You are on page 1of 7

Journal of Saudi Chemical Society (2016) 20, S115–S121

King Saud University

Journal of Saudi Chemical Society


Application of natural and modified sugar cane

bagasse for the removal of dye from aqueous
Hajira Tahir *, Muhammad Sultan, Nasir Akhtar, Uzma Hameed, Tahreem Abid

Department of Chemistry, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan

Received 20 April 2012; accepted 17 September 2012

Available online 13 October 2012

KEYWORDS Abstract In the present study waste product of sugar mill (bagasse) was used as low-cost adsor-
Malachite green (MG); bent in its natural, and modified forms for the removal of malachite green (MG) dye. Chemical
Sugar cane bagasse (SB); treatment of sugar cane bagasse (SB) was carried out with formaldehyde and sulfuric acid which
Carbonaceous sugar cane produced carbonaceous bagasse (C-SB). The sugar cane bagasse (SB), carbonaceous bagasse (C-
bagasse (C-SB); SB) and fly ash bagasse (FA-SB) were tested as adsorbents for the removal of malachite green
Fly ash sugar cane bagasse (MG) dye from aqueous solutions. The removal of dye was carried out by the adsorption process
(FA-SB); under the optimized conditions of concentration of dye, amount of adsorbent, temperature and
Thermodynamic parameters;
contact time. The spectrophotometric technique was adopted for the estimation of concentration
Adsorption isotherms
of dye before and after the adsorption. The equilibrium data were applied on Langmuir, Freundlich
and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm models and the values of their corresponding constants were
evaluated from the slopes and intercepts of their respective plots. The isotherm data can be best
described by the Langmuir equation in the concentration range of 1 · 105–1 · 104 M. From
the results it was observed that C-SB shows better adsorption capacity as compared to other adsor-
bents due to increase in the surface area of adsorbent by the chemical treatment.
Thermodynamic parameters DG, DH and DS were also evaluated. The values of DG show
spontaneous behavior of the system. The modified bagasse C-SB shows about 89% removal, due
to the formation of new modified surface and enhancement in its surface area. It could be employed
as a low-cost alternative method for the removal of dyes and purification of textile effluents.
ª 2012 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University. This is an open access
article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +92 333 3621470; fax: +92 21 1. Introduction

E-mail address: (H. Tahir).
With the development in technology the world is reaching to new
Peer review under responsibility of King Saud University.
horizons. Among the consequences of rapid growth are environ-
mental disorders and pollution problems. Besides other needs the
demand of water for industries has increased rapidly and resulted
Production and hosting by Elsevier in the generation of a large amount of waste water containing
1319-6103 ª 2012 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of King Saud University.
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
S116 H. Tahir et al.

