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SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

TENSION, COMPRESSION, SHEAR

DESIGN PROBLEMS

1. The link shown, made of AISI C1045 steel, as rolled, is subjected to a tensile load
of 8000 lb. Let h = 1.5b . If the load is repeated but not reversed, determine the
dimensions of the section with the design based on (a) ultimate strength, (b) yield
strength. (c) If this link, which is 15 in. long., must not elongate more than 0.005
in., what should be the dimensions of the cross section?

Problems 1 – 3.
Solution:
For AISI C1045 steel, as rolled (Table AT 7)
su = 96 ksi
s y = 59 ksi
E = 30× 106 psi

F
sd =
A
where
F = 8000 lb
A = bh
but
h = 1.5b
therefore A = 1.5b 2

(a) Based on ultimate strength

N = factor of safety = 6 for repeated but not reversed load (Table 1.1)
s F
sd = u =
N A
96,000 8000
=
6 1.5b 2
5
b = 0.577 in say in .
8

2

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

15
h = 1.5b = in
16

(b) Based on yield strength

N = factor of safety = 3 for repeated but not reversed load (Table 1.1)
s F
sd = u =
N A
59,000 8000
=
3 1.5b 2
9
b = 0.521 in say in .
16
27
h = 1.5b = in
32

FL
(c) Elongation = δ =
AE
where,
δ = 0.005 in
F = 8000 lb
E = 30×106 psi
L = 15 in
A = 1.5b 2
then,
FL
δ=
AE
0.005 =
(8000)(15)
(1.5b 2 )(30 ×106 )
3
b = 0.730 in say in .
4
1
h = 1.5b = 1 in
8

2. The same as 1 except that the material is malleable iron, ASTM A47-52, grade 35
018.

Solution:
For malleable iron, ASTM A47-52, grade 35 018(Table AT 6)
su = 55 ksi
s y = 36.5 ksi
E = 25×10 6 psi

3

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

F
sd =
A
where
F = 8000 lb
A = bh
but
h = 1.5b
therefore A = 1.5b 2

(a) Based on ultimate strength

N = factor of safety = 6 for repeated but not reversed load (Table 1.1)
s F
sd = u =
N A
55,000 8000
=
6 1.5b 2
7
b = 0.763 in say in .
8
5
h = 1.5b = 1 in
16

(b) Based on yield strength

N = factor of safety = 3 for repeated but not reversed load (Table 1.1)
s F
sd = u =
N A
36,500 8000
=
3 1.5b 2
11
b = 0.622 in say in .
16
1
h = 1.5b = 1 in
32

FL
(c) Elongation = δ =
AE
where,
δ = 0.005 in
F = 8000 lb
E = 25×10 6 psi
L = 15 in
A = 1.5b 2
then,

4

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

FL
δ=
AE
0.005 =
(8000)(15)
(1.5b )(25 ×10 )
2 6

7
b = 0.8 in say in .
8
5
h = 1.5b = 1 in
16

3. The same as 1 except that the material is gray iron, ASTM 30.

Solution:
For ASTM 30 (Table AT 6)
su = 30 ksi , no s y
E = 14.5 ×106 psi
Note: since there is no s y for brittle materials. Solve only for (a) and (c)
F
sd =
A
where
F = 8000 lb
A = bh
but
h = 1.5b
therefore A = 1.5b 2

(a) Based on ultimate strength

N = factor of safety = 7 ~ 8 say 7.5 (Table 1.1)
s F
sd = u =
N A
30,000 8000
=
7. 5 1.5b 2
3
b = 1.1547 in say 1 in .
16
25
h = 1.5b = 1 in
32
FL
(c) Elongation = δ =
AE
where,
δ = 0.005 in
F = 8000 lb
E = 14.5 ×106 psi

5

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

L = 15 in
A = 1.5b 2
then,
FL
δ=
AE
0.005 =
(8000)(15)
(1.5b )(14.5 ×10 )
2 6

1
b = 1.050 in say 1 in .
16
19
h = 1.5b = 1 in
32

4. A piston rod, made of AISI 3140 steel, OQT 1000 F (Fig. AF 2), is subjected to a
repeated, reversed load. The rod is for a 20-in. air compressor, where the
maximum pressure is 125 psig. Compute the diameter of the rod using a design
factor based on (a) ultimate strength, (b) yield strength.

Solution:
From Fig. AF 2 for AISI 3140, OQT 1000 F
su = 152.5 ksi
s y = 132.5 ksi

π
F = force = (20)2 (125) = 39,270 lb = 39.27 kips
4
From Table 1.1, page 20
Nu = 8
Ny = 4

(a) Based on ultimate strength
N F
A= u
su
π 2 (8)(39.27 )
d =
4 152.5
5
d = 1.62 in say 1 in
8

(b) Based on yield strength
NyF
A=
sy
π
d2 =
(4)(39.27 )
4 132.5

6

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

1
d = 1.23 in say 1 in
4

5. A hollow, short compression member, of normalized cast steel (ASTM A27-58,
65 ksi), is to support a load of 1500 kips with a factor of safety of 8 based on the
ultimate strength. Determine the outside and inside diameters if Do = 2 Di .

Solution:
su = 65 ksi
Nu = 8
F = 1500 kips
π π 3πDi2
A=
4
(D 2
o − Di2 =) 4
(4D i
2
)
− Di2 =
4
3πDi2 N u F (8)(1500 )
A= = =
4 su 65
7
Di = 8.85 in say 8 in
8
 7 3
Do = 2 Di = 2 8  = 17 in
 8 4

6. A short compression member with Do = 2 Di is to support a dead load of 25 tons.
The material is to be 4130 steel, WQT 1100 F. Calculate the outside and inside
diameters on the basis of (a) yield strength, (b) ultimate strength.

Solution:
From Table AT 7 for 4130, WQT 1100 F
su = 127 ksi
s y = 114 ksi

From Table 1.1 page 20, for dead load
N u = 3 ~ 4 , say 4
N y = 1.5 ~ 2 , say 2
π π 3πDi2
Area, A =
4
(D2
o )
− Di2 =
4
(4D i
2
)
− Di2 =
4
F = 25 tons = 50 kips

(a) Based on yield strength
3πDi2 N y F (2 )(50)
A= = =
4 sy 114

7

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

5
Di = 0.61 in say in
8
5 1
Do = 2 Di = 2  = 1 in
8 4
(b) Based on ultimate strength
3πDi2 N u F (4 )(50)
A= = =
4 su 127
7
Di = 0.82 in say in
8
7 3
Do = 2 Di = 2  = 1 in
8 4

7. A round, steel tension member, 55 in. long, is subjected to a maximum load of
7000 lb. (a) What should be its diameter if the total elongation is not to exceed
0.030 in? (b) Choose a steel that would be suitable on the basis of yield strength if
the load is gradually applied and repeated (not reversed).

Solution:

FL FL
(a) δ = or A =
AE δE
where,
F = 7000 lb
L = 55 in
δ = 0.030 in
E = 30× 10 6 psi

A=
π
d2 =
(7000)(55)
4 (0.030)(30 ×106 )
3
d = 0.74 in say in
4
(b) For gradually applied and repeated (not reversed) load
Ny = 3

sy =
N yF
=
(3)(7000) = 47,534 psi
A π
(0.75)2
4
s y ≈ 48 ksi
say C1015 normalized condition ( s y = 48 ksi )

8. A centrifuge has a small bucket, weighing 0.332 lb. with contents, suspended on a
manganese bronze pin (B138-A, ½ hard) at the end of a horizontal arm. If the pin
is in double shear under the action of the centrifugal force, determine the diameter

8

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

needed for 10,000 rpm of the arm. The center of gravity of the bucket is 12 in.
from the axis of rotation.

Solution:
From Table AT 3, for B138-A, ½ hard
sus = 48 ksi
W
F = ω 2r
g
where
W = 0.332 lb
g = 32.2 fps 2
2π n 2π (10,000 )
ω= = = 1047 rad sec
60 60
r = 12 in
W 0.332
F = ω 2r = (1047)2 (1) = 11,300 lb = 11.3 kips
g 32.2
From Table 1.1, page 20
N = 3 ~ 4 , say 4
N F
A= u
su
 π  (4)(11.3)
2 d 2  = for double shear
4  48
25
d = 0.774 in say in
32

CHECK PROBLEMS

3
9. The link shown is made of AISIC1020 annealed steel, with b = in and
4
1
h = 1 in . (a) What force will cause breakage? (b) For a design factor of 4 based
2
on the ultimate strength, what is the maximum allowable load? (c) If N = 2.5
based on the yield strength, what is the allowable load?

Problem 9.

9

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Solution:
For AISI C1020 annealed steel, from Table AT 7
su = 57 ksi
s y = 42 ksi

(a) F = su A
 3  1 
A = bh =  1  = 1.125 in 2
 4  2 
F = (57 )(1.125) = 64 kips
s A
(b) F = u
Nu
Nu = 4
 3  1 
A = bh =  1  = 1.125 in 2
 4  2 
F=
(57 )(1.125) = 16 kips
4

sy A
(c) F =
Ny
N y = 2. 5
 3  1 
A = bh =  1  = 1.125 in 2
 4  2 
F=
(42 )(1.125) = 18.9 kips
2

10. A ¾-in.bolt, made of cold-finished B1113, has an effective stress area of 0.334 sq.
in. and an effective grip length of 5 in. The bolt is to be loaded by tightening until
the tensile stress is 80 % of the yield strength, as determined by measuring the
total elongation. What should be the total elongation?

Solution:
sL
δ=
E
from Table AT 7 for cold-finished B1113
s y = 72 ksi
then, s = 0.80 s y = 0.8(72 ) = 57.6 ksi
E = 30 ×106 psi = 30,000 ksi
sL (57.6)(5)
δ= = = 0.0096 in
E 30,000

10

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

11. A 4-lb. weight is attached by a 3/8-in. bolt to a rotating arm 14-in. from the center
of rotation. The axis of the bolts is normal to the plane in which the centrifugal
force acts and the bolt is in double shear. At what speed will the bolt shear in two
if it is made of AISI B1113, cold finish?

Solution:
From Table AT 7, sus = 62 ksi = 62,000 psi
2
 1 3
A = 2 (π )  = 0.2209 in 2
 4 8
W
F = ω 2 r = sus A
g
4
ω 2 (14) = (62,000)(0.2209)
32.2
ω = 88.74 rad sec
2π n
ω= = 88.74
60
n = 847 rpm

12. How many ¾-in. holes could be punched in one stroke in annealed steel plate of
AISI C1040, 3/16-in. thick, by a force of 60 tons?

Solution:

For AISI C1040, from Figure AF 1
su = 80 ksi
sus = 0.75su = 0.75(80) ksi = 60 ksi
 3  3 
A = π d t = π    = 0.4418 in2
 4  16 

F = 60 tons = 120 kips
n = number of holes
F 120
n= = = 5 holes
Asus (0.4415)(60 )

13. What is the length of a bearing for a 4-in. shaft if the load on the bearing is 6400
lb. and the allowable bearing pressure is 200 psi of the projected area?

