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- Candidate’s Name: Syed Matahir Hussain Shah Kazmi

- Student ID: SUKD-1500370
- Group: k
- Lecturer: Vin Cen Tai
- Date of Experiment: 25-10-2017
- Submission: 02-11-2017

An experiment was performed to have an idea of deciding the general buckling loads of
different specimens for different supports. Which in results, helps to examine the impact of
limitations caused by different specimens material. In this experiment the specimen material
was steel but of two types S4 and S6. Experimental results are calculated according to Euler’s
theory which gives a better understanding to Euler’s concept of buckling.

No. Table of contents Page

1. Abstract 2

2. Objective 3

3. Introduction 3

4. Apparatus 4

5. Method of Experiment 4

6. Theory 4

7. Calculations & Results 6

8. Discussion 8

9. Conclusion 9

10. Reference 9

11. Appendices 10


I. To decide general buckling loads for sections with supports.

II. To understand and check the Euler’s concept of buckling.
III. To examine the impact of various material limitation.


Buckling Test Figure 1,

At the beginning the Mathematician Physicist (Leonhard Euler) gave the progression of
calculations which determined on the way to discover the deflection of the sections when
applied various load. The method below serves to confirm two of the buckling conditions of
steel segments. Euler decided the expressions shown below to find the basic load under
various sorts of ends.

This report express the column buckling sensation by comparing the theory to practical
investigation. A column subjected to an increasing axial load will deform under what load at
the end. The basic buckling load for a given section relies on different variables including:
length of the segment, geometry of the segment, sort of supporting framework, and area of
the load with respect to the centroid of the segment. The bending of the sections under load is
a huge property of materials which must be considered for planning and calculations for the
engineering purposes.


i. WP120 Buckling Test device.

The unit essentially consists of:

a. Load spindle
b. Load nut
c. Load cross bar
d. Clamping screws
e. Guide columns
f. Force gauge
g. Attachment socket
h. Basic frame
i. Force measuring device Figure A: Buckling test
ii. A specimen made of flat steel bar
iii. Measurement apparatus (ruler, caliper, divider, etc)

Figure B: Top specimen holder Figure C: Bottom specimen holder

(From detail view X) (From detail view Y)

Method of Experiment:

The perpendicular situation was set by the machine. The momentum quantity with V indent
into connection hole and attached with buckle bolt was put in. Long momentum quantity with
V indent into the guide bush of load cross-bar was inserted and was held firmly. The V indent
was being inserting by the bar sample with edges. The load cross-bar was fastened on the
guide segment in such a way, to the point that there was still approximately 5 mm for the top
push piece to move. The path of the adjacent guide column was being associating in a way
that its buckling direction by the bar sample. The rod specimen with low, non-measurable

force was tightening again. The calculating gauge was arranged to the centre of the bar
sample with the help of the holds. The measuring gauge was fixed at a right angle to the way
of buckling. The measuring gauge was pre-tightening to 10 mm bending with the changeable
support. The bar sample load was gradually subjected using the load nut. The same procedure
was doing twice for two different kinds of example. (I) Fixed end pinned end, (II) pinned end
pinned and (S4).

A long-segment straight pillar with a rectangular cross segment is subjected to a compressive
axial load. For whatever length of time that the bar stays straight, the bar can be inspected by
the ideas of strain or pressure loads; although, on the off chance that the bending turns out to
be unexpectedly extraordinary and prompts disastrous failure, then the buckling concept must
be used for the investigation. As indicated by the concept, the basic (or Euler) buckling load
F and normal stress cr can be calculated by the following equations:

Geometric moment of inertia can be calculated as

𝐼= .

Critical Buckling load can be calculated as

𝜋 2 𝐸𝐼
𝑃𝑐 =


E is the modulus of elasticity (21× 104 𝑚𝑚2

I is the moment of initial of the beam,𝐼 = , moment of inertia

b is the width of the beam

h is the thickness of the beam

L is the length of the beam

A is the cross section area of the beam, A = bh

Corresponding deflection can be calculated as follow

(𝜎𝑝 − )𝑙𝑦
𝑓𝑚𝑎𝑥 = .
𝐹 𝑧𝑚𝑎𝑥

σmax =elasticity limit for steel (300 N/mm)

zmax = 2mm

Calculations and Results:

-For Pinned end – Pinned end specimen (S4)

Length = l =649mm
Thickness = h = 4.08mm
Width = b = 20.25mm

20.25 × 4.083
𝐼= = 114.61𝑚4
𝜋2 ×21×104 ×114.61
𝑃𝑐 = (649)2
= 563.97N

(300− )114.61
𝑓𝑚𝑎𝑥 = = 29.79mm

Force (N) Defection (mm)

100 0
150 0.06
200 0.155
250 0.220
300 0.325
350 0.455
400 0.690
450 1.015
500 1.725

Graph2: specimen (S4)







0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

-For Fixed end – Pinned end specimen (S6)

L = 0.7L

𝐼= =130.781 mm4

𝜋2 ×21×104 ×130.781
𝑃𝑐 = (0.7×6752 )
= 850N

(300− )114.61
𝑓𝑚𝑎𝑥 = =19.532 mm

Force (N) Experimental Defection
100 0
150 0.25
200 0.32
250 0.42
300 0.46
350 0.505
400 0.735
450 0.88
500 1.13
550 1.46
600 1.68
650 2.305
700 2.960
750 4.1
800 5.7

Graph1: specimen (S6)










0 1 2 3 4 5 6


In this experiment, the problem of first consequence, the buckling test was tried with two
stainless steel with different elasticity, set apart as S4 and S6. By viewing the results recorded
a doubt can be made which is the unbending nature of the steel S4 is higher than S6.

Furthermore, when calculation was taken of the reflector suddenly and it might divert more
than a round. In this way if attention is adversity, the reading may be uncorrected. Moreover,
put an energy not to slender or relate an outer force on the table so that the accuracy was
reserved. The calculation of the deflector may influence because of these outer powers acting.
For example, leaning toward bench, hand setting on the mechanical association while
compatible the weight nuts.

Anyway, there are furthermore a couple of protections that must know approximately. For
example the screw to hold the steel is lose and dropping the screw may achieve the screw
break and the steel may not be shot tight for the accompanying examination. What's more,
moreover, while coordinating the examination never over stacked the steel support. Over-
troubling may make the steel break.


The error in this test was dreadfully off course and presented undesirable mistake. The
essential reason of mistake was a result of poor testing procedure. Indeed, even with true blue
technique, in any case, constant and considerable mix-up was up 'til now present. The rest of
the mistake was a result of not all around adjusted test tests and incapably adjusted gear. The
cases had experienced clasping commonly past to above analysis, and the props were not
changed in accordance with put the drive parallel along the bar.

In conclusion, some arbitrary errors are created by the encompassing. For instance, the
avoidance can be influenced by the some attraction properties, for example, advanced cell.
This is because the deflector is magnetic.


 Gilbert, J. A and C. L. Carmen. "Chapter 4 – Column Buckling Test." MAE/CE 370-
Mechanics of Materials Laboratory Manual. June 2000
 Berham, P. P., Crawford, R. J., Armstrong, C. G. 1996, Mechanism of Engineering
Materials, 2nd Edition, Pearson Education Limited, China
 Hibbeler, R. C. 2005, Mechanics of Materials, 6th Edition, Prentice Hall, Singapore.