large number of pollutants. Dyes are the important class of indus- sugarcane crops (Masson et al., 2007). Hence, sugarcane ba-
trial pollutants (Aksu, 2001, 2005; Al-Duri et al., 1990; Al-Degs gasse (based on lignin) is a suitable and economically attractive
et al., 2001) including textile effluent. Dyes are a kind of organic alternative for textile effluent and dye removal.
compound with a complex aromatic molecular structure that can The present study demonstrates the removal of malachite
bring a bright and firm color to other materials. However, the green dye by using biosorbents from aqueous solution. The
complex aromatic molecular structures of dyes make them stable waste product of sugar mill, bagasse (SB) was utilized as a
and difficult to biodegrade (Chang et al., 2010). low-cost adsorbent in its natural, carbonized (C-SB) and fly
Textile industries consume large quantities of water and ash (FA-SB) form for the removal of malachite green dye.
chemicals, especially in dyeing and finishing processes. On aver-
age, 60–90% of total water consumption is spent in washing 2. Materials and method
processes (Daneshvar et al., 2004). So it is estimated that around
10–15% of the dyes were lost during the dyeing processes. The 2.1. Reagents
discharge of highly colored synthetic dye effluents can be very
damaging to the receiving water bodies, since these dyes in the
The reagents used in the study were, sodium hydroxide
effluents possess high water solubility although at low concen-
[NaOH] [pellets pure], hydrochloric acid [HCl] [37% pure],
trations (<1 ppm). These compounds are highly visible and
formaldehyde [HCOH] [40% pure], sulfuric acid [H2SO4]
undesirable because they alter the natural appearance of rivers
[98%] and malachite green dye [C23H25ClN2].
and lakes which impact on aquatic life like water plants and phy-
toplankton, interfering in transmission of sunlight, reducing
photosynthesis and oxygenation of water reservoirs (Lima 2.2. Instruments
et al., 2008). Dyes used in the textile industry may be toxic to
aquatic organisms and can be resistant to natural biological deg- UV–visible spectrophotometer (Shimadzu 1601), electric oven
radation (Khraisheh et al., 2003; Allen et al., 1988, 2003; Alpat (Heraeus), pH meter (Precisa pH 900) and shaking incubator
et al., 2008). These dyes cause various diseases (Banat et al., (Jisico, model J-NSIL-R) were used.
1996) especially allergy, dermatitis, skin irritation and also pro-
voke cancer and mutation in humans (Lima et al., 2007). 3. Preparation of material
The currently existing techniques used for the removal of
dyes are chemical coagulation/flocculation, ozonation, oxida- 3.1. Collection and preparation of sugar cane bagasse (SB)
tion, chemical precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis
and ultrafiltration methods. The removal of dyes from dye
containing waste water has serious restrictions such as high Sugar cane bagasse was collected from a local sugar mill. It
cost, formation of hazardous by products and intensive energy was washed thoroughly with water to remove the colors and
requirement. Therefore the development of efficient, low cost dried in sunlight and kept in electric oven at 100 C for 24 h.
and eco friendly technologies is needed to reduce the dye con- The dried bagasse was ground and sieved to the desired parti-
tent in waste water. Among treatment technologies adsorption cle size of about 50 lm and used for adsorption studies.
is extremely gaining prominence. It is the most efficient meth-
od for the removal of synthetic dyes from aqueous effluents 3.2. Chemically modified sugar cane bagasse (C-SB)
(Lima et al., 2009; Calvete et al., 2010).
Commercially activated carbon is an effective and the most For enhancing the adsorption sites on adsorbent’s surface for the
widely used adsorbent because it has excellent adsorption effi- removal of basic dye the ground bagasse was treated with form-
ciency, but recently many researchers have attempted to use aldehyde with w/v ratio of 1:5 at 54 ± 2 C for 24 h. Then the
natural waste as adsorbents due to the high cost of activated content was filtered out and bagasse was separated and washed
carbon (Garg et al., 2004). Some of these alternative biosor- with distilled water and kept in an electric oven for 12 to 5 h at
bents like banana pith, vine, eucalyptus bark, neem leaves, luf- 80 C for drying. After drying it was mixed with sulfuric acid
fa cylindrical fiber, sunflower seed hull, soybean hull, hazelnut (98%) in a 1:1 ratio of acid and bagasse then placed in an electric
shell, neem saw dust, agricultural waste byproducts and teak oven at 100 C for 24 h. After the acid treatment the bagasse was
wood bark were used as adsorbents for the purification of washed with an excessive amount of distilled water and soaked in
waste water (Ardejani et al., 2007; Arslan-Alaton, 2003; Atun 1% NaHCO3 solution for overnight. Then the contents were fil-
et al., 2003; Aydin et al., 2004; Tahir et al., 2005). tered and washed with an excessive amount of distilled water till
Different adsorbents have been proposed for the removal of neutral pH was obtained (Ashoka and Inamdar, 2010). After air
dyes from aqueous solutions (Mishra et al., 2010; Royer et al., drying the contents were kept in an electric oven for 24 h at
2010; Yu et al., 2010; Ai and Jiang, 2010). 100 C and the particle size was found to be 150 lm.
Lignins are among the most abundant natural substances
on earth, occupying about 30% of the carbon biosphere (Zhao
et al., 2010) and are only formed within the vegetal cell wall. 3.3. Sugar cane bagasse fly ash (FA-SB)
A number of residues are obtained in the sugarcane milling
process including bagasse (Oliveira et al., 2006) which is the Bagasse fly ash was also collected from the local sugar mill. It
residue left after crushing the sugarcane stalks for extraction was washed and dried in an electric oven at 100 C for 24 h.
of the sucrose-rich juice and it is a highly promising lignocellu- The dried samples were ground into fine particles and sieved
losic feedstock (Soccol et al., 2010). Over the years, a large to the desired particle size of 100 lm and then stored in a des-
amount of bagasse has accumulated due to the expansion of iccator for dye removal studies.
Application of natural and modified sugar cane bagasse for the removal of dye from aqueous solution S117

