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Session 5

Soil — Structure Interaction — General Report
Interaction Sol — Structure

H.G. POULOS Professor in Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia

1. IN T R O D U C T IO N particular value is the summary of solutions for
a plate on an elastic half-space, which is of
This general report has two objectives: direct value for design of raft foundations.
Two comprehensive general reviews have also been
(i) to review some of the more significant published. Hooper (1978) summarises methods and
developments in the area of soil- solutions for the linear elastic analysis of
structure interaction analysis since foundations under static loading, including
1977. rafts, pile groups, pile-raft foundations and
problems in which superstructure stiffness is
(ii) to review the papers presented to this allowed for. Meyerhof (1979) considers a simi­
Session. lar range of problems but also summarises some
available data on allowable deformation of
Attention in the first section will be concen­ structures. A feature of Meyerhof's paper is
trated on methods and applications of analytical the compact and clear re-presentation of a
techniques to problems involving static loading. number of theoretical and experimental results
Excluded from consideration will be problems in a readily-useable form, e.g. Fig.l shows
involving dynamic loading and problems related solutions for a uniformly loaded square piled
to rock mechanics. Soil-structure interaction raft on an elastic soil.
will be interpreted in the widest sense, and
will cover problems ranging from loading over — F lexib le S e m i-F le x ib le I S e m i-R ig id
portion of a soil mass to problems involving - 1 i Ti i i i r
interaction between the soil, the foundation and (A fte r Hain and Lee 1978)
the superstructure.

2. SOME S IG N IF IC A N T DEVELOPMENTS S IN C E 1977
Methods of analysing soil-structure interaction
problems can be broadly classified into one or
more of the following categories: analytical
(closed-form), finite differences, boundary
elements, finite elements. Recent analyses have
tended to concentrate on the latter two
approaches, and in particular, the finite elem­
ent approach, and hence this review will reflect
that concentration. While the finite element
method is generally considered to be the most
versatile approach, it should be emphasised that
many problems can be solved quite economically
and accurately by boundary element approaches,
and Hobbs et al (1978) and Randolph (1980) have
demonstrated the close agreement between
solutions from each approach. 10J 10'
( 1 - O E rIr
A number of books dealing specifically with R elative S tiffn e s s Kr
( 1 - v2)E sB 3
soil-structure interaction problems and their
solutions have appeared recently, and among the Fig.1 Total and Differential Settlements
most significant are those by Desai & Christian and Bending Moment for Uniformly
(1977), which covers a wide range of problems Loaded Square Piled Raft on Elastic
and gives a useful introduction to analysis Soil. (Meyerhof, 1979).
techniques, Gudehus (1977), Zienkiewicz (1978)
and Selvadurai (1979a). The latter presents an In attempting to review in greater detail some
exhaustive treatment of analytical methods for of the developments in soil-structure inter­
the solution of problems involving beam and action analysis, the following aspects will be
plates on a soil mass characterised by either a dealt with:
Winkler material or an elastic continuum. Of

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(i) development of numerical techniques Nonlinear Analysis Techniques: The variable
(ii) modelling of soil behaviour stiffness, initial stress, and initial strain
techniques for nonlinear finite element analysis
(iii) modelling of construction history are well known and widely used. A modified
(iv) parametric solutions initial strain technique which can be applied to
both hardening and ideally plastic materials has
(v) interpretation of field loading tests been described by Vermeer (1979) and is similar
(vi) analysis of reinforced soil in nature to the viscoplastic procedure devel­
oped by Zienkiewicz and Cormeau (1974). The
(vii) structure-foundation-soil interaction application of the initial stress approach to
and settlement criteria soil-structure interaction analysis has been
(viii) comparisons between theory and described by Rowe et al (1978) who apply it to
measurement. problems involving a substructuring technique.
This approach avoids computational difficulties
which may arise in cases where there is a large
2.1 Development of Numerical Techniques difference between the stiffness of the soil and
the structure.
The analytical tools available to the geotech-
nical engineer have become increasingly power­ The efficiency of the substructuring technique
ful and versatile as new and more sophisticated has been emphasised by Anand (1980) who has dis­
numerical techniques have been developed. While cussed the possibility of combining sub-struct-
such developments generally demand more and uring and mesh-refinement techniques to obtain
more computer space, there is at the same time efficient and accurate solutions. He also con­
recognition of the need to also develop methods cludes that, unless very accurate stress or
which can utilize mini-or micro-computers, in strain distributions are required, the use of
which case storage economy, rather than comput­ constant strain triangular elements is adequate
ing time, becomes the prime concern. An exam­ for nonlinear problems.
ple of such a method is described by Verruijt
(1980) for finite element solution of field Some recent investigations have given more care­
problems. Problems involving in excess of 100 ful consideration to the prediction of collapse
degrees of freedom can be fitted into a memory loads in elasto-plastic soil masses, and it has
space of 8 kilobytes, although the calculations been recognised that collapse loads are commonly
may take several hours to complete. over-predicted by employing the usual criteria
for collapse e.g. failure for the solution to
An aspect of numerical analysis which is of coverage after a specified large number of iter­
interest to the geotechnical engineer is the ations. Rowe and Davis (19 77) have incorporated
preparation of data, particularly for finite- special "rupture" lines into their analysis
element analyses. This has proved to be a very which then allows violation of strain compati­
time-consuming procedure in the past, but the bility between adjacent elements. They have
development of mesh-generation routines has shown that, with appropriate choice of rupture
allowed meshes to be much more rapidly and line location, good agreement can be obtained
accurately generated, checked and altered e.g. between the finite-element-predicted values of
Imafuku et al (1980) have described a general­ collapse loads and those obtained from classical
ised method for automatic generation of meshes plasticity theory. Toh and Sloan (1980) have
containing various types of elements. adopted a different approach, and in considering
the load-deformation characteristics of purely
In this sub-section developments in the follow­ cohesive elasto-plastic soils, have used a mixed
ing areas, mostly associated with finite elem­ variational formulation similar to that earlier
ent analysis, will be outlined: solution of employed by Nagtegaal et al (1974). For the
equations, nonlinear analysis techniques, treat­ case of a strip footing, the bearing capacity is
ment of boundaries and interfaces, economical more closely predicted than by conventional
solution of three-dimensional problems, incor­ techniques, although it is still about 8% larger
poration of consolidation and time effects, and than the correct solution. The major advantage
large-strain analyses. of this approach is that the number of elements
necessary to obtain a reasonable collapse load
Solution of Equations: Various schemes are now prediction is less than with conventional
available for more economical solution of large techniques.
sets of simultaneous equations e.g. frontal
solution techniques (Hinton and Owen, 1977) and Treatment of Boundaries and Interfaces: The
the approach described by Gupta and Tanji (1977) accuracy of solutions to elastic and elasto-
for large, sparse, unsymmetric equation sets. plastic problems is influenced by the chosen
Hofmeister (1978) has presented a program for location of the boundaries, particularly the
solution of fully-populated unsymmetric matrices lateral boundary. To avoid the necessity of
while Cooke (1978) has outlined an efficient using an excessively large finite element mesh,
out-of-core solution strategy for large systems the concept of a "superelement" has been devel­
of equations such as those which specify nodal oped (e.g. by Balaam, 1978) for problems in
point time derivatives in finite element models which a large portion of the soil mass remains
of transient flow problems. The relative mer­ elastic for the entire loading process. The
its of band-scheme and frontal solution schemes soil mass is divided into two sections, one
for the solution of linearised algebraic equat­ which may exhibit elasto-plastic behaviour, and
ions resulting from nonlinear finite element the other which always remains elastic. The
analyses is discussed by Agarwal et al (1980). stiffness matrix for this latter section, the
They conclude that band-schemes are more "super-element", may be generated and directly
versatile. added into the total stiffness matrix of the
elasto-plastic section, thus leading to consid­

308

using appropriate sets of soil parameters. who have all lem. solutions using elastic and ence) . although they are occasionally carried behaviour. and Hobbs et al (1978) present an elastic soil mass by converting the problem into example which illustrates this point. elasto-plastic material by Carter et al (1979a) 309 . including Small et al (1976). and obtaining a solution for the soil layers subjected to periodic loading. while carried out either for short-term (undrained) Cavendish et al (1977) have formulated sub­ conditions. approach avoids convergence problems which may so that the assumption of undrained conditions arise when using the other approaches. and then re-transforming the solution back sion of the displacement field in terms of a by inverting the Laplace transform. Sagaseta et al (1979) and Carter et al interfaces into the analysis of certain types of (19 79) . 1979) but they do soil layers has been described by Small and not appear to have been widely employed for soil Booker (1979). Zienkiewicz et al The importance of incorporating soil-structure (1978) . Kim and Kuhlemeyer (1977) describe example of its utilisation for soil-structure a variable stiffness finite element approach interaction problems is the analysis of later­ which gives stable solutions for relatively ally loaded piles described by Randolph (1978).g. and that may not be appropriate. a sidered. However. components. This Fourier series. The procedure is suffici­ struction of an embankment on very soft clay. large time intervals for which the initial strain Winnicki and Zienkiewicz (1979) have demon­ method may not be adequate. 1978). an solution into the form of an eigenvector expan­ efficient means of analysis involves the expan­ sion. particularly for silty frictional and dilatant behaviour of an inter­ soils. but the load is not. obtaining a solution to this structure and the material properties are problem using finite elements. omies is proposed by Gupta (1978) who has devel­ Efficient means of solving consolidation prob­ oped a transition element which makes it possi­ lems of horizontally layered soils have been ble to match one element with two elements side developed by Booker and Small (1979). This procedure is essentially a sub­ Customarily. These include the use of joint demonstrated how pore pressure dissipation can elements. any form of ity of geotechnical problems are analyzed on the surface loading can be treated. This procedure was developed approach can be applied to any visco-elastic for elastic materials by Wilson (1965) and an soil model. Other examples of strated how this procedure can be extended to analyses incorporating non-linear creep have plastic or visco-plastic materials and have been described by Sekiguchi and Shibata (1979) . They structure approach (Rowe et al. found that. like Carter et al face can readily be specified. for soil have been solved by several authors. The latter authors have demonstrated problems has been increasingly recognised (e.erable savings in both storage and computation Incorporation of Consolidation and Time Effects: time. the computer time required by this approach investigated the problem of an embankment on a is only about one-sixth of that using a full soil layer. By Large-Strain Analyses: Although the vast major­ superposition of these solutions. ently compact that it can be implemented on a Such an analysis has been described for an mini-computer. be incorporated into analyses of excavations of Herrmann. the con­ vertical direction. and the application of the sub­ both linear and non-linear soil masses. for a footing load-deflection prob­ Thamm (1979) . Analyses involving both consolidation and creep Another procedure for the economical solution of have also been developed (e. and a two-or. out for major projects and problems. Similar However. the analysis of soil-structure structuring approach. are still too costly and cumbersome for most routine appli­ Time-dependency due to creep has also been con­ cations.g.g. Booker and Small.g. assumption of infinitesimal strains. and Redman (1980). Brown and Booker (1979) have solved plane strain solution may suffice for practical the problem of a raft foundation on a visco­ purposes. Osaimi and Clough (1979) have face properties. Problems by side. or for long-term (drained) condit­ structured "macro-elements" for use in problems ions. for the problem of consolidation around a see the paper by Mineiro et al to this Confer­ pile after driving. three-dimensional analysis. Another means of effecting econ­ volving time-dependency due to consolidation. and a similar process has interaction problems involving clay soils is been described by Pircher and Beer (1977) . Gioda and Cividini. two and three-dimensional problems involving 1977 . The lat­ have shown that significant pore pressure dissi­ ter authors demonstrate that the substructure pation may occur during the excavation period. an equivalent elastic problem via a Laplace for problems in which the geometry of the transformation. (1979) . converting this axially-symmetric. They have also found. involving high stress concentrations. 1978). The procedure is based on devel­ structure interaction problems as yet because of oping the solution into its Fourier or Bessel their relatively high cost. that. there are three-dimensional problem is thus reduced some problems in which the strains developed may effectively to a one-dimensional problem as the be considerable and for which a finite-strain soil profile only has to be discretized in the analysis would be more appropriate e. and a variety of procedures have been elasto-plastic stress-strain laws give very sim­ developed to allow for modelling of the inter­ ilar results. the development of finite element con­ concepts have been employed by Kausel and solidation analyses has enabled analyses to be Roesset (1977) for dynamic wave propagation in made of soil-structure interaction problems in­ layered soils. that the consideration of non-linear soil behaviour does not lead to significantly Economical Solution of Three-Dimensional Prob­ different rates of pore pressure dissipation lems: Full three-dimensional finite element from those computed on the assumption of linear analyses. and thus allows for easier transitions involving non-linear constitutive relationships from fine to coarse meshes. In some three-dimensional cases. the use of bond-link springs (e.

