Intelligent Train Engines( Click here to book this project) We know that the railway network of India is the

biggest in south Asia and perhaps the most complicated in all over the world. There are so many different types of trains local, fast, super fast, passenger, goods«. etc. and their so many multiple routs. Although the time table is perfect it is not at all possible to maintain it. And that¶s why the train accidents are becoming more and more usual. So why not we add a kind of intelligence to the train engines itself so that it tries to avoid accidents. The idea is whenever any engine observes a red signal on its track it will start decreasing its speed gradually and stops automatically at some distance from the signal pole. After then when it gets green signal the driver can manually start the train and go on. In the mean time when train has not stopped yet and a red signal becomes green then it crosses the signal pole with low speed and then driver can slowly increase the speed. So now before the driver observes the red signal the engine itself observes it and automatically starts decreasing speed and then stops. The driver can feel relax in driving because he doesn¶t have to take care about red signal. Even if he forgets to take any action on red signal then also we can avoid accidents by the implementation of this idea. General description: What we have to do is we have to attach a transmitter with signal pole which will start transmitting signals only when the red light is on. If there is green light no transmission. The engine has a receiver which catches these transmitted signals and takes desire actions. Both the transmitter and receiver are of RF type with minimum range of 2 Km. so that train can get enough time to decrease its speed and stop before the signal pole with minimum swapping distance of 100-200 mt. Here in our project we have used IR transmitter and receiver instead of RF for demo purpose. But same idea can be easily implemented with RF also with a little more cost. Lets first discuss the demonstration model. Demonstration Model: The train engine runs on 24V DC motor so that we can easily vary its speed by varying applied voltage. The switching voltage is applied in step of 18 V, 15 V, 12 V and 9 V (min speed). The 230 VAC is step-down to 24 VAC by 12-0-12, 2 Ampere step down transformer. As shown in figure this 24 VAC line runs parallel with track at the top of the train. Movable tapping are taken from this line and fed to the internal circuit of engine. These tapping slides as the train runs on the track and give continuous supply to circuit. The IR sensor is placed at the top of the engine, senses the signals transmitted by IR transmitter attached to signal pole. Train track is straight and

The receiver is housed in engine which senses the IR signals and takes suitable action. Schematic diagram of IR transmitter. Connections: . Model of Intelligent Train Engines The project is divided in two parts Transmitter Receiver The transmitter is housed in signal pole and it is activated only when red light is ON. Signal Pole IR Transmitter:- The figure shows the schematic diagram of IR transmitter. The main component of the circuit is only IC555. Signal pole is placed at the end of track and train starts from farther end.20 ft long. The heart of the circuit is IC555.

Both ICs are connected in astable mode. This cycle repeats till the red light is on. The output of U1 is fed to two IR LEDs through Darlington pair made up of Q1. 89C51 based IR receiver for Engine: The IR receiver circuit housed in engine is as shown below. When the circuit is energized U2 will start generating high pulse at every 1 sec. Thus after every one second the IR beam of 38 KHz is generated for one second only. IR receiver circuit The main components of the circuit are IR sensor TSOP 1738. When switch changes its position the red LED and transmitter is off and only green LED will on. . The 9V DC battery is connected with circuit through SPDT switch SW1 as shown. The output of U2 is connected with reset pin (4) of U1. The frequency of U2 is 0. IR leds will generate IR beam of 38 KHz for the same time. Q2 and R5.5 Hz and U1 is 38 KHz. This is decided by RC components connected with it. as this pulse is fed to reset pin of U1 it will generate 38 KHz square wave and give it to IR leds. current driver chip ULN2003A and all voltage regulator ICs (78XX series). Thus the output of U2 controls the operation of U1 means it will switch on or off the output of U1. microcontroller 89C51. Note: The range of this transmitter is limited to 10 ft only. Operation: As shown in figure when SW1 is in position as shown the transmitter is On and also the red LED is also ON.

