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ANATOMICAL PRINCIPLES

INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES:
At the end of the session, the student is expected to:
1. Define anatomical terms pertaining to the body:
1.1. Position
1.2. Planes
1.3. Sections
2. Describe the orientation of the body in the human anatomical position.
3. Identify and describe the planes of human body.
4. Identify the 2 divisions of the human body and their corresponding structures.
5. Identify the major and minor cavities of the human body and the organ structures it contain.

Scientists and health-care professionals use a common language of special terms when referring
to the body structures and their functions. The language of anatomy and physiology has precisely
defined meanings that allow us to communicate without using unneeded or ambiguous words.

ANATOMICAL POSITION
Person is standing erect with the feet forward, arms hanging to the sides, and palms of the
hands facing forward.

Provides a frame of reference for using various terms of positions to:
▪ Locate specific structure
▪ Describe spatial relationship

PLANES AND SECTIONS
In visualizing anatomical relationships, it is often helpful to imagine planes passing
through the body.

PLANES
Imaginary flat surfaces
1. SAGITTAL PLANE
Runs vertically through the body
Separates the body into right and left portions.
2. FRONTAL PLANE
Runs vertically from right to left side of the body.
Divides the body into front and back portions.
3. TRANSVERSE PLANE
Runs parallel to the surface of the ground.
Divides the body into upper and lower portions.

SECTIONS
Imaginary slices through the body along a plane.
TERMS OF POSITION
Refers to the body in the anatomical position regardless of its actual positions.
These are used to describe the position of structures in relation to other structures or body

Forearms .Arms .Abdomen .Hands 2. ANTERIOR Toward the front of the body.Feet . DORSAL Toward the back of the body.Ankles . Upper limbs .Thorax . Head 2. PROXIMAL Closer to the point of attachment to the body than another structure DISTAL Farther from the point of attachment to the body than another structure LATERAL Away from the midline of the body MEDIAL Toward the midline of the body SUPERFICIAL Toward or on the surface DEEP Away from the surface BODY DIVISIONS AXIAL DIVISION 1. parts. INFERIOR A structure lower than the other. Trunk . SUPERIOR A structure higher than the other.Pelvis APPENDICULAR DIVISION 1. Neck 3. POSTERIOR Toward the back of the body.Thighs . VENTRAL Toward the front of the body.Wrists . Shoulder girdles 3. Lower limbs .Legs .

Pancreas 3. PELVIC CAVITY Small space enclosed by the bones of the pelvis Contents: 1. there are smaller cavities: 2. 2.2. ABDOMINAL CAVITY Primarily bounded by the abdominal muscles Contents: 1. 1. MEDIASTINUM It is the central portion of the thoracic cavity which is located between the pleural cavities and extend from the sternum to the vertebral column.1. Liver 6. Kidneys 2. Both of which are located on the axial portion of the body. 1. PLEURAL CAVITY Left and right lateral portions of the thoracic cavity. Pelvic girdles BODY CAVITIES The body is divided into two major cavities.4.1.2. Urinary bladder 2. and the thoracic portion of the vertebral column. Spleen 2. ORBITAL CAVITY Contains the eyes .1.1. PERICARDIAL CAVITY Contained within the mediastinum Contains the heart 2. It contains all the thoracic viscera except the lungs. These are: 1. These are: 1. THORACIC CAVITY It is encircled by the ribs.2.1.2.2. Part of the large intestine 3. 2. 2. CRANIAL CAVITY It is formed by the cranial bones and contains the brain. 2. ad from the neck to the diaphragm.1. SPINAL CAVITY It is formed by the vertebral column and contains the spinal cord. Within this cavity. VENTRL CAVITIES It is located on the anterior aspect of the body.2. the sternum. Internal reproductive organs There are also minor cavities of the body. Contains the lungs.3. Intestines 5.1. the muscles of the chest. ABDOMINOPELVIC CAVITY 2. Stomach 4. DORSAL CAVITIES It is located near the posterior surface of the body.

uvula and tonsils. teeth.2. palate. BUCCAL CAVITY Contains the tongue. . NASAL CAVITY Contains the olfactory epithelium 3.