The inclusion of consolidation into large-strain problems has been described by Carter et al (1977) for elastic soils and Carter et al (1979) for elasto-plastic soils. There is For some problems. amongst others. Desai (1979) and Gudehus (1979). Nova (1979) and Ghaboussi and Momen (1979). for cyclic loading. behaviour of normally consolidated and lightly overconsolidated kaolin in triaxial tests. An Endochronic models have been proposed by Bazant illustration of the unsatisfactory nature of a and Krizek (1976) and Ansal et al (1979) to nonlinear elastic model is shown in Fig. but they become quite surface and the applicability of the normality unsatisfactory for assessing the plastic deform­ rule in such models. Two soil models shear. gives better predict­ response for some loading paths.2 for a describe the behaviour of soil under cyclic strip footing on a soil mass. elasto-plastic material. a bilinear elastic and a simple Dungar and Nuh (19 80) to incorporate critical elastic-plastic model. and its main purpose is to anisotropic behaviour of soils under drained or provide a basis for parametric studies to be undrained loading. both with associated and result in an unrealistic prediction of material non-associated flow rules. the bilinear soil (1980) has compared the behaviour of hypoelastic model gives a much "weaker" response. Nelson (1977). although (such as the hyperbolic model) are now better it has some limitations in accurately predicting appreciated but they continue to be widely used. there is a vast difference between the elasticity and critical state theory has been two solutions because of the rotation of princi­ proposed by Davis and Mullenger (1978). Prevost's (V) hypoelastic model incorporates both isotropic and kinematic hardening rules by using a series of nested The limitations of the linear elastic model are yield surfaces. are similar. and can model the nonlinear well recognized. Mroz pal stresses during loading. It can also be used to model made for soil-structure interaction problems. The model of The deficiencies of nonlinear elastic models Mroz et al involves similar concepts. and plastic soil models and has shown that the two are equivalent for the loading process. For the case of a weight­ state concepts and also to allow for the effects less soil (K0=l). He demonstrates that the loading- utilized. but The work-hardening elasto-plastic models devel­ differ in defining unloading or reverse loading oped at Cambridge continue to be explored and patterns.2 Modelling of Soil Behaviour The quest has continued to develop a model of soil behaviour which embraces all aspects of behaviour under static and cyclic loading. whereas in an ated flow rule. Hardin (1978). by (iv) endochronic Prevost (1979).in which plastic failure is treated by a general (197R) contend that the modified theory predicts yield condition and plastic deformation by an the behaviour of Bangkok clay more accurately. Reviews of some of these relationships have been made by Morgenstern (1975). but for an initial stress state involving a horizontal stress greater than the A soil model incorporating the concepts of hypo- vertical. and Chaudry and Balasubramanian (1978) while Zienkiewicz et al (1977) have 310 . and a great variety of constitutive relationships have been proposed. it coincides with the direction of overall principal stress. and this approach has been extended by are used. such models give quite sat­ still some debate over the form of the yield isfactory solutions. Mroz et al (1978. They conclude that the major effects of finite strain analyses arise from the geometry changes and that the develop­ ment of plastic zones is governed by the ratio of Young's modulus to yield stress. and in partic­ ions than the modified Cam-Clay model for the ular. Most soil models can be classified broadly into the following Dimcnsionlcss S e ttle m e n t ^ categories: cB (i) li n e a r e l a s t i c Fig. the effects of cyclic loading. This occurs because of the inherent some circumstances and that the use of a non­ assumption that the direction of plastic princi­ associated flow rule is a more faithful repres­ pal strain increments coincides with that of entation of real soil behaviour than the associ­ principal stress increments.2 Load-Deflection Curves for Strip Footing (ii) nonlinear elastic More complicated elasto-plastic work-hardening (iii) elastic-plastic models have been developed. arbitrary flow rule.1979). How­ The effects of creep have been incorporated into ever. and Tsotsas and Hatzigogos ations and ultimate load behaviour in problems (1979) suggest that a Tresca yield criterion may involving rotation of principal stress direct­ be more appropriate than the von Mises under ions. this latter conclusion is confirmed by Yamada and Wifi 1977). the two load-settlement curves of grain crushing. Banerjee and Stipho (1978) find that unloading criteria used in hypoelasticity may the Cam-Clay model. K0 consolidation and swelling lines. 2. there is by no means unanimous agreement a nonlinear elastic-plastic model by Suklje on this point.

effects were modelled was that described by Clough and Woodward (1967) for the stresses and 2. but it is doubtful whether 1978). Despite the simplicity of the elements (Clough et al. it should be mentioned that the obtaining collapse solutions for plastic media use of nonlinear elastic soil models (such as than for analyzing time-dependent creep. One example of such an who have simulated the whole construction hist­ investigation is that by Zienkiewicz et al ory of a cast-in-situ pile (drilled shaft). For Recent attempts have been made to develop ana­ a driven pile. ories of problems. An the hyperbolic model) may lead to inaccurately elastic-viscoplastic model for the undrained predicted deflections as significant rotation of behaviour of clays has been devised by Redman principal stresses occurs. slurry elastic-plastic soil models on the load. A discussion of alternative One of the significant features of soil- procedures for simulating embankment construct­ structure interaction research in the past four ion is given by Kulhawy (1977).1979) and clays (Scott and Craig. The interface is modelled by an axisym- gations to establish the necessary complexity metric interface element and the stress- of soil models for various classes of problems. deformation properties of the soil and interface are represented by nonlinear stress-dependent 2. and these can have lished solutions. ficient attention is the influence of the con­ stitutive model of the soil on the solution of Another example of construction modelling is various boundary value and soil-structure that described by Withiam and Kulhawy (1979). which are then used puter. years has been the increased concentration on producing parametric studies of the behaviour of In analysing the construction of retaining soil-structure systems. (1978) who examined the effect of various The steps modelled are shaft excavation. (Burghignoli and Caruana.4 Parametric Solutions displacements within and beneath an embankment on a soil layer. 1978. both for granular materials (Cundall and as a starting point for the subsequent load- Strack.5m long) in dense dry sand. they have described a variant of lytical models of soil behaviour by assembling the wave-equation analysis to predict the init­ and analyzing arrangements of particles by com­ ial stresses in the pile. and from comparisons with full scale these models will prove quantitatively useful measurements and also small scale model tests for soil-structure interaction analyses. How­ concrete curing. and subsequent loading of the ever. 1979.g. rectangular footing on a homogeneous elastic strain relationship for the soil. the importance of initial or an embankment. Uzan et al (1980) was to be made adjacent to the steeple and a have obtained solutions for the settlement of a tied-back slurry trench wall support system was circular loaded area on a two-layer elastic to retain the sides of the excavation. settlement behaviour of a strip footing.15m diam­ interaction analysis in which construction eter. although some included into the finite element analysis by have involved the use of more complicated non­ the introduction of appropriate spring or bar linear models. a number of useful new solutions have adjacent slurry trench wall. Bilotta.developed an elastic-viscoplastic model. Reasonable agreement between predicted and measured load-settlement behaviour Perhaps the first significant soil-structure has been found for a model shaft (0. interaction problems. and its sensitivity to pressures applied in the anchored zone within the input parameters. settlement analysis of the pile. Rosenberg et al (1977) have analyzed an inter­ Shallow Foundations: Although the literature esting problem involving the interaction abounds with solutions to shallow foundation between a church steeple foundation and an problems. An alternative soil models the resulting solutions are inval­ approach has been used by Simpson et al (1979) uable in providing at least a first stage in in which ground anchors are modelled by equiva­ design and in giving the geotechnical engineer lent point loads at the wall and by equivalent a "feel" for the problem. Clough and Tsui (1977) warn that designs using available parametric solutions there are some processes which cannot be pre­ should always be carried out before indulging cisely modelled e. Desai. A deep excavation nevertheless been published. 1979). particularly under (Randolph et al. Analyti­ incremental plane strain finite element analysis cal solutions for the stresses beneath a rigid was carried out using a hyperbolic stress. However.3 Modelling of Construction History relationships. Some of the pub­ walls of braced excavations. The majority of these structures. cyclic loading. 1980). ation were in fair agreement with those meas­ although its use has been oriented more towards ured. for a number of broad categ­ a significant effect on the wall behaviour. Preliminary analyses and the ground. the pore pres­ sure increases due to driving have been shown to An area of research which has not received suf­ be quite accurately predicted by theory. stresses in the pile due to installation has been emphasized by Holloway et al (1978). An system with an underlying rigid base. Despite the half-space are presented by Mullen et al (1980) . The influence Such computer experiments should lead to an of pile driving on the surrounding soil has been improved qualitative understanding of the mech­ studied by several recent investigators anical behaviour of soils. will be mentioned below. there is much scope for further investi­ pile. concrete replacement of the slurry. limitation of this model and some simplifi­ while Zinovev (1979) has presented a solution cations made in simulating the wall construct­ for the settlement of an annular ring foundation ion. the predicted movements around the excav­ on a finite layer. (1980) and used for investigating the undrained creep behaviour of a clay loaded by a footing For pile foundations. Brown and Gibson (1979) have 311 . placement. 1979). wedging between braces and in more refined procedures. 1. the effects of placement and pre­ studies have been performed for simple elastic stressing of bracing or anchors can be readily or elasto-plastic soil models.

and have shown that those sol­ and Lee (1978). element analysis. obtained from a finite an elastic soil (either homogeneous or non. settlement which can result when a stiffer which is done by Poulos. Another series of solutions elastic mass have been published. Solutions for strip and by Randolph (1980). 1979) and find the results to be in close agreement with Anchors: A variety of solutions for the load- those of Banerjee (1979) who used a boundary deflection behaviour of a plate anchor in an element analysis. to backfigure the soil modulus from a pile load Pile Foundations: A number of techniques have test. This therefore implies that any of the breadth ratios ranging between 1 and 5. Rowe and for a single pile in a non-homogeneous soil Booker (1979a) have obtained solutions for an whose modulus increases linearly with depth has inclined rectangular anchor plate while been presented by Poulos (1979). They settlements. linearly with depth.3 Comparison of Solutions for Laterally Loaded Pile in Soil with Linearly Varying Modulus (Williams. However.. and give a clear effect of the shape of the pile. Pells and Selvadurai (1978) and Rowe and Booker (1979b) Turner (1979) have obtained parametric solut­ have obtained corresponding solutions for hori­ ions for the settlement and load distribution zontal anchor plates of various shapes. Finite element elastic soil have been plotted by Bangratz and solutions for this problem have been obtained Mandagaran (1978). typically 10 to 20% smaller than those given by The results are conveniently presented as cor­ the simplified boundary element solutions of rection factors to be applied to the solutions Poulos (1971). laterally loaded piles. an important crust is present. Stresses and displacements case of a non-homogeneous soil whose modulus beneath an embankment on a one or two-layer increases linearly with depth. who plots solutions rafts resting on a homogeneous half-space and from a number of theories and shows that the subjected to various patterns of concentrated variation of deflection and rotation with pile load. Kuhlemeyer (1979) and circular footings resting on a non-homogeneous Baguelin et al (1977. and has presented distributions of stiffness is very similar in all cases (see reaction and bending moment for length to Fig. 1979) 312 .and this modulus may be used to predict been used to obtain solutions for axially and the subsequent behaviour of other piles. and have demonstrated soil interface condition breakaway between the rh Fig. Randolph and Wroth (1978) have developed approximate closed-form Parametric solutions for a vertically-loaded solutions for a single axially loaded pile in pile-raft foundation. have been presented by Hain homogeneous) . Poisson's ratios and degrees of presented by Banerjee and Davies (1978) for the non-homogeneity. considered the case of a rectangular area on a how these solutions may be used to design rock finite elastic layer whose modulus increases sockets. of pile groups (Randolph and Wroth. 1979) . 1980b). Deflections and soil mass with an overlying "crust" have been rotations computed from these solutions are presented by Rowe and Booker (1980a.l). Brown (1978) has obtained point regarding these solutions has been empha­ solutions for stiff square and rectangular sized by Williams (1980). with equal accuracy. The along relatively short piles socketted into latter analysis makes provision for the anchor- rock or very stiff soil. differential settlement and raft have also extended their analysis to the case moments (see Fig. solutions may be used. and the errors indication of the significant reduction in involved in idealizing the pile as a thin strip.3). and have presented settle­ ment influence factors for different rectangle Solutions for a laterally loaded pile have been proportions. and this difference reflects the for a soil with no crust. These solutions indicate the utions agree well with those from finite effect of pile and raft characteristics on the element and boundary element analyses.