1) Now 89C51 will wait for some time (2 to 3 sec) and train goes on with same speed.3) After same delay on receiving fourth interrupt all the relays will be switched off and motor is now stop so the train is also stopped.Connections: 24 VAC is rectified by diode bridge D1 and filtered through C1 and given to all the regulated ICs as input. After this interrupts will be disabled. decrease the speed of train gradually in four steps and then stop it. And this is done by software embedded in to 89C51. of interrupts sjmp over . interrupt 1 subroutine location . and outputs are connected with second terminal of relay coil. The output of 7805 is connected to 89C51 and TSOP and also to all the LEDs. 89C51 will indicate the interrupt event on first (green) LED and energizes only one particular relay through ULN chip.3. so now motor gets 12V supply and again its speed will be decreased indicated by third red LED (P0.0-P1. Again if still red signal is on 89C51 will be interrupted and this time it will switch on RL2. Now if the signal is green then train will cross the pole with same pole But if signal becomes red in between then IR sensor will detect IR beam and interrupts the 89C51 Getting first interrupt 89C51 will switch off RL4 and switch on RL3 so now motor will get 15 V supply and its speed will be decreased. When any of the four relay get energized the motor will get supply from it and it will start running As voltage is less it will run with less speed So now its the function of microcontroller to receive signal from IR sensor.2) The same procedure repeats if 89C51 is interrupted third times.#01h .3 (INT1) of microcontroller All five leds are connected with port P0 as shown Input of ULN is connected with Port 1 pins P1.0). Output of 7812 (last one) is connected to common coil terminal and to ULN The outputs of middle four regulated ICs are connected to DC motor through relay contacts. Operation: TSOP will detect the 38 KHz IR beam and gives the interrupt to 89C51. jump above the interrupt subroutine org 0013h . This is indicated by green LED. initialize the counter to count no. Output of TSOP is connected with pin P3. So now when red signal becomes green driver must reset the controller to start the train again.RL4 one by one. Now motor runs at min speed (9 V) indicated by fourth red LED (P0. So motor will get 9-12-15-18 V supply in steps and gradually increases its speed reaches max speed indicated by first red LED (P0. How the project works? Initially when you switch on the supply 89C51 will switch all the relays RL1. The complete pseudo code with necessary comments is as given org 00h mov r0. That¶s indicated by second red LED (P0.

#0fbh mov p1. and gradually increase it to max in four step mov p1. call 2 sec delay every time when speed is changed mov ie.1 sec delay setb p0.#01h . out: acall dely .out .0 .#0f7h mov p1.#0feh mov p1. give indication on fourth red led sjmp out nxt4: cjne r0. if counter is 3 then decrease speed be two step (12 V) mov p0.nxt2 .#0efh mov p1.#0fdh mov ie. 0.#02h . increment counter acall delay . indicate it by green led. enable the interrupt here: sjmp here .#0FAh lop3:nop .lop1 djnz r6.#64h lop4:mov r5.#00h .mov ie.nxt3 . if counter is 4 then decrease speed be three step (9 V) mov p0.#04h acall dely mov p1.lop2 ret dely: mov r7.#84h .0 . disable interrupt first clr p0.#02h .#02h. if counter is 5 then stop the train mov p0.#08h mov p0.#64h . enable interrupt again reti .#00h .#05h. return from interrupt over:mov p1.1 sec delay lop2:mov r5. give indication on second red led sjmp out nxt2: cjne r0. give indication on third red led sjmp out nxt3: cjne r0.#01h .if counter is 2 then decrease speed be one step (15 V) mov p0. main program starts from here starts train with min speed acall dely .#15h .#04h . 2 sec delay lop5:mov r6.nxt4 . reset green led cjne r0.#84h . continue loop delay: mov r6.#0FAh lop1:nop nop djnz r5. call 0. interrupt indication on green led inc r0 .#03h. with 2 sec delay in between acall dely mov p1.#04h.

The Line Following is a kind of the robot contests to vie running speed on the line. But I believe that it is suitable for home use in the small Japanese houses said that rabbit burrow«(^_^. Of course I have also no time to take part in the robot contests About Line Follower The line follower is one of the self operating robot that follows a line that drawn on the floor. The basic operations of the line following are as follows: .nop djnz r5..lop4 djnz r7. 2009 Posted by Common wealth games | project ideas | 30 Comments 09717408885 Line Robot Line Robot Recently many kind of robot contests have being opened and some interesting reports of the challenge are found on the web. It is for only a personal toy reduced its size less than one fifth compared to typical line following robots. I build a tiny line following robot which can run on the desk. not in formura.tk Buyprojects.lop5 ret end Please mail Us to Book this project or call us at our contact numbers indianengineer is also available at:IndianEngineer. moving the key board aside will do.lop3 djnz r6.TK August 3.

