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A profile describes a set of properties, e.g. a set of skills a person may have or a set of skills required for a particular job. Profile matching aims to determine how well a given profile fits to a requested profile. Profiles can be defined by filters in a lattice of concepts derived from a knowledge base that is grounded in description logic, and matching can be realised by assigning values in [0,1] to pairs of such filters: the higher the matching value the better is the fit. In this paper the problem is investigated, whether given a set of filters together with matching values determined by some human expert a matching measure can be determined such that the computed matching values preserve the rankings given by the expert. In the paper plausibility constraints for the values given by an expert are formulated. If these plausibility constraints are satisfied, the problem of determining a ranking-preserving matching measure can be solved.

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Bases?

**Jorge Martinez Gil1 , Lorena Paoletti1 , Gábor Rácz2 , Attila Sali2 ,
**

Klaus-Dieter Schewe1

1

Software Competence Center Hagenberg, Softwarepark 21, 4232 Hagenberg, Austria

jorge.martinez-gil|lorena.paoletti|kd.schewe@scch.at

2

Alfréd Rényi Institute of Mathematics, P.O.B.127, 1364 Budapest, Hungary

gabee33@gmail.com, sali@renyi.hu

**Abstract. A profile describes a set of properties, e.g. a set of skills a
**

person may have or a set of skills required for a particular job. Profile

matching aims to determine how well a given profile fits to a requested

profile. The research taken in this paper uses a knowledge base grounded

in description logic to represent the knowledge about profiles. Thus, pro-

files can be defined by filters in the underlying lattice of the concepts in

the TBox of the knowledge base. Matching can be realised by assigning

values in [0,1] to pairs of such filters: the higher the matching value the

better is the fit. Conversely, given a set of filters together with match-

ing values determined by some human expert, the question is, whether a

matching measure can be determined such that the computed matching

values preserve the rankings given by the expert. In the paper plausi-

bility constraints for the values given by an expert are formulated. If

these plausibility constraints are satisfied, the problem of determining

an appropriate matching measure can be solved in an order-preserving

way.

1 Introduction

**A profile describes a set of properties, and profile matching is concerned
**

with the problem to determine how well a given profile fits to a requested

one. Profile matching appears in many application areas such as matching

applicants for jobs to job requirements, matching system configurations

to requirements specifications, etc.

?

The research reported in this paper was supported by the Austrian

Forschungsförderungsgesellschaft (FFG) for the Bridge project “Accurate and Ef-

ficient Profile Matching in Knowledge Bases” (ACEPROM) under contract [FFG:

841284]. The research reported in this paper has further been supported by the

Austrian Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology, the Federal Ministry

of Science, Research and Economy, and the Province of Upper Austria in the frame

of the COMET center SCCH. [FFG: 844597]

1

Therefore. level of complexity of problems addressed with the skill. formally defining a knowledge representation language and matching measures based on filters. There- fore. competences and education such as DISCO [2]. 12]. it appears favourable to not only assume a lattice structure. This raises first the question how matching can be generalised from filters in lattices to knowledge bases. even though many distance measures between sets such as Jaccard or Sørensen-Dice [10] have proven to be useful in ecological applications. 5. However. etc. but it would ignore the fine-tuning of the knowledge that is obtained through the roles. Taking the profile just as a set of unrelated items is usually not ap- propriate for the problem. which means to enrich the concept lattice by inverse images defined by the roles [13]. That is. 4] was already presented in [11] aiming to 2 . On the grounds of these application-oriented dictionaries for profile matching a lattice structure for the individual properties can be assumed. which makes manual management of dependencies almost impossible. we exploit “blowing-up” roles. The second question. There- fore. ISCED [8] and ISCO [9] have been set up. but it is more likely that fur- ther attributes are given such as years of experience associated with the skill. but to exploit sophisticated knowledge representation features for semantic matching problems as advocated by Falk. In our research we adopt this basic assumption how to represent knowledge about properties. it can well be argued that the hierarchical dependencies in lattices are still insufficient for capturing the exact meaning of the properties in a profile. This has been exploited by Popov and Jebelean in [14] defining a different asymmetric matching measure on the basis of filters in such lattices. which is the core problem handled in this pa- per concerns the relationship of rankings obtained through the matching measures and the judgements of human experts. Using just the lattice defined by the named concepts can be used as a starting point. For instance. The reason is that many dependencies between the properties have to be taken into account. which is necessary in view of the frequent changes to such a knowledge base. In Section 2 we give a brief account on our general approach to profile matching in knowl- edge bases. With this the automatic classification of properties such as skills and competences can be supported. Mochol and others [3. we exploit description logics [1] as the basis for knowledge representation using a rather expressive language similar to SROIQ(D). An initial idea based on formal concept analysis [6. in the human resources application area many taxonomies for skills. it is not common to request just “programming in Java” as a required skill.