Solution:
pDL = W
where
p = 200 psi
D = 4 in

11

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

W = 6400 lb
(200)(4)L = 6400
L = 8 in

BENDING STRESSES

DESIGN PROBLEMS

14. A lever keyed to a shaft is L = 15 in long and has a rectangular cross section of
h = 3t . A 2000-lb load is gradually applied and reversed at the end as shown; the
material is AISI C1020, as rolled. Design for both ultimate and yield strengths. (a)
What should be the dimensions of a section at a = 13 in ? (b) at b = 4 in ? (c) What
should be the size where the load is applied?

Problem 14.
Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled, Table AT 7
su = 65 ksi
s y = 49 ksi
Design factors for gradually applied and reversed load
Nu = 8
Ny = 4
th 3
I= , moment of inertial
12
but h = 3t
h4
I=
36

Moment Diagram (Load Upward)

12

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Based on ultimate strength
s
s= u
Nu

Mc Fac
(a) s = =
I I
h
c=
2
F = 2000 lbs = 2 kips

(2)(13) h 
s=
65
=  2
8 h  4
 
 36 
h = 3.86 in
h 3.86
t= = = 1.29 in
3 3
say
1
h = 4.5 in = 4 in
2
1
t = 1.5 in = 1 in
2

Mc Fbc
(b) s = =
I I
h
c=
2
F = 2000 lbs = 2 kips

(2)(4) h 
s=
65
=  2
8 h 4
 
 36 
h = 2.61 in
h 2.61
t= = = 0.87 in
3 3
say
h = 3 in
t = 1 in

(c)

13

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

3 − h 4. 5 − 3
=
4 13 − 4
h = 2.33 in
1 − t 1.5 − 1
=
4 13 − 4
t = 0.78 in
say
5
h = 2.625 in or h = 2 in
8

15. A simple beam 54 in. long with a load of 4 kips at the center is made of cast steel,
SAE 080. The cross section is rectangular (let h ≈ 3b ). (a) Determine the
dimensions for N = 3 based on the yield strength. (b) Compute the maximum
deflection for these dimensions. (c) What size may be used if the maximum
deflection is not to exceed 0.03 in.?

Solution:
For cast steel, SAE 080 (Table AT 6)
s y = 40 ksi
E = 30× 106 psi

14

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

From Table AT 2
FL (4)(54 )
Max. M = = = 54 kips − in
4 4
bh 3
I=
12
but h = 3b
h4
I=
36

sy Mc
(a) s = =
Ny I
h
c=
2
(54) h 
40
=  2
3  h4 
 
 36 
h = 4.18 in
h 4.18
b= = = 1.39 in
3 3

1 h 4. 5 1
say h = 4 in , b = = = 1.5 in = 1 in
2 3 3 2

(b) δ =
FL3
=
(4000)(54)3 = 0.0384 in
48 EI 
6 (1.5 )(4.5 )
3

48(30 ×10 )  
 12 
FL3
(c) δ =
 h4 
48E  
 36 

0.03 =
(4000)(54 ) (36 )
3

48(30 ×106 )(h 4 )
h = 4.79 in
h 4.79
b= = = 1.60 in
3 3

1 h 5.25 3
say h = 5.25 in = 5 in , b = = = 1.75 in = 1 in
4 3 3 4

15

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

16. The same as 15, except that the beam is to have a circular cross section.

Solution:
s Mc
(a) s = y =
Ny I
πd4
I=
64
d
c=
2
d 
M 
s=  4 =
2 32 M
πd  πd3
 
 64 
40 32(54 )
=
3 πd3
d = 3.46 in
1
say d = 3 in
2

FL3
(b) δ =
48 EI
πd4
I=
64
64(4000 )(54)
3
64 FL3
δ= = = 0.0594 in
48 E (π d 4 ) 48(30 × 106 )(π )(3.5)4
64 FL3
(c) δ =
48 E (π d 4 )
64(4000)(54 )
3
0.03 =
48(30 ×106 )(π )d 4
d = 4.15 in
1
say d = 4 in
4

17. A simple beam, 48 in. long, with a static load of 6000 lb. at the center, is made of
C1020 structural steel. (a) Basing your calculations on the ultimate strength,
determine the dimensions of the rectangular cross section for h = 2b . (b)
Determine the dimensions based on yield strength. (c) Determine the dimensions
using the principle of “limit design.”

16

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Solution:

From Table AT 7 and Table 1.1
su = 65 ksi
s y = 48 ksi
N u = 3 ~ 4 , say 4
N y = 1.5 ~ 2 , say 2

FL (6)(48)
M= = = 72 in − kips
4 4
Mc
s=
I
h
c=
2
bh 3
I=
12
h
but b =
2
4
h
I=
24
h
M 
s = 4  = 3
2 12M
h h
24

(a) Based on ultimate strength
s 12 M
s= u = 3
Nu h
65 12(72)
=
4 h3
h = 3.76 in

17

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

h 3.76
b= = = 1.88 in
2 2

3 h 3.75 7
say h = 3.75 in = 3 in , b = = = 1.875 in = 1 in
4 2 2 8

(b) Based on yield strength
s y 12 M
s= = 3
Ny h
48 12(72 )
=
2 h3
h = 3.30 in
h 3.30
b= = = 1.65 in
2 2
1 h 3. 5 3
say h = 3.5 in = 3 in , b = = = 1.75 in = 1 in
2 2 2 4

(c) Limit design (Eq. 1.6)

bh 2
M = sy
4
h 2
 h
72 = (48)  
2
4
h = 2.29 in
h 2.29
b= = = 1.145 in
2 2
1 h 2. 5 1
say h = 2.5 in = 2 in , b = = = 1.25 in = 1 in
2 2 2 4

18. The bar shown is subjected to two vertical loads, F1 and F2 , of 3000 lb. each, that
are L = 10 in apart and 3 in. ( a , d ) from the ends of the bar. The design factor is 4
based on the ultimate strength; h = 3b . Determine the dimensions h and b if the
bar is made of (a) gray cast iron, SAE 111; (b) malleable cast iron, ASTM A47-
52, grade 35 018; (c) AISI C1040, as rolled (Fig. AF 1). Sketch the shear and
moment diagrams approximately to scale.

18

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Problems18, 19.
Solution:
F1 = F2 = R1 = R2 = 3000 lb

Moment Diagram

M = R1a = (3000)(3) = 9000 lbs − in = 9 kips − in
N = factor of safety = 4 based on su
bh 3
I=
12
h
c=
2
h 3
 h
 3 h4
I= =
12 36

(a) For gray cast iron, SAE 111
su = 30 ksi , Table AT 6
 h
M 
= 4  = 3
s Mc 2 18M
s= u =
N I h  h
 
 36 
30 18(9 )
s= = 3
4 h
h = 2.78 in
h 2.78
b= = = 0.93 in
3 3
say h = 3.5 in , b = 1 in

(b) For malleable cast iron, ASTM A47-52, grade 35 018

19

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

su = 55 ksi , Table AT 6
 h
M 
= 4  = 3
s Mc 2 18M
s= u =
N I h  h
 
 36 
55 18(9 )
s= = 3
4 h
h = 2.28 in
h 2.28
b= = = 0.76 in
3 3
1 3
say h = 2 in , b = in
4 4

(c) For AISI C1040, as rolled
su = 90 ksi , Fig. AF 1
 h
M 
= 4  = 3
s Mc 2 18M
s= u =
N I h  h
 
 36 
90 18(9 )
s= = 3
4 h
h = 1.93 in
h 1.93
b= = = 0.64 in
3 3
7 5
say h = 1 in , b = in
8 8

19. The same as 18, except that F1 acts up ( F2 acts down).

Solution:

[∑ M A =0 ] R1 = R2 = 1875 lb

20

b = in 8 8 21 .38 in h 2.625) = 4 h3 h = 2.79 in 3 3 1 3 say h = 2 in .38 b= = = 0.625) = 4 h3 h = 1.625 kips-in (a) For gray cast iron su 18M s= = 3 N h 30 18(5.95 b= = = 0.65 in 3 3 7 5 say h = 1 in . SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES Shear Diagram Moment Diagram M = maximum moment = 5625 lb-in = 5. b = in 4 4 (b) For malleable cast iron su 18M s= = 3 N h 55 18(5.95 in h 1.

grade 32 510. L = 10 in and h = 3b . b = in 2 2 20. supported at A and B . at θ = 0 . as rolled su 18M s= = 3 N h 90 18(5.625) = 4 h3 h = 1. (e) What sectional dimensions would be used for the C1035 steel if the principle of “limit design” governs in (c)? Problems 20. (c) AISI C1035 steel.65 in h 1. Let d = 3 in . is subjected to a static load F of 2500 lb. The bar shown.65 b= = = 0. (d) For economic reasons. Determine the dimensions of the section if the bar is made of (a) gray iron. and the mounting is such that each is in double shear? Use the basic dimensions from (c) as needed. the pins at A. 21. B. ASTM A47-52. and C are to be the same size. SAE 110. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES (c) For AISI C1040.55 in 3 3 1 1 say h = 1 in . What should be their diameter if the material is AISI C1035. Solution: 22 . as rolled. as rolled. (b) malleable cast iron.

say 6 for cast iron.833 lb [∑ M B =0 ] 3RA = 10(2500) RA = 8333 lb Shear Diagram Moment Diagram M = (2500 )(10) = 25.000 lb − in = 25 kips − in h = 3b bh 3 I= 12 h4 I= 36 h c= 2  h M  = 4  = 3 Mc 2 18M s= I h  h    36  (a) For gray cast iron. dead load s 18M s= u = 3 N h 20 18(25) = 6 h3 23 . Table AT 6 N = 5 ~ 6 . SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES [∑ M A =0 ] 3RB = 13(2500 ) RB = 10. SAE 110 su = 20 ksi .

b = 1 in (d) For AISI C1035. s y = 34 ksi N = 3 ~ 4 . dead load s 18M s= u = 3 N h 52 18(25) = 4 h3 h = 3.657 in 24 . b = 1 in 4 4 (c) For AISI C1035. RB = 10. as rolled su = 85 ksi .13 in h b = = 1.26 in h b = = 1. based on ultimate strength s 18M s= u = 3 N h 85 18(25) = 4 h3 h = 2. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES h = 5.09 in 3 3 1 say h = 3 in . as rolled s su = 64 ksi N = 4 . s y = 55 ksi N = 4 .92 in 3 say h = 3 in .833 ss = = 4 π 2 D 2 D = 0.833 kips s R s s = su = B N A  π  π A = 2 D 2  = D 2 4  2 64 10. say 4 for ductile.71 in 3 1 3 say h = 5 in . ASTM A47-32 grade 32510 su = 52 ksi .77 in h b = = 0. b = 1 in 4 4 (b) For malleable cast iron.

