces architects often use them for decorative purposes. is extremely brittle and hard. some have unusual strength and will retain that strength for long periods at extremely high and low temperatures. and they are also used to patch or replace broken bones because the steels can withstand the action of body fluids. and D Stainless Steels Stainless steels contain chromium. They contain tungsten. and for space capsules. Cementite. resistance to wear. the which has the property of dissolving all the free carbon present in the metal. hardness. cooled slowly the austenite reverts to ferrite and pearlite. frameworks of HSLA steels. Before heat treatment most steels are a mixture of three substances: ferrite. Girders can be made thinner without sacrificing their strength. Steel with still more carbon is a mixture of pearlite and cementite. and cementite. Numerous buildings are now being constructed with additional space is left for offices and apartments. for jet planes. As the carbon content of a steel increases. but if cooling is sudden. and XIII STRUCTURE OF STEEL The physical properties of various types of steel and of any given steel alloy at varying the iron. Pearlite is an intimate mixture of ferrite and cementite having a specific composition and characteristic structure. handling equipment is often made of stainless E Tool Steels These steels are fabricated into many types of tools or into the cutting and shaping parts of power-driven machinery for various manufacturing operations.of a load for the locomotive to pull. The toughness and hardness of a steel that is not heat treated depend on the proportions of these three ingredients. Ferrite is iron containing small amounts of carbon and other elements in solution and is soft and ductile. temperatures depend primarily on the amount of carbon present and on how it is distributed in pearlite. and other alloying elements that keep them bright and rust resistant in spite of moisture or the action of corrosive acids and gases. and other alloying elements that give them extra strength. Stainless steels are used for the pipes and tanks of petroleum refineries and chemical plants. In steel because it does not taint the food and can be easily cleaned. a compound of iron containing about 7 percent carbon. when the steel has 0. Surgical instruments and equipment are made from these steels. the amount of ferrite present decreases and the amount of pearlite increases until. kitchens and in plants where food is prepared. Raising the temperature of steel changes ferrite and pearlite to an allotropic form of iron-carbon alloy known as austenite.
The steel is then allowed to cool in air through the temperature range of martensite formation. it rapidly in water or oil. Cyaniding consists of hardening in a bath of molten cyanide salt to form both carbides and nitrides. In case hardening. a finished piece of steel is given an extremely hard surface by heating it with carbon or nitrogen compounds. In time-quenching the steel is withdrawn from the quenching bath when it has reached the temperature at which the martensite begins to form. the piece is heated in charcoal or coke. XIV HEAT TREATMENT OF STEEL The basic process of hardening steel by heat treatment consists of heating the metal to a 1. Tempering results in a decrease in hardness and strength and an increase in The primary purpose of the heat-treating process is to control the amount. In austempering the steel is quenched in a bath of metal or salt maintained at the constant temperature at which the desired structural change occurs and is held in this bath until the change is complete before being subjected to the final cooling. which form martensite. and distribution of the cementite particles in the ferrite. Other methods of heat treating steel to harden it are used. or quenching. or in carbonaceous gases such as methane or carbon monoxide. set up large internal strains in the metal. and is then placed in section. usually about 760° to 870° C (about 1. In carburizing. In a constant-temperature bath until it attains a uniform temperature throughout its cross martempering the steel is withdrawn from the quench at the same point.austenite is “frozen” or changes to martensite. Such hardening temperature at which austenite is formed. In nitriding. shape. which in turn determines the physical properties of the steel. steels of special composition are hardened by heating them in ammonia gas to form alloy nitrides.600° F) and then cooling. These compounds react with the steel. either raising the carbon content or forming nitrides in . temperature. size. Metallurgists have discovered that the change from austenite to martensite occurs during the latter part of the cooling period and that this change is accompanied by a change in volume that may crack the metal if the cooling is too swift. and is then cooled slowly in air. its surface layer. Many variations of the basic process are practiced.400° to treatments. which is an extremely hard allotropic modification that resembles ferrite but contains carbon in solid solution. or annealing. Three comparatively new processes have been developed to avoid cracking. which for most steels is the range from about 288° C (about 550° F) to room temperature. which consists of reheating the steel to a lower ductility and toughness. and these are relieved by tempering.
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