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MALVINO & BATES

Electronic
PRINCIPLES

SEVENTH EDITION

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Chapter
6
Bipolar Junction Transistors

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Topics Covered in Chapter 6

• Unbiased transistor
• Biased transistor
• Transistor currents
• The CE connection
• The base curve

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Permission required for reproduction or display. . Topics Covered in Chapter 6 (Continued) • Collector curves • Transistor approximations • Reading data sheets • Surface mount transistors • Troubleshooting Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.

Permission required for reproduction or display. base. and collector • Two pn junctions: emitter-base and base- collector • NPN or PNP • Silicon or germanium Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Unbiased transistor • Three doped regions: emitter. Inc. .

. Inc. N COLLECTOR (medium doping) P BASE (light doping) N EMITTER (heavy doping) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.The bipolar junction transistor has 3 doped regions. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Inc. . Biased transistor • Forward bias the emitter diode • Reverse bias the collector diode Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Inc. . Permission required for reproduction or display. In a properly biased NPN transistor. the emitter electrons diffuse into the base and then go on to the collector. RC N RB VCE P VCC VBE N VBB Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Permission required for reproduction or display. Transistor currents • The ratio of collector current to base current is current gain (βdc or hFE) • Current gain is typically 100 to 300 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. .

Inc. IC IC IB IB IE IE Conventional flow Electron flow I E = IC + I B IC @ IE IB << IC IC IC adc = bdc = IE IB Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. .

Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc. The CE connection • The emitter is grounded or common • The base-emitter acts like a diode • The base-collector acts like a current source that is equal to βdc times the base current Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. .

RC collector RB loop V CE VCC base loop VBE VBB Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. The common emitter connection has two loops: the base loop and the collector loop. Permission required for reproduction or display. . Inc.

• When the subscripts are different. Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc. • Single subscripts are used for node voltages with ground serving as the reference (VC). the voltage is between two points (VCE). Subscript notation • When the subscripts are the same. . the voltage represents a source (VCC). Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Inc.ideal or second) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. . Permission required for reproduction or display. Base curve • Graph similar to that of a diode • Diode approximations are used for analysis (typically .

VBB . Permission required for reproduction or display.VBE IB = RC RB VCE RB VCC VBE VBB Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. The base circuit is usually analyzed with the same approximation used for diodes. . Inc.

) 14 100 mA 12 80 mA 10 60 mA IC in mA 8 6 40 mA 4 20 mA 2 0 mA 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 VCE in Volts This set of curves is also called a family of curves. Inc. A graph of IC versus VCE (Note that each new value of IB presents a new curve. Permission required for reproduction or display. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. .

used in switching applications • Breakdown .used for linear amplification • Cutoff . Regions of operation • Active ..used in switching applications • Saturation . . Inc.can destroy the transistor and should be avoided Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies..... Permission required for reproduction or display....

Usually accomplished by computer simulation. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. • Second: correct for VBE and use bIB to determine IC. . • Third (and higher): correct for bulk resistance and other effects. Use for design work. Inc. Transistor circuit approximations • First: treat the base-emitter diode as ideal and use bIB to determine IC. Use for troubleshooting.

. The second approximation: VBE = 0. Permission required for reproduction or display.7 V bdcIB VCE Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc.

.7 V VBB 5V Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.VBE IB = RB 5 V .7 V IB = = 43 mA RC 100 kW 100 kW RB VCC VBE = 0. Inc. VBB .0. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Inc. . IC = bdc IB IC = 100 x 43 mA = 4.3 mA RC 100 kW bdc = 100 RB VCC IB = 43 mA VBB 5V Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display.

.3 mA x 1 kW = 4. Permission required for reproduction or display. VRC = IC x RC VRC = 4.3 V 1 kW RC IC = 4. Inc.3 mA 100 kW RB 12 V VCC IB = 43 mA VBB 5V Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Inc.7 V 1 kW RC 100 kW VCE RB 12 V VCC IB = 43 mA VBB 5V Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. VCE = VCC . .3 V = 7.4. Permission required for reproduction or display.3 mA VCE = 12 V .VRC IC = 4.

. Permission required for reproduction or display. and power • Power transistors dissipate more than 1 watt • Temperature can change the value of a transistor’s characteristics Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Inc. Reading transistor data sheets • Maximum ratings on voltage. current.

Inc. .g. Permission required for reproduction or display. Typical Breakdown Ratings • VCBO = 60 V • VCEO = 40 V • VEBO = 6 V • Note: these are reverse breakdown ratings with one transistor leg open (e. VCBO is voltage collector to base with emitter open) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Permission required for reproduction or display. . Inc. A graphic view of collector breakdown 14 12 10 IC in mA 8 6 4 2 0 50 VCE in Volts Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Inc. . Permission required for reproduction or display. Typical Maximum Ratings • IC = 200 mA dc • PD = 250 mW (for TA = 60 C)o • PD = 350 mW (for TA = 25 oC) • PD = 1W (for TC = 60 oC) Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies.

1 40 ___ 1 70 ___ 10 100 300 50 60 ___ 100 30 ___ Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc. . Data sheet hFE “On Characteristics” IC in mA hFE(min) hFE(max) 0.

Permission required for reproduction or display. Inc. Surface-mount transistors • A variety of package styles (three- terminal gull-wing is typical) • Some SMTs can dissipate 1 watt or more • Some SMTs house multiple transistors Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. .

• First approximation and mental estimates will usually suffice. • Junctions can and do open. • Junctions can and do short. • Circuit boards can and do open. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies. • Resistors generally don’t short but circuit boards can. Inc. Troubleshooting • Look for gross voltage errors. Permission required for reproduction or display. .