76 in h b = = 0. The same as 20. Pin B takes all the horizontal thrust. s y = 55 ksi h b= 3 h 2  h M = 25 = (55)   3 4 h = 1. b = in 8 8 21.59 in 3 7 5 say h = 1. Solution: FV = F cos θ [∑ M A =0 ] 3RB = 13FV 3RB = 13(2500 ) cos 30 RB = 9382 lb [∑ M B =0 ] 3RA = 10 FV 3RA = 10(2500) cos 30 RA = 7217 lb Shear Diagram 25 . SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES 11 say D = in 16 (e) Limit Design bh 2 M = sy 4 For AISI C1035 steel.875 in = 1 in . except that θ = 30o .

65) = 6 h3 h = 4.63 in 3 1 3 say h = 5 in . dead load s 18M s= u = 3 N h 20 18(21.11 in h b = = 1. ASTM A47-32 grade 32510 su = 52 ksi . as rolled su = 85 ksi . based on ultimate strength 26 . b = 1 in 4 4 (b) For malleable cast iron. b = 1 in (c) For AISI C1035.650 lb − in = 21. s y = 34 ksi N = 3 ~ 4 .65 kips − in 18M s= 3 h (a) For gray cast iron.04 in 3 say h = 3 in . Table AT 6 N = 5 ~ 6 .65) ( = 4 h3 h = 3. say 4 for ductile. dead load s 18M s= u = 3 N h 52 18 21. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES Moment Diagram M = (2165)(10 ) = 21. SAE 110 su = 20 ksi .89 in h b = = 1. say 6 for cast iron. s y = 55 ksi N = 4 .

65 = (55)   3 4 h = 1.88 in 3 5 7 say h = 2 in .614 in 5 say D = in 8 (e) Limit Design bh 2 M = sy 4 For AISI C1035 steel.875 in = 1 in .64 in h b = = 0. b = in 8 8 27 .465 ss = = 4 π D2 2 D = 0. as rolled s su = 64 ksi N = 4 . SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES su 18M s= = 3 N h 85 18(21.56 in 3 7 5 say h = 1.68 in h b = = 0. s y = 55 ksi h b= 3 h 2  h M = 21. b = in 8 8 (d) For AISI C1035.65) = 4 h3 h = 2. RBV = 9382 lb RBH = FH = F sin θ = 2500 sin 30 = 1250 lb = (9382) + (1250 ) 2 2 RB2 = RBV 2 2 + RBH RB = 9465 lb s R s s = su = B N A π  π A = 2 D 2  = D 2 4  2 64 9.

Problem 22. at e = 10 in from the free end. (b) The same as (a) except that the top of the tee is below. ASTM 50. Solution: For cast iron. long and supports two gradually applied. and one of 1000 lb at the free end. A cast-iron beam. is 30 in. moment of inertia (3a )(a ) a  + (3a )(a ) 5a  = [(3a )(a ) + (3a )(a )]y 2  2  3a y= 2 28 . ASTM 50 su = 50 ksi . say 8 M = F1d + F2 (d + e ) where: F1 = 2000 lb F2 = 1000 lb d = 30 − 10 = 20 in d + e = 30 in M = (2000 )(20 ) + (1000)(30 ) = 70.000 lb − in = 70 kips − in Mc s= I Solving for I . as shown. one of 2000 lb. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES 22. repeated load N = 7 ~ 8 . (a) Determine the dimensions of the cross section if b = c ≈ 3a . repeated loads (in phase). suc = 164 ksi For gradually applied.

255 in Based on compression s Mcc sc = uc = N I (70) 5a  164 =  2  8  17 a 4     2  a = 1.25) = 3.255 in 1 Or say a = 1 in 4 And b = c = 3a = 3(1. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES I= (3a )(a )3 + (3a )(a )(a 2 ) + (a )(3a )3 + (3a )(a )(a 2 ) = 17a 4 12 12 2 (a) 3a ct = 2 5a cc = 2 Based on tension s Mct st = u = N I (70) 3a  50 =  2 8  17a 4     2  a = 1.75 in 29 .001 in Therefore a = 1.

845 in Therefore a = 1.488 in Based on compression s Mcc sc = uc = N I (70) 3a  164 =  2 8  17a 4     2  a = 0. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES 3 Or b = c = 3 in 4 (b) If the top of the tee is below 5a ct = 2 3a cc = 2 17a 4 I= 2 M = 70 kips − in Based on tension s Mct st = u = N I (70) 5a  50 =  2  8  17 a 4     2  a = 1.488 in 1 Or say a = 1 in 2 1 And b = c = 3a = 4 in 2 CHECK PROBLEMS 30 .

from one end and F2 is 5 in. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES 23. F1 is 5 in.2 F1 Shear Diagram Moment Diagram 31 .8 F1 [∑ F V =0 ] F1 + 2 F1 = RA + RB RA = 3F1 − 1. Solution: [∑ M A =0 ] 5 F1 + 20(2 F1 ) = 25RB RB = 1. from the other ends. An I-beam is made of structural steel. (b) the safe loads for a factor of safety of 3 based on the yield strength.509 in .9 in 4 . long. (f) the maximum deflection caused by the safe loads. The beam is 25 in. Determine (a) the approximate values of the load to cause elastic failure.8F1 = 1. as rolled. I x = 2. AISI C1020. and is subjected to two loads. flange width is b = 2.24). F1 and F2 = 2F1 . Problems 23 – 25. It has a depth of 3 in. (c) the safe load allowing for flange buckling (i1.

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES M = 9F1 = maximum moment For AISI C1020.9 F1 = 3.9 F1 = 4.5) s= = 3 2.509 sc = 20 ksi ( page 34.88 kips L 25 (c) = = 9.44 kips F2 = 2 F1 = 6. i1.62 kips sy Mc (b) s = = N I 48 (9 F1 )(1. a > b′ or 3 Fa  b′(L + a )  2 y max = 3EIL  3  .31 kips F2 = 2 F1 = 20. as rolled s y = 48 ksi Mc (a) s y = I d 3 where c = = = 1.96 < 15 (page 34) b 2.60 kips (d) For maximum deflection.5) 2.24) Mc sc = I 20 = (9 F1 )(1.5) 2. b′ > a 32 .5 in 2 2 s y = 48 = (9 F1 )(1.9 F1 = 10. Table AT 2 3 Fb′  a( L + b′ )  2 y max = 3EIL  3  . by method of superposition.30 kips F2 = 2 F1 = 8.

heat treated s y = 47 ksi Mc (a) s y = I 33 . except that the material is aluminum alloy. 2024-T4.000 )(2.9 )(25)  3 Total deflection = δ δ = ymax1 + ymax 2 = 0.9 )(25)  3 y max caused by F2 3 F b′  a (L + b2′ )  2 y max 2 = 2 2  2  . SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES y max caused by F1 3 F a  b′(L + a1 )  2 y max1 = 1 1  1  .0065(4.028 in 24.067 in Deflection caused by the safe loads in (b) δ b = 0.30 ) = 0.9 in 4 3 F1 (5)  20(25 + 5)  2 y max1 =  = 0.0043F1 = 0.022 in Deflection caused by the safe loads in (c) δ c = 0.0022 F1 3(30.44) = 0.022 F1 + 0. b1′ > a1 3EIL  3 where E = 30. The same as 23. a2 > b2′ 3EIL  3 where b2′ = 5 in a2 = 20 in 3 2 F1 (5)  20(25 + 5)  2 y max 2 =  = 0.0065 F1 Deflection caused by the safe loads in (a) δ a = 0.000 )(2.000 ksi a1 = 5 in b1′ = 20 in L = 25 in I = 2. Solution: For aluminum alloy. 2024-T4. heat treated.0065(3.0043F1 3(30.0065(10.31) = 0.

5) 2. and I x = 6.30 kips F2 = 2 F1 = 8.0065 F1 Deflection caused by the safe loads in (a) δ a = 0. and decide whether or not the safe load should be less.10 kips F2 = 2 F1 = 20. long.5) s= = 3 2.066 in Deflection caused by the safe loads in (b) δ b = 0. which is 7. simply supported.30 ) = 0.0 in 4 (see figure).028 in 25.7 lb/ft.0065(10. a flange width of b = 2.509 sc = 20 ksi ( page 34. 34 . A light I-beam is 80 in.60 kips (d) Total deflection = δ δ = ymax1 + ymax 2 = 0. and carries a static load at the midpoint. (a) What load will the beam support if it is made of C1020. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES s y = 47 = (9 F1 )(1. The cross section has a depth of d = 4 in . i1.20 kips sy Mc (b) s = = N I 47 (9 F1 )(1.0065(3.10 ) = 0.9 F1 = 3.66 in .96 < 15 (page 34) b 2.36) = 0.24) is considered? (b) Consider the stress owing to the weight of the beam.72 kips L 25 (c) = = 9.36 kips F2 = 2 F1 = 6.24) Mc sc = I 20 = (9 F1 )(1.022 in Deflection caused by the safe loads in (c) δ c = 0. as-rolled steel.022 F1 + 0.9 F1 = 4.0065(4.0043F1 = 0.5) 2. 9 F1 = 10. and flange buckling (i1.

as rolled.25 kips .5 sc = = = 15 ksi L 2 (30 ) 2 1 +   1800 1 + b 1800 Mc s= I d 4 c = = = 2 in 2 2 From Table AT 2 FL F (80) M= = = 20 F 4 4 Mc s = sc = I 15 = (20 F )(2) 6 F = 2.5 22.66 L since 15 < < 40 b 22. su = 65 ksi Consider flange buckling L 80 = = 30 b 2. safe load (b) Considering stress owing to the weight of the beam wL2 add’l M = (Table AT 2) 8 where w = 7.7 lb ft 35 . SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES Solution: (a) For C1020.

224 kips Therefore. as rolled su = 65 ksi (Table AT 7) Designing based on ultimate strength.76325 27.75 + 0.881 psi 6 13. may be applied to the free end? The material is AISI C1020. at the free end.) Solution: t c= = 0. (Additional stresses arise from the initial tension and forces of sawing. minor shock load 36 . and the length 30 in.01325 = 13.7  (80 ) 2 add’l M = =  = 513 lb − in = 0.513)(2 ) 6 F = 2.0265 in. at the fixed end to 1 in. What is the stress in a band-saw blade due to being bent around a 13 ¾-in. the safe load should be less. for repeated. pulley? The blade thickness is 0.0265 = 0.513 kips − in 8  12  8 M = 20 F + 0. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES wL2  7. Solution: For AISI C1020. (1. acting repeated with minor shock.01325 in 2 r = 13. What safe load. The width is 2 in. A cantilever beam of rectangular cross section is tapered so that the depth varies uniformly from 4 in. as rolled.4) page 11 (Text) Ec s= r where E = 30× 106 psi s= (30 ×10 )(0.01325) = 28. N = 6 .76325 in Using Eq. 26.513 = total moment Mc s = sc = I 15 = (20 F + 0.