4. Batch adsorption experiments 100

4.1. Optimization of amount of SB, C-SB and FA-SB


The optimization of amount of adsorbents (SB, C-SB and FA- % Removal

SB) was carried out by adding 0.1–1.0 g ± 0.1 g of adsorbents
in 50.0 ml of 1 · 105 M malachite green dye solutions. The MG-SB
contents were shaken for a 30 min time period in a shaking incu-
bator at 30 ± 1 C. Then the solutions were filtered and the 40
absorbance was recorded by a UV–visible spectrophotometer. 0.1 0.3 0.5 1
Amount (gram)
4.2. Optimization of contact time
Figure 1 Optimization of amount of adsorbent for Malachite
green dye system.
For the determination of optimum contact time the optimized
amount of SB, C-SB and FA-SB was placed in shaking flasks.
Then 50 ml of 1 · 105 M solution of malachite green was 5.1. Effect of amount of adsorbent
added in each flask and shaken for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and
30 min, respectively. After respective shaking time solutions The optimum amount of adsorbents was found to be 0.30, 0.40
were filtered and their respective absorbances were measured. and 0.10 g for SB, C-SB and FA-SB systems as shown in
The adsorption capacity X/m (mol/g) was calculated using Fig. 1.
the mass balance relationship as follows:
X=m ¼ ðCo  Ct Þ ðV=WÞ ð1Þ 5.2. Effect of shaking time
where, Co is the initial concentration, Ct is the concentration
after treatment, V is the volume of the solution (ml), and W The optimum contact time was selected as 25, 25 and 20 min
is the mass of the dry adsorbent used (g). for SB, C-SB and FA-SB systems as shown in Fig. 2.

4.3. Optimization of concentration 5.3. Effect of concentration

The optimum range of concentrations was determined by pre- The optimum concentration of malachite green dye was
paring a series of dye solutions ranging from 2 · 106 to 8 · 106, 1.4 · 105 and 8 · 106 M at which maximum adsorp-
1 · 105 M. 50.0 ml of each concentration was placed in a tion was observed by using SB, C-SB and FA-SB systems.
shaking incubator under optimum conditions of time and
amount of SB, C-SB and FA-SB. The contents were filtered 5.4. Adsorption isotherm
after a specific time period and absorbance was measured be-
fore and after treatment by a UV–visible Spectrophotometer.
The adsorption isotherm is a graphical representation showing
4.4. Adsorption processes the relationship between the amount adsorbed by unit weight
of adsorbent and the equilibrium concentration remaining in
the solution. It maps the distribution of adsorbed solute be-
Under the optimized conditions samples were run at various
tween the liquid and solid phases at various equilibrium con-
temperatures of 303–318 K and adsorption isotherms were
centrations (Tahir et al., 2008a,b).
scanned. The concentrations of dye were prepared in the range
The adsorption experiments were run at different tempera-
of 2 · 106–1 · 105 M. Fifty milliliters of respective concen-
tures ranges from 303 to 318 K and adsorption isotherms were
tration was kept in the shaking incubator under the optimized
drawn at each specific temperature.
conditions of amount of adsorbent and shaking time at tem-
The inspection of adsorption isotherms shows a decrease in
peratures ranging from 303 to 318 K at steps of ±2 C. After
the rate of adsorption of dyes with the increase in temperature.
a specific time period they were filtered and absorbance was
It shows that adsorption of MG on SB, C-SB and FA-SB sys-
measured (Khan et al., 2005).
tems was found to be an exothermic process.
The percent removal of dye was also calculated by the
6. Theories of adsorption isotherm
% Removal ¼ ðCo  Ct Þ=Co  100 ð2Þ
where, Co and Ct (mg/L) are the initial dye concentration and 6.1. Freundlich adsorption isotherm
the dye concentration at any time, respectively.
The data were incorporated in the Freundlich isotherm
5. Results and discussion

The removal of malachite green dye was carried out by using log X=m ¼ log K þ 1=n log CS ð3Þ
adsorbents: SB, C-SB and FA-SB. They are waste products of su- where, X/m is the amount adsorbed per unit mass of the adsor-
gar mill. Aqueous solutions of malachite green dye were run for bent, CS is the equilibrium concentration and 1/n and K are
the removal studies under the optimized conditions of amount constants. The Freundlich plots were obtained at various tem-
of adsorbent, contact time, concentration of dye and temperature. peratures ranging from 303 to 318 K as shown in Fig. 3 and
S118 H. Tahir et al.

