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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND METHODS IN APPLIED SCIENCES Volume 9, 2015

Three-axis dynamic modeling of induction


motor

Ya. Dorjsuren, L. Tumenbayar and J. Tsevegmid

Abstract— This paper presents a new modeling and simulation II. D AND Q AXIS DYNAMIC MODEL OF INDUCTION MOTOR
method for the three phase asynchronous motor. This model called
In order to achieve mathematical model of the three phase
three-axis dynamic model of induction motor. The dynamic model is
examined by Matlab/Simulink as a rated power of 55 kW asynchronous motor, a direct quadrate (d-q) transformation
asynchronous motor. New three-axis dynamic model is compared dynamic model has been used widely.
with conventional d and q-axis dynamic model. Comparative results Because of its simplicity, which means the reduction of
are shown as the functions of stator and rotor current, angular speed, three quantities into two quantities, the model is a relatively
and torque of the three phase induction motor. The new model is easy to develop.
shown as better results than the d-q model.
General scheme of the two phase induction motor has been
used to design d and q axis dynamic model of the three phase
Keywords— Stator winding, rotor winding, induction motor,
differential equation, dynamic model, simulation. asynchronous motor.

I. INTRODUCTION
A Ө

I N mining industry in order to operation of mineral


resources and processing a number of equipments are used.
These equipments are mostly contains electric motor drive UsA
system for example, excavator, ventilator, pump, lifting
equipment, mining combine, drilling machine, conveyer, mill,
crusher and others. The above mentioned equipments have at
UrA
least one and more three phase asynchronous motor. ωr
Because of simple structure and reliable operation the
asynchronous motors have been used widely in the field of UrB B
UsB
industry.
Mathematical modeling of the asynchronous motor is difficult
and some researchers [2-12] have developed the model by
transferring into d and q axis. However, more accurate model
can be derived by using α, β, γ axis. Therefore, this paper is
aimed to obtain dynamic model of the motor which has been
transferred into three-axis. Fig.1 General scheme of two phase induction motor

Driving the differential equation by applying Kirchhoff's


voltage law for each phase, associated with above scheme, as
This paper is extended version of Dynamic modeling of three phase follows:
asynchronous motor. The article (Dynamic modeling of three phase
asynchronous motor) was published in Proceedings of the 3rd International
Conference on Automatic Control, Soft Computing and Human Interaction Stator circuit:
(ASME ‘15).
dψ sA
Dorjsuren Yandagsuren is with the Geology and Mining Department,
Mongolian University of Science and Technology, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
=
usА rsAisA +
(corresponding author to provide phone: 976-89909772; e-mail:
dt
(1)
dorjoo_must@ yahoo.com). dψ sB
Tumenbayar Lkhagvatseren is with the Geology and Mining Department, =
usB rsB isB +
Mongolian University of Science and Technology, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia (e- dt
mail: tumenbayar@must.edu.mn).
Tsevegmid Jamyankhorloo is with the Geology and Mining Department,
Mongolian University of Science and Technology, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia (e- Rotor circuit:
mail: tsevegmid_04@yahoo.com).

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND METHODS IN APPLIED SCIENCES Volume 9, 2015

dψ rA dψ rd
=
urА rrAirA + urd =rrd ird + + ωrψ rq
dt dt
(2) (7)
dψ rB dψ rq
=
urB rrB irB + urq =rrq irq + − ωrψ rd
dt dt
Motor mechanical equation:
d ωr ωr – angular velocity
J + Mc =
M (3)
Where :
dt
Transferred magnetic flux of the stator windings can be seen
Magnetic flux of the stator: as follows:
ψ sA LsAisA + LmirA
= ψ
= sd Ls isd + Lmird
(4) (8)
ψ sB LsB isB + LmirB
= ψ
= sq Ls isq + Lmirq