10 x + 1 − 2(0. ds  (0.10 x + 1)4  0.8 ksi N 6 Loading Diagram 4 −1 h − 1 = 30 x h = 0.10 )  = 3F  =0 dx  (0.10(10 ) + 1 = 2 in s 3Fx s= u = 2 N h 3F (10 ) 10.44 kips TORSIONAL STRESSES DESIGN PROBLEMS 37 .10 x + 1)2 (1) − 2( x )(0. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES su 65 s= = = 10.8 = (2)2 F = 1.10 x ) = 0 x = 10 in h = 0.10 x + 1 wh 3 I= 12 h c= 2 M = Fx (Fx ) h  s= Mc =  2  = 6 Fx = 3Fx = 3Fx I  wh   3  2h 2 h 2 (0.10 x + 1)(0.10 x + 1)2  12  Differentiating with respect to x then equate to zero to solve for x giving maximum stress.

612 in 5 say d = in 8 29.000hp 33. one direction 38 . 16T s= π d3 16(0.1) N 72 s= = 12 ksi 6 33.000hp 33. Solution: 33. annealed s y = 50 ksi (Table AT 8) s ys = 0.540 in − kips 2π n 2π (1750) For diameter. What should be the diameter of the pump shaft if it is made of AISI C1045 as rolled? Consider the load as gradually repeated. what size is required? (c) What is the weight per foot of length of each of these shafts? Which is the lighter? By what percentage? (d) Which shaft is the more rigid? Compute the torsional deflection of each for a length of 10 ft. A shaft in torsion only is to transmit 2500 hp at 570 rpm with medium shocks.000(2500 ) T= = = 23. Solution: For C1045 as rolled. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES 28.6s y = 30 ksi Designing based on yield strength N = 3 for medium shock.540) 12 = πd3 d = 0. Its material is AISI 1137 steel.000(15) Torque. annealed. A centrifugal pump is to be driven by a 15-hp electric motor at 1750 rpm. Do = 2 Di . N = 6 (Table 1. T = = = 45 ft − lb = 540 in − lb = 0.036 ft − lb = 276 in − kips 2π n 2π (570 ) For AISI 1137. (a) What should be the diameter of a solid shaft? (b) If the shaft is hollow. s y = 59 ksi sus = 72 ksi Designing based on ultimate strength s s = us .

284 lb in 3 (Table AT 7) 39 .66 in Do = 2 Di = 5. ρ = 0.32 in say 5 Di = 2 in 8 1 Do = 5 in 4 (c) Density. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES Design stress s 30 s = ys = = 10 ksi N 3 (a) Let D = shaft diameter Tc s= J π D4 J= 32 D c= 2 16T s= π D3 16(276) 10 = π D3 D = 5.20 in 1 say D = 5 in 4 (b) J = = [ π (Do4 − Di4 ) π (2 Di )4 − Di4 ] = 15π D i 4 32 32 32 Do 2 Di c= = = Di 2 2 TDi 32T s= =  15π Di  15π Di3 4    32  32(276 ) 10 = 15π Di3 Di = 2.

OQT 1200 F s y = 130 ksi s ys = 0.25) − (2.8 lb ft 2 4  For hollow shaft π  ( ) ( ) [ ] w = 12 ρ   Do2 − Di2 = 3πρ Do2 − Di2 = 3π (0.5 × 10 ) 4 4 3  32  Therefore. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES For solid shaft w = weight per foot of length π  w = 12 ρ  D 2  = 3πρD 2 = 3π (0.041)  = 2.041 rad = (0.5 ×103 ksi π D4 For solid shaft.000hp 33.4 o θ= π   π   [(5.5 × 10 ) 4 3  32  π (Do4 − Di4 ) For hollow shaft.8 − 55. solid shaft is more rigid. OQT 1200 F.3 (d) Torsional Deflection TL θ= JG where L = 10 ft = 120 in G = 11.039)  = 2.5% 55. except that the material is AISI 4340. Solution: 33.4o 30.039 rad = (0. The same as 29. J = 32 (276)(120 )  180  = 0.036 ft − lb = 276 in − kips 2π n 2π (570 ) For AISI 4340.3 lb ft 2 2 4 Therefore hollow shaft is lighter 73.2 o θ= π   π   (5.25) − (2.625) ](11.25) (11.25) = 73. 2.284)(5.6s y = 0.2o < 2.6(130 ) = 78 ksi Designing based on yield strength 40 .000(2500 ) T= = = 23.3 Percentage lightness = (100% ) = 33.625) = 55.284)(5. J = 32 (276 )(120)  180  = 0.

284 lb in 3 (Table AT 7) 41 .93 in Do = 2 Di = 3.78 in 3 say D = 3 in 4 (b) J = = [ π (Do4 − Di4 ) π (2 Di )4 − Di4 ] = 15π D i 4 32 32 32 Do 2 Di c= = = Di 2 2 TDi 32T s= =  15π Di  15π Di3 4    32  32(276) 26 = 15π Di3 Di = 1. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES N = 3 for mild shock Design stress s 78 s = ys = = 26 ksi N 3 (a) Let D = shaft diameter Tc s= J π D4 J= 32 D c= 2 16T s= π D3 16(276) 26 = π D3 D = 3.86 in say Di = 2 in Do = 4 in (c) Density. ρ = 0.

5 × 10 ) 4 3  32  π (Do4 − Di4 ) For hollow shaft.6 lb ft 2 4  For hollow shaft π  ( ) ( ) [ ] w = 12 ρ   Do2 − Di2 = 3πρ Do2 − Di2 = 3π (0. 31.148)  = 8.5 × 10 ) 4 3 π  32  Therefore.48 o θ=   π  π   (3. (a) What should be its diameter if the deflection is not to exceed 1o in 20 D ? (b) If deflection is primary what kind of steel would be satisfactory? Solution: 33.122 rad = (0.6 − 32.75) (11. A steel shaft is transmitting 40 hp at 500 rpm with minor shock. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES For solid shaft w = weight per foot of length π  w = 12 ρ  D 2  = 3πρD 2 = 3π (0.04 in − kips 2π n 2π (500 ) G = 11.000(40 ) (a) T = = = 420 ft − lb = 5.5 ×103 ksi π D4 For solid shaft.99 o θ= π  4    [(4) − (2 ) ](11.148 rad = (0.000hp 33.1 lb ft 2 2 4 Therefore hollow shaft is lighter 37.5 ×103 ksi L = 20 D 42 .1 Percentage lightness = (100% ) = 17.99o < 8. J = 32 (276)(120 )  180  = 0. J = 32 (276)(120)  180  = 0.1 (d) Torsional Deflection TL θ= JG where L = 10 ft = 120 in G = 11.122 )  = 6. 6.284)(4) − (2) = 32.1% 32. hollow shaft is more rigid.75) = 37.48o .284)(3.

04)(20 D ) 180  π D4   32 (  11.6s y = 45 ksi N = 3 for medium shock s T s = ys = N Z′ where.8 ksi π D 3 π (1.2(9) s= = 3 2b 3 b = h = 0.6 0.4 ksi s ys 14. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES π θ = 1o = rad 180 TL θ= JG π = (5.71 in 3 say b = h = in 4 43 .04 ) (b) s = = = 4.2 in − kips 45 1. A square shaft of cold-finish AISI 1118 transmits a torsional moment of 1200 in- lb.5 ×103 )   D = 1.8) = 14.72 in 3 say D = 1 in 4 16T 16(5. what should be its size? Solution: For AISI 1118 cold-finish s y = 75 ksi s ys = 0.6 Use C1117 normalized steel s y = 35 ksi 32.4 sy = = = 24 ksi 0. For medium shock. h = b 2b 2 h 2b 3 Z′ = = (Table AT 1) 9 9 T = 1200 in − lb = 1.75)3 Based on yield strength N =3 s ys = Ns = (3)(4.

44 34. as rolled sus = 49 ksi F = sus (π Dt ) 15 where D = in 16 1 t = in 2  15  1  F = 49(π )   = 72. N = 10 ~ 15 sus 64 Design factor . as rolled.44 ksi π (3. s us = 64 ksi for shock loading. The same as 33.94 .2 in − kips 4 16T (a) s = π d3 where d = 3. (b) What will be the corresponding design factor if the shaft is made of cold-rolled AISI 1035 steel (Table AT 10)? Considering the shock loading that is characteristics of this machine. steel plate.2) s= = 6. This force is exerted on the shaft at a radius of ¾-in.2 )  = 54. the design is safe ( N ≈ 10 ) s 6.2 kips  16  2  T = Fr 3 where r = in 4 3 T = (72. A punch press is designed to exert a force sufficient to shear a 15/16-in. N = = = 9. except that the shaft diameter is 2 ¾ in. do you thick the design is safe enough? Solution: For AISI C1020. AISI C1020. hole in a ½-in. Solution: 44 . traditional factor of safety.5-in.5) 3 (b) For AISI 1035 steel.5 in 16(54. (a) Compute the torsional stress in the 3. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES CHECK PROBLEMS 33. shaft (bending neglected).

2 . (a) Compute the torsional stress in the shaft (stress from bending and propeller thrust are not considered).9 ksi 3086 (b) Factor of safety. Does it look risky? Solution: For Monel shaft. not risky s 6. N = = = 4. sus 98 N= = = 14.5 c= = = 6. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES d = 2.3 ksi π (2.5)4 − (6. N = 10 ~ 15 sus 64 Design factor . the design is not safe ( N < 10 ) s 13. based on ultimate strength Tc (a) s = J J= ( ) [ π Do4 − Di4 π (13. s us = 98 ksi (Table AT 3) N = 3 ~ 4 .606 ft − lb = 3152 in − kips 2π n 2π (200) s= (3152)(6. for dead load.75) 3 (b) For AISI 1035 steel.000hp 33.3 35.75 in 2 2 33. 9 45 .75) = 6.75 in 16T (a) s = π d3 16(54. s us = 64 ksi for shock loading.000 hp at 200 rpm. A hollow annealed Monel propeller shaft has an external diameter of 13 ½ in. (b) Compute the factor of safety.5)4 = ] = 3086 in 4 32 32 Do 13. and an internal diameter of 6 ½ in. it transmits 10.8 . traditional factor of safety..000) T= = = 262.2 ) s= = 13.000(10.

The material is to be AISI C1020. Solution: s = axial stress s s = shear stress (a) F 4F s= = 1 2 πd2 πd 4 4F Equation (1) d = πs 46 . Assume that the bending in the plate is negligible. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES STRESS ANALYSIS DESIGN PROBLEMS 36. A hook is attached to a plate as shown and supports a static load of 12. In estimating the strength of the nut.000 lb. D .2d . (b) Determine the minimum permissible value of these dimensions. as rolled. and t . (c) Choose standard fractional dimensions which you think would be satisfactory. (a) Set up strength equations for dimensions d . Problems 36 – 38. h . let D1 = 1.