Table 1 Freundlich parameters for MG–SB, MG–C-SB and
90 MG–FA-SB systems.
S.No. System Temperature (K) n K · 103 R2
1. MG–SB 303
%Removal 70 0.515 3.461 0.982
60 0.971 7.245 0.900
50 0.218 8.263 0.905
40 0.284 9.724 0.913
5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Time (min) 2. MG–C-SB 303
0.180 0.439 0.918
Figure 2 Optimization of shaking time of Malachite green 308
adsorbate systems. 0.369 0.061 0.873
Table 1. The constant K shows the degree of adsorption while 0.478 0.002 0.869
n represents the intensity of the adsorption. For MG–SB sys-
0.578 0.001 0.889
tem, the values of constant K increase with the increase in tem-
perature showing that the adsorption process is more 3. MG–FA-B 303
favorable at 318 K temperature. For MG–C-SB system the 0.591 0.885 0.869
values of K decrease with the increase in temperature showing 308
0.347 0.489 0.883
that adsorption process is less favorable at higher tempera-
tures. For MG–FA-SB system, the values of K decrease with 0.125 0.404 0.898
the rise in temperature showing that the adsorption process 318
is more favorable at low temperature. While the values of n 0.243 0.055 0.821
were also calculated they represent the binding capacity of
adsorbate on the surface of adsorbent (Tahir et al., 2008a,b).

6.2. Lamgmuir adsorption isotherm

The theoretical model which describes the monolayer adsorp-

tion of adsorbate onto the surface of adsorbent with a finite
number of identical sites is the Langmuir isotherm which
was accomplished at different temperatures ranging from 303
to 318 K (Atun et al., 2003). The linear form of Langmuir
model is represented as:
CS =X=m ¼ 1=KVm þ CS =Vm ð4Þ
Fig. 4 and Table 2 represent the values of Langmuir constants
K, Vm and RL (equilibrium parameter). While K is the adsorp-
tion coefficient, Vm is the monolayer capacity, X/m is the

Figure 4 Langmuir Isotherms plots of MG-C- SB System 303 K

( ), 308 K ( ), 313 K ( ) and 318 K ( ).

amount of dye adsorbed to form the monolayer and CS is

the equilibrium concentration. The increase in the values of
K predicts the strong interaction between dye molecules while
in some cases there will be a decrease in the K values with the
rise in temperature indicating the weakening of adsorbate–
adsorbent interaction at high temperatures. It reveals that
the adsorption affinity of dye was decreased with the rise in
temperatures so adsorption is less favorable at higher temper-
Figure 3 Freundlich Isotherms for MG- C-SB System at atures. The monolayer capacity (Vm), for MG–SB system ini-
temperature 303 K ( ), 308 K ( ), 313 K ( ) and 318 K ( ). tially decreases and then increases with the rise in
Application of natural and modified sugar cane bagasse for the removal of dye from aqueous solution S119

process; RL > 1 is unfavorable; RL = 1 is linear;