However. a have been obtained analytically. Kay and Qamar (1978) have pres­ ite element analysis in which the pipeline is ented a parametric study. Another ing the wall and soil movements for excavations useful solution has been obtained by Selvadurai in clay deposits supported by crosslot braced (1979c) who considers the interaction between a walls. and a simplified is given by Rowe and Booker (19 80c) who investi­ design procedure has been evolved. The evolution of such design procedures rigid circular test plate and an anchor located is an ideal end point of analytical studies at some depth along the axis of the plate. in 19 79 in Brighton. analysis which is based on the Mindlin elastic while the surrounding soil is modelled by equations. has been emphasized. moment and deflection element technique while the other solutions in a pipe can be estimated. Baria et al (1979) describe a fin­ cal anchors.5 Interpretation of Field Loading Tests Both field data and finite element analyses have been used to establish behaviour trends The significance of soil parameters in geotech- and it has been shown that the soil shear nical analysis and design has been emphasized strength. and to In-Situ Testing. and this influence of the anisotropy is in increasing test has been found to yield values of un­ the potential for basal heave relative to iso­ drained modulus similar to those inferred from tropic conditions. of making quick assessments of the influence of It is found that the anchor only interacts changes in design parameters. provided disturbance effects backfill. On the basis of analytical (1979). of backfill and the subsequent application of 313 . A more detailed to allow proper interpretation of the test study of the effects of clay anisotropy on results. similar analysis has been described by Crofts et al (1977) to determine the horizontal move­ Retaining Structures: Finite element studies ment of a long shallow buried pipeline due to have been used to study the behaviour of braced nearby excavation and backfilling of a long excavations by Clough et al (1979) and to deep parallel trench. plate. Luk and Keer (1980) obtain an boundary elements which exhibit nonlinear analytical solution by means of Hankel integral elastic behaviour. when combined with appropriate field solution enables the results of cable-jacked data. in effect. A sophisticated finite element model embedded in an infinite elastic mass and exam­ of a buried concrete pipe has been developed by ines the effects of relative rigidity of the Krizek and McQuade (1978). On the basis of both finite element Nicholas1 solution has also been used to analysis and field data. to the influence the movements increasingly as the subject of design parameters. A parametric study pression stiffness as well as the bending stiff­ of the behaviour of multiple underream anchors ness. and Selvadurai (1979d) have obtained and finite element solutions for circular pipes elastic solutions for the torque-rotation buried in an elastic soil mass. of a wall has been examined by Clough and Denby The increasing interest in development of new (1977) who find that the effectiveness of the types of in-situ tests has meant that corres­ berm decreases as failure is approached and the ponding theoretical solutions must be developed stability number increases. For example. The case of a rigid eccentrically loaded plate is Some attention has also been paid to longitud­ analyzed by Selvadurai (1980). The which. A ment of the anchor. provide the design engineer with a means plate tests to be interpreted more accurately. A modified technique for empirical relationships based on shear strength analyzing basal heave is suggested to allow for data (Selvadurai et al. 2. although extensive parametric solutions have not been Solutions have also been obtained for cylindri­ presented. Comparisons gate such factors as spacing and inclination of between the theoretical results and field meas­ the anchor plates. More recently. Selvadurai (1979b) consid­ urements have confirmed the suitability of the ers the axisymmetric flexure of a circular plate approach. The ion of sessions at this present Conference to effect of a berm on the movement and stability Laboratory Testing. 1980). The analysis simulates the placement are not too severe. the wall system stiffness. lateral and longitudinal movements. The importance of the ring com­ between groups of anchors. England. plate and the extent of the external load.anchor and the underlying soil and interaction live loads. the con­ by the devotion of a complete regional confer­ struction sequence and the degree of anisotropy ence. investigate the relative importance of various key parameters at different levels of stability. Selvadurai and anisotropy. the significant paper has been published by Duncan solutions agree well and can be used to deduce (1979) who has used a nonlinear finite element the undrained soil modulus in a clay from the analysis to examine the interaction between a measured torque-rotation relationship from a flexible metal culvert and the surrounding field vane test. inal pipeline-soil interaction. Abel and Kay relationship for a deeply-embedded vane. Madhav (1976) developed a series of useful design and Krishna have used a numerical boundary charts from which thrust. Mana and Clough (1980) interpret the downhole plate bearing test dev­ have evolved a simplified procedure for predict­ eloped by Kay and Mitchell (1980). and the allocat­ stability situation becomes more critical. span metal culverts and conduits has led to renewed interest in the analysis of flexible Madhav and Krishna (1977). using a numerical represented by straight or curved pipe elements. and investigate the effects of ents are non-interacting springs which have length to diameter ratio and soil Poisson's specified elastic-plastic responses for verti­ ratio on the stress distribution and displace­ cal. these soil elem­ transforms. Selvadurai and Osier buried pipelines. significantly with the plate if the anchor is located less than four diameters below the Buried Structures: The increasing use of large. Selvadurai and Nicholas braced wall behaviour has been made by Clough (1979) have obtained an elastic solution for and Hansen (1980) who find that the primary the assessment of a screw plate test.

A very useful extension of This problem has been recognized by Brown and this type of investigation has been made by Hain Poulos (19 78) who adopt an alternative approach and Lee (1980). This reinforcement is shown ometer". The use of piles to improve slope stability has been given some attention by Ito et al (1979) 2. and the Hussaini and Johnson (1979). Chang and Forsyth (1977) stiffness. and Corte (1977) . This analysis differs from some others paper by Brown (19 75) who examines the import­ which treat the reinforcement strips discretely.7 Structure-Foundation-Soil Interaction and with those measured. under have described the analysis of a reinforced most practical circumstances. together with a struction material has stimulated interest in subgrade reaction analysis of the piles. When interpreted in terms of acity. The analysis is incremental and allows bay multistorey structures. a device for measuring the equiva­ either at an inappropriate orientation or out­ lent modulus around a vertically loaded pile. moments in the structure and column loads. They consider and then present two analyses to allow inter­ that the representation of soil-inclusion syst­ pretation of the test. been achieved by several means. Good agree­ problems of disturbance and uncertain time ment is found between the theory and the meas­ effects during and after installation. and a considerable number of approaches plane strain (continuous) pile row of equivalent have been developed. by a strip footing. Fin­ fashion by Rowe and Poulos (1979) who have used ite element analyses provide a very useful tool a plane strain elasto-plastic finite element for examining this soil-structure interaction analysis. who have examined the effect of involving the use of equivalent nodal forces to interaction between a three-dimensional frame represent the reinforcement. a large shear modulus is assigned whether or not inclusion of the superstructure to this shear zone. 314 . The results obtained from this device appear to be reasonably con­ A soil-reinforcement problem of a slightly dif­ sistent with values obtained from a self-boring ferent nature has been analyzed by Ohta et al pressuremeter. some its effect on differential settlement. bending of these replace the strip by an equivalent two. The effect on soil and the reinforcement is allowed for and column loads. since some of the inclusions will be probe test. Naylor and Richards (1978) Settlement Criteria have developed an analysis procedure in which the reinforced earth is idealized as a homogen­ Although the incorporation of the superstructure eous material with the strips attached to the into the analysis of foundation behaviour has elastic soil matrix by a conceptual shear zone. appear to give data that is consistent with previous experience. The slope failure unless they are very stiff and construction sequence has also been modelled restrained at the head and/or the tip. Yassin (1979). Herrmann and Al. and the computed soil stresses and horizontal movements have been found to compare favourably 2.6 Analysis of Reinforced Soil who have described a design approach utilizing a plastic analysis for the pressure on the piles The increased use of reinforced earth as a con­ due to the moving soil mass. ance of superstructure stiffness with regard to however. piles do not sig­ earth wall using a composite elastic model for nificantly increase the safety factor against the steel reinforcing strips and the soil. raft differential settlement and the soil is modelled as an elasto-plastic mater­ maximum moments is considered for 3-bay and 5- ial. there exist few For a condition of no slip between soil and guidelines to assist the designer in deciding reinforcement. and the systems does not necessarily lead to the most conditions under which these effects will be efficient nor equal usage of the layers in the significant are indicated by the solutions. Andrawes et Inclusion of the effects of the superstructure al (1978) point out that the present technique generally leads to decreased differential settle­ of using parallel multi-layer soil inclusion ments and bending moments in the raft. finite element analysis.Frank and Orsi (1979) describe the frictional system. (19 80) who have examined the influence of trans­ verse surface reinforcement beneath an embank­ Marchetti (19 80) has described a "flat dilat. the the base of the embankment as a thin elastic undrained shear strength. The soil is consid­ simulation of construction by the addition of ered to be an isotropic elastic mass with either layers of soil and reinforcement. Slip between the structure and a raft foundation. This analyzing the mechanisms of interaction between problem has also been studied in a different a soil and stiffer reinforcing materials. ulated by allowing relaxation of this shear mod­ Some guidance has been provided in an earlier ulus. The theoretical finite element analysis elastic theory. the first based on the ems as single equivalent anisotropic media is Mindlin elastic equation and the second on a thus not wholly justifiable. supported the vertical transfer of shear through the soil. but slippage can be stim­ is necessary for an economical foundation design. sis are presented in terms of two relative Other finite element analyses of reinforced stiffness parameters indicating the stiffness earth structures have been reported by Al. ment on soft clay. it does ured performance of a full-scale embankment. as Naylor and Richards points out. of the structure relative to the soil. The results of the analy­ failure heights of reinforced earth embankments. the results of this test give has used the non-linear Sekiguchi-Ohta soil the modulus of the soil and also information on model and models the transverse reinforcement at the in-situ horizontal stress and in clays. side the zone of tensile strains. a new type of thin flat circular steel to considerably reduce the amount of deformation membrane which is jacked into the ground and of the foundation and improve the bearing cap­ then expanded. for dimensional sheet element and this intercepts a plane frame with pin-based columns. The analysis indicates that. It has been a constant modulus or a modulus which increases found to give reasonable predictions of the linearly with depth. The piles have been represented as a problem. stiffness of the raft relative to the soil. While not free from band with an appropriate modulus.

geotechnical characteristics. effects of variations in the soil or structure parameters. 315 . behaviour of soil-structure systems may be use­ ful in at least two ways: Another case of multistorey building has been analyzed by Popovic and Sarac (1979) in which (i) they may establish whether the geotech­ the structure is founded on a heterogeneous nical engineer can predict the system foundation composed of two zones with different behaviour prior to its construction. approach. Price and Tarr (1980). rather than selection who examine the problem of a circular storage of soil parameters.g. A of an appropriate theory together with two-stage analysis was carried out in which a correctly chosen soil parameters. The structure was found to per­ described by Focht et al (1978) in relation to a form satisfactorily with angular rotations as multistorey building in Houston. is adopted. and Duncan (1979) by Penman (1978).A case in which the superstructure stiffness has aggregate panels separated by compressible fil­ been found to have a considerable influence is ler material. framed agricultural building with lightweight Poulos (1980). divided by a Successful prediction requires the use near-vertical boundary beneath the building. Trofimenkov et al (1977). provided by structures described by Simpson et al (1979) and Bell and Iwakiri (1980) . Measurements indi­ angular rotation of 1/150 and a maximum settle­ cated that the differential settlements of the ment of 100mm were suggested by the authors. 1973) and the soil immediately below it. In this case. There still exists a need for more data on tol­ then a useful design approach will have been erable settlements and differential settlements evolved. tank on a single soil layer. to investigate the tank are developed. with sub-structuring technique was adopted to allow the emphasis being perhaps on selection a more detailed analysis of the superstructure of the soil parameters (Lambe. and ations of the tank. an ported by a mat foundation. arily finite element) computations. on a soil compared with the results of theoretical (prim­ which is (nominally) laterally homogeneous. uniform settlements were imposed on the pier Banerjee (1979) . The approximate analysis used gave subsequently. A substructure approach is adopted whereby the equations gov­ In the context of this Session. storage tanks. attention may thickness on differential deflections and radial then be concentrated on means of determining moments in the tank. although they Further data is provided in a paper to this continued at a reduced rate for several years Session by Chan et al. As upper design limits. are good examples of this evolutionary process. The analysis revealed that the proposed box foundation would (ii) they may indicate whether the theoret­ act almost rigidly. Wiesner and Brown (1979) . Pile foundations provide a good example of the Information on the allowable settlements of an use of field measurements to verify and modify agricultural building was obtained from a series analytical techniques. and beam system of a single-storey concrete­ Hain and Lee (1978). for buried culverts. the appropriate soil parameters. sup­ large as 1/100. Unfortunately. soil modulus.8 Comparisons Between Theory and Measurement that a realistic settlement prediction needed to include consideration of interaction between Comparisons between theoretical and measured the structure and the foundation. but that there would be a ical approach adopted predicts the significant tilt of the structure. the circular be concentrated on some comparisons which have base plate and the cylindrical walls of the the latter objective i. and then combined to obtain applicability of various soil-structure inter­ the complete system behaviour. Many comparisons have of tests described by Zhukov et al (1979). An interaction problem of a somewhat different the emphasis is on the applicability nature has been analyzed by Small et al (1980) of the theory. Cooke. which will be reviewed thereafter. Non. but that distortions in which field measurements have been used in around the shell may cause problems with oper­ the design and construction of foundations. Ottaviani and Marchetti (1979) .e. qualitatively comparable results when compared with the measured performance. Measurements show that such flexible structures can withstand considerable centre-to-edge dif­ Burland (1977) has summarized a number of cases ferential settlements. is consistent with Roth et al (1979) have illustrated the sensitiv­ earlier data. In relation to can be expressed in terms of parametric plots. particularly if the theoretical results of various types of structure. mat tended to develop primarily during appli­ cation of the structural load. but it was clear 2. incorporating spatial variability of provided appropriate soil parameters are input. and that correct trends of behaviour and high shear stresses would be induced in the whether it accurately reflects the vertical walls of the structure. settlement pattern. If this can bebe successfully and expeditiously achieved. A parametric action analyses. attention will erning the behaviour of the soil. Once an analysis method has study is made of the effects of the tank base been demonstrated to be sound. Texas. Such cases potential differential settlements around the have led to increased confidence in the ability shell cannot be predicted unless a statistical of these analyses to model the field behaviour. but also indicates that reverse ity of the analyses to variations in soil param­ curvature of the tank floor ("humping") is a eters and have indicated which parameters are more severe condition than the normal "dishing" most significant. been reported e. Further data on tol­ Case studies of excavations and retaining erable settlements of oil tanks. a very useful review of the per­ The approaches developed by Mana and Clough formance and acceptable deformations is given (1980) for braced excavations.