44d 2 = πs π (16) From Equation (3) F 12 h= = = 0.53)(12 ) 47 .2π (0.44d 2 πs F F ss = = π D1h 1.21 in π Dss π (1. design factor for static load s 65 s= u = = 16 ksi N 4 s 49 s s = us = = 12 ksi N 4 F = 12.000 lb = 12 kips From Equation (1) 4F 4(12 ) d= = = 0.27 in 1. AISI C1020.44d 2 2 ) 4 4F Equation (2) D = + 1.98) = 1.53 in 2 D= + 1. as rolled su = 65 ksi sus = 49 ksi N = 3 ~ 4 say 4.2d )2 ] (π D − 1.98)(12 ) From Equation (4) F 12 t= = = 0. Table AT 7.2π ds s 1.98 in πs π (16 ) From Equation (2) 4F 4(12 ) + 1.44(0. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES F 4F 4F 4F s= = = = 1 ( π D 2 − D12 ) ( 2 2 π D − D1 ) 2 [ π D − (1.2π dh F Equation (3) h = 1.2π ds s F ss = π Dt F Equation (4) t = π Dss (b) Designing based on ultimate strength.

The same as 36.2π ds s 1.13)(3) From Equation (4) F 4 t= = = 0.44(1.13 in πs π (4) From Equation (2) 4F 4(4) + 1. based on ultimate strength say N = 15 . Solution: (a) Same as 36.2π (1. s 65 s= u = = 4 ksi N 15 s 49 s s = us = = 3 ksi N 15 F = 4000 lb = 4 kips From Equation (1) 4F 4(4 ) d= = = 1. except that a shock load of 4000 lb.13) = 1. others the same.44d 2 = πs π (4 ) From Equation (3) F 4 h= = = 0.31 in 1. is repeatedly applied.76)(3) 48 . SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES (c) Standard fractional dimensions d = 1 in 1 D = 1 in 2 1 h = in 4 1 t = in 4 37. (b) N = 10 ~ 15 for shock load.24 in π Dss π (1.76 in 2 D= + 1.

75su .2d . sus = 0. and that bending in the plate is negligible. h . Determine the value of dimensions D . Solution: F s= 1 πd2 4 1 F = π d 2s 4 1 s  (1) F = π d 2  u  4 N 49 . Assume that D1 = 1. and t in terms of d if the connection is to be as strong as the rod of diameter d . SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES (c) Standard fractional dimensions 1 d = 1 in 8 3 D = 1 in 4 3 h = in 8 1 t = in 4 38. is to support a load F . as shown. The connection between the plate and hook.

2π dh us  = 1.562 ) 50 .278d 4(0.44d 2 D = 1.9π dh u  = π d 2  u  N 4 N d h= = 0.44d 2  u  = π d 2  u  4 N 4 N D 2 = 2.75)(1.2π dh  N  N   5s  (3) F = 0.44d 2 ) 1 F = π (D 2 − 1.75su  F = 1.562d Equate (3) and (1) s  1 s  F = 0.75π (1.44d 2 )s 4 1 s  ( (2) F = π D 2 − 1.75su  F = π Dt  us  = π Dt   N  N  s  (4) F = 0.9) Equate (4) and (1) s  1 s  F = 0.562d )(t ) u  = π d 2  u  N 4 N d t= = 0.214d 4(0.9π dh u   N  F ss = π Dt F = π Dtss s   0.44d 2  u  ) 4 N F F ss = = π D1h 1.75π Dt  u  = π d 2  u  N 4 N s  1 s  F = 0.2π dh F = 1. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES F F s= = 1 1 4 ( π D 2 − D12 ) 4 ( π D 2 − 1.2π dhss s   0.75π Dt  u  N Equate (2) and (1) 1 s  1 s  ( ) F = π D 2 − 1.

Both plates and rivets are of AISI C1020. and compression. Neglect bending effects. as rolled s y = 48 ksi (Table AT 7) s ys = 0. The load is repeated and reversed with mild shock. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES 39. (b) Design this connection for a load of 2500 lb. shear. Problems 39.6s y = 28 ksi N = 4 for repeated and reversed load (mild shock) based on yield strength 48 s= = 12 ksi 4 28 ss = = 7 ksi 4 From Equation (1) 51 . 40 Solution: F (a) s s = 1  5 π D 2  4  4F Equation (1) D = 5π s s F s= t (b − 2 D ) F Equation (2) b = + 2D ts F s= 5 Dt F Equation (3) t = 5Ds (b) For AISI C1020. Make the connection equally strong on the basis of yield strengths in tension. (a) For the connection shown. set up strength equations representing the various methods by which it might fail. as rolled.

30 in say in 5π s s 5π (7 ) 16 From Equation (3) F 2.96 in say 2 in ts  5   16   (12)  32  40. aluminum alloy.5 5 t= = = 0. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES 4F D= 5π s s where F = 2500 lb = 2.13 in say in 5Ds 5 32 5 (12 )  16  From Equation (2) F 2. The same as 39.5 kips 4F 4(2. Solution: (a) Same as 39.5) 5 D= = = 0. aluminum alloy s y = 47 ksi (Table AT 3) s ys = 0.55s y = 25 ksi N = 4 for repeated and reversed load (mild shock) based on yield strength 47 s= = 12 ksi 4 25 ss = = 6 ksi 4 From Equation (1) 4F D= 5π s s where F = 2500 lb = 2. (b) ) For 2024-T4. 5 5 b = + 2D = + 2  = 1.5 kips 4F 4(2. except that the material is 2024-T4.5) 3 D= = = 0.33 in say in 5π s s 5π (6) 8 From Equation (3) 52 .

5  3 1 b = + 2D = + 2  = 2. for the plates. (a) For the connection shown. Use AISI C1015. Solution: (a) 3 F F sP = or sP = 4 Equation (1) t (b − D ) t (b − 2 D ) F s sR = Equation (2) 1  4 πD 2 (2 )  4  53 . as rolled. Let the load be repeatedly applied with minor shock in one direction and make the connection equally strong on the basis of ultimate strengths in tension.5 1 t= = = 0. (b) Design this connection for a load of 8000 lb. for the rivets.42 in say 2 in ts 1 8 2  (12) 8 41. set up strength equations representing the various methods by which it might fail. as rolled. shear. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES F 2. and AISI C1020.11 in say in 5Ds 3 8 5 (12) 8 From Equation (2) F 2. and compression. Problem 41.

1)  16  Solving for b F Using s P = t (b − D ) F 8 7 b= +D= + = 1.1 ksi N 6 s 45 s sR = usR = = 7.8 ksi N 6 s 61 s R = uR = = 10.8) 2 3 F Using s P = 4 t (b − 2 D ) 54 .92 in say 2 in ts P 1 16  (10. based on ultimate strength s 65 s P = uP = = 10. susR = 0.453 in say in 4 Ds R 7 2 4 (10. as rolled suP = 65 ksi N = 6 . as rolled suR = 61 ksi . SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES F sR = Equation (3) 4 Dt (b) For AISI C1015.5 ksi N 6 F = 8000 lb = 8 kips Solving for D F s sR = 2π D 2 F 8 7 D= = = 0.75suR = 45 ksi For AISI C1020.5) 16 Solving for t F sR = 4 Dt F 8 1 t= = = 0.412 in say in 2π s sR 2π (7.

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES 3F 3(8) 7 b= + 2D = + 2  = 1. Solution: Axial Stresses F 4F s= = Equation (1) 1 π D12 π D12 4 F s= Equation (2) (L − D2 )e 55 . Give the strength equations for the connection shown. Problems 42 – 44. including that for the shear of the plate by the cotter.8)   4ts P 16 2 Therefore b = 2 in 7 D = in 16 1 t = in 2 42.99 in say 2 in 1 4 (10.

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES F s= Equation (3) D2 e F 4F s= = Equation (4) 1 ( π a 2 − D22 ) ( ) π a 2 − D22 4 F 4F s= = Equation (5) 1 2 π D − 4 D2e π D22 − D2e 2 4 Shear Stresses F ss = Equation (6) 2eb F ss = Equation (7) 2(L − D2 + e )t 56 .

42) sy 4F s= 1 = N π D12 55 4(10) = 7 π D12 D1 = 1. (b) If all fits are free-running fits. as rolled s y1 = 55 ksi s sy1 = 33 ksi For plate and cotter.. decide upon tolerances and allowances. AISI C1035. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES F ss = Equation (8) π at F ss = Equation (9) π D1m F ss = Equation (10) 2 D2 h 43.6s y 8 For steel rod. (a) Determine all dimensions of this joint if it is to withstand a reversed shock load F = 10 kips .875 in . as-rolled C1020 plate by means of a cotter that is made of as-rolled C1020. as-rolled AISI C1035. as rolled s y2 = 48 ksi s sy2 = 28 ksi N = 5 ~ 7 based on yield strength say N = 7 From Equation (1) (Prob. in the manner shown. basing the design on yield strengths.27 in 1 say D1 = 1 in 4 57 . AISI C1020. Solution: (See figure of Prob. is fastened to a 7/8-in. 42) 7 t = in = 0. s sy = 0. A steel rod.

80 in 3 say D2 = 1 in 4 and D2 e = 1. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES From Equation (9) ssy F ss = 1 = N π D1m 33 10 = 7  1 π 1 m  4 m = 0.54 in 9 say m = in 16 From Equation (3) sy F s= 1 = N D2e 55 10 s= = 7 D2e D2 e = 1.273  3 1 e = 1.91 in say a = 1 in 58 .273 From Equation (5) sy 4F s= 1 = 2 N π D2 − 4 D2e 55 4(10 ) = 7 π D2 − 4(1. e = in 8 From Equation (8) s sy F ss = 2 = N π at 28 10 = 7 π a (0.273) 2 D2 = 1.875) a = 0.73 in 3 say e = in 4 By further adjustment 5 Say D2 = 2 in .273  4 e = 0.

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES From Equation (4) sy 4F s= 2 = ( N π a 2 − D22 ) 48 4(10 ) = ( 7 π a 2 − 22 ) a = 2.80 in say L = 3 in From Equation (6) s sy F ss = 2 = N 2eb 28 10 = 7 5 2 b 8 b = 2 in From Equation (10) s sy F ss = 2 = N 2 D2 h 28 10 = 7 2(2 )h 5 h = 0.42 in 1 say a = 2 in 2 1 use a = 2 in 2 From Equation (7) ssy F ss = 2 = N 2( L − D2 + e )t 28 10 = 7  5 2 L − 2 + (0.625 in = in 8 Summary of Dimensions L = 3 in 5 h = in 8 b = 2 in 7 t = in 8 59 .875)  8 L = 2.