Table 2 Langmuir parameters for the removal of malachite
0 < RL < 1 is favorable; and RL = 0 is irreversible. The val-
green dye by using MG–SB, MG–C-SB and MG–FA-SB
ues of RL are shown in Table 2 and observed in the range of
0.04–0.31, indicating that the adsorption process is favorable
S. No. System Temperature (K) K · 103 Vm · 102 RL R2 for all the three systems.
1. MG–SB 303 1.10
4.27 0.31 0.99 6.3. Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R) adsorption isotherm
308 1.74
2.19 0.22 0.99
The adsorption data were also fitted on the Dubinin–
313 8.92
3.29 0.05 0.98 Radushkevich (D–R) Isotherm equation, which is expressed
318 2.58 as.
2.54 0.16 0.98 ln X=m ¼ ln Xm  Ke2 ð6Þ
2. MG–C-SB 303 3.06
1.53 0.18 0.99 e ¼ RT lnð1 þ 1=CS Þ ð7Þ
308 3.58
1.25 0.16 0.99 Es ¼ ð2KÞ1=2 ð8Þ
313 1.94
0.61 0.26 0.98 where, Xm is the monolayer capacity of adsorbent, K is con-
318 2.18 stant, is adsorption potential, R is a gas constant, T is absolute
0.43 0.24 0.99 temperature, and X/m is the amount of dye required to form
3. MG–FA-SB 303 1.59 the monolayer. The D-R plots of ln (X/m) versus were ob-
8.00 0.15 0.99 tained at various temperatures and are shown in Fig. 5. The
308 3.25 values of Xm and K were calculated from the intercept and
5.12 0.08 0.98 slopes of their respective plots and the mean free energy of
313 1.12 sorption (Es) was calculated from the K values and are shown
2.59 0.21 0.99 in Table 3. The sorption free energy Es was also calculated. It
318 7.16 was found that by rising the temperature the ES values increase
1.72 0.04 0.99 indicating the increase in the dye sorption with the rise in tem-
perature. While for MG–FA-SB system the values of Es were
more dominating at lower temperatures (Tahir et al., 2010).
The adsorption data for MG–SB system were best fitted to
Langmuir and Freundlich models. While for MG–C-SB and

Table 3 D-R Parameters for MG–SB, MG–C-SB and MG–

FA-SB systems.
S.No. System Temperature K Xm · 104 R2 ES
(K) (kJ/mol)
1. MG–SB 303 35.3
3.98 0.94 0.11
308 57.8
5.27 0.99 0.09
313 20.2
9.38 0.96 0.15
318 43.6
6.71 0.89 0.10
Figure 5 D-R Isotherms of MG-C- SB System at 303 K( ), 308
K ( ), 313 K ( ) and 318 K ( ). 2. MG–C-SB 303 0.54
4.84 0.98 0.95
308 0.24
3.94 0.97 1.43
temperature, indicating the higher affinity of the dye interac- 313 0.25
tion at lower temperatures. The monolayer capacity (Vm), 1.79 0.96 1.40
for MG–C-SB and MG–SB systems was more dominating at 318 0.26
lower temperatures, while for other systems showing a revers- 1.60 0.96 1.38
ible behavior. Monolayer capacity (Vm) for MG–FA-SB sys-
3. MG–FA-SB 303 0.01
tem is high at higher temperatures (Tahir et al., 2009). 3.98 0.96 5.99
The essential characteristics of Langmuir equation is the 308 0.21
separation factor or equilibrium parameter, RL, which was cal- 5.27 0.97 1.53
culated as: 313 11.4
6.38 0.94 0.20
RL ¼ 1=ð1 þ bC0 Þ ð5Þ
318 12.7
where, b is the Langmuir constant and C0 is the initial concen- 9.71 0.93 0.19
tration of dye. RL value represents the nature of adsorption
S120 H. Tahir et al.

Table 4 Thermodynamic parameters for the removal of dye by using MG–SB, MG–C-SB and MG–FA-SB systems.
Systems Concentration (mol/L) · 104 DH · 102 (kJ/mol) DS (J/mol) DG(kJ/mol)
303 K 308 K 313 K 318 K
MG–SB 2 9.307 0.2910 0.005 0.0035 0.002 0.071
4 3.924 0.7340 0.262 0.2650 0.269 0.339
6 3.716 0.7260 0.292 0.2960 0.300 0.304
8 23.78 1.366 0.193 0.1960 0.199 0.202
10 5.194 0.7770 0.222 0.225 0.229 0.232
MG–C-SB 2 6.924 0.8670 0.323 0.328 0.332 0.336
4 33.41 1.747 0.846 0.855 0.863 0.872
6 38.59 1.914 0.947 0.956 0.966 0.975
8 4.259 0.7930 0.275 0.279 0.283 0.287
10 3.337 0.7450 0.252 0.255 0.259 0.263
MG–FA-SB 2 6.94 0.8670 0.328 0.328 0.332 0.336
4 33.41 1.747 0.855 0.855 0.863 0.872
6 38.59 1.914 0.956 0.956 0.966 0.975
8 4.259 0.7930 0.279 0.279 0.283 0.287
10 3.337 0.7450 0.255 0.255 0.259 0.263