Note that Definition 1 only permits subsumption between concepts.C Definition 1.R (with m > 0) | {I0 } C = A | ¬C | C1 u C2 | C1 t C2 | ∃R. A TBox is a finite set T of assertions of the form C1 v C2 with concepts C1 and C2 as defined by the grammar above. This key contribution will be presented in Section 3. Start from the set of filters together with matching values or simply rankings determined by some human expert. we will permit the denotation of individuals as supported by SROIQ(D) [1] and OWL2 [7]. We show that all these rankings permit to determine a suitable matching measure. not 3 . 2. We will start with the general approach to knowledge representation. For the former one we define a language. which defines the TBox of a knowledge base. proceed with the representation of profiles.1 Knowledge Representation For the representation of knowledge we adopt the fundamental distinction between terminological and assertional knowledge that has been used in description logics since decades. individuals and roles. We conclude with a brief summary.enrich the knowledge base by additional concepts that would justify the judgement of the human expert.C | ∀R. 2 Profile Matching in Knowledge Bases In this section we present the formal definitions underlying our approach to profile matching in knowledge bases. respectively. Here we investigate the learning of the matching measure. We then use formal concept analysis on a family of binary relations on the set of filters determined by the expert rankings. A TBox consists of concepts and roles. Each assertion C1 v C2 in a TBox T is called a subsumption axiom. and discuss filter-based matching. while the instances define a corresponding ABox. Then concepts C and roles R are defined by the following grammar: R = R0 | R0− | R1 ◦ R2 A = C0 | > | ≥ m. For this assume that C0 . Some plau- sibility constraints should nonetheless be satisfied to exclude unjustified bias that is grounded in the valuation of facts not represented in a knowl- edge base. In addition. I0 and R0 represent not further specified sets of basic concepts.

such that S(C1 ) ⊆ S(C2 ) holds for all assertions C1 v C2 in T . and individuals ā ∈ O for all a ∈ I0 . y) ∈ S(R1 ) ∧ (y. Definition 2. .R is a shortcut for ¬ ≥ m + 1. and individuals in the ABox as concrete properties such as the “Java knowledge of Lara”.g. . The semantics of a TBox is defined by structures. An ABox for a TBox T is a finite structure S. e. and for each role R we define a subset S(R) ⊆ O × O as follows: S(R0− ) = {(y. O is called the base set of the structure. 4 .e. We first extend the interpretation of basic concepts and roles and to all concepts and roles as defined by the grammar above. z) | ∃y. given an ABox a profile is simply a subset of the base set O. though it is possible to define more complex terminologies that also permit role subsumption.R.R u ≤ m. A structure S for a TBox T consists of a non-empty set O together with subsets S(C0 ) ⊆ O and S(R0 ) ⊆ O × O for all basic concepts R0 and basic roles R0 .C) = {x ∈ O | (x. and = m. y) ∈ S(R) for some y ∈ S(C)} S(∀R.between roles.R.R) = {x ∈ O | #{y | (x. an } is a shortcut for {a1 } t · · · t {an }. z) ∈ S(R2 ) S(>) = O S({a}) = {ā} S(≥ m. x) | (x. respectively.(x.R is a shortcut for ≥ m. . for each concept C we define a subset S(C) ⊆ O. i. y) ∈ S(R)} ≥ m} S(¬C) = O − S(C) S(C1 u C2 ) = S(C1 ) ∩ S(C2 ) S(C1 t C2 ) = S(C1 ) ∪ S(C2 ) S(∃R. – ⊥ is a shortcut for ¬>. As usual. we use several shortcuts: – C1 ≡ C2 can be used instead of C1 v C2 v C1 . y) ∈ S(R) ⇒ y ∈ S(C) for all y} Definition 3. For the following we always consider a concept C in a TBox as repre- sentation of abstract properties. y) ∈ S(R0 )} S(R1 ◦ R2 ) = {(x. . Therefore. “knowledge of Java”. – {a1 .C) = {x ∈ O | (x. – ≤ m.

