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Buckling Test

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- Student ID: SUKD-1500370

- Group: k

- Lecturer: Vin Cen Tai

- Date of Experiment: 25-10-2017

- Submission: 02-11-2017

1

Abstract:

An experiment was performed to have an idea of deciding the general buckling loads of

different specimens for different supports. Which in results, helps to examine the impact of

limitations caused by different specimens material. In this experiment the specimen material

was steel but of two types S4 and S6. Experimental results are calculated according to Euler’s

theory which gives a better understanding to Euler’s concept of buckling.

2

No. Table of contents Page

1. Abstract 2

2. Objective 3

3. Introduction 3

4. Apparatus 4

5. Method of Experiment 4

6. Theory 4

8. Discussion 8

9. Conclusion 9

10. Reference 9

11. Appendices 10

3

Objective:

II. To understand and check the Euler’s concept of buckling.

III. To examine the impact of various material limitation.

Introduction:

At the beginning the Mathematician Physicist (Leonhard Euler) gave the progression of

calculations which determined on the way to discover the deflection of the sections when

applied various load. The method below serves to confirm two of the buckling conditions of

steel segments. Euler decided the expressions shown below to find the basic load under

various sorts of ends.

This report express the column buckling sensation by comparing the theory to practical

investigation. A column subjected to an increasing axial load will deform under what load at

the end. The basic buckling load for a given section relies on different variables including:

length of the segment, geometry of the segment, sort of supporting framework, and area of

the load with respect to the centroid of the segment. The bending of the sections under load is

a huge property of materials which must be considered for planning and calculations for the

engineering purposes.

4

Apparatus:

The unit essentially consists of:

a. Load spindle

b. Load nut

c. Load cross bar

d. Clamping screws

e. Guide columns

f. Force gauge

g. Attachment socket

h. Basic frame

i. Force measuring device Figure A: Buckling test

device

ii. A specimen made of flat steel bar

iii. Measurement apparatus (ruler, caliper, divider, etc)

Method of Experiment:

The perpendicular situation was set by the machine. The momentum quantity with V indent

into connection hole and attached with buckle bolt was put in. Long momentum quantity with

V indent into the guide bush of load cross-bar was inserted and was held firmly. The V indent

was being inserting by the bar sample with edges. The load cross-bar was fastened on the

guide segment in such a way, to the point that there was still approximately 5 mm for the top

push piece to move. The path of the adjacent guide column was being associating in a way

that its buckling direction by the bar sample. The rod specimen with low, non-measurable

5

force was tightening again. The calculating gauge was arranged to the centre of the bar

sample with the help of the holds. The measuring gauge was fixed at a right angle to the way

of buckling. The measuring gauge was pre-tightening to 10 mm bending with the changeable

support. The bar sample load was gradually subjected using the load nut. The same procedure

was doing twice for two different kinds of example. (I) Fixed end pinned end, (II) pinned end

pinned and (S4).

Theory:

A long-segment straight pillar with a rectangular cross segment is subjected to a compressive

axial load. For whatever length of time that the bar stays straight, the bar can be inspected by

the ideas of strain or pressure loads; although, on the off chance that the bending turns out to

be unexpectedly extraordinary and prompts disastrous failure, then the buckling concept must

be used for the investigation. As indicated by the concept, the basic (or Euler) buckling load

F and normal stress cr can be calculated by the following equations:

𝑏ℎ3

𝐼= .

12

𝜋 2 𝐸𝐼

𝑃𝑐 =

𝐿2

Whereas,

𝑁

E is the modulus of elasticity (21× 104 𝑚𝑚2

)

𝑏ℎ3

I is the moment of initial of the beam,𝐼 = , moment of inertia

12

6

L is the length of the beam

𝐹

(𝜎𝑝 − )𝑙𝑦

𝐴

𝑓𝑚𝑎𝑥 = .

𝐹 𝑧𝑚𝑎𝑥

zmax = 2mm

7

Calculations and Results:

Length = l =649mm

Thickness = h = 4.08mm

Width = b = 20.25mm

20.25 × 4.083

𝐼= = 114.61𝑚4

12

𝜋2 ×21×104 ×114.61

𝑃𝑐 = (649)2

= 563.97N

563.97

(300− )114.61

20.25×4.08

𝑓𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = 29.79mm

563.97×2

100 0

150 0.06

200 0.155

250 0.220

300 0.325

350 0.455

400 0.690

450 1.015

500 1.725

8

Graph2: specimen (S4)

600

500

400

FORCE (N)

300

200

100

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

DEFLECTION (mm)

L = 0.7L

20.3×4.263

𝐼= =130.781 mm4

12

𝜋2 ×21×104 ×130.781

𝑃𝑐 = (0.7×6752 )

= 850N

850

(300− )114.61

20.25×4.08

𝑓𝑚𝑎𝑥 = =19.532 mm

850×2

9

Force (N) Experimental Defection

(mm)

100 0

150 0.25

200 0.32

250 0.42

300 0.46

350 0.505

400 0.735

450 0.88

500 1.13

550 1.46

600 1.68

650 2.305

700 2.960

750 4.1

800 5.7

900

800

700

600

FORCE (N)

500

400

300

200

100

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

DEFLECTION (mm)

10

Discussion:

In this experiment, the problem of first consequence, the buckling test was tried with two

stainless steel with different elasticity, set apart as S4 and S6. By viewing the results recorded

a doubt can be made which is the unbending nature of the steel S4 is higher than S6.

Furthermore, when calculation was taken of the reflector suddenly and it might divert more

than a round. In this way if attention is adversity, the reading may be uncorrected. Moreover,

put an energy not to slender or relate an outer force on the table so that the accuracy was

reserved. The calculation of the deflector may influence because of these outer powers acting.

For example, leaning toward bench, hand setting on the mechanical association while

compatible the weight nuts.

Anyway, there are furthermore a couple of protections that must know approximately. For

example the screw to hold the steel is lose and dropping the screw may achieve the screw

break and the steel may not be shot tight for the accompanying examination. What's more,

moreover, while coordinating the examination never over stacked the steel support. Over-

troubling may make the steel break.

Conclusion:

The error in this test was dreadfully off course and presented undesirable mistake. The

essential reason of mistake was a result of poor testing procedure. Indeed, even with true blue

technique, in any case, constant and considerable mix-up was up 'til now present. The rest of

the mistake was a result of not all around adjusted test tests and incapably adjusted gear. The

cases had experienced clasping commonly past to above analysis, and the props were not

changed in accordance with put the drive parallel along the bar.

In conclusion, some arbitrary errors are created by the encompassing. For instance, the

avoidance can be influenced by the some attraction properties, for example, advanced cell.

This is because the deflector is magnetic.

11

References:

https://www.academia.edu/18641591/Buckling_test_report

Gilbert, J. A and C. L. Carmen. "Chapter 4 – Column Buckling Test." MAE/CE 370-

Mechanics of Materials Laboratory Manual. June 2000

https://www.scribd.com/doc/136562/Mechanics-of-Materials-Column-Buckling-Test

Berham, P. P., Crawford, R. J., Armstrong, C. G. 1996, Mechanism of Engineering

Materials, 2nd Edition, Pearson Education Limited, China

Hibbeler, R. C. 2005, Mechanics of Materials, 6th Edition, Prentice Hall, Singapore.

12

Appendices:

13

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