DG for MG–SB, MG–FA-SB and MG–C-SB systems were

Table 5 Comparative % removal values at different temper-
negative at different temperatures showing the spontaneous
atures for the removal of dye by using MG–SB, MG–C-SB and
behavior of the system. The values of DH were negative
MG–FA-SB systems.
showing the exothermic behavior of the systems. The values
Adsorbents Temperatures of DS show a positive behavior (Tahir et al., 2011).
303 K 308 K 313 K 318 K The comparative removal of dye at various temperatures
MG–SB 72.71 65.48 76.51 78.01 for MG–C-SB, FA-SB and SB systems are shown in Table 5.
MG–C-SB 81.0 86.8 89.07 88.00 MG–SB system shows about 78% removal tendency at
MG–FA-SB 82.19 85.78 80.12 87.00 318 K temperature. While MG–C-SB system shows about
89.60% removal at 313 K temperature. The MG–FA-SB sys-
tem shows 87.00% removal tendency at 303 K temperature
MG–FA-SB systems, the adsorption data were fitted to Lang- (Saeed et al., 2011). It represents that carbonaceous surface
muir adsorption isotherm. For MG–SB system R2 values de- shows comparatively better adsorption tendency due to the in-
scribe that both isotherm models provide good correlation crease in surface area.
for the adsorption of the dye. Hence, it can be concluded that
both monolayer and multilayer of adsorbate were formed onto 7. Conclusion
the surface of adsorbent.
For MG–C-SB and MG–FA-SB systems the correlation
The utilization of waste material as biosorbent is an eco
coefficient values suggest that they obey only Langmuir model
friendly technique. It is a way of minimization of agricultural
which indicates the monolayer coverage of MG dye onto the
waste and its utilization for the removal of dyes. By adopting
surface of both adsorbents.
the adsorption process sugar cane bagasse and its modified
forms were utilized for the decolorization of textile dyes and
6.4. Thermodynamic parameters
other effluents. By utilizing modified sugar cane bagasse the re-
moval of malachite green dye can be enhanced compared to its
In order to study the nature of adsorption, the thermodynamic other forms. About 78% for MG–SB, 87.00% for MG–FA-SB
studies play an important role. The thermodynamic parame- and 89.60% for MG–C-SB removal were obtained by adopting
ters free energy change (DG), enthalpy change (DH) and en- the batch adsorption process.
tropy (DS) of the system were evaluated. The values of DH The adsorption isotherm equations like Freundlich, Lang-
and DS were estimated by using the Van’t Hoff plot by using muir and Dubinin–Radushkevich were also applied to check
the following equation: the feasibility of adsorption process. On the basis of correla-
 tion coefficient values it is concluded that the mechanism of
DG ¼ RT ln KD ð9Þ
adsorption of dyes in the MG–SB system follows both Lang-
  muir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms while MG–FA-SB
ln k ¼ DS =R  DH =RT ð10Þ
and MG–C-SB systems obey only Langmuir adsorption iso-
   therm model.
DG ¼ DH  TDS ð11Þ
The thermodynamic parameters were also evaluated to sup-
The values of DH and DS were calculated from the slopes port the spontaneity of the system. Results of the present study
and intercepts of the linear variation of ln KD with the recipro- suggested that the C-SB system has good potential for the re-
cal of temperature (1/T) as shown in Table 4. The values of moval of MG dye. This model system can be operated on the
Application of natural and modified sugar cane bagasse for the removal of dye from aqueous solution S121