010 in a = 2.0 in − 0.0040 b = 2.25 ± 0. (b) Decide upon tolerances and allowances for loose-running fits.0040 D2 = 2. Solution: (Refer to Prob.5625 ± 0. steel plate (as-rolled C1020) by means of a cotter (as rolled C1035) as shown.0020 e = 0. tolerance = ± 0.0058 allowance = 0.010 in D1 = 1. No fit. as rolled su1 = 85 ksi sus1 = 64 ksi For AISI C1020.1 Female Male + 0.010 in m = 0.0016 − 0.0 in b = 2.625 in − 0.0058 allowance = 0.0000 − 0.010 in t = 0.0000 − 0.0040 in + 0.0030 allowance = 0. ( D1 ) steel rod (as-rolled AISI C1035) is to be anchored to a 1-in.0030 − 0.625 ± 0.0000 − 0. as rolled 60 .0020 in 44. (a) Determine all the dimensions for this connection so that all parts have the same ultimate strength as the rod.0030 − 0.010 in For Free Running Fits (RC 7) Table 3. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES 9 m= in 16 1 a = 2 in 2 1 D1 = 1 in 4 D2 = 2 in 5 e = in 8 (b) Tolerances and allowances.625 in e = 0.0 in D2 = 2.0 in − 0. 42) (a) For AISI C1035.0040 in + 0.500 ± 0.010 in h = 0.010 in L = 3 ± 0. The load F reverses direction.875 ± 0. A 1-in.

7859  8 e = 0.8 = (85) π D22 − 0.7859  4  D2 = 1.7859 From Equation (5) 1  Fu = su1  π D22 − D2e  4  1  66.8 = (85)D2e D2 e = 0.8 = (64 )(π )(1)m m = 0.8 = (65) π  a 2 −1    4    8   a = 1.8 kips 4  4  Equation (9) Fu = sus1 π D1m 66. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES su2 = 65 ksi sus2 = 48 ksi Ultimate strength Use Equation (1) 1  1  2 Fu = su1  π D12  = (85) π (1) = 66.79 in 3 say a = 1 in 4 From Equation (8) 61 .42 in 3 say D2 = 1 in 8  3 D2 e = 1 e = 0.33 in 3 say m = in 8 From Equation (3) Fu = su1 D2e 66.57 in 9 say e = in 16 From Equation (4) 1  ( Fu = su2  π a 2 − D22 ) 4   1   3  2 66.

8 = 2(64 ) 1 h  8 h = 0.8 = (65) L − 1    8  16  L = 3.8 = (48)(π )(a )(1) a = 0.20 in 1 say L = 3 in 4 From Equation (7) Fu = 2 sus2 (L − D2 − e )t  3 9 66. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES Fu = sus2 π at 66.44 in 1 say a = in 2 3 use a = 1 in 4 From Equation (2) Fu = su2 ( L − D2 )e  3  9  66.51 in 1 say L = 1 in 2 1 use L = 3 in 4 From Equation (6) Fu = 2 sus1 eb  9 66.8 = 2(64 ) b  16  b = 0.93 in say b = 1 in From Equation (10) Fu = 2 sus1 D2 h  3 66.8 = 2(48) L − 1 − (1)  8 16  L = 1.38 in 3 say h = in 8 Dimensions 1 L = 3 in 4 62 .

No fit. (b) Determine the ratio of the dimensions a . d . Give all the simple strength equations for the connection shown. tolerance = ± 0.0065 allowance = 0.1 Female Male + 0.0045 in + 0.0045 b = 1.25 ± 0.375 ± 0.010 in L = 3. and compression.010 in For Loose Running Fits (RC 8) Table 3.010 in h = 0. m .000 ± 0.0000 − 0. and n to the dimension D so that the connection will be equally strong in tension. Base the calculations on ultimate strengths and assume sus = 0.0040 − 0.75su .0050 D2 = 1. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES 3 h= in 8 b = 1 in t = 1 in 3 m = in 8 3 a = 1 in 4 D1 = 1 in 3 D2 = 1 in 8 9 e = in 16 (b) Tolerances and allowances.375 in − 0.0 in − 0.0028 − 0.0000 − 0.375 in D2 = 1. 63 . shear.0000 − 0.5625 in − 0.010 in D1 = 1.0051 allowance = 0.0 in b = 1.010 in m = 0.010 in t = 1.0035 − 0.5625 in e = 0.0035 in 45.75 ± 0.0035 e = 0.010 in a = 1.000 ± 0.0075 allowance = 0.375 ± 0. b .0050 in + 0. c .

8165 D Equate (3) and (1) 1  F = s (2bc ) = s  π D 2  4  1 2b(0.75s c 2  = s D 2  2  4  c = 0.4810 D 64 .8165D ) = π D 2 4 b = 0.75s Equate (2) and (1)  1   1  F = ss 2 π c 2  = s π D 2   4   4  1  1  0. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES Problems 45 – 47. Solution: (a) Neglecting bending 1  Equation (1): F = s π D 2  4   1  Equation (2): F = ss 2 π c 2   4  Equation (3): F = s (2bc ) Equation (4): F = s (ac ) Equation (5): F = s[2(d − c )b] Equation (6): F = ss (4mb ) Equation (7): F = ss (2nb ) Equation (8): F = s (d − c )a su s (b) s = and s s = us N N Therefore s s = 0.

8165 D d = 1.9619 D Equate (5) and (1) 1  F = s[2(d − c )b] = s  π D 2  4  1 2(d − 0.75(2n )(0.0886 D Equate (8) and (1) 1  F = s (d − c )a = s π D 2  4  (1.8165 D ) = π D 2 4 a = 0.5443D Equate (7) and (1) 1  F = ss (2nb ) = s π D 2  4  1 0.8165D )a = 1 π D 2 4 a = 0.75(4m )(0.4810 ) = π D 2 4 d = 1.6329 − D − 0.6329 D m = 0.5443D n = 1.9620 D Summary a = 0.6329 D Equate (6) and (1) 1  F = s s (4mb ) = s π D 2  4  1 0.4810 D ) = π D 2 4 m = 0.9620 D b = 0. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES Equate (4) and (1) 1  F = sac = s π D 2  4  1 a(0.4810 D c = 0.8165 D )(0.0886 D 65 .4810 D ) = π D 2 4 n = 1.

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES 46.6 s c 2  = s D 2  2  4  c = 0.6 s Equate (2) and (1)  1   1  F = ss 2 π c 2  = s π D 2   4   4  1  1  0.9129 D Equate (3) and (1) 1  F = s (2bc ) = s  π D 2  4  1 2b(0.8603D 66 .6s y .4302 D Equate (4) and (1) 1  F = sac = s π D 2  4  1 a(0.9129 D ) = π D 2 4 a = 0. Solution: (Refer to Prob. The same as 45. Let s sy = 0.9129 D ) = π D 2 4 b = 0. except that the calculations are to be based on yield strengths. 45) (a) Neglecting bending 1  Equation (1): F = s π D 2  4   1  Equation (2): F = ss 2 π c 2   4  Equation (3): F = s (2bc ) Equation (4): F = s (ac ) Equation (5): F = s[2(d − c )b] Equation (6): F = ss (4mb ) Equation (7): F = ss (2nb ) Equation (8): F = s (d − c )a sy s sy (b) s = and s s = N N Therefore s s = 0.

45 and refer to Prob.7607 D Equate (7) and (1) 1  F = ss (2nb ) = s π D 2  4  1 0.7607 D n = 1.9129 D d = 1.6(4m )(0. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES Equate (5) and (1) 1  F = s[2(d − c )b] = s  π D 2  4  1 2(d − 0.4302) = π D 2 4 d = 1.8257 − D − 0.4302 D c = 0.8604 D b = 0.4302 D ) = π D 2 4 n = 1.9129 D )(0.5214 D 47. Solution: (See figure in Prob. Examine the computed dimensions for proportion.4302 D ) = π D 2 4 m = 0.9129 D )a = 1 π D 2 4 a = 0. making changes that you deem advisable.8257 D m = 0. Base design stresses on yield strengths and let the material be AISI C1040 steel. Design a connection similar to the one shown for a gradually applied and reversed load of 12 kips.8604 D Summary a = 0. 46) 67 . annealed.6(2n )(0.8257 D Equate (6) and (1) 1  F = s s (4mb ) = s π D 2  4  1 0.5214 D Equate (8) and (1) 1  F = s (d − c )a = s π D 2  4  (1.

8604 D = 0.48 in  8 1 say b = in 2  1 c = 0.82571  = 2.75 ksi N 4 1  F = s π D 2  4  1  12 = 11. AF 7) s sy = 0.71 in  8 3 say n = 1 in 4 Dimension: 1 a = 1 in 4 68 . annealed s y = 47 ksi (Fig.6s y = 28 ksi sy 47 s= = = 11.86 in  8 7 say m = in 8  1 n = 1.52141  = 1.91291  = 1.97 in  8 but a > D 1 say a = 1 in 4  1 b = 0.05 in  8 say d = 2 in  1 m = 0.76071  = 0.030 in  8 say c = 1 in  1 d = 1. For AISI C1040.43021  = 0. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES N = 4 based on yield strength for gradually applied and reversed load.75 π D 2  4  D = 1.14 in 1 say D = 1 in 8  1 a = 0.86041  = 0.

Problems 48 – 68. Give all the strength equations for the union of rods shown. Solution: 1  F = s π d 2  Equation (1) 4  F = s s (π ad ) Equation (2) F = ss (2tc ) Equation (3) 69 . SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES 1 b= in 2 c = 1 in d = 2 in 7 m = in 8 3 n = 1 in 4 1 D = 1 in 8 48.

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES F = ss [2(D − e )b] Equation (4) F = set Equation (5) F = s (D − e )t Equation (6) 1  ( F = s  π k 2 − e2  ) Equation (7) 4  1  ( ) F = s  π m 2 − e 2 − (m − e )t  Equation (8) 4  F = s s (2ef ) Equation (9) 70 .

Prob. As Rolled 49 3000 1020 50 3500 1030 51 4000 1117 52 4500 1020 52 5000 1015 54 5500 1035 55 6000 1040 56 6500 1020 57 7000 1015 58 7500 1118 59 8000 1022 60 8500 1035 61 9000 1040 62 9500 1117 63 10. Design a union-of-rods joint similar to that shown for a reversing load and material given in the accompanying table. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES 1  F = s π e 2 − et  Equation (10) 4  49-68. Load. AISI No.000 1137 66 11. being careful not to weaken the joint. The taper of cotter is to be ½ in. (see 172). lb. in 12 in. No.000 1035 64 10. (b) Modify dimensions as necessary for good proportions. (d) Sketch to scale each part of the joint showing all dimensions needed for manufacture.500 1022 65 11..500 1035 67 12. with tolerances and allowances.000 1045 68 12. (a) Using design stresses based on yield strengths determine all dimensions to satisfy the necessary strength equations.500 1030 71 . (c) Decide upon tolerances and allowances for loose fits.