13 (the lower bound here is 0. On the basis of such data. change in contact pressure distribution which and offshore structures (6 papers) occurs as failure is approached. the upper bound) which is obtained from the statically admissible solution.1 General Theoretical Approaches theoretical analysis to the prediction of axial and lateral response of piles. The (vi) structure-foundation-soil interaction wide range of possible solutions. In applying their method. The studies of Cooke. The second part deals with the (vii) tolerable settlements (1 paper) finite element analysis of a rigid plate on an (viii) miscellaneous. technical engineer against excessive confidence For a two-layer problem. depending on (7 papers) the assumptions made in the analysis. A finite element analysis theory. is emphasized. the lateral stress and the stress elastic mass. to obtain lower and the slip at the bolted seams of the culvert. 3. serve as warnings to the geo­ uation of upper and lower bounds of settlement. (iii) deep foundations (5 papers) The paper by Gorbunov-Possadov et al consists (iv) retaining structures and anchors of three parts. the correct settlement factor is 1. including embankments. which analyzes the structure. which is Although covering a wide range of topics the 57 almost identical with Denver's upper bound of papers to this session can be divided into the 1.These have demonstrated the applicability of 3. When est­ following categories: imating the settlement of multi-layer profiles. the Author shows that in his ability to successfully predict the the difference between upper and lower bounds behaviour of soil-structure systems. methods of analyzing the load-deformation and They have shown that the effects on these res­ stability characteristics of foundations. that of the bearing cap­ (v) buried pipes and structures (6 papers) acity of a rigid strip on a sand mass. may be an (i) general theoretical approaches attractive alternative to the use of the approx­ (10 papers) imate Steinbrenner approach or more sophisti­ (ii) shallow foundations (9 papers) cated numerical techniques. no account is modelled or forseen. although it is found that able analytical tools. Good agreement has been found between Good agreement between measured and observed theory and measurement after the backfill level settlement was found. although approximate. The approach is used to calculate incorporating non-linear soil properties and settlements of a building in Beijing. and upper bounds for the settlement of a cir­ which would permit a circumferential shortening cular footing on a layered elastic soil mass. widely of the effect of compaction during backfilling used in plasticity problems. For vertical (1980). The first is concerned with (13 papers) the application of plasticity theory to a much- investigated problem. moduli ose. for which incremental construction simulation has been detailed settlement observations were made. regardless increases as the modular ratio of the layers of the high level of sophistication of the avail­ departs from unity. but major discrepancies linear settlement analysis produced almost as between measured and predicted behaviour have good agreement with the measured settlements. ponses of such parameters as pile dimensions. the soil modelled as an elastic material whose modulus modulus is assumed to be dependent on the shear increases with depth than as a homogeneous strain. using either The papers included in this grouping cover boundary element or finite element techniques. of the structure shell. some empiri­ soil is assumed to behave one-dimensionally. The authors suggest that this dis­ Denver has applied the concepts of statically crepancy could be caused by incorrect modelling and kinematically admissible solutions. the settlement can generally be reasonably est­ imated to be equal to the maximum value (i. the groups. the approach. For example. and that it analysis in which nonlinearity of soil response is feasible to use data from pile load tests to is taken into account. For vertical stresses predict the behaviour of prototype piles or pile less than the preconsolidation pressure. been observed during the earlier stages of con­ struction. R E V IE W OF PAPERS S U B M IT T E D TO S E S S IO N 5 for the two-layer problem with E i=3E2. The final part describes a simple approximate analysis for the stability of a footing adjacent to a 316 . elasto-plastic medium and illustrates the soil and soil-interface properties. However. changes due to the foundation. to alert the geotechnical engineer to and settlements at various points and depths practical difficulties which cannot always be below the foundation.88). and the foundation stresses are pre­ tests on a corrugated metal arch described by sumably calculated from conventional elastic Selig et al (1979).12.e. Strain influence cise analytical modelling and choice of suitable curves presented in the paper enable rapid eval­ soil parameters. pile stiffness and soil compressibility can be Zhang et al propose a method of settlement adequately predicted by the theory. Such an example is the taken of the rigidity of the foundation or the paper by Chang et al (1980). cal relationships between soil modulus and and the appropriate modulus is determined from other more readily-measured parameters have been the results of in-situ shear wave tests coupled developed. The recognition of such These bounds are based on the energy of the practical details and the difficulties of pre­ foundation-soil system. used. Price and Tarr with triaxial compression tests. have also indicated that soil is better stress in excess of the overburden. the authors suggest that the Some comparisons between theoretical and field foundation be divided into a number of smaller performance may serve another very useful purp­ elements in order to compute stresses. although the use of a is above the crown.

as it of the Authors' approach. which represents an strains. While the concepts presented in this analyses to determine earth pressures at rest paper are interesting and are slowly gaining the for situations involving soil with a sloping attention of geotechnical engineers. behaviour of a strip foundation on an elastic half-space. two such cases are the Nakai describes a nonlinear soil model in which "Gibson" soil whose modulus increased the total strain increments are the sum of the linearly with depth from zero at the increments of plastic shear strains. modelled as a Winkler material only the limiting cases of a loose soil and a whose stiffness may vary with moisture content. As is well known. however. The the concept of a mobilized friction angle o reliability of the system is stated to increase which is derived from Jaky's empirical expres­ with increasing superstructure rigidity.at best. plastic surface. partic­ whether the Winkler principle applies to sub­ ularly if the trench and footing are reasonably surface loading problems. If v = 0. consolidated ratio. which assumes that the represented by power series and compatibility reaction at a point beneath the foundation is between strip and soil displacements is imposed dependent solely on the deflection at this in order to obtain the required solution. Unfortunately. although no the soil friction angle. available elastic solutions indicate that the pile causes Mikheev et al present a very brief account of a deflections of the soil away from the pile. retaining wall. questionable. and elastic soil model. the brevity surface or soil confined between two walls. this result is consistent with previ­ deformations are restricted to a ous results of Parkes (1956) and Schiffman limited zone beneath the found­ (1963) . behaviour. loading but poor results are found for uniform­ may not necessarily reflect the true failure ly distributed loading. and the Author's "psammic" volume consolidation strains. ations. point. this reduction becom­ following broad situations: ing more pronounced as the strip becomes more flexible or as the soil Poisson's ratio v (i) statically-loaded beam-type structures decreases. The method relies on on the variability of the soil properties. and a vertical theory with those from the correct two-or three. whereas what is The paper presents a general form of analytical required is a continuous variation of the at- solution for the static behaviour of the strip rest lateral pressure coefficient with over­ and also its natural frequency. a uniform erical examples comparing solutions from this strip load on a soil layer. of presentation precludes a full understanding This approach is. and interface behaviour is governed by account is taken of such factors as intermedi­ Coulomb friction ate principal stress and dilatancy under aniso­ (iii) a foundation on a thin elastic layer tropic stress conditions. Such an obtained for problems involving concentrated approach. The Author then uses details are given of the manner in which this is the angle $0 in active and passive wedge achieved. no numerical results are given to indicate the significance of the softening or collapse of Santos and Quera develop an analysis for the the soil on the behaviour of the strip. The failure criterion is expressed in assembly of rigid heavy grains whose terms of the three stress invariants. though it may be useful for design. The failure load of the strip dimensional continuum theory. for example. It is causes a slight reduction in maximum deflection argued that Winkler's hypothesis applies for the and moment in the strip. Such funct­ Myslivec describes a method for determining at- ions are dependent on the variability of the rest lateral pressures in "loose" and "fully- foundation stiffness which is in turn dependent overconsolidated" soils.slurry trench. eleven par­ whose depth is small compared to the ameters are required to describe the soil foundation dimensions. it is doubtful mode of the foundation-trench system. would appear doubtful whether this difference 317 . assuming a circular slip surface for example. involves the use of a theory of failure for a non-failure condition and also involves the Mustafayev describes an analysis for the behav­ assumption of a constant value of the mobilized iour of a strip foundation on a collapsing or friction angle <}>0• Furthermore. The behaviour of the model is shown to be in good agreement with that of a sand It would have been useful if the Author had re­ subjected to various types of triaxial test. the application of Results are presented for a uniformly loaded this hypothesis leads to considerable analytical strip and these indicate that strip roughness simplifications with many problems. Also. quite satisfactory accuracy may be emanating from the side of the trench. In the experience is considerably greater than that given by of the Reporter the form of loading may also Terzaghi's theory (which is itself an upper have some influence in determining how accurate bound for a rigid plastic material) and it a Winkler solution is for a particular problem. taking account of the possible Dietrich examines the circumstances under which effects of interface roughness. it considers swelling soil. strip roughness has no on a half space effect as no interface shear stresses are dev­ (ii) certain classes of soils for which eloped. pile within a Gibson soil. probabilistic approach to the design of which violates the Winkler hypothesis. for a widely-separated. "fully-over consolidated" soil. structure-foundation systems which utilizes the concept of reliability functions. Con­ sion relating the coefficient of earth pressure sideration is also given to the incorporation of at rest (for a normally-consolidated soil) to consolidation into the analysis. inforced his arguments for the applicability of The model is then incorporated into a finite the Winkler hypothesis by presenting some num­ element analysis of two problems. The distribut­ soil-structure problems may be analyzed using ions of contact vertical and shear stresses are the Winkler hypothesis.5.