Magnetic flux of the rotor: Accordingly, magnetic flux of the rotor is obtained as shown
ψ rA LrAirA + LmisA
= in equation (5)
(5)
ψ rB LrB irB + LmisB
= ψ
= rd Lr ird + Lmisd
(9)
ψ
= rq Lr irq + Lmisq
Fig. 2 has been derived by transferring the general scheme
which is given by Fig. 1 into d and q-axis, with 900 angle Active and inductive resistances of the phases are equal in
difference. three phase induction motor. Which means can be written as:
L=
sd L=
sq Ls
d
L=
rd L=
rq Lr
Usd rsd= rsq= rs
rrd= rrq= rr
ωr u= u= 0
rd rq
Urd
q The currents of the rotor and stator are derived by using
equations 6, 7, 8 and 9, eventually taking Laplace transform:
U rq U sq
Stator currents:
usd
− pTms ird
rs
isd =
1 + pTs
Fig.2 The d and q-axis equivalent scheme of induction motor (10)
usq
Differential equation of the stator winding which is − pTms irq
rs
transferred to d and q-axis is given by below equation: isq =
1 + pTs
dψ sd
=
usd rsd isd +
dt Rotor currents:
(6)
dψ sq pTmr isd + ωr (Tr irq + Tmr isq )
=
usq rsq isq +
dt ird = −
1 + pTr
(11)
Contrarily, differential equations of the rotor are: pTmr isq − ωr (Tr ird + Tmr isd )
irq = −
1 + pTr

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND METHODS IN APPLIED SCIENCES Volume 9, 2015

Ls isd pTmr (-) ird


Where: Ts = – stator time constant pTr+1
rs
isq 1
L Tmr
Tms = m – stator electro-magnetic time constant ωr
pTr+1
rs
L Tr
Tr = r – rotor time constant
rr isq pTmr (-) irq
L pTr+1
Tmr = m – rotor electro-magnetic time constant (-)
rr isd
Tmr 1
pTr+1
ωr
Electromagnetic moment:

Lm ( isq ird − isd irq )


m Tr
=M (12)
2 Fig.4 d and q-axis structural diagram of rotor

Where: m - Number of phase. d and q-axis structural diagram of induction motor is built
by Fig. 3 and 4. d and q-axis structural diagram of induction
Angular velocity of the rotor: motor can be shown in Fig. 5.
M − MC
ωr = (13)
pTм

ωr
pTм
d and q-axis structural diagrams of the stator and rotor

1
windings are determined by equations 10-11. d-q structural

(-)
Mc
diagram of stator can be studied as shown in Fig. 3. 3L M
2 m

usd 1 isd
(-)

rs(pTs+1)
(-)
ird pTms
pTs+1
usq isq
ird

(-) irq

1
(-)

rs(pTs+1)
(-)

(-)
irq pTms
pTr+1

pTr+1
1

pTs+1
ωr

ωr
Tr

Tr
pTr+1

pTr+1
pTmr

pTmr

Fig.3 d and q-axis structural diagram of stator

d and q-axis structural diagram of rotor can be studied as


shown in Fig. 4.
Tmr

Tmr
isq

isd
isq
isd

(-)

pTs+1
pTs+1

pTms
pTms

(-)

rs(pTs+1)
rs(pTs+1)

1
1

usq
usd

Fig.5 d and q-axis structural diagram of induction motor

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND METHODS IN APPLIED SCIENCES Volume 9, 2015

B
The d and q-axis dynamic model of three phase induction
motor is generated by "d and q-axis structural diagram of UB
induction motor" (Fig.5). d and q-axis dynamic model of the
b
induction motor can be shown in Fig.6. ωr
Ub
Ua
a
UA Uc
Ө c UC
A C
Fig.7 General scheme of three phase asynchronous motor

Driving the differential equation by applying Kirchhoff's


voltage law for each phase, associated with above scheme, as
follows:
Stator circuit:

dψ A
=
u А rAiA +
dt
dψ B
=
uB rB iB + (14)
dt

=
uC rC iC + C
dt
Rotor circuit:
dψ a
u=
a ra ia +
dt

u=
b rbib + b (15)
dt

u=
c rc ic + c
dt
Motor mechanical equation:
d ωr
J + Mc =
M (16)
Fig.6 d and q-axis Matlab/Simulink model of induction motor
dt

Magnetic flux of the stator and rotor influence to each other


III. THREE-AXIS DYNAMIC MODELING OF INDUCTION MOTOR
permanently, and magnetic flux of the one winding depends on
Magnetic field of the stator and rotor of asynchronous motor the magnetic fluxes of rest of the windings.
influences to each other and a quantity of interaction
determines the current which flows trough motor and torque of Magnetic flux of the each phase is:
the motor shaft. In circumstance, a change of one parameter,
the rest of the parameter changes due to, to study transient
ψ A = LAiA + LAB iB + LAC iC + LAa ia + LAbib + LAcic
process of the asynchronous motor is difficult [1]. ψ B = LB iB + LAB iA + LBC iC + LBa ia + LBbib + LBcic (17)
General scheme of the motor has been used to design
dynamic model of the three phase asynchronous motor. To
ψ C = LC iC + LBC iB + LAC iC + LCa ia + LCbib + LCcic
obtain system equation is relatively simple because the
windings of the stator and rotor given by separately in the Equation (17) states that magnetic flux of the each phase
scheme. consists of the sum of other magnetic fluxes. However, in no
ideal case one of magnetic flux of the phase could decrease