industrial scale for the removal of dyes, metal and other toxic Khraisheh, M.A.M., Allen, S.J., Ahmad, M.N.A., 2003. The removal
species. This is a beneficial, economical and fast method. of dyes from textile wastewater: a study of the physical character-
istics and adsorption mechanisms of diatomaceous earth. J.
Environ. Manage. 69, 229–238.
References Lima, R.O.A., Bazo, A.P., Salvadori, D.M.F., Rech, C.M., Oliveira,
D.P., Umbuzeiro, G.A., 2007. Mutagenic and carcinogenic
Ai, L., Jiang, J., 2010. Fast removal of organic dyes from aqueous potential of a textile azo dye processing plant effluent that impacts
solutions by AC/ferrospinel composite. Desalination 262, 134–140. a drinking water source. Mutat. Res., Genet. Toxicol. Environ.
Aksu, Z., 2001. Biosorption of reactive dyes by dried activated sludge: Mutagen. 626, 53–60.
equilibrium and kinetic modelling. Biochem. Eng. J. 7, 79–84. Lima, E.C., Royer, B., Vaghetti, J.C.P., Simon, N.M., Cunha, B.M.,
Aksu, Z., 2005. Application of biosorption for the removal of organic Pavan, F.A., Benvenutti, E.V., Veses, R.C., Airoldi, C., 2008.
pollutants: a review. Process Biochem. 40, 997–1026. Application of Brazilian-pine fruit coat as a biosorbent to removal
Al-Degs, Y.M., Khraisheh, M.A., Allen, S.J., Ahmad, M.N.A., 2001. of reactive red 194 textile dye from aqueous solution, kinetics and
Sorption behaviour of cationic and anionic dyes from aqueous equilibrium study. J. Hazard. Mater. 155, 536–550.
solution on different types of activated carbons. Sep. Sci. Technol. Lima, T.E.C., Cardoso, N.F., Dias, S.L.P., Pavan, F.A., 2009.
36, 91–102. Application of carbon adsorbents prepared from the Brazilian-
Al-Duri, B., McKay, G., El-Geundi, M.S., Wahab, M.Z.A., 1990. pine fruit shell for removal of Procion Red MX 3B from aqueous
Three-resistance transport model for dye onto bagasse pith. J. solution – kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic studies. Chem.
Environ. Eng. ASCE 116, 487–502. Eng. J. 155, 627–636.
Allen, S., McKay, G., Khader, K.Y.H., 1988. Multi-component Masson, J., Cardoso, M.G., Vilela, F.J., Pimentel, F.A., De Morais,
sorption isotherms of basic dyes onto peat. Environ. Pollut. 52, A.R., Dos Anjos, J.P., 2007. Physicochemical and chromato-
39–53. graphic parameters in sugar cane brandies from burnt and non-
Allen, S.J., Gan, Q., Matthews, R., Johnson, P.A., 2003. Comparison burnt cane. Ciência Agrotécnica 31, 181–1805.
of optimised isotherm models for basic dye adsorption by kudzu. Mishra, A.K., Arockiadoss, T., Ramaprabhu, S., 2010. Study of
Bioresour. Technol. 88, 143–152. removal of azo dye by functionalized multi walled carbon nano-
Alpat, S.K., Ozbayrak, O., Alpat, S., Akcay, H., 2008. The adsorption tubes. Chem. Eng. J. 162, 1026–1034.
kinetics and removal of cationic dye, Toluidine Blue O, from Oliveira, M.M., Pimenta, M.E.S.G., Camargo, A.C.S., Fiori, J.E.,
aqueous solution with Turkish zeolite. J. Hazard. Mater. 151, 213– Pimenta, C.J., 2006. Silage of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) filetage
220. residues with formic acid––Bromatological, physico-chemical and
Ardejani, F.D., Badii, K., Limaee, N.Y., Mahmoodi, N.M., Arami, microbiological analyses. Ciência Agrotécnica 30, 1218–1223.
M., Shafaei, S.Z., Mirhabibi, A.R., 2007. Numerical modelling and Royer, B., Cardoso, N.F., Lima, E.C., Macedo, T.R., Airoldi, C.,
laboratory studies on the removal of direct red 23 and direct red 80 2010. A useful organofunctionalized layered silicate for textile dye
dyes from textile effluents using orange peel, a low-cost adsorbent. removal. J. Hazard. Mater. 181, 366–374.
Dyes Pigm. 73, 178–185. Saeed, S., Tahir, H., Sultan, M., Jahanzeb, Q., 2011. Effect of foreign
Arslan-Alaton, I., 2003. A review of the effects of dye-assisting ions for the determination of metal ion in the presence of