6s y = 0. N = 4 based on yield strength s 48 s= y = = 12 ksi N 4 s 28.2(π a )   16  a = 0.25  4  e = 0.6(48) = 28.5642 in 9 say d = in 16 Equation (2) F = s s (π ad ) 9 3 = 7.236 in 1 say a = in 4 Equation (5) F = set 3 = 12et et = 0.25 72 .8 ksi For reversing load.25 Equation (10) 1  F = s π e 2 − et  4  1  3 = 12 π e 2 − 0.798 in 13 say e = in 16 et = 0.2 ksi N 4 F = 3000 lb = 3 kips Equation (1) 1  F = s π d 2  4  1  3 = 12 π d 2  4  d = 0. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES Solution: (For Prob. 49 only) (a) For AISI 1020.8 s s = ys = = 7. as rolled s y = 48 ksi s ys = 0.

6125 in 5 say D = 1 in 8 Equation (4) F = ss [2(D − e )b]   5 13   3 = 7.2 21 − b   8 16   b = 0.989 in say k = 1 in Equation (9) F = s s (2ef )  13  3 = 7.. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES  13   t = 0.256 in 1 say f = in 4 Equation (8) 1  ( ) F = s  π m 2 − e 2 − (m − e )t  4   1   13    2 13  5  3 = 12 π m 2 −    −  m −    4   16    16  16  73 .2(2)  f  16  f = 0.308 in 5 say t = in 16 Equation (6) F = s (D − e )t  13  5  3 = 12 D −    16  16  D = 1.25  16  t = 0.256 in 1 say b = in 4 Equation (7) 1  ( F = s  π k 2 − e2  ) 4   1   13   2 3 = 12 π  k 2 −     4    16   k = 0.

2(2) c  16  c = 0.667 in 11 say c = in 16 DIMENSIONS: 9 d = in 16 1 a = in 4 1 b = in 4 11 c = in 16 1 f = in 4 13 e = in 16 5 t = in 16 k = 1 in 5 D = 1 in 8 m = 1 in (b) Modified dimensions 9 d= in 16 1 a = in 4 3 b = in 4 11 c = in 16 74 .3125m − 0.3979m − 0.032 in say m = 1 in Equation (3) F = ss (2tc ) 5 3 = 7.3125m + 0.25 = 0.6552 = 0 m = 1. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES 0.7854m 2 − 0.5146 = 0 m 2 − 0.2539 0.7854m 2 − 0.5185 − 0.

0045 e = 0.0065 allowance = 0.010 in d = 0. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES 1 f = in 2 13 e = in 16 5 t = in 16 k = 1 in 5 D = 1 in 8 1 m = 1 in 4 (c) Tolerances and allowances No fit.5625 ± 0.0040 allowance = 0.3125 in − 0.3125 in t = 0.010 in f = 0.1.625 ± 0.000 ± 0.6875 in c = 0.0045 + 0.0035 − 0.0028 − 0.010 in Fits.0022 − 0.0000 − 0.0030 in 75 .750 in − 0. Table 3. say RC 8 Female Male + 0.0000 − 0.6875 in − 0.010 in k = 1.8125 in − 0.010 in m = 1.0065 allowance = 0.0035 in + 0. loose-running fits.750 in b = 0.0045 in + 0.010 in D = 1.010 in a = 0.0030 t = 0.250 ± 0.0000 − 0.0035 − 0. ± 0.0035 c = 0.8125 in e = 0.500 ± 0.0000 − 0.0051 allowance = 0.0045 b = 0.250 ± 0.

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES (d) ROD COTTER 76 .

Compute the tensile. as rolled. h = in . and shear stresses induced in the connection. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES SOCKET CHECK PROBLEMS 1 1 69. 4 2 1 5 1 D1 = 1 in . it supports a load of 15 kips. and the plate is structural steel (1020)? 77 . D = 2 in . 2 8 2 compressive. t = in . What is the corresponding design factor based on the yield strength if the rod and nut are made of AISI C1045. The connection shown has the following dimensions: d = 1 in .

82 ksi π Dt  1  1  π  2    2  2  F 15 (5) s s5 = = = 5.4 ksi 1 2 1  1  π D1 π 1  4 4  2 Compressive Stress F 15 (3) s3 = = = 4. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES Problem 69.6 s y = 0.78 ksi 1 π (D − D1 ) 2 2 1  2     1 1 2  4 π  2  − 1   4  2   2   Shear Stresses F 15 (4) s s4 = = = 3.6(48) = 28.6(59 ) = 35.22 ksi 1 2 1  1  πd π 1  4 4  4 F 15 (2) s 2 = = 2 = 8.8 ksi Solving for design factor 78 .6 s y = 0. Solution: Tensile Stresses F 15 (1) s1 = = 2 = 12.4 ksi For structural steel plate (1020) s y2 = 48 ksi s ys1 = 0.09 ksi π D1h  1  5  π 1    2  8  For AISI C1045. as rolled (rod and nut) s y1 = 59 ksi s ys1 = 0.

78 s ys2 28. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES s y1 59 (1) N1 = = = 4.43 ksi 4 Dt  3  7  4    4  16  79 .96 s s5 5. (b) If the material is AISI C1020.95 s2 8. and let the load.83 3 7 3 70. b = 3 in . (a) Compute the stresses in the various parts of the connection.43 ksi t (b − D )  7  3 3    3 −   16  4 4  3  3 F  (15) s2 = 4 =  4 = 11.8 (4) N 4 = = = 7.43 ksi t (b − 2 D )  7   3  3    3 − 2   16   4  4  Compressive bearing stress F 15 s3 = = = 11. be 15 kips. which is applied 4 16 4 centrally so that it tends to pull the plates apart. what is the design factor of the connection based on yield strengths? Problem 70. t = in .83 s1 12.09 The corresponding design factor is N = 4.04 s3 4.22 s y1 59 (2) N 2 = = = 6. In the figure. Solution: (a) Tensile stresses F 15 s1 = = = 11.82 s ys1 35.54 s s4 3.49 s y2 48 (3) N 3 = = = 10.4 (5) N 5 = = = 6. let D = in . as rolled.

The material is AISI C1040. (c) yield strengths.. 4 16 (a) For a load of 7500 lb. m = n = in .8 N= = = 6. compressive. Determine the factor of safety based on (b) ultimate strength.43 s Using N = ys ss s ys 28. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES Shearing stress F 15 ss 4 = = = 4.8 s s 4. b = in . 16 16 4 2 3 15 D= in . compute the various tensile. Solution: (a) Tensile stresses 80 . and shear stresses. c = in .24 Therefore the design factor is N = 4. let a = in . annealed (see Fig. Problem 71.24 ksi 1 2  3  2 4 π D (2) π   (2 ) 4  4 (b) For AISI C1020.2 s 11. as rolled s y = 48 ksi s ys = 0. For the connection shown.6s y = 28.2 15 9 3 1 71. AF 1). d = 1 in .8 ksi sy s ys N= or N = s ss sy Using N = s s 48 N= y = = 4.

98 (c) Based on yield strength sy 47 N= = = 2.5 s s7 = = = 7.4 ksi (b) Based on ultimate strength s 79 N= u = = 4.5 s1 = = 2 = 16. 5 s2 = = = 8.89 ksi 2bc  9  3  2    16  4  F 7. annealed. AF 1 s y = 47 ksi su = 79 ksi s ys = 0.5 s s6 = = = 3. 5 s5 = = = 10. The test specimen is attached to the upper head B so that the tensile force 81 .89 ksi 2b(d − c )  9  1 3  2 1 −   16  2 4  F 7.98 72.000-lb. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES F 7.11 ksi 2nb  15  9  2    16  16  For AISI C1040.65 s1 16.77 s1 16. The upper head of a 60. tensile-testing machine is supported by two steel rods. These rods A are attached to the head B by split rings C.6su = 47. 5 s3 = = = 10.5 s4 = = = 8.67 ksi ac  15  3      16  4  Shearing Stresses F 7.67 ksi a(d − c )  15  1 3   1 −   16  2 4  Compressive Stresses (Bearing) F 7.98 ksi 1 1 3 π D2 π  4 4 4 F 7.6s y = 28 ksi sus = 0. one of which A is shown.Fig.56 ksi 4mb  15  9  4    16  16  F 7.

A load of 22.000 lbs (a) sc = (60. is gradually applied to a 2-in.000 2) = 11. Solution: F = 60. (c) the shearing stress in the rings. compute (a) the compressive stress in the rods.03 in.000 2) = 3.18 ksi π (3)(1) DEFORMATIONS 73. Problem 72.753 psi = 11. The total elongation is observed to be 0.19 ksi 1  2  1  2 π (4) −  3   4   2   (c) sc = (60. (b) the bearing stress between the rods and the rings. wrought iron or stainless steel (from information available in the tables)? (c) How much energy is absorbed by the rod? (d) Suppose that the material is aluminum alloy 3003-H14.183 psi = 3.000 lbs D = 2 in L = 10 ft = 120 in δ = 0. If the stretching is entirely elastic. When the machine is exerting the full load.75 ksi 1  1   2 π  3  − (3)2  4  2   (b) sb = (60. long.000 2 ) = 10. (a) what is the modulus of elasticity.000 lb. 10 ft. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES in the specimen pulls down on the head and exerts a compressive force on the rods A. compute its elongation for the same load. and (b) what material would you judge it to be. Is this within elastic action? Solution: F = 22. round rod.03 in 82 .186 psi = 10.

E = 30× 106 psi 1 1 (c) Energy absorbed = Fδ = (88. Solution: (a) F = 88 kips δ = 0.000 )(0. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES FL (a) δ = EA FL 4 FL 4(22.000 ) s= = = 7003 psi = 7.000)(120 ) δ= = = = 0.03) = 330 lb − in 2 2 (d) For Aluminum alloy. 3003-H14 E = 10× 106 psi s y = 21 ksi FL 4 FL 4(22.112 in .000 )(120) E= = = = 28 × 10 6 psi δA δπ D 2 (0.000 )(0. within the elastic limit.000 )(120) δ= = = = 0. except that F = 88 kips and total δ = 0.03)(π )(2)2 (b) Use both stainless steel. 1 1 (c) Energy absorbed = Fδ = (22. The same as 73.000 )(120) E= = = = 30 ×10 6 psi δA δπ D 2 (0. Is the computation for part (d) valid? Explain.336 in EA Eπ D 2 ( ) 10 × 10 6 (π )(2 ) 2 83 . Table AT 7.112)(π )(2)2 (b) Use wrought steel. Table AT 4.112) = 4928 lb − in 2 2 (d) For Aluminum alloy.0 ksi < s y .084 in EA Eπ D 2 ( ) 10 × 10 6 (π )(2 ) 2 4F 4(22. 3003-H14 E = 10× 106 psi s y = 21 ksi FL 4 FL 4(88. E = 28× 10 6 psi and wrought iron . E = 28× 10 6 psi .112 in FL 4 FL 4(88. Table AT 4. πD 2 (π )(2)2 74.