as reliable average settlement of about 45 cm. the curves given do not appear to con­ than the outer ones. With three or more footings. The inclination are investigated by tests on 300 mm 318 . there is quite close agreement between the sol­ utions for the Winkler and elastic masses. and that these effects are also related to the load position. locations within a granular slope. In the slab tests. although in the latter the theory. Significant stress re-distribution with time also occurs in the pile-supported beams.2 Shallow Foundations ions. At least part of this difference may rence of creep in the clay. Strip creep tends to reduce bending moments with time whereas soil creep causes an increase in moment with time. for a crete. suggesting the occur­ suggests. The paper by Dembicki et al describes the foundation decreases considerably and a the results of model tests carried out on both significant redistribution of moments occurs. Despite the large arise from the numerical analysis. The res­ ults of field measurements on a foundation slab Bauer et al report the results of an extensive supporting a multistorey building on soft clay experimental programme to investigate the ulti­ are presented. broad conclusions reached are consistent with those of Dembicki et al. becomes negligible once the spacing between the and unfortunately. Fig. With the incorporation of a time-dependent mod­ ulus in the elastic mass. the strip deflections increase with time. ing capacity of interacting strip footings on in zones in which cracks occur.4 for a specific case. The paper by Gatti and Jori considers the influence of crrep on the behaviour of a strip The results of field tests on groups of three foundation on either a Winkler medium or an footings are also presented by Pula and Ryback. isms of active and passive failure. The inclusion of the superstructure range of footing spacings. The effects due in part to the presence in the clay of sand of footing position. this effect ation.4 Comparison Between Solutions for Bearing Capacity Interaction Time effects on foundation slab behaviour are Between Strip Footings on Sand also discussed by Egorov and Budin. the ing the effects of the soil strength parameters. Load-settlement curves are also given becoming more pronounced as the spacing between for a strip footing on an elasto-plastic soil footings decreases. ure in each case. few details of the analyti­ footings exceeds about 3 or 4 footing breadths. The sol­ B B utions presented indicate that the effects of creep of the strip become more important with increasing flexibility of the strip. Their results indicate that. Nevertheless. For the concentrated loads analyzed. the slab has finite element solutions for collapse loads are performed satisfactorily. an approxi­ shows that the moments are decreased by almost mate analysis is developed to determine the 50% because of nonlinear behaviour of the con­ bearing capacity of interacting footings. the stresses in the ly illustrates the differences in the mechan­ slab first increase with time and then decrease. elastic half-space. as illustrated in Fig. and the and this is a characteristic which Gatti and different deflections required to develop fail­ Jori demonstrate theoretically in their paper. case. No details of ly presents the results of tests on slabs. while not identical. Footing interaction in both moment and deflection of the found­ leads to increased bearing capacity. inner footings develop a higher bearing capacity However. Bugrov et al discuss the analysis of foundation- soil interaction in which non-linearity of both Three papers deal specifically with bearing cap­ the soil and the reinforced concrete foundation acity problems.could be attributed entirely to the effects of post-construction settlements appear to increase intermediate principal stress as the Author linearly with log time. fied but otherwise the elastic solutions for a time-independent material are used. indicat­ increases. and the numerical techniques adopted are given by pile-supported beams on clay to examine time the Author. The retaining wall analysis clear­ effects. footing size and load layers which accelerate consolidation. The effect of interaction verge to a reliable value of bearing capacity. It is found that the majority mate bearing capacity of footings at various of settlement has occurred during construction. but the variation of maxi­ mum moment with time depends on the creep par­ ameters of the strip and soil. the paper does point to imate theoretical analysis based on plasticity the difficulties of accurately assessing the theory. On the basis of An example of the foundation of a tall chimney the observations from these tests. are similar. The numerical solut­ 3. The analysis incorporates and these show very satisfactory agreement with creep of the strip footing and also creep of the theoretical results. thus suggesting that the elastic half-space. the solution is approximate only as a provides a useful means of estimating bearing time-dependent soil Young's modulus is speci­ capacity interaction for footings on sand. cal and numerical procedures are given in the Pula and Rybak present the results of an approx­ paper. the rigidity of sand. Two of these consider the bear­ are incorporated. despite the approximations involved. or the friction angle layer having an associated flow rule. The effects of footing spacing and stiffness of a foundation if idealized as an soil friction angle are investigated and the elastic-plastic material. a model soil and a real soil. The paper subsequent­ notoriously difficult to obtain. load inclinations into the analysis leads to further reductions and soil friction angles.

Tests were carried out on 3. the design of spread footings on bridge approach embankments. The authors find that the best pre­ oscillations of the structure. Measured dis­ tubular element is inserted into the soil and a placement contours are presented for various slab or plate inside the cylinder is loaded. It would appear to be ideally suited to more careful analysis by finite element methods in Another experimental investigation involving order to study such effects as the relative the measurement of stresses and displacements flexibility and size of the cylinder. using the extreme values of lab­ settlement of pile foundations. The paper is a valuable report that the use of the Burmister two-layer source of experimental data as well as serving elastic theory predicts settlements which are its original aim of directly providing data for within 10% of the measured values. After ed) . The authors were stresses are developed near the top and bottom unable to obtain satisfactory agreement between of the cylinder. and also essentially as a rigid unit. For plate size. the cylinder-soil system behaves as a linear model used in the finite element short closed-end pile. using a variable sub­ the measured settlements. The Authors smaller footings. Very significant reductions in bear­ "spread" of the displacements. there is a much wider vertical.5m2. The post-construction soil mass which is more compressible near the settlements of the pads were found to be time- centre than the edges. It is argued that even 1 year after construction. the dis­ vertical loading. elastic layer theory. The type of non­ essence.and 600 ram footings within a 2 to 1 slope of natural loess and loess with an overlying cem­ dense silica sand. The results in this utilizes several principles of soil-structure paper should provide a very valuable source of interaction and is potentially a very useful experimental data for research workers inter­ system. Stefanoff and Jellev. The pressure of ing capacity occur for inclined loading. ing behaviour of foundations on sand. provided that the for a second repeated loading sequence (in fact depth of soil within the cylinder is at least four one-way loading load cycles were perform­ equal to the diameter of the cylinder. and sub­ struction of the mast foundation. and a slab which is dependent and to be still increasing slightly stiffened near the centre. This field study emphasizes once again the difficulty of predict­ An interesting series of tests is described by ing settlements of foundations on sand deposits. Some scale effect is ted in terms of contours of the bearing capacity found for the small plates but for plates having factor Nyg and it is found that. Increasing the depth of the the measured displacements and those calculated cylinder increases the ultimate bearing capacity from either a nonlinear finite element analysis significantly and reduces the settlement. Tests have been per­ removed and replaced by sand which was densi- formed on a rectangular slab supported on a fied by vibroflotation. Theoretical calculations also provides some empirical equations for the based on oedometer tests indicated a range of estimation of ultimate bearing capacity and 2 cm to 4. Stabilization of displacements urements of axial and radial stress distribut­ (shakedown) appeared to occur after the third ions indicate that the maximum axial load in or fourth loading cycle. The original subsoil con­ sures beneath strip foundations and compares ditions consisted of a layer of peat overlying these with calculations based on elastic half­ layers of medium to find sand. The test results are presen­ ent-stabilized layer. the peat was grade reaction theory. while high radial the load level increased. For the natural loess. and in or a linear elastic analysis. which ranged from grade modulus along the foundation. The paper about 2 cm to 6 cm. This may be due the latter type of foundation should result in possibly to consolidation of finer soil lenses more uniform contact pressures than a convent­ between the sand layers and also to the effects ional slab and this is borne out by the meas­ of repeated loading caused by wind-induced urements. A feature of the dictions of contact pressure are those from the measurements was the considerable variability of subgrade reaction theory. The distribution of the cylinder occurs about half-way along its contact pressures between the slab and sand was length and is of the order of 75% of the axial also measured and found to change markedly as load applied to the plate. Meas­ movements.3 Deep Foundations round and square plates of various size on both 319 . whereas the reverse the plate.15m square slab resting by Broms et al in which an open cylindrical on a coarse sand layer 6 m deep. who have measured the distribution of vertical and horizontal dis­ A novel type of foundation has been described placements beneath a 1. the the stabilized layer also leads to very signifi­ maximum reduction being about 70% for the cant reductions in settlement. but before con­ space theory. but when the stiffer stabilized layer is true for loading inclined at 15° to the over the loess is present. the back- theoretical results (but as found by other figured soil modulus is virtually independent of experimenters). oratory compressibility. sections inside and outside the slab. for vari­ The cylinder and the soil are found to act ous load levels during first loading. Blumel and Lackner present the results of time- settlement observations for 8 square concrete The paper by Sorotchan et al presents the pad foundations each supporting a steel tube results of some measurements on contact pres­ mast 350 m in height. Nyq tends to decrease as placements are quite localized in the region of the footing size increases. particularly in situations where loose ested in analyzing the static or repeated load­ sand layers are underlain by denser deposits. the results of a ments are quite small compared to the vertical series of model tests in sand are given. contrary to an area in excess of about 0. The measurements clearly indicate the presenting an approximate design approach to changing pattern of deformation as the load estimate the ultimate load capacity and settle­ increases and reveal that the horizontal move­ ment of the foundation unit. Nyq is scale-dependent.5cm. This type of foundation analysis is not described. around and beneath a loaded plate is described by Minkov et al.

(in soils which can sustain but it is assumed that the caisson skin is rep­ tension) may be relied on for resented only by a single cylindrical element long-term loads. However. and thereby result in non-uniform strain distribution across the pile Bolya et al have statistically processed the section. in the elastic range. only load. 320 . Tests presented to show the development of the plas­ have been carried out in concrete cylinders for tic zones around the foundation with increasing three conditions: only the base acting. Nevertheless. and both base and shaft acting. The assumptions made characteristics. by Hazivar. to understand why it should be considered They firstly review published data which necessary to perform an elastic analysis in suggests that the load distribution with depth order to obtain subgrade reaction coefficients can reasonably be considered as parabolic i. The results of using a nonlinear elastic soil model are then model tests in sand are also described. The unreasonable assumption. for modular ratios of greater than the at-rest coefficient K0 . and that only about strain finiteelement analyses relating sub­ 10-20% of the shaft load is carried by internal grade reaction coefficients to the elastic soil friction. the evaluation of the subgrade mod­ ulus requires the prior evaluation of the (i) the interaction between the rein­ Young's modulus of the soil. the latter dis­ vertically loaded open tubular caisson.Hazivar has described an elastic analysis for (iii) the presence of tip tension or the settlement behaviour of a relatively short tip suction.4 where. Use is sipates with time but tip tension made of the Mindlin equations of elasticity. very large ten­ results of plane strain finite element analyses sile base loads are computed. two-pile coefficients in a subgrade reaction analysis of a pile leads to solutions which the Difficulties in the interpretation of uplift Authors state are in close agreement with those load distribution data on bored piles (drilled from elastic theory. However. The final part of the paper presents a the shaft acting. They then discuss some three modes of loading. this is clearly seen lateral pressure coefficient is found to be in his Fig. The interaction between two piles insight into the behaviour of open caissons. is then analysed in similar fashion and cor­ but the theoretical results should be used with rection factors to the single pile coefficients caution. results presented in the paper are interesting. in the essentially elastic ical and horizontal loading to produce a range. This paper combines theory. The back-calculated obtained are unreliable. The proportions of shaft and sands agrees quite well with the results of the base load are reasonably consistent with the finite element analysis. results of some 300 load tests on slurry trench (ii) the influence of residual loads in wall foundations in order to obtain empirical the pile on the interpretation of load-settlement relationships for design pur­ the skin friction from the measured poses. depending on the predominant nature of the soil along the skin and below the base. The design curve for and base loads. design method which combines theories for vert­ It is found that. They classify the soil profiles into 8 loads. because of tensile loading and particularly those for interaction between two shrinkage. the concrete may crack piles. the "silo effect" of the sand within the caisson is Parikh and Pal present the results of plane not very significant. the stability of a stiff rectangular prismatic stand distribution of skin friction is a not. this assumption is not of surface roughness and soil density on the unreasonable and consequently the solutions ultimate load capacity. foundation subjected to inclined loading. there is a and pile moduli for a single circular pile in substantial additional contribution from the an elastic soil mass. when use could be made directly of elastic that a linear distribution of skin friction theory to evaluate the pile response for all with depth occurs. at higher loads. with constant' skin friction while the load on the base annulus is represented by a circular The paper gives some useful advice on ways of line load. groups. Some caisson to soil of 100 or less. These include: the pile. It is perhaps difficult shafts) are discussed by Stewart and Kulhawy. the results are presented as simple within the caisson. limit the application of his results The paper by Jesenak et al is concerned with to relatively rigid caissons for which a con. The use of these single and to soil modulus. the caisson load at a given settlement relationship between load capacity and load when both base and shaft are acting is approxi­ inclination for both frictional soils and mately equal to the sum of the separate shaft purely cohesive soils. Solutions for settlement of the allowing for the various factors above and caisson are obtained by imposing displacement should be carefully studied by those involved compatibility and vertical load equilibrium con­ in field measurements of pile load transfer ditions on the problem. The model tests value to geotechnical engineers. Apart from the usual problems which may arise in deducing skin shortcomings of subgrade reaction theory in not friction distributions from measured load taking account of continuity of the soil along distributions. the forcing steel and the concrete.e. Vertical. particularly for low ratios of caisson are presented. the caisson is relatively rigid in analysis and experiment to develop a design this case and hence the theoretical solutions approach which should prove of considerable should be reasonably reliable. leading to an increase in bearing torsional loading is considered and in each capacity because of the "plugging" of the sand case. The paper gives useful equations. while making the analysis more tractable. lateral and silo effect. for rela­ first part of the paper gives the results of tively compressible caissons (e. also indicate that.g. caissons in field model tests and indicates the importance very stiff soil).