ISSN: 1998-0140 530


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND METHODS IN APPLIED SCIENCES Volume 9, 2015

magnetic flux of another phase. Consequently, it is necessary 1 1


to taking into account a direction of the magnetic flux. ψ sα =Lsα isα − Lmisβ − Lmisγ +
By dependent on the phase shift of a supply voltage, the
2 2
sequences of the generated magnetic fluxes in the stator  1 1 
windings of the asynchronous motor holds А→В→С order,
+ Lm  irα − ir β − irγ  ;
 2 2 
and results rotating magnetic field in the stator.
1 1
Therefore, for the purpose of to consider these equations it ψ sβ =Lsβ isβ − Lmisγ − Lmisα +
is desirable to transfer the equations into axis [3]. 2 2
Fig. 8 has been derived by transferring the general scheme (20)
 1 1 
which is given by Fig. 7 into α,β,γ-axis, with 1200 angle + Lm  ir β − irα − irγ  ;
difference.  2 2 
β 1 1
ψ sγ =Lsγ isγ − Lmisα − Lmisβ +
U sβ 2 2
 1 1 
ωr + Lm  irγ − irα − ir β  ;
U rβ  2 2 

Urα Accordingly, magnetic flux of the rotor is obtained as shown


Usα
Urγ in equation (17)
 1 1 
α
Usγ
γ ψ rα = Lrα irα + Lm  isα − isβ − isγ  −
 2 2 
Fig.8 The α, β, γ-axis equivalent scheme of asynchronous motor
1 1
− Lmir β − Lmirγ
Differential equation of the stator winding which is 2 2
transferred to three-axis is given by below equation:
 1 1 
dψ sα ψ r=
β Lr β ir β + Lm  − isα + isβ − isγ  −
=
usα rsα isα +  2 2 
dt (21)
1 1
dψ sβ − Lmirγ − Lmirα
=
usβ rsβ isβ + (18) 2 2
dt
 1 1 
dψ sγ ψ rγ = Lrγ irγ + Lm  − isα − isβ + isγ  −
=
usγ rsγ isγ +  2 2 
dt
1 1
− Lmirα − Lmir β
Contrarily, differential equations of the rotor are: 2 2
dψ rα (ψ r β −ψ rγ ) ωr
−urα = rrα irα + + Active and inductive resistances of the phases are equal in
dt 3 three phase induction motor. Which means can be written as:

−ur β = rr β ir β +
dψ r β
+
(ψ rγ −ψ rα ) ωr
(19)
L=
sα L=
sβ L=
sγ Ls
dt 3 L=
rα L=
rβ L=
rγ Lr

−urγ = rrγ irγ +


dψ rγ
+
(ψ rα − ψ r β ) ωr rs=
α rs=
β rs=
γ rs
dt 3 rr=
α rr=
β rr=
γ rr
The currents of the rotor and stator are derived by using
Where : ωr – angular velocity equations 18, 19, 20 and 21, eventually taking Laplace
transform:
Transferred magnetic flux of the stator windings can be seen
Stator currents:
as follows:

ISSN: 1998-0140 531


INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND METHODS IN APPLIED SCIENCES Volume 9, 2015

u sα Ls
Where: Ts = – stator time constant
rs rs
=isα +
1 + pTs Lm
Tms = – stator electro-magnetic time constant
pTms 
 1 i + 1 i − i − 1 i − 1 i  rs
 rα rγ  
2  2 
sβ sγ rβ

+
2 2 L
; Tr = r – rotor time constant
1 + pTs rr
usβ L
Tmr = m – rotor electro-magnetic time constant
rs rr
=is β +
1 + pTs
(22) Whereas, electromagnetic energy of the induction motor:
1 1
pTms  isγ + isα
 1 1 
−  ir β − irγ − irα   1
+
2 2  2 2 
; W=
э (ψ sα isα +ψ sβ isβ +ψ sγ isγ +ψ rα irα +
1 + pTs
2 (24)
+ψ r β ir β +ψ rγ irγ )
u sγ
rs Electromagnetic moment:
=isγ +
1 + pTs
Lm [( isα irγ + isβ irα + isγ ir β ) −
3
=M pn
pTms 
1 isα +
1 
is β −  irγ −
1
irα −
1  2 (25)
ir β 
+
2 2  2 2  ; − ( isα ir β + isβ irγ + isγ irα )]
1 + pTs
Angular velocity of the rotor:

Rotor currents:
M − MC
 1 1 1 1  ωr = (26)
− pTmr  isα − is β − isγ − ir β − irγ  pTм
irα
 2 2 2 2 

1 + pTr
Where: Tм = J – mechanical time constant
T i − i + T  3 i − 3 i − 1 i + 1 i ω
 r ( r β rγ ) mr  sβ rβ  
 2 2 
sγ rγ r
2 2 IV. MATLAB/SIMULINK MODEL OF INDUCTION MOTOR
3 The three-axis structural diagrams of the stator and rotor
− ;
1 + pTr windings are determined by equations 22-26.
The three-axis structural diagram of stator can be studied as

− pTmr  isβ −
1
isα −
1
isγ −
1
irγ −
1 
irα  − shown in Fig. 9.
ir β =
 2 2 2 2 
1 + pTr
(23)
T i − i + T  3 i − 3 i − 1 i + 1 i  ω
 r ( rγ rα ) mr  sγ rγ  
 2 2 
sα rα r
2 2
3
− ;
1 + pTr


− pTmr  isγ −
1
isα −
1
is β −
1
ir β −
1 
irα 
irγ
 2 2 2 2 −
1 + pTr

 3 1 
 Tr ( irα − ir β ) + Tmr  isα − isβ − ir β + irα   ωr
3 1
 2 2 2 2 
3
− ;
1 + pTr

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND METHODS IN APPLIED SCIENCES Volume 9, 2015

usα 1 (+) isα Three-axis structural diagram of induction motor is built by


rs(pTs+1) (-)
irα (-)
Fig. 9 and 10. Three-axis structural diagram of induction
(+) pTms
irβ 1
(-) (-) pTs+1 motor can be shown in Fig. 11.
(+) (+)
2
irγ 1
2

ωr
isβ 1
2
isγ 1
2

usβ (+) isβ

pTм
1

1
rs(pTs+1) (-)
irβ (+) (-) pTms
(-) (-) (+) (+) pTs+1
irγ

(-)
1
2

Mc
irα 1
isγ 2

pn√3 Lm M
1
2
isα 1
2

2
usγ 1 (+) isγ
rs(pTs+1) (-)
irγ (+) (-) pTms
irα (-) (-) (+) pTs+1

(-)
1 (+)
irβ 2
1
2

(+)
isα 1
2
isβ 1
2

Fig.9 Three-axis structural diagrams of the stator

The three-axis structural diagram of rotor can be studied as


shown in Fig. 10.

isα -pTmr irα

isβ 1
(-) (-) (-) (-) (1+pTr) (-)
2
isγ 1
2
irβ 1
2
irγ 1
2
irβ Tr
√3(1+pTr) (+)
irγ (-) ωr
isβ 3 Tmr
isγ 3
2 (-) (+) √3(1+pTr)
2 (-)
irγ 1
irβ 2
1
2
irα

irβ
irγ

isβ irβ
-pTmr
isα 1
(-) (-) (-) (-) (1+pTr) (-)
2
isγ 1
irγ 2 1 ротор
2
irα 1
2
irγ Tr
√3(1+pTr) (+)
irα (-) ωr
ωr

isγ 3 Tmr
isα
3
2 (-) (+) √3(1+pTr)
2 (-)
irα 1
2
isα

isγ
isβ

irγ 1
2

isγ -pTmr irγ


статор
isα 1
(-) (-) (-) (-) (1+pTr) (-)
isβ 2
1
2
irβ 1
irα 2
1
irα

irγ
irβ

2
irα Tr
irβ (-) √3(1+pTr) (+)
ωr
isα 3 Tmr
isβ 3
2 (-) (+) √3(1+pTr)
2 (-)
irβ 1
usα

usγ
usβ

2
irα 1
2
ωr

Fig.10 Three-axis structural diagrams of the rotor Fig.11 Three-axis structural diagrams of the induction motor

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND METHODS IN APPLIED SCIENCES Volume 9, 2015

The three-axis simulink model of the stator is implemented


by "Three-axis structural diagram of stator" (Fig.9). The three-
axis simulink model of the stator can be shown in Fig.12.