chemicals on advanced oxidation of reactive dyes in wastewater. surfactants. Front. Chem. China 6, 243–247.
Color. Technol. 119, 345–353. Soccol, C.R., Vandenberghe, L.P.D., Medeiros, A.B.P., Karp, S.G.,
Ashoka, H.S., Inamdar, S.S., 2010. Adsorption removal of methyl red Buckeridge, M., Ramos, L.P., Pitarelo, A.P., Ferreira-Leitao, V.,
from aqueous solutions with treated sugar cane bagasse and Gottschalk, L.M.F., Ferrara, M.A., Bon, E.P.D., Moraes, L.M.P.,
activated carbon – a comparative study. Global J. Environ. Res. 4, Araujo, J.D., 2010. Bioethanol from lignocelluloses: status and
175–182. perspectives in Brazil. Bioresour. Technol. 101, 4820–4825.
Atun, G., Hisarli, G., Sheldrick, W.S., Muhler, M., 2003. Adsorptive Tahir, H., Uddin, F., Hameed, U., 2005. Adsorption of methylene blue
removal of methylene blue from colored effluents on fuller’s earth. from aqueous solution on the surface of wool fiber and cotton fiber.
J. Colloid Interface Sci. 261, 32–39. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. 9, 29–35.
Aydin, A.H., Bulut, Y., Yavuz, O., 2004. Acid dyes removal using low Tahir, H., hameed, U., Jahanzeb, Q., Sultan, M., 2008a. Removal of
cost adsorbents. Int. J. Environ. Pollut. 21, 97–104. fast green Dye (C.I. 42053) from an aqueous solution using,
Banat, I.M., Nigam, P., Singh, D., Marchant, R., 1996. Microbial Azadirachta indica leaves as a low-cost adsorbent. Afr. J. Biotech-
decolorization of textile-dye containing effluents: a review. Biore- nol. 7, 3906–3911.
sour. Technol. 58, 217–227. Tahir, H., Sultan, M., Jahanzeb, Q., 2008b. Removal of basic dyes
Calvete, T., Lima, E.C., Cardoso, N.F., Vaghetti, J.C.P., Dias, S.L.P., methylene blue by using biosorbent ulva lactuca and sagrassum.
Pavan, F.A., 2010. Application of carbon adsorbents prepared Afr. J. Biotechnol. 7, 2649–2655.
from Brazilian-pine fruit shell for the removal of reactive orange 16 Tahir, H., Sultan, M., Jahanzeb, Q., 2009. Remediation of azo dyes by
from aqueous solution: kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic using household used black tea as an adsorbent. Afr. J. Biotechnol.
studies. J. Environ. Manage. 91, 1695–1706. 8, 3584–3589.
Chang, M.W., Chung, C.C., Chern, J.M., Chen, T.S., 2010. Dye Tahir, H., Hammed, U., Sultan, M., Jahanzeb, Q., 2010. Batch
decomposition kinetics by UV/H2O2: initial rate analysis by adsorption technique for the removal of malachite green and fast
effective kinetic modelling methodology. Chem. Eng. Sci. 65, green dyes by using montmorillonite clay as adsorbent. Afr. J.
135–140. Biotechnol. 9, 8206–8214.
Daneshvar, N., Sorkhabi, H.A., Kasiri, M.B., 2004. Decolorization of Tahir, H., Jahanzeb, Q., Sultan, M., 2011. An investigation of
dye solution containing acid red 14 by electrocoagulation with a environmental impact of aerial metal deposition around the petrol
comparative investigation of different electrode connections. J. filling stations and applying remedial measures to reduce the
Hazard. Mater. 112, 55–62. elevated level of lead metal. Pak. J. Chem. 1, 1–5.
Garg, V.K., Amita, M., Kumar, R., Gupta, R., 2004. Basic dye Yu, X., Wei, C., Ke, L., Hu, Y., Xie, X., Wu, H., 2010. Development
(Methylene Blue) removal from simulated wastewater by adsorp- of organovermiculite based adsorbent for removing anionic dye
tion using Indian rosewood sawdust. Dyes Pigments. 63, 243–250. from aqueous solution. J. Hazard. Mater. 180, 499–507.
Khan, A.R., Tahir, H., Uddin, F., Waqar, S., 2005. Adsorption of Zhao, Q., Wang, H., Yin, Y., Xu, Y., Chen, F., Dixon, R.A., 2010.
methylene blue and malachite green from aqueous solution on the Syringyl lignin biosynthesis is directly regulated by a secondary cell
surface of wool carbonizing waste. J. Chem. Soc. Pak. 9, 427–436. wall master switch. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 107, 14496–14501.