All mechanical and electrical parts are mounted on a proto board. It does not require any additional actuator. Most are using several number of photo-reflectors. Most contest are adopting the first one in line width of between 15 and 25 millimeters. Its shaft is pressed onto the tire with a spring plate. only controling the wheel speed will do. To drive driving wheels. Steear robot to track the line with any steearing mechanism. white line on the black floor and black line on the white floor. and some leading contestants are using an image sensor for image processing. any phase compensation will be required to stabilize tracking motion by applying digital PID filter or any other servo argolithm. and it also constitutes the chasis.1. the output torque is transferred to the wheels. Capture line position with optical sensors mounted at front end of the robot. Control speed according to the lane condition. Electronics Controller Line sensor Power supply Motor ATmega8 (Atmel) Six photo-reflectors Two CR2032 lithium cells (One is for controller. Running speed is limited during passing a curve due to friction of the tire and the floor. pager or any mobile equipment are used. The line following robot is upheld in three points of two driving wheels and a free wheel. 3. This is just a servo operation. the other is for motors) Two micromotors for . The line sensing procss requires high resolution and high robustness. Hardware Mechanics Right image shows bottom view and side view of the built line following robot. The free wheel is a 5 mm dia ball bearing attached loosely. The steearing mechanism is realized in differential drive that steear the robot by difference in rotation speed between the left wheel and the right wheel. two tiny vibration motors that used for cellular phone. 2. The driving wheels are made with a 7 mm dia ball bearing and a rubber tire. There are two line styles.

The other lithium coin cell is for only motors. 12.5(H) [mm] 15 grams (Body:8g. Cells:7g) 53 centimeter per second at oval course An Atmel ATmega8 is used for the controller and it is powered by a lithium coin cell. The latest circuit diagram is here. Six photo-reflectors are mounted at front end of the chasis. Software Using photo-reflectors . Separating the power supply into two cells is to avoid accidental reset of the microcontroller due to voltage dip by motor start current. 33(W). Motors are driven in PWM to control rotation speed lineary.left wheel and right wheel Dimensions Weight Performance 45(L). They sense reflection rate of the floor under them.

Therefore only the modurated signal from the light emitter can be detected. to remove the variations from the outputs. Signal processing of line detection Right image shows the actual line posisiton vs detected line position in center value of 640. Thus the line position can be detected lineary with only six sensors. turn on LED and sample again the output voltage. output voltage by the ambient light is canceled. This can be done with online mode. The difference between the two samples is the optical current by LED. most contestants are using two or more number of poto-reflectors. In this project. The microcontroller starts to scan the sensor status. The detected signal is filtered with a band pass filter and disused signals are filtered out.To detect a line to be followed. calibration parameters for each sensor can be held into non-volatile memory. and the sensitivity have variety between each one of them. Of course the detector must not be saturated by ambient light. All the sensor outputs are captured as analog value that proportioning to reflection ratio. sample an output voltage. Most photo-detecting modules for industrial use are using modurated light to avoid interference by the ambient light. This is suitable for arraied sensors that scanned in sequence to avoid interference from next sensor. Its output current that proportional to reflection rate of the floor is converted to voltage with a resister and tested it if the line is detected or not. In this system. The microcontroler enters the online . The other sensors are also scanned the same avobe in sequence. this is effective when the detector is working in linear region. However the threshold voltage cannot be fixed to any level because optical current by ambent light is added to the output current like the image shown right. pulsed light is used to cancel ambient light. The microcontroller scans six sensors and calcurates the line position by output ratio of two sensors near the line.

and S2 command calibrates variation of sensor gain on the reference surface (white paper). The ATmega8 must be set to 8MHz internal osc. the position error is processed with Proportional/Integral/Diffence filters to generate steering command. and it also compensate phase lag at the controled object. The line folloing robot tracks the line in PID control that the most popular argolithm for servo control. The differencial term is applied in order to improve the responce to disturbance. S1 command monitors sensor values. The proportional term is the commom process in the servo system.mode when an ISP cable is attached. It is only a gain amplifire without time dependent process. The D term will be required in most case to stabilize tracking motion. the motors are stopped and the microcontroller enters sleep state of zero power consumption. however. . The I term that boosts DC gain is applied in order to remove left offset error.4kbps. Tracking control The line position is compeared to the center value to be tracked. When any line sensing error has occured for a time due to getting out of line or end of line. it often decrease servo stability due to its phase lag. and it can be controlled with a terminal program in serial format of N81 38. The line following operation can ignore such tracking offset so that the I term is not required. The I term is not used in this project from following resons.

Therefore the servo parameter must be optimized for mechanical characterristics to improve the tracking stability. EVERYTHING AS PER YOUR NEED JUST CALL US 09717408885 OR MAIL AT ± freshersblog@gmail.Notes y y y y y Development diary [Ja] Circuit diagram Firmware May 23. Following motion with P and D controls Adding D control could improve the servo stability. The robot follows the line correctly.THESIS.KITS.MODELS. CALL INDIANENGINEER¶S TO MAKE YOUR PROJECT.com December 18. 2008 Posted by Common wealth games | project ideas | 11 Comments Previous Entries . 2004 Following motion with only P control This is a video file of line following motion with only P control. WE PROVIDE PROJECTS. The servo system oscllated.REPORTS.PRESENTATAIONS.

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