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MALVINO & BATES

Electronic
PRINCIPLES

SEVENTH EDITION

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Chapter
6
Bipolar Junction Transistors

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Topics Covered in Chapter 6

• Unbiased transistor
• Biased transistor
• Transistor currents
• The CE connection
• The base curve

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Topics Covered in Chapter 6
(Continued)
• Collector curves
• Transistor approximations
• Reading data sheets
• Surface mount transistors
• Troubleshooting

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Unbiased transistor
• Three doped regions: emitter, base, and
collector
• Two pn junctions: emitter-base and base-
collector
• NPN or PNP
• Silicon or germanium

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The bipolar junction transistor has 3 doped regions.

N COLLECTOR (medium doping)

P BASE (light doping)

N EMITTER (heavy doping)

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Biased transistor
• Forward bias the emitter diode
• Reverse bias the collector diode

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In a properly biased NPN transistor, the emitter electrons
diffuse into the base and then go on to the collector.

RC
N
RB VCE
P VCC

VBE N
VBB

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Transistor currents
• The ratio of collector current to base
current is current gain (βdc or hFE)
• Current gain is typically 100 to 300

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IC IC
IB IB

IE IE

Conventional flow Electron flow

I E = IC + I B IC @ IE IB << IC

IC IC
adc = bdc =
IE IB
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The CE connection
• The emitter is grounded or common
• The base-emitter acts like a diode
• The base-collector acts like a current
source that is equal to βdc times the base
current

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The common emitter connection has two loops:
the base loop and the collector loop.

RC
collector
RB loop V CE

VCC
base loop
VBE
VBB

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Subscript notation
• When the subscripts are the same, the
voltage represents a source (VCC).
• When the subscripts are different, the
voltage is between two points (VCE).
• Single subscripts are used for node
voltages with ground serving as the
reference (VC).

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Base curve
• Graph similar to that of a diode
• Diode approximations are used for
analysis (typically - ideal or second)

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The base circuit is usually analyzed with the
same approximation used for diodes.

VBB - VBE
IB = RC
RB
VCE

RB VCC

VBE
VBB

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A graph of IC versus VCE
(Note that each new value of IB presents a new curve.)

14 100 mA
12 80 mA
10 60 mA
IC in mA 8
6 40 mA
4 20 mA
2
0 mA
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18
VCE in Volts
This set of curves is also called a family of curves.
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Regions of operation
• Active - - - used for linear amplification
• Cutoff - - - used in switching applications
• Saturation - - - used in switching
applications
• Breakdown - - - can destroy the
transistor and should be avoided

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Transistor circuit approximations

• First: treat the base-emitter diode as ideal and


use bIB to determine IC. Use for
troubleshooting.
• Second: correct for VBE and use bIB to
determine IC.
• Third (and higher): correct for bulk resistance
and other effects. Usually accomplished by
computer simulation. Use for design work.

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The second approximation:

VBE = 0.7 V bdcIB VCE

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VBB - VBE
IB =
RB
5 V - 0.7 V
IB = = 43 mA RC
100 kW

100 kW

RB VCC

VBE = 0.7 V
VBB 5V

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IC = bdc IB

IC = 100 x 43 mA = 4.3 mA RC

100 kW
bdc = 100
RB VCC

IB = 43 mA
VBB 5V

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VRC = IC x RC

VRC = 4.3 mA x 1 kW = 4.3 V 1 kW RC


IC = 4.3 mA
100 kW

RB 12 V VCC

IB = 43 mA
VBB 5V

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VCE = VCC - VRC IC = 4.3 mA

VCE = 12 V - 4.3 V = 7.7 V 1 kW RC

100 kW VCE

RB 12 V VCC

IB = 43 mA
VBB 5V

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Reading transistor data sheets
• Maximum ratings on voltage, current,
and power
• Power transistors dissipate more than 1
watt
• Temperature can change the value of a
transistor’s characteristics

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Typical Breakdown Ratings
• VCBO = 60 V
• VCEO = 40 V
• VEBO = 6 V

• Note: these are reverse breakdown


ratings with one transistor leg open (e.g.
VCBO is voltage collector to base with
emitter open)

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A graphic view of collector breakdown

14
12
10
IC in mA 8
6
4
2
0 50
VCE in Volts

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Typical Maximum Ratings
• IC = 200 mA dc
• PD = 250 mW (for TA = 60 C)o

• PD = 350 mW (for TA = 25 oC)


• PD = 1W (for TC = 60 oC)

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Data sheet hFE
“On Characteristics”
IC in mA hFE(min) hFE(max)

0.1 40 ___
1 70 ___
10 100 300
50 60 ___
100 30 ___

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Surface-mount transistors
• A variety of package styles (three-
terminal gull-wing is typical)
• Some SMTs can dissipate 1 watt or more
• Some SMTs house multiple transistors

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Troubleshooting
• Look for gross voltage errors.
• First approximation and mental
estimates will usually suffice.
• Resistors generally don’t short but circuit
boards can.
• Circuit boards can and do open.
• Junctions can and do short.
• Junctions can and do open.

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