Fig.12 Three-axis stator Matlab/Simulink model

The three-axis simulink model of the rotor is implemented


by "Three-axis structural diagram of rotor" (Fig.10). The
three-axis simulink model of the rotor can be shown in Fig.13.

Fig.14 Three-axis Matlab/Simulink model of induction motor

V. RESULT
In case of study 4А225М4 type motor has been used for
simulation. The technical characteristics are given by in Table
1.

Table 1.
Fig.13 Three-axis rotor Matlab/Simulink model
№ Name of parameter Parameter Data
The three-axis simulink model of the induction motor is 1 Power Pн 55 kW
implemented by "Three-axis structural diagram of the 2 Number of phase m 3
induction motor" (Fig.11). The three-axis simulink model of 3 Number of pole 2p 4
the induction motor can be shown in Fig.14.
4 Frequency f 50 Hz

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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS AND METHODS IN APPLIED SCIENCES Volume 9, 2015

5 Voltage V 220 V
6 Stator inductance Ls 0.0294 H
7 Rotor inductance Lr 0.0297 H
8 Mutual inductance Lm 0.0287 H
9 Stator resistance Rs 0.067 Ω
10 Rotor resistance Rr 0.032 Ом
11 Power factor cos ϕ 0.908
12 Moment of inertia J 0.621 kg∙m2

A comparison between d-q and three axis simulation results


can be seen in Fig 15 to 20.

Fig.17 Stator current of 4А225М4 motor (Three-axis)

Fig.18 Stator current of 4А225М4 motor (d and q-axis)


Fig.15 Rotor current of 4А225М4 motor (Three-axis)
As mentioned before, simplification of d-q transformation
model there are only two parameters controversially, three axis
model shows each current of the phases. Accordingly, an
overshoot of the current in transient period can be seen more
precisely.

Fig.16 Rotor current of 4А225М4 motor (d and q-axis)

Fig.19 Angular speed of 4А225М4 motor

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and Instrumentation Engineering, ISSN (Print) : 2320 – 3765, 2013.


pp. 3942-3951.
[7] Shi K.L., Chan T.F., Wong W.K., Ho.S.L, Modelling and simulation of
the three-phase induction motor using simulink, 1999, Manchester U.P,
Great Britain, pp. 163–172.
[8] Marcel Ionel., Mihail-Florin Stan., Elena-Otilia Virjoghe., Octavian-
Marcel Ionel., Algorithm for exact determination of three-phase
induction machine parameters, Proceedings of the 14th WSEAS
International Conference on SYSTEMS,Vol-2, ISSN: 1792-4235, 2010,
pp. 636-643.
[9] Nikos e. Mastorakis., Cornelia a. Bulucea., Doru a. Nicola., Modeling
of Three-phase Induction Motors in Dynamic Regimes According to an
Ecosystem Pattern, Proceedings of the 13th WSEAS International
Conference on SYSTEMS,Vol-5, ISSN: 1790-2769, 2009, pp. 338-345.
[10] Juri Jatskevich., Mirko Maksimcev., Modelling Multiphase Induction
Motors for Electric Ship Propulsion Systems, WSEAS/IASME Int. Conf.
on Electroscience and Technology for Naval Engineering and All-
Electric Ship, Miami, Florida, USA, 2005, pp. 10-16.
[11] Boonruang Marungsri., Nittaya Meeboon., Anant Oonsivilai., Dynamic
Fig.20 Torque of 4А225М4 motor Model Identification of Induction Motors using Intelligent Search
Techniques with taking Core Loss into Account, Proceedings of the 6th
WSEAS International Conference on Power Systems, Lisbon, Portugal,
In addition, d-q transformation model estimates the Id 2006, pp. 108-115.
current as a function of Iq, which does not allow to simulate [12] http://www.academia.edu/7652729/Mathematical_Modelling_of_an_3_
Phase_Induction_Motor_Using_MATLAB_Simulink
independently.
By transferring into three-axis an accuracy of the transient
process is improving. Response of the parameters of the
analysis can be controlled more precisely.
In practice the currents which flows trough phases are not
equal. The above mentioned two axis model was not able to
reveal the differences of the phase currents.
From the result of the simulation it is obvious that
difference of the phase currents can be seen clearly and gives
us possibility to compared study.

VI. CONCLUSION
In this paper we have obtained dynamic model of the
induction motor which transferred into three-axis.
From the simulated result we can conclude that the derived
dynamic model of the induction motor gives more detailed
transient characteristics which allow us to predict and to
analyze the narrowed behavior of the motor.

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