5m conventional retaining walls. The soil.For each case. and the distribution of considers strains to be divided into three com­ bending moments. who are also used at the wall-soil interface. Authors consider the representation of the plastic strain. In order to limit displacement to acceptable level. of the wall. The Authors conclude that prestress sure distribution above excavation level is of anchors is mandatory to avoid damage to almost unaffected by anchor position. and discusses the comparisons with the predictions would be influence of anchor prestress on the behaviour extremely valuable. however. it was decided. the anchor erable interaction can occur between the wall forces increase significantly during excav­ and the anchor. The soil was considered as a non­ parameters on the wall behaviour is still linear anisotropic elastic material. Finite elements were again data has been obtained (unfortunately. and Kezdi. the computed earth pressures were found to be evolution of an elasto-plastic constitutive similar magnitude. comparison of the results of the nonlinear incremental excavation analysis with those from Arslan et al present a very interesting paper a linear elastic single-stage analysis. the load Q and settlement S are' Clough and Tsui (1974) who used a hyperbolic related by the function Q s ASB+C^113. The soil model described just behind the wall. in mind that it may be hazardous to apply the this study being associated with the design of empirical equations data to walls having dif­ excavations for proposed multi-storey building ferent size and depth to those for which the in Luanda. as also were the maximum model of cohesionless soil. entations of soil behaviour. the wall by beam elements. although they functions of the stress invariants. were rather different. at a distance determ­ is much greater than in the case of prestressed ined by conventional design rules. the wall deflections and wall moments. of a soil-structure interaction analysis as a The second part of the paper presents the design tool. given in the paper. Future publication of any meas­ results of a series of finite element analyses urements of the actual wall performance and of a tieback anchor wall. ulated in the analysis. the paper is a good example of the use response of a sand to a variety of stress paths. and that almost any distribution is again simulated in a number of stages. The soil is represented by 4-node serendipity elements. displacements. stress-strain formulation for the soil. it must be borne tieback wall is described by Mineiro et al. B. it nevertheless appears possible to scatter and better agreement with the measured obtain results of design value by using simpler ultimate loads (from which the functions were soil models. While the paper presents a useful summary of a Another analytical study of a multi-anchored considerable amount of data. the wall displacement and the pres­ paper are broadly consistent with those of sure distribution below excavation level may 321 22. Never­ is shown to predict very satisfactorily the theless. particularly for a in the anchor force as excavation proceeds. application of this model to the analysis of a the distribution of deflections in the region tieback anchored wall. A further example of finite element analysis the anchors by bar elements. Volyme 4 . wall interface were modelled by appropriate The effects of variation of the soil or wall elements. even if the anchor is located ation. anchors and the soil- range of the wall sizes considered is quoted). soil-wall interface by joint elements are an All three components are described in terms of essential part of the analysis. on the A variety of problems are treated here. behind ventionally-calculated design load is applied the wall. and the consequent movement of the wall well away from the wall. these are generally found to an anchor. The model between the wall and soil were assumed. must exist about the accuracy of the computed When a prestress of 80% or more of the con. an elastic strain. diaphragm walls. and the present no results to indicate how different basic parameters can be derived from triaxial the solutions would be if perfect adhesion consolidation and compression tests. and anchor installation and prestressing were 3. However. under static and cyclic loads. there is little subsequent change to be relatively small. and joint elements of an anchored wall is given by Pitilakis.4 Retaining Structures and Anchors also simulated. Incremental excavation. if no prestress is used. includ­ basis of the results of the analysis. with the best determined from a rational analysis stress-strain curves apparently being fed into involving proper consideration of soil-wall the program. Few details of the soil model are interaction. of earth pressure and anchor force may be Because of the soil model adopted. no used. rigid wall. some doubts achieved by appropriate construction measures. An interesting extension of this derived) than conventional calculations of load study would be to compare the present analysis capacity based on the theories of Caquot and results with those using alternative repres­ Kerisel. The pres­ anchors. The Authors then demonstrate realistic a soil model as possible in an that the use of the above function leads to less analysis. The progress of excavation values used. The which is divided into two parts: first. a contractive. and the soil. wall. considered to be a sand. The results indicate is modelled by a hyperbolic model while the that the earth pressure distribution and anchor anchor and wall are represented by linear forces closely reflect the design prestress elastic elements. anchor behaviour and increase the anchor prestress by 25%. The analyses indicate that consid­ However. to reduce ing tieback anchored walls. The findings in this tie force. and anchor-wall Another interesting aspect of this paper is the interaction. Angola. and second. particularly vertical. The examines the influence of the position of a process of excavation of the soil and instal­ single horizontal anchor on the behaviour of lation and prestressing of the anchors is sim­ the wall. but the neighbouring structures. The ponents. where A. Thus. the depth of the first stage excavation by 1. and a dilative-plastic strain. C are functions of the soil type and skin while it is obviously of advantage to use as surface area.

Certainly. the parameters. The force. The stresses acting on the wall which was composed of a series of reinforced are taken to be horizontal stresses in the concrete panels 3 m high by 5 m wide by 0. however. deflections and calculations of the behaviour of the walls are strut forces from an analysis which assumes also made using a subgrade reaction approach in zero deflection at each strut location after it which the modulus values are backfigured from is installed. Fair agreement is found with the measurements.all be significantly affected. but it nevertheless can yield behav­ triaxial tests to determine the required soil iour similar to that found from the field parameters. The effects of the subgrade mod­ the pressure and deflection measurements. of a 30 m wall with ten levels of prestressed dependent soil model. and the effects of time. computed by the finite element analysis* As The satisfactory performance of the wall was pointed out by the Authors. Clough and Denby.(19 77). and in the case of the finite element (i) the stability of the slope during analysis. culation and theory reported (e. Martak The paper by Balay et al presents the results of also considets that time-dependency of deform­ field measurements of earth pressure. The cri­ that reached by Rowe (1978) from an analysis terion for failure of the slope in the finite using an elasto-plastic soil model. anchor ations due to creep should be included in the force and deflection of two sheetpile walls and analysis. the initial pressures behind the ditions for the next excavation stage. In each excavation stage are used as initial con­ addition. full details of which are inclined anchors. as with many simplified analytical pile walls. particularly if has some limitations.(1979)). and as expected thick. analysis Martak proposes is an incremental one there is a time-dependent increase in deflect­ in which the conditions existing at the end of ion. He argues that this approach is cheaper these solutions to variations in the soil and faster than finite element analyses. power-law distribution of subgrade modulus with and there is no indication of the sensitivity of depth.g. results of which are sensitive to the constit­ utive law used or the mesh adopted. wall in a cutting in clay and address two some of the difficulty in predicting the real problems: behaviour must lie in the choice of soil para­ meters. In all cases. however. and some redistribution of stress must A different approach to the analysis of strutted take place within the slope and adjacent to the diaphragm walls is adopted by Martak. The method the latter study indicates less dependence of described in the paper may be of some use for the anchor force on anchor-wall distance and design purposes. The crucial aspect of the measurements in the case of one of the sheet­ analysis. but ones which are more important as the depth of the anchor significantly lower than the "classical" method decreases. The effect of The two approaches are said to give reasonably the distance between anchor and wall becomes similar safety factors. ence of the rigid wall is not properly consid­ ered. Earth pressures. He presents the results of inclin­ a concrete diaphragm wall. who wall. wall and not given in the paper. but the installation and pres­ wall flexibility than does Pitlakis'. but these were relatively small. Roth et al. there have which is apparently located at been other cases of good agreement between cal­ the toe of the slope. principally that it uses the wall is relatively flexible. an elasto- approach obviously involves simplifications plastic finite element analysis is also per­ which could be overcome by finite element formed using the results of pressure-meter and analysis. This conclusion is consistent with (presumably the slip circle method). particularly above the anchor level. considered. Vienna Underground to emphasize this point and the displacements and pressure changes due to to indicate the general pattern of behaviour as excavation and the application of the anchor excavation and strut installation proceeds. using a stress. this method attributed largely to the effects of the 322 . Authors conclude that both calculation methods only enable a very approximate estimate of the Mejzlik and Mencl consider a rigid retaining real wall behaviour to be determined. the "horizontal forces equilib­ changes in anchor loads were measured during rium method". Some mate approach. Increased non-failure stresses in a failure analysis.5 m slope at the wall location. The distribution of subgrade modulus. is the choice of the values and larly good for the diaphragm wall. Various values of the soil movements and anchor forces were measured at-rest lateral pressure coefficient K0 are during the course of construction of the wall. Moreover. Martak1s the case of the diaphragm wall. the solutions presented in the employs subgrade-reaction theory and adopts a paper are for a specific set of soil parameters. In ulus distribution are also indicated. which utilizes the slope stresses construction. The and wall movements were small (less than 20 mm) stability of the cutting is assessed by the and that the soil movements beneath the toe of finite element method. parameters were chosen. A series diaphragm wall are considered to be largely of solutions are then presented to illustrate determined by the properties of the concrete that such an incremental analysis gives quite and the construction procedure. and also by an approxi­ the wall were confined to a small zone. anchor length then can lead to increased wall displacement and anchor force. but the agreement is not particu­ techniques. it is possible that better results excavation and may have been obtained if more appropriate soil (ii) the earth pressure on the wall. Results are given ometer measurements on diaphragm walls for the for the initial lateral pressures on the wall. Theoretical different bending moments. element analysis is not detailed. The measurements revealed that the soil increase as the value of Ko increases. An incremental finite element analysis is used A further case study is presented by Kerisel et to obtain solutions for the stress distribution al who describe measurements of the behaviour in the slope after excavation.

he adopts a completely (ii) the influence of temporary loads is different approach to the previous paper in small compared to the earth pressure. since the backfigured in the anchor rod of 55 MPa which decreased anchor-sand friction angle significantly with time. based on Rankine earth pressure nonlinear spring provides a suitable model of theory. A 26 m high pile tribution along an anchor with increasing load of limestone (4 ship loads totalling 70 000 t) level. using an iterative analysis groups of full scale field tests on anchor slabs which adjusts the spring stiffness according to are then presented. This conclusion was load-deformation response of an anchor. surprisingly. the grout. although perhaps relaxation of the anchor rods would occur. this being a the anchors are located. the soil and the using a subgrade reaction analysis with the wall soil-grout interface. as determined from an axi- the findings of Arslan et al. It is argued that a of such a wall. Not of the anchors and bulkhead are not given. No allowance was made for the shear stress versus displacement relationship is resistance contribution of the bulkhead struct­ postulated. The incorporation of nonlinear isons between the measured ultimate loads and anchor behaviour is shown to give considerably theoretical methods of calculation are made.g. sized. A theoretical symmetric finite element model which incorpor­ analysis of the problem was also carried out. by simulating all the grout deflections. but unfortunately no compar­ the load level. typically 3 . In the final section of the paper. a wall. The results of three anchor behaviour. However. is presented. This reached on the basis of effective stress stab­ analysis is. in effect. a conclusion which is consistent with of a ground anchor. resulted in excess pore pres­ The Author then presents model test evidence sures in a critical clay layer of 0. The general characteristics of anchor was placed behind a bulkhead ore dock structure behaviour are similar to those found by Pinelo in Canada. A series of field tests on grouted anchors in sandy gravel is first des­ A field test of monumental proportions has been cribed. attractive. with depth. and soil. although the method of incorpor­ sures on the wall and of the order of wall ating nonlinearity. and an "elasto. full required loading of ore pellets to be the Author presents an analysis to predict the applied within one year.anchors. This model therefore requires the ure. Details of the modelling interface deflection at which slip occurs. both parameters have a signifi­ However. Elastic finite element analyses were also specification of two key quantities: the lim­ carried out. is presently limited to a homogen­ Monitored and computed deformations were com­ eous soil and involves difficulties in appli­ parable.4 m high. It also requires pre-determin- the computer response of a tie-back diaphragm ation of the limiting anchor-soil adhesion. limiting deflection and the effects of anchor size on this value (e. A simple design behaviour in plane-strain finite element method for the internal and external stability analyses of tieback walls. The analysis was found The influence of nonlinear anchor response is to give a satisfactory indication of the pres­ also examined. maximum lateral movements acity cannot be reliably predicted from labor­ of the bulkhead of 13 mm. with the majority of load current and future stability of the ore dock. rapid dissipation of the exceeds the internal friction angle of the excess pore pressures was found to occur. increasing linearly determining the load distribution along a pile. This phenomenon is attributed to the because of this. using parameters derived from iting anchor-soil friction and the limiting pressuremeter tests. ates the steel. this ratio plays a similar role in plastic" subgrade modulus. which took place over a and very little load reaching the lower part. and data is presented on the load dis­ described by Thompson et al. •determined by conventional methods of calcul­ 323 . However. by means of joint elements.73 times to indicate that the ultimate anchor load cap­ the applied pressure. order to predict the load-deformation relation­ ship for an anchor. was assumed. but The importance of accurate prediction of grout­ reach a maximum value between the ed anchor behaviour is also emphasized by active and at-rest pressures Petrasovits. appears quite questionable. thus indicating that elastic analyses cation to real situations because of the can still play a useful part in geotechnical uncertainty as to the appropriate value of the analysis. a subgrade reaction ility analyses using the monitored pore pres­ analysis in which an "elasto-plastic" shear sures. (i) the earth pressures on the face panel gradually increase with time. is it related to Pinelo and Matos Fernandes investigate the anchor diameter? Similar controversies are behaviour of a ground anchor and how the rep­ present in relation to some analyses of pile resentation of the ground anchor influences foundations). the objective being to examine the and Matos Fernandes. The important effect of represented by a beam. and stress relaxation atory triaxial test data. two useful general observations are anchor response is assumed. it was finally concluded that effects of dilatancy which (presumably) in­ stage loading of the dock could increase the creases the normal stress between the anchor strength of the clay sufficiently to allow the and sand. period of 3 days. the results were found to parallel cant influence on the load distribution in the the observed behaviour and also indicated that anchor. The test loading. The construction proced­ the ratio of anchor and soil moduli is empha­ ure was modelled in the analysis. The first part of the paper gives the quantity which the Author finds cannot be results of an elastic analysis of the behaviour. There is no indication of the The use of "anchor slab" retaining walls in model behaviour adopted for the sand in which China is described by Lee et al. larger wall and soil deflections than if linear Finally. Such an approach. although the vari­ made from measurements on anchor slab walls: ation in anchor loads during excavation is slightly less. being carried in the upper part of the anchor. The second part of wall composed of a series of anchored face pan­ the paper discusses the simulation of anchor els.