C 0 with C ≤ C 0 whenever C ∈ F holds. p ∈ S(C)} Therefore. 5 . it is defined by the relative weight measure m on L with m(A) = #A/#L. F2 ) = m(F1 ∩ F2 )/m(F2 ) holds for some relative weight measure m on L. 2. ≤) be a lattice.2.3 Filter-Based Matching In the following let (L. 1] satisfying (1) m(L) = 1. A filter in a lattice (L. Definition 5. F2 ) = #(F1 ∩ F2 )/#F2 Thus. then also C 0 ∈ F holds. 1] such that µ(F1 . If P ⊆ O is a profile.2 Profiles as Filters Obviously. A matching measure is a function µ : F × F → [0. A relative weight measure on L is a function m : P(L) → [0. and v for the partial order. and S P (2) m( i∈I Ai ) = i∈I m(Ai ) for pairwise disjoint Ai (i ∈ I). the concepts in a TBox define a lattice with u and t as op- erators for meet and join. then P defines in a natural way a filter F of the lattice L of concepts: F = {C ∈ L | ∃p ∈ P. for determining matching relations we can concentrate on filters F in a lattice. Example 1. such that for all C. So let us abstract for a moment from the specific definition of the knowledge base by TBox and ABox and assume to be given a lattice (L. ≤) is a non-empty subset F ⊆ L. and let F ⊆ P(L) denote the set of filters in this lattice. Definition 4. Note that the definition implies that also m(L − A) = 1 − m(A) must hold for a relative weight measure on L and any A ⊆ L. ≤). The matching measure µpj defined in [14] uses simply car- dinalities: µpj (F1 .

then we obtain the matching measure val- ues µ(F. F2 ) = w(C) · w(C) . w(C5 ) = 10 . It is easy to see that every matching measure µ is defined by weights w(C) = m({C})P ∈ [0. C5 } C5 Fig. 1. each generated by one or two elements of the lattice. C3 . C4 . C3 } hC2 . C2 } hC3 i = {C1 . G) = µ(F2 . A simple lattice and its filters Then we obtain seven filters for this lattice. G shown in Table 1. The lattice structure is shown in Figure 1. then µ(F2 . With this we immediaely obtain m(F) = C∈F w(C) and thus −1 X X µ(F1 . C2 . 3 1 w(C4 ) = 10 . Example 3. C3 . F2 ) expresses how well a given profile F1 matches a required profile F2 . If we take filters F1 = hC3 i and F2 = hC4 i representing given assets. C4 } hC2 . C1 Filters F: hC1 i = {C1 } C2 C3 hC2 i = {C1 . w(C2 ) = 10 . then we have 1 µ(F1 . 1] for the elements C ∈ L. C3 . In the table the row label is F and the column label is G. w(C3 ) = 51 . C4 . C2 . G) = . C3 i = {C1 . C2 . C5 }. Note that in general matching measures are not symmetric. C3 i be the filter that represents the requirements. C4 } hC5 i = {C1 . C3 } C4 hC4 i = {C1 . C3 . F1 ) measures what is “too much” in the given profile F1 that is not required in profile F2 [13]. Take the filter L from Example 2 shown in Figure 1. Let G = hC2 . C∈F1 ∩F2 C∈F2 Example 2. If µ(F1 . 2 6 . Taking a simple lattice L with only five elements: L = {C1 . 1 3 If we now define weights w(C1 ) = 10 . C2 . C4 i = {C1 . These filters are also shown in Figure 1.

