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1. The head loss in a pipe can be expressed in the form hf = KQ2 .

Two pipes having
constants K1 and K2 are to be considered as a single equivalent pipe. Determine the
value K3 of this single pipe when the two are laid: i. in series ii. in parallel.
2. When the flow rates are expressed in litres per second and the head losses in metres, r
values for the pipe systems shown are as given in the table. Under a particular set of
inputs and demands the network experienced the flow rates indicated.
The head loss in the system was considered to be excessive and a second pipe was
along side pipe 3 so that they carried flow in parallel. The equivalent single pipe for
these two pipes has r = 0.000818. When the pipe had been installed the pipe flows
shown changed but the inputs and demands on the system remained the same. Use the
flows shown as initially assumed flows and apply an iterative method of network
analysis to determine the changed flows in the pipes. Make only two rounds of
corrections to the initial flows.

Pipe 1 2 4 5
r 0.000570 0.012118 0.001698 0.006946

Pipe 3 has K = 0.000818 in question
3. A pipeline of diameter D = 0.5 m has a length L = 200 m, and the value of the Darcy
friction λ may be assumed to have a constant value of 0.024. The pipeline contains
two fully open valves, the local head loss at each of which is 0.2v2 /2g, and three
bends at each of which the head loss is 0.5v2 /2g where V is the velocity of water in
the pipe. Calculate the value of K in the expression h = K Q2 relating the total head
loss h to the flow Q through the pipeline.

consider fanning friction factor. Viscosity = 10-3 Pa. f = 0.sec and density = 1500 kg/m3 For laminar flow. The diagram shows two loops of a horizontal network with inflows and outflows in m3/s. calculate the flow rate through each pipe and the pressure head at each node. f = 16/Re For transitional-turbulent flow. and final values of pressure heads may be rounded to the nearest metre. Estimate the pressure drop over the entire length of delivery line. No more than two rounds of iteration are required.25 . Pipe AB BC CD DE BE EF AF r 2 2 20 20 10 10 10 5.4. Neglect the minor losses due to sudden enlargement of pipe diameter. In a delivery line for carbontetrachloride at the constant flow rate of 4 X 10-5 m3/s. the first 1000 mm long section is of 20 mm inside diameter smooth pipe followed by another 1000 mm long section of 50 mm inside diameter smooth pipe as shown in the following figure.079Re-0. The r values of the seven pipes are given in the table. Data: For carbon tetrachloride. The pressure head at node A is 25 m.