reports the results of a series of relatively small. The effect of layer depth is Mosawe. the excavation indicated that both types of and two degrees of moment restraint at the ends anchor were successful in stabilizing the of the strip. the analysis repeated loading. are shown in Fig. approach to the analysis of underground struct­ this loss being more severe as ures in which the details of the structure are the applied load amplitude modelled by finite elements and the surrounding increases layer of soil or rock is represented by an elastic mass.5 Comparison Between Theoretical and could well be quite different for dense and Measured Load Distributions for loose sands. The major conclusions upper horizontal slab of artificial tunnels reached are: although it would have been very useful to also have had solutions for bending moments in the (i) prestressing an anchor improves its strip. strip decreases. The major objective of these layer and a very interesting feature of the tests was to investigate the effect of cyclic results is that the distribution of surface loading on the behaviour of prestressed anchors. The comparisons. The solution prestressing the bottom of the excavation. Despite these limitations. Solutions are also plotted laboratory model tests on model anchor plates for the surface vertical displacements of the in dry sand. the amount of test itself). history involving the use of vertical anchors to stabilize the base of a large excavation 3. 12m below the final layer. The results in this applied load level and amplitude and of pre­ paper are of direct value for the design of the stress load level.ation. and these were the equation of flexure of the strip by impos­ preloaded to 600 kN. increasing the depth of pene­ presented for a flexible deforming strip at the tration of the slurry trench retaining wall and base of a finite elastic layer. a (iii) alternating loading (involving load type of substructure analysis. and two different displacements within an elastic layer due to procedures were used. to examine the effects of proposed by Peck (1969a). prevent movement (ii) repeated loading caused a gradual Davydov et al describe very concisely a general loss in prestress of the anchor. In one area.5. these solutions are then combined with excavation level. The non-uniformity of contact excavation. ing displacement compatibility between the soil double vertical grouted anchors were used. in effect. Three Burghignoli presents a very interesting and possible solutions were considered. z This paper is clearly presented and should provide a valuable source of data for future investigations into phenomena associated with cyclic loading of anchors and piles in sand. In general. relative layer depth. but decreased does appear to give remarkably good predictions by two-way alternate loading of the load distribution in an anchor (bearing (v) the sand above the anchor plate in mind of course that the limiting interface exhibits some crushing due to the deflection has in fact been determined from the cyclic loading. but it does not fully the analysis of buried structures. Dimensionless results are presented excavation level and the upper anchor being for the distribution of contact pressure on the just below the final excavation level. not directly breakdown due to crushing being plotted by Petrasovits. pressures becomes more pronounced as the strip stiffness increases or the end restraint of the The final paper in this group. The (iv) the static load capacity of an Authors consider that the use of this method anchor is increased by one-way enables determination of the optimum shape of 324 . were used. the cyclic response Tests of Petrasovits. horizontal arbitrary deformations at the base of the precast concrete plates. the and strip and using a finite difference lower anchor in each being well below final analysis. Subse­ strip due to overburden for various values of quent measurements of settlements adjacent to relative strip stiffness. In the second area. The paper reversal) is a more severe form of defines a suitable boundary between the elastic cyclic loading than (one-way) mass and the finite element mesh and outlines repeated loading the appropriate boundary conditions. of anchors may possibly be better described in terms of the levels of cyclic strain rather than Costa Nunes and Dringenberg describe a case of cyclic load. The results also provide "benchmark" life and reduces the amount of move­ solutions which will be useful for assessing ment which occurs during repeated the accuracy of finite element solutions for loading. by Hanna and Al. However. displacement is similar to the error function and in particular. The data should also provide engineers with a better "feel" for the design of anchors which are to be subjected to cyclic loads. This approach is. related to the number of load cycles and the applied load level. grouting useful paper in which elastic solutions are of the subsoil. it should be remembered that the tests are only for one value of density of the sand and that the performance of anchors under cyclic load Fig. The is obtained by first obtaining stresses and latter solution was chosen.5 Buried Pipes and Structures which was showing signs of instability before the required depth had been reached.

ly proportional to the load. Soil-structure inter­ which the concrete lining or the rock needs to action. The the single culvert. It is not clear in the paper whether vertical pressure on the pipe. The "dynamic" tests with the truck travel­ of the culvert as well as the external loading ling over the sewerpipe caused an increase in (if any). The required parameters can be determ­ excavated between sheetpiles. The pipe was constructed in a trench loyed. the effect of the soil. A series with increasing fill height. Shortly after construction of the pipe. However. A number of methods are then higher than the structural capacity of the roof considered for determining the behaviour of a slab evaluated by conventional structural cal­ structure-foundation system. of water. The Danish code gives a much the modification of the load-settlement relation­ more conservative distribution. A non-linear soil carried out on the stresses and pore pressures model which obeys an isotropic hardening law around a 0. The accurate prediction of horizontal forces. For truck over the location of the sewerpipe. mechanics of soil-culvert interaction are an adjacent trench was excavated and it was further depicted by diagrams indicating zones deduced that significant horizontal forces were of equal stress ratio for the cases of gravity induced in the supporting piles. There is reasonable agreement lapsing strains due to adding small increments with the American design load distributions. a value which the Authors.6m diameter concrete pipe in a trench. The paper would have be membrane action of the roof slab which under­ been enhanced if more emphasis had been given to 325 . Increases in although it would appear not. and for a surface loading above this trench resulted in a reduction of the the culvert. Filling of loading only. and in the ensuing two years. enab­ interaction due to surface loading. and a hori­ zontal load which is relatively uniform along The paper by Sparks et al is primarily concerned the upper half of the pipe. the ultimate the system under horizontal loading will gener­ surface pressure is of the order of 4 times ally be necessary. This stiffness ratio is gener­ with the results of a finite element analysis. Oedometer tests are procedures. with a shallow depth of burial of 0. The application of the finite element method to the analysis of buried metal culverts in sand The paper by Viergever describes measurements is described by Habib et al. no ling both normal and tangential stresses to be such calculations appear to have been made by measured separately.3m diameter sewer pipe supported on and involves a non-associated flow rule is emp­ piles. but very small such a construction analysis has been performed. thus implying that during and after backfilling. and measurements ined from drained triaxial tests. and tend to gen­ of empirical relationships between load and erally increase with time (due in part to settlement are first presented and suggestions seasonal factors) after completion of back­ are made for the modification of these relation­ filling. are presented by elastic theory might provide a suitable theoret­ Fuqlsanq. that although in reality. Suggestions are also made for the lower part.3m for a Moreover. a single dynamic test being carried out by passing a circular culvert. Unfortunately. Both vertical and analysing structure-foundation interaction when horizontal loads increase almost proportionally the foundation response is nonlinear. The paper ships when the footing load is eccentric. Some appears to contribute about 20%-30% to the discussion of this latter procedure is given by additional structural resistance. ally quite different from that obtained from elastic theory and is independent of load level. when the Author. The paper. moment and deflection. and particular culations. also be impregnated with polymerizing liquids. it would be significantly of a shallow-buried reinforced concrete box influenced by the load level. suggested for estimating the expansive or col­ Spangler theory. The average excess pore pressure and total Measurements of the stress distribution around stresses due to the truck are said to be linear­ a 1. The measured loads are compared with ships if the soil is susceptible to swelling or those from current American and Danish design can collapse upon wetting. and a pair of culverts. interpreted in terms of vertical and horizontal loads on the pipe. indicate a reasonably uni­ 3.6m square cross-section box. Krauthammer considers a different problem. some consideration of the stiffness of 0. and concentrates on the behaviour of ionships would probably be more satisfactorily the structure itself.6 Structure-Foundation-Soil Interaction form distribution of vertical load. which are based on the Marston. and the gives a useful comparison between measured results of undetailed tests are used to obtain a behaviour and design assumptions and it would ratio of vertical and rotational stiffnesses of be interesting to also compare the measurements surface footings.underground opening and also the degree to goes large deformations. The measurements. rather test are presented and it is shown that. the accuracy of these although the measured horizontal loads are empirical representations of foundation behaviour larger near the top of the pipe and smaller in is not discussed. causing arching over the roof. porewater pressures tended to dissipate rapidly. Numerical were made for a period of two years. measured load in the pipes just after construct­ culvert interface condition is investigated and ion was found to be in good agreement with that found to have a relatively small influence on calculated from an approach not detailed in the normal stress. but decreases with presenting relatively simple approaches for rapidly below mid-height. All these relat­ structure. with a results are presented for two cases. additional horizontal stresses. The pile was instrumented with a ical basis for calculation of the soil-pipe number of Cambridge-type pressure cells. The results of a field obtained from finite element analysis. culvert deflections in a nonlinear soil would little change in these horizontal forces occur­ probably require simulation of the construction red. The major contribution to this attention is paid to an iterative approach and a enhanced structural resistance is considered to matrix method of analysis. even than from tests (presumably on a model scale). is similar to that calculated from conventional soil mechanics theories.