. 2 then we see that F1 matches “better”. . this becomes relevant. say C 00 = {a1 . A matching measure µ on the lattice L i. but a TBox is more than its concept lattice. F2 ) = . In order to fully exploit the knowledge represented in a TBox we integrate the TBox by blow-up operators. C3 i hC4 i hC2 .C 0 holds. if C is a concept. Formally. as F2 contains C4 . which is called the result of the blow-up of R with respect to C 00 on the concept C. C4 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 10 hC5 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Table 1.. . for which C v ∃R. we have C1 v C2 ⇒ blR. Any subsumption between subconcepts of C 0 naturally induces subsumption on these blown-up subconcepts of C. to which the matching measures as discussed before can be applied. if C 00 is defined by individuals. hC1 i hC2 i hC3 i hC2 . . which is not required at all. In particular.C 00 (C) = C u ∃R.e.e.C1 (C) v blR.C 00 of C. C4 i hC5 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 hC1 i 1 4 3 6 6 9 10 1 2 1 4 2 hC2 i 1 1 3 3 6 9 5 1 1 1 1 3 hC3 i 1 4 1 2 2 3 10 1 2 3 hC2 . if we also consider 1 µ(G. By means of the blow-up operators we bring the information carried by the roles into additional concepts.C2 (C) . then for any subconcept C 00 v C 0 we can define the subconcept blR.4 Role-Enriched Filter-Based Matching The matching measures introduced so far are based solely on filters in a lattice. C3 i 1 1 1 1 2 3 5 1 1 2 2 hC4 i 1 4 1 2 1 3 5 9 hC2 . in the model application area deal- ing with matching between candidate profiles (represented by filters F) 7 . 2. i. an }. both given filters match the requirements equally well. In particular. At this point a few pragmatic remarks concerning the matching pro- cess in practice are due. However. F1 ) = 1 and µ(G.

. As the matching values as such are merely used to determine 8 . i. . a certain personal bias can never be fully excluded. Note that each filter F ∈ F is uniquely determined by its minimal elements. may be subjected to a second ranking with re- spect to the inverted matching. 1]. In a third step the “overqualification” may be considered as empha- sised in Example 3. ISCO [9] and others by adding the missing joins and meets. C v ∃R. it might as well be the case that concepts in the given profiles that do not appear in the requirements may as well be considered as secondary assets instead of being considered not to be needed. level of application knowledge. Such lattices arise from the taxonomies given by DISCO [2]. the enrichment of the knowledge base will mainly contain such blown-up subconcepts of C. Consequently. G) holds for all pairs of filters. The general question is whether there exists a matching measure µ on F as defined before such that µ(F. the matching will be based first only on lattices of named concepts plus their intersections and unions. In a second step a more fine-tuned matching may be required such as considering years of experience with a particular skill. That is. 3 Matching Analysis Let L be a lattice with profiles defined by filters. ISCED [8]. . Such a process can be repeated with tertiary and in general nth-ary matchings as long as needed. . an additional secondary matching may be based on extensions to the requested profile G. .e. Finally. . That is. G) = h(F. . we will assume in the sequel that h is total. but most likely the concept C 0 defining the co-domain of the role R to be blown-up on concept C. . . Bias concepts may also be added to some of the given profiles to ensure that the resulting matching coincides with expectations. That is. Ck i. This can be captured by additional concepts – let us call them biases B1 . say C 0 = {a1 . For this a slightly enlarged knowledge base containing roles may be exploited. . an }.C 0 . etc.and requested job profiles (represented by filters G) first very few roles are used. However. Matching on top of such a knowledge would exploit the concepts resulting from the blow-up operators. . Bk – that are added to the required profile. Let F denote the set of all filters. will be defined by a finite set of individuals. The matching knowledge of a human expert can be represented be a partial mapping h : F × F → [0. Though human experts will hardly ever provide complete information. . profiles that equally (or almost equally) well match the requirements. so we can write F = hC1 .

G) ≥ h(F2 . First we show the following simple lemma. G2 ) holds. F1 . Lemma 1. G − {C}) holds for C ∈/ F. F1 ∩ G) < µ(F. as in this case F ∩ G = G holds. G) = 1 for G ⊆ F. i. G) ⇔ µ(F. Proof. m(G − {C}) + w(C) m(G − {C}) For property (3) the case C ∈ / F is trivial. we get m(F ∩ G) m(F ∩ G) + w(C) µ(F. In case C ∈ G − F holds. G ∪ {C}). the matching measure should imply the same rankings. whenever h(F1 . (3) µ(F. Then we have m(F ∩ (G − {C})) m(F ∩ (G − {C})) µ(F. Then for all filters F.e. m(G) m(G) 9 .rankings whereas their concrete value is of minor importance. G) ≤ µ(F. G − {C}) . this prob- lem can be weakened to find a ranking-preserving matching measure µ on F.e. 3. For property (2) let C ∈ G without loss of generality. then µ(F1 . (2) µ(F. G) holds. the assessment of the human ex- pert is not grounded in hidden concepts. A matching measure µ on F is called ranking-preserving with respect to h : F × F → [0. G) ≥ µ(F2 . G1 ) ≥ µ(F. Definition 6. whenever h(F. i. (4) If F ∩ F1 ∩ G = F ∩ F2 ∩ G holds. 1] iff (1) for all filters µ(F1 . G) > µ(F2 . G ∈ F the following conditions hold: (1) µ(F. G1 ) ≥ h(F. If such plausibility conditions are satisfied we explore the existence of a ranking-preserving matching measure µ. G2 ) holds. Property (1) is obvious from the definition of matching measures (Definition 5). G) = ≤ = µ(F ∪ {C}. F2 . G) ≤ µ(F ∪ {C}. Let µ be a matching measure on F. G ∪ {C}) . G) = ≤ = µ(F. G) holds. F2 ∩ G). and (2) for all filters µ(F.1 Plausibility Constraints We are looking for plausibility constaints for the mapping h that should be satisfied in the absence of bias.