the described by Demeneghi. The three approaches Biernatowski and Pytel discuss the extension of predicted similar settlements and differential the analysis of superstructure-foundation-soil settlements. ing moments and forces in the structure are determined by a structural analysis. a mat or continuous ation movements is developed. The soil is represented by a rheological model Bobe et al outline an approach to the incorpor. By inputting the footing foundation and the underlying soil is estimated deflections into the analysis. A photo-elastic model was also analyzed. the resulting a 66m diameter nuclear reactor in which the equations can be solved to determine the un­ effect of the structure was taken into account. The differential settlement pattern of the found­ Authors outline a method of analysis for determ­ ation. rigidity (possibly varying along its length). with the appropriate stress levels more. An example presented by the Authors ining the effect of foundation movements on the highlights the significant effect of super­ behaviour of the structure. which can be determined once the variability of Finite differences are used to solve the plate the reactions is determined. and characterize the collapsing of a soil may have on the behaviour structure as a beam of equivalent effective of the structure-foundation system. which can simulate creep effects if required. The unknown reactions overall response of the structure to foundation between the foundation and the soil are repres­ movements arising from swelling or shrinking of ented by a series of "blocks" of uniformly the soil can be evaluated.discussing the significance which swelling or ing on pad foundations. The Authors give stiffness and whicjj is more or less symmetri­ little guidance on this matter. The measured settlements effects of random variations in the soil com­ were only about one-half of those predicted. For domestic applications. and is less versatile be stress and strain-dependent. and the to iteratively solve for these forces. Two analyses were performed. Elastic behav­ than others which can allow for variations in iour of the various soil layers was assumed in superstructure stiffness with height. effects of soil yielding beneath the plate. the details of the necessary imposing displacement compatibility conditions calculations are not easy to follow. arising from variability of the involves the consideration of the foundation loads and soil compressibility. and imposing compatibility Becue et al describe the settlement analysis of of deflections and rotations. Though this approach may be potent­ Ruben and Benarroch address the problem of a ially useful in practice. and the other a true important in reducing differential settlements. The effect of the each involving the same frame. there is a locations beneath the slab. for example. and an Another analytical approach for the interaction influence matrix for the action of unit found­ between a framed structure. and determine the factorily than isolated foundations. and the deflections In their initial predictions. Three examples of equation after imposing compatibility between the application of this approach are given. these expressions give the displace­ be to first consider the interaction between the ments and rotations of the structure at found. soil and plate deflections. The reliabil­ slab as a plate and the soil as an elastic half­ ity of the entire system is then defined in space. of these unknown reactions and the constrained soil modulus values. level in terms of the unknown reactions. this is the approach being pursued for further research. and indicates of the movements of the slab at certain chosen that in the problem analysed. and it would cally loaded so that lateral effects can be appear that a more satisfactory approach would ignored. with approximate modifications for the terms of the reliability of each component. but because of the necessary brev­ foundation plate and the structure walls and ity of the paper. but a different superstructure stiffness is incorporated by soil model. Further­ the analysis. pressibility and applied loads. It would also Authors suggest that an alternative means of be useful for those not well-versed in reliabil­ simulating the superstructure stiffness is to ity theory to have some indication of the sig­ impose a given (measured or empirical) deflect­ nificance of the computed reliability number in ion pattern on the foundation and imply that the examples quoted. The analysis variables. three-dimensional analysis. with particular reference to location of each footing are taken to be random concrete core-wall structures. This method soil parameters derived from laboratory triaxial appears to be similar to that employed by tests in which the modulus values were found to several other researchers. expansive soil and the slab using. They consider and the Authors attribute this discrepancy to the case of a multistorey multibay frame rest­ their conservative estimation of the soil par­ 326 . Approaches such as this deserve assuming unknown vertical zones between the close study. it is more valid structure founded on a slab resting on expansive theoretically to work with a defined super­ clay. The notation is sometimes obscure. the bend­ building rigidity increases. the Authors used and rotations of the foundation. which is lem in applying it is to estimate the magnitude assumed to have beams and columns of constant of the foundation movements. ation of superstructure rigidity into a found­ and the displacements and reactions at the ation analysis. By an approach such as that described by Richards expressing the foundation displacements in terms (1973) . Expressions are pres­ reasonable in principle the most difficult prob­ ented for the action of the structure. the paper presents no examples to indi­ being estimated from the Boussinesq stress cate circumstances under which consideration distributions. although the distribution of settle­ interaction to allow for incorporation of the ment varied somewhat. It presupposes structure rigidity. one of the superstructure stiffness might be an axisymmetric analysis. known contact pressures. While this method is distributed loading. By imposing unit decreased longitudinal moment in the slab as the movements at each of these locations. particularly on the computed linear behaviour of the system and a knowledge bending moments in the foundation. this type of structure stiffness (although this may of course foundation is found to perform far more satis­ be difficult to assess).

one the effects of superstructure rigidity were not describes investigations into the behaviour of allowed for so that the significance of incor­ concrete-soil interfaces.7 Tolerable Settlements which measured settlements are compared with predicted values. Various damage criteria. involving state that the currently-used methods of tensile strain. This case history is a useful addition to the geotechnical literature. This analysis indicated that the edge the imprecise knowledge of subsoil con­ predicted wall strains were in reasonable agree­ ditions. angular distortion and practical purposes. maximum settlement. the initial strains were problem which has been encountered previously assumed to be zero at the commencement of the in other cases. the foundations for a bridge at the end of the additional settlement to produce embankment. however. Overall. settlements were pre­ interesting data. The settlement measurements made is now much greater than before. in particular. Three cases involve embank­ Only one paper. there is a__ excess pore pressures were measured and it was change in the trend of the concluded that further deformations would take relationship with strain after place. The load-settlement relationship will eventually enable a more accurate assess­ is also reasonably linear over a wide range of ment to be made of the applicability of the load. Consequently. principally. Cracking could have laboratory-determined value of consolidation been due to the effects of pile driving as well coefficient once again leads to a gross under­ as the effects of differential settlement. In the latter case. and in two cases. during construction are instructive and indi­ cate a progressively large effect of the super­ More detailed studies of the type described in structure rigidity in reducing differential this paper will provide much needed data and settlements. that by Chan. and it indicate differences between measured and pre­ was therefore possible to assess various crit­ dicted behaviour. Fortuitously. one describes an unusual had presented a settlement prediction in which load test to determine soil modulus. forming part of dicted using conventional one-dimensional con­ an existing building. settle­ adjacent site. The Auth­ in order to try and determine the primary source ors are pragmatic about their case studies and of cracking. but this paper contains some extremely profile. In conclud­ settlement rather than vibrations due to pile ing their clearly-written paper. In all cases. Measurements of angular distortion vary linearly horizontal movement. tilt and strain of the horizontal movements are overpredicted. was founded on loose to solidation theory. using the measured differences found between predicted and meas­ settlements at the various locations as input ured settlements. visible cracking ributions of displacement agree quite well with occurred at one of the measurement points during those measured. thus suggesting that behaviour and the difficulty of carrying out the measured strains were caused by permanent proper three-dimensional analyses. and maximum settlement were about 50% higher. The other three cases all construction of the adjacent foundations. and estimate of the rate of settlement. a relatively ponding values measured at the onset of cracking. One case was also during sheet pile installation excavation analysed by an elastic plane strain finite foundation pile driving and construction at the element analysis. The measured values of maximum differential such as using a two-dimensional rather than a settlement and the angular distortion were in one-dimensional analysis. Ting and Toh.8 Miscellaneous foundation behaviour. A high wall. the maximum settlement and formance of the embankment. inadequate understanding of real soil ment with those measured.g. however. maximum settlement prediction are probably adequate for differential settlement. they acknowl­ movements. could be assessed. it should be deflection ratio. Three of the papers in this classification but would have been even more interesting if it deal with embankments. it was considered necessary to a given additional tensile strain make allowance for negative skin friction and 327 . the Authors undertook a finite discuss a number of possible reasons for the element analysis of the wall. Recordon et al present four case histories in 3. small increase in sophistication of analysis. and the other involves a structure con­ deals with settlement criteria for building structed on fill placed over the natural soil damage. the calculated dist­ measurements. a wall were made. in some cases.ameters. the use of a eria for structural damage.and the last deals porating superstructure-foundation interaction with model tests of offshore gravity structures. Significant deformations and (ii) for all the criteria. were compared with the corres­ remarked that. settlement and pore pres­ with the tensile strain. and the measured deflection ratio (as used by Jones and Rust describe a case history involv­ Polshin and Tokar) was about 84% lower. the Authors driving. in the design of pile visible cracking occurs e. may serve to consid­ close agreement with those suggested by previous erably improve settlement prediction. thus suggesting that the use of an elastic currently used damage criteria for structures. and was instrumented compression was allowed for. Other interesting features from the stability and settlement problems were to be measurements are that expected and consequently instrumentation was installed in the foundation soil to control (i) up to the onset of visible crack­ the rate of construction and monitor the per­ ing. ments. the angular distortion criterion long and 5m high on loose sands and soft silty of Skempton and McDonald appears to be most clays. Measurements of the progress ments are found to be underpredicted while with time of settlement. Preliminary analyses indicated that suitable. sure were made. soil model (with appropriate modulus values) can provide reasonable practical predictions of 3. ing the construction of an embankment 400m for this case. secondary medium and dense sand. partic­ investigators but the measured tensile strain ularly in relation to rate of settlement.

It also has greater number of asperities in the some disadvantages. easy to handle. excess pore of spherical particles of known size and the pressures are built up beneath the base of the concrete surface is modelled as a flat plane model. under static loading. The results indicate at least two described by Peck (1969b). Predictions of the time-settlement surface. however. One of the main underlying material. This paper should stimulate able value. the benefits obtained by demonstrates that useful field data can be addition of the skirts are much less. it is durable. Deflections and rotations are decreas­ the value so determined is quite close to that ed by the presence of the skirts. generally consisting of a rein­ Some measure of agreement between the experi­ forced slab over a layer of gravel. The Authors then 328 . and it is to be hoped that further much interest in those engineers concerned with data will be published in the future to better problems of embankments and roads over very define the significance of interface roughness.lateral loads due to the post-construction soil representing the roughness or asperities of the movements. the Sorlie. data such as struction of a road embankment adjoining a that contained in this paper is of consider­ bridge abutment. which increases with inter­ construction has been described by Rugg and face roughness. an A very interesting application of a relatively adhesion between the sand and con­ new material.predict the final settlement magni­ er material. The values of con­ ity. overcome by suitable design of a road pavement above the foam. compressible soils. case of rough interface causing and susceptibility to chemical attack. Under cyclic loading. This is founded on piles or bedrock. This paper is a good example of the "smooth" and "rough" concrete faces were application of the "observational approach" employed. The second part of the eresting feature of the paper was the use of paper reports the results of tests performed probabilistic stability calculations to estimate in a ring simple shear device on sand-concrete the probability of failure at different safety and clay-concrete interfaces. It is there­ (ii) the adhesion developed between the fore very useful as a material for embankments smooth concrete and the clay is over very soft soils or for transitions between greater than that between the rough embankments and bridges (or other structures) concrete and the clay. and con­ structure interaction problems. to embankment crete. and demonstrates the interesting features: value of field measurements in cases where uncertainties exist. although details of successful application of polystyrene foam are not given. primarily its inflammability. factors. and the obtained from unusual test procedures by mode of failure is significantly different judicious use of theory to interpret the field from that under static loading. the assumption of the soil being an isotropic homo­ presence of skirts increases the lateral fail­ geneous half-space). appear to be some inconsistencies (perhaps typ­ but resulted in an over-prediction of settlement ographical) in the derivation of equations (4) in the early stages of consolidation. The tests Huck and Saxena consider the fundamental behav­ carried out in the centrifuge include measure­ iour of a soil-concrete interface and derive a ments of pore pressures beneath the base of the model in which the soil is idealized as a series structure. and the other being plowing. tude and conventional consolidation theory to pushing of the material in front of the asper­ predict settlement rates. In each case. A value based on results from a model are not given. with a mental results and the predictions from the bitumen-based surface seal. modelling interface behaviour in some soil- construction of a new road on a bog. In this case. there large-diameter oedometer (Rowe cell) was used. these eventual failure plane. (i) There is. under both slab in order to determine the modulus of the static and cyclic loading. In view of the importance of are described. polystyrene foam. The paper by Craig and Al-Saoudi presents * A novel example of large-scale field testing is results of model tests of offshore gravity described by Pinto and Esteves who have per­ structures. being governed measuremenis. Expanded polystyrene is extremely interface friction angle is not lightcompared with other lightweight mater­ influenced by this roughness. tested at unit gravity and at formed a loading test on one corner of a large increased acceleration levels. repair of a road across a bog. and in addition. where differential attributed to the effect of the settlements would be a problem. i. these disadvantages can be asperities. by the weakening of clay near foundation level under the effects of cyclic loading. Under cyc­ initially estimated by the Authors. An int­ and (8) of the paper. in terms of the convent­ ional Coulomb friction concept. The tests carried out at unit of the supporting soil (presumably on the gravity reveal that. Two mechanisms are considered to act. ials. Three case records Authors model is reported. using one being adhesion due to shearing of the soft­ cone data to. they relate the deflection at skirts beneath a structure on its deformation the measuring points on the slab to the modulus and stability. and are largest in the region of the with spherical caps protruding from it. behaviour of the embankment were made. A model of interface behaviour is solidation coefficient cv from various lab­ derived on the basis of these mechanisms. Measurements of the ure load. By means of a finite aims of the paper is to assess the benefits of element analysis. reasonably strong and is readily available. This paper lic loading however. full details of the utilization of this varied widely.' However.e. how­ oratory tests and from a field permeability test ever. ation. and it failure to propagate along inclined also increases the tendency to icing on the road planes through the soil between the surface. the extent of this increase depend­ deflection at these points thus enable the ing on the skirt penetration and configur­ modulus value to be back-figured.

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