G) = ≤ = µ(F ∪ {C}. G ∪ {C}) for any concept C. In case C ∈/ G first note that for any values a. because the percentage of requirements that are satisfied increases. (4) If F ∩ F1 ∩ G = F ∩ F2 ∩ G holds. 1] should satisfy: (1) h(F. G) > h(F2 . G) ⇔ h(F. so the matching value should increase. 3.2 Derivation of Matching Measures We want to show the following: Theorem 1. Therefore. which completes te proof. In this case the matching value should increase. then simply the profile F ∪{C} satisfies more requirements than F. we require them as plausibility constraints that a human-defined mapping h : F × F → [0. G ∪ {C}) . F2 ∩ G). we get b b+c m(F ∩ G) m(F ∩ G) + w(C) µ(F. provided the intersections of F ∩ G with the two given profiles coincide. If C ∈ G holds. G) ≤ h(F. b. 10 . (2) h(F. c with a ≤ b we get a a+c ab + ac ≤ ab + bc and thus ≤ . Then there esists a matching measure µ that is ranking-preserving with respect to h. G − {C}) for any concept C ∈ / F. t u Informally phrased property (1) states that whenever all requirements in a requested profile G (maybe even more) are satisfied by a given profile F. Property (2) states that if a require- ment not satisfied by a given profile F is removed from the requested profile G. G) = 1 for G ⊆ F. F1 ∩ G) < h(F. Property (4) states that if the given profile F1 is better suited for the required profile G than the given profile F2 . G) ≤ h(F ∪ {C}. m(G) m(G) + w(C) For property (4) the both sides of the equivalence is equivalent to m(F1 ∩ G) > m(F2 ∩ G). disregarding for the moment our theory of matching measures. then relative to G the profile F2 is less over-qualified than F1 for any other required profile F. Thus. then h(F1 . all four properties in Lemma 1 appear to be reasonable. the given profile will become a better match for the restricted profile. The case C ∈ / G is a bit more tricky. and (3) h(F. which is satisfied by the enlarged pro- file F ∪ {C}. as the profile G ∪{C} contains an additional requirement. Property (3) covers two cases. Let h be a human-defined matching measure that satisfies the plausibility constraints. then F is a perfect match for G. Thus.

we also obtain linear inequali- if we fixP ties of the form x< x with disjoint sets U and V corresponding to x∈U x∈V sets of weights of concepts. xn } to denote the inequality xi ∈ U mU (xi )xi < xj ∈ V mV (xj )xj . Assume the lattice L contains n + 2 elements C0 . . xn } → R + P of the variables Pby positive real P numbers such that x i∈I i precedes x j∈J j in P iff i∈I v(xi ) < j∈J v(xj ) holds. . As all sums are finite. For all other lattices we can extend the set of inequalities derived from h to the “worst case”. . So let h be a human-defined matching measure that satisfies the plausibility constraints. . P is realisable iff there is no positive integer combination of inequalities in P that results in A ≺ B with B ⊆ A as mutisets. G) < h(F2 . Analogously. Clearly. Theorem 2. P P As P is defined by h we can assume that i∈I xi precedes j∈J xj for I ⊂ J. . n) are pairwise incomparable. then Fixing a requested profile P h(F1 . In these inequalities we may remove summands w(C) on both sides for C ∈ F1 ∩ F2 ∩ G. . .. . then clearly the solution defines a matching measure µ that is order-preserving with respect to h. We can then also extend P to a partial order P̂ on multi- sets of variables by adding the same variable(s) to both sides.and bottom elements C0 and Cn+1 . . P G. . it is no loss of generality to seek substitutions by rational numbers. where mU and mV are the multiplicities for the two multisets. respectively. 11 . . n. let P be a linear order on the set of terms { i∈I xi | I ⊆ {1. Cn+1 with top. . For convenience we introduce the nota- P U ≺ V for multisets tion P U. V over {x1 . . . TheP“worst case” arises. in which all Ci (i = 1. and further using the common denominator it suffices to consider positive integers only.P a given profile F. as it only appears for the trivial case. i. . . . w(C0 ) never appears in the inequalities. We say that P is realisable iff there is a substitution v P : {x1 . . . . . . . . mB (xi ) ≤ mA (xi ) for all i = 1. P is realisable iff P̂ is realisable. So we reduce the problem of proving Theorem 1 to a problem of solving a set ofPlinear inequalities. If all these inequalities can be satisfied. This arises for the lattice L. . if we have a linear order on the set of all terms i∈I xi . G) defines a linear inequation of the form x < x with U = {w(C) | C ∈ F1 ∩ G} x∈U x∈V and V = {w(C) | C ∈ F2 ∩ G}.e. In particular. where xi represents w(Ci ) and I ⊆ {1. . Thus. n}. . n}}. Without loss of generality we can also ignore Cn+1 . .

As Ui < Vi is in P.e. Then proceed inductively defining Wi = Bi0 − Ui+1 0 as well as A0i+1 = Ui+1 0 ] Wi and 0 Bi+1 = Vi+1 ] Wi . but not to Ai . . Assume that P is not realisable. The necessity of the condition is obvious. Then according to TheoremU 2 there exist U inequalities U1 < V1 . Let B10 = V1 = V10 . Uk < Vk in P such k k that V = i = 1 Vi ⊆ i = 1 Ui = U as multisets and k XX k XX mUj (x)x < mVj (x)x. . we also have Ui < Vi in P for all i > 1 (U10 is not 0 yet defined). Proof (of Theorem 1). i. i i+1 i. . x∈U j=i x∈V j=i Let this system of inequalities be minimal.Proof (sketch). In particular. while Ak ≺ Bk . 00 = V ∩V Let Vi+1 i i+1 as multisets. x will at most be added to Bi to gibe Bi+1 . x On the other hand kj=1 mUj (x) ≥ P P Pk j=1 mVj (x). For the suffi- cuency we use Fourier-Motzkin elimination. Take the complement U 0 0 0 00 Vi+1 i i+1 such that Vi = Ui+1 ] Vi+1 . which gives A0i+1 < Bi+1 0 in P̂ and Bi0 = A0i+1 . but Vk0 = ∅. 00 ⊆ V 0 . Each x ∈ Vi0 is a witness for the violation of the condition in Theorem 2. the multiset of all x with mBi (x) > mAi (x) such that mVi0 (x) = mBi (x) − mAi (x) holds. x Let Vi0 be the multiset Bi −Ai . we obtain a chain B10 = A02 < B20 = · · · < Bk−1 0 = A0k < Bk0 . x j=1 x j=1 Pi Then for i < k there always exists some x with j=1 mUj (x) < P Pi j=1 mVj (x).e. we have Vi0 6= ∅ for all i < k. while Ai ≺ Bi . mV 0 (x)). so each subset violates the condition in Theorem 2. In particular. t u We now use Theorem 2 to prove our main result in Theorem 1. so mVi+1 00 (x) = min(mV 0 (x). 12 . That is. . Taking the inequalities in the some order let i XX i XX Ai = mUj (x)x and Bi = mVj (x)x.

We could show that if certain plausibility rules are obeyed by the human expert – i. due to this construction we also have Xi ⊇ Xi+1 for all i and Xk = ∅. t u Example 4. For this linear optimisation problem the well-known simplex algorithm can be exploited. These four inequalities define the contradictory cycle in P̂. which are in accordance with the mea- sures given by a human expert or at least imply the same rankings. From these we construct first the following inequalities in P̂: x3 + x4 < x4 + x5 . this defines X0 = {x2 }. which again defines a cycle.e. Therefore. Complement these definitions by U10 = Bk0 ∩ U1 = A01 . the constructed inequalities in P̂ would have been x3 + x4 < x4 + x5 . we get X0 = ∅. the matching and the rankings are not biased by criteria not represented in the knowledge base – then we can indeed 13 . which defines the additional inequality x1 + x2 < x3 + x4 . 4 Conclusion In this paper we addressed the problem to determine matching measures for profiles that produce rankings. Proceed inductively defining C1 = U10 ] X0 ≺ V1 ] X1 = B10 ] X1 = D1 and Xi+1 = Xi − (Ui+1 − A0i+1 ) This gives Ci+1 = A0i+1 ] Xi ≺ Bi+1 0 ] Xi+1 = Di+1 and Ci+1 = Di . However. For this we analysed linear inequalities that result from the human-defined rankings. we obtain solutions for the linear inequations P defined by P h by minimising x1 + · · · + xn − 1 under the con- ditions xj ∈V xj − xi ∈U xi ≤ for a very small constant > 0. This implies Dk = C1 . Note that our main result only states the existence of a ranking pre- serving matching measure µ. (1) To illustrate the construction in the proof take the in- equalities x1 + x2 < x3 + x4 . x4 +x5 < x1 +x2 +x3 and x1 +x2 +x3 < x1 +2x2 . which gives the addition inequality x1 + 2x2 < x2 + x3 + x4 and thre modified inequality x2 + x3 + x4 < x4 + x5 . Finally. x2 + x3 < x5 . x4 + x5 < x1 + x3 and x1 + x3 < x1 + x2 . and X0 = Bk0 − U1 = X1 . x4 + x5 < x1 + x3 and x3 < x2 in P which satisfy the condition in Theoren 2. which means we have a cycle in P̂ contradicting the fact that it is a partial order. P must be realisable. (2) If the third inequality had been x4 + x5 < x1 + x2 + x3 instead. As the last right hand side is U1 .

N. M. International standard classification of occupations. Ganter. Paoletti. Abramowicz. H. Sattler. pages 61–68. Levandowsky and D. Ma. http://www. 29(3):201–209. This will be addressed in our future research. Mochol. Using formal concept analysis for ontology maintenance in human resource recruitment.-D. 4. G. B. and K. 5. Wille. L. Improving the accuracy of job search with semantic techniques. A formal concept analysis approach to rough data tables. B. F. P. 6(4):309–322. http://www. 1971. Schewe. Martinez-Gil. Ferrarotti and G. volume 143 of CRPIT. In F. http://www. D. Transactions on Rough Sets. 2006. Journal of Web Semantics. 10th International Conference (BIS 2007). and U. 2007. and L. Research Institute for Symbolic Computation. 14:37–61. volume 4439 of Lecture Notes in Computer Science. H. 2008. Nixon. 13. 7. 2013. T. 2003. 10(8):926. I. Falk et al. J. 2013. pages 301–313. Wille. Ninth Asia-Pacific Conference on Conceptual Modelling (APCCM 2013). submitted for publication. 1999.mathematical foundations. and R. B. editors. Grossmann.org/Education/Pages/international-standard- classification-of-education. Horrocks. Implementation and Applications. editor. 3. Ganter and R. editors. Ganter and C. Australian Computer Society. M. Looser. 2. This shows that the very general approach to matching based on filters provides the necessary flexibility required for diverse matching tasks. J. Semantic matching for job search engines – a logical approach. Formal concept analysis: Theory and appli- cations. 8. 11. International standard classification of education. Infor- matik Spektrum. Meschke. with the help of which the human exper- tise can be approximated. Journal of Universal Computer Science.. Springer.uis. OWL 2: The next step for OWL. Springer. Distance between sets.org/public/english/bureau/stat/isco/isco08/. References 1. In W. B. Stumme.disco-tools. This is only a starting point for even more sophisticated matching analysis aiming at consensus building among different experts and deter- mination of the most suitable matching measure that is in accordance with the expert knowledge.create such matching measures. 14 .-D. Nature. European distionary of skills and competences. 234(5):34–35. and K. F. C. Popov and T. Schewe. B. Technical Report 13-02.ilo.aspx. Jebelean. 9. B. Wache. 6.eu. Formal concept analysis .unesco. We also have to take into account that valuations given by human experts will never be complete. Parsia. 2004. JKU Linz. Motik. Winter. Extending knowledge-based profile matching in the human resources domain. 12. 14. The Description Logic Handbook: Theory. Baader et al. 2015. Business Information Sys- tems. 10. Grau. 2008. Semantic-Web-Technologien in der Arbeitsplatzvermittlung. Patel-Schneider. Cambridge University Press. B. 2011.

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