000 ) s= = = 28.000 ksi s F s= u = N A 65 40 = 5 x2 x = 1.0 ksi > s y .000)x 2 x = 1. but with other data the same as in (a).443 in FL δ= EA 0. OQT 1000 F.024 in. A design factor of 5 based on the ultimate stress is desired. is to carry a tensile load of 40 kips.024 = (40)(48) (30. 75. What should be the dimensions of the section? (b) Using SAE 1045.633 in 3 Therefore say x = 1 in 4 (b) For SAE 1045. E = 30. therefore πD 2 (π )(2)2 not valid. not within the elastic limit. the total deformation should not exceed 0. as rolled su = 65 ksi . Moreover. as rolled. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES 4F 4(88. (a) A square bar of SAE 1020.754 in FL δ= EA 0. Solution: L = 4 ft = 48 in (a) For SAE 1020.633 in 84 . find the dimensions. as rolled su = 96 ksi .000 ksi s F s= u = N A 96 40 = 5 x2 x = 1. (c) Using SAE 4640.000)x 2 x = 1. but with the other data the same. long.024 = (40)(48) (30. The bar is to be 4 ft. Is there a change in dimensions as compared with part (b)? Explain the difference or the lack of difference in the answers.011 psi = 28. E = 30. find the dimensions. as rolled.

000007 )(120 − 40 ) 30 × 10 6 ) s = 16. Two steel rivets are inserted in a riveted connection. The rails are welded together and held in place by the ties so that no expansion is possible due to temperature changes. while the other connects plates with a total thickness of 3 in.024 = (40)(48) (30.800 psi 77. What will be the stress in the rails when heated by the sun to 120 F (i1.633 in 5 Therefore say x = 1 in 8 There is lack of difference in the answers due to same dimensions required to satisfy the required elongation. E = 30. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES 5 Therefore say x = 1 in 8 (c) For SAE 4640. If it is assumed that. (no external load). compute the stresses in each rivet after it has cooled to a temperature of 70 F.29)? Solution: s δ α L∆t = = E L L For steel α = 0. the rivets cool from 600 F and that the coefficient of expansion as given in the Text applies.15 in FL δ= EA 0.29.000 ksi s F s= u = N A 152 40 = 2 5 x x = 1. One rivet connects plates that have a total thickness of 2 in. Also assume that the plates are not deformed under load. The steel rails on a railroad track are laid when the temperature is 40 F. See i1. Is such a stress likely? Why is the actual stress smaller? 85 . 76.000)x 2 x = 1. as rolled su = 152 ksi .000007 in in − F E = 30× 106 psi ( s = α ∆tE = (0.. after heading.

(d) the energy absorbed by the aluminum plate. the temperature of the assembly is increased by 100 F? Problem 78.000007 in in − F E1 = 30 × 10 6 psi = 30. AISI 5140 OQT 1000F (Table AT 7) α1 = 0. are fastened together so that they will stretch equal amounts.000 ksi (a) PA = PC PA + PB + PC = F (1) 2 PA + PB = F = 24 kips 1 A2 = (2)  = 0. the center one B of chromium steel. 78. and the load is 24.000007 )( 600 − 70 )(30.000007 in in − F E = 30× 106 psi s = (0. Actual stress must be smaller to allow for safety. and the outer two A and C of aluminum alloy 3003-H14. 3003-H14 (Table AT 3) α 2 = 0. The steel plate is 2 x ½ in..000 ) = 111.0000129 in in − F E2 = 10 × 106 psi = 10.. (b) the total elongation. (c) the energy absorbed by the steel plate if the load is gradually applied. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES Solution: s = α ∆tE For steel α = 0. Determine (a) the stress in each plate.25 in 2 8 1 A1 = (2 )  = 1 in 2 2 86 .000 lb.30 ksi The stress is unlikely because it is near the ultimate strength of steel. Three flat plates are assembled as shown.000 lb.. Solution: For chromium steel. 79.000 ksi For aluminum alloy. (e) What will be the stress in each plate if in addition to the load of 24. AISI 5140 OQT 1000 F. L = 30 in . the aluminum plates are each 2 x 1/8 in.

021) = 0.012 PA A2 E2 (0.25)(10.000 ) Then 0.000 ) 1 1 (c) Energy absorbed by steel plate = PBδ = (20.25)(10.0000129 )(30)(100 ) = 0.021 + 0.001PB A1E1 (1)(30.0387 in δTB = (0. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES δ A = δB PA L PL = B A2 E2 A1 E1 PA PB = (0.714)(30) = 0.002 PA 87 .021) = 0.018 kips − in 2 2 (e) 2 PA + PB = F = 24 kips δ TA + δ A = δ TB + δ B δT A = α 2 L∆ t δTB = α1 L∆t δT A = (0.0177 + 0.568 sB = B = = 20.021 in PA L PA (30) δA = = = 0.714 s A = sC = A = = 6.568 kips Stresses: Aluminum plate P 1.856 ksi A2 0.714 )(0.000) PL PB (30) δB = B = = 0.000) (2) PB = 12 PA (1) 2 PA + 12 PA = 24 kips PA = 1.000007 )(30)(100 ) = 0.001(24 − 2 PA ) 0.714 kips PB = 12(1.568)(0.568 ksi A1 1 (b) δ = PA L = (1.024 − 0.25 Chromium steel plate P 20.714) = 20.012 PA = 0.0387 + 0.021 in A2 E2 (0.012 PA = 0.001PB 0.0177 + 0.000) (1)(30.25)(10.012 PA = 0.216 kips − in 2 2 1 1 (d) Energy absorbed by aluminum plate = PAδ = (1.

2 sB = B = = 19. B150-1.4) = 19.1 sB = B = = 23.1 ksi A1 1 79.0000092 in in − F (a) (1) 2 PA + PB = F = 24 kips δ A = δB PA L PL = B A2 E2 A1 E1 PA PB = (0.6 ksi A2 0. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES PA = 0. annealed.000 ksi α 2 = 0.1 kips Stresses: Aluminum plate P 0.25)(15. except that the outer plates are aluminum bronze.45) = 23.45 sA = A = = 1.25 Chromium steel plate P 23. annealed (Table AT 3) E2 = 15.2 kips Stresses: Aluminum plate P 2.000) (1)(30.000) (2) PB = 8 PA 2 PA + 8PA = 24 kips PA = 2. B150-1.4 s A = sC = A = = 9.45 kips PB = 24 − 2(0. The same as 78.8 ksi A2 0.25 Chromium steel plate P 19.4 kips PB = 8(2. Solution: For aluminum bronze.2 ksi A1 1 88 .

021 + 0.74 sA = A = = 6.0276 + 0.019 ) = 0.021 in B PA L PA (30 ) δA = = = 0.008PA = 0.001PB 0.000007 )(30)(100 ) = 0. Determine (a) the elongation due to a force 4 2 F = 6000 lb .74 kips PB = 24 − 2(1. and D2 = in .182 kips − in 2 2 1 1 (d) Energy absorbed by aluminum plate = PAδ = (2.019 in A2 E2 (0.0066 + 0.0000092 )(30)(100 ) = 0.024 − 0.019 ) = 0.000 ) 1 1 (c) Energy absorbed by steel plate = PBδ = (19.. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES (b) δ = PA L = (2..008PA = 0.52 sB = B = = 20.008PA = 0. 3 1 L2 = 6 in .001PB A1E1 (1)(30.. L1 = 15 in . annealed steel. A machine part shown is made of AISI C1040.2 )(0.000) PL PB (30) δB = B = = 0..25)(15.0276 in A δ T = (0.0066 + 0.25)(15.96 ksi A2 0.000 ) Then 0.023 kips − in 2 2 (e) 2 PA + PB = F = 24 kips δ TA + δ A = δ TB + δ B δ T = α 2 L∆ t A δ T = α1 L∆t B δ T = (0.74 ) = 20.008 PA A2 E2 (0.001(24 − 2 PA ) 0. 89 .52 kips Stresses: Aluminum plate P 1. (b) the energy absorbed by each section of the part if the load is gradually applied.4)(30) = 0. D1 = in .002 PA PA = 1.25 Chromium steel plate P 20.52 ksi A1 1 80.4)(0.

0068 + 0. Determine (a) the total elongation.0025 in.3 lb = in 2 2 81. 81 Solution: For AISI C1040.0061 in A2 E  π  1  2 (    30 × 10 ) 6  4  2  δ = δ1 + δ 2 = 0.4 lb = in 2 2 1 1 U 2 = Fδ 2 = (6000 )(0. D1 = in . and has the following 7 3 dimensions: L1 = 20 in . and D2 = in . Solution: For steel E = 30000 ksi δ F (a) 2 = ε = L2 A2 E 90 .0068) = 20.0129 in (b) Energy absorbed 1 1 U1 = Fδ1 = (6000 )(0..0068 in A1 E  π  3  2 (    30 × 10 ) 6  4  4  FL δ2 = 2 = (6000)(6) = 0... A rod as shown is made of AISI 2340 steel. and (b) the force on the rod. The unit strain at 8 4 point A is measured with a strain gage and found to be 0. OQT 1000 F. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES Problems 80.0061) = 18./in.0061 = 0. annealed steel E = 30× 106 psi (a) δ = δ1 + δ 2 FL δ1 = 1 = (6000)(15) = 0. L2 = 12 in .

000) = 33. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES F = ε A2 E 2 ε A2 EL1 A  D  δ1 = = ε  2  L1 = ε  2  L1 A1E  A1   D1   D  2   3 4 2  δ T = δ1 + δ 2 = ε  2  L1 + L2  = 0. whose ends were both in contact with H before loading was applied.067 in  D1    7 8  2  π  3  (b) F = ε A2 E = 0. Solution: For aluminum 2024-T4 (Table AT 3) s y1 = 47 ksi . E2 = 30. The ground and block B are also to be considered rigid.000 ksi [∑ M G =0 ] R1 (24 ) + R2 (12) = 24(20 ) 2 R1 + R2 = 40 Equation (1) 91 .0025   (30. N = 2 based on the yield strengths? Problem 82.13 kips  4  4  82. as rolled (Table AT 7) s y2 = 59 ksi . and steel AISI 1045. for the assembly. as rolled). A rigid bar H is supported as shown in a horizontal position by the two rods (aluminum 2024 T4. E1 = 10. What must be the cross-sectional area of the steel rod if.0025  (20) + 12 = 0.600 ksi For steel AISI 1045.

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES δ1 δ2 = 24 12 δ1 = 2δ 2 RL δ1 = 1 1 E1 A1 RL δ2 = 2 2 E2 A2 L1 = 8 ft = 96 in L2 = 12 ft = 144 in A1 = 0.5) (30.5 A2 2 R1 = 0.5 kips R 16.56 in 2 29.000)A2 0.53R2 R1 = A2 R2 s y2 But s 2 = = A2 N R2 59 = = 29.75) = 16.53(29.75 kips use R1 = 11.600)(0.5 in 2 δ1 = 2δ 2 R1 L1 2 R2 L2 = E1 A1 E2 A2 R1 (96) 2R2 (144) = (10. 5 2 R1 = 11.64 kips R1 s y1 s1 = = A1 N R1 47 = 0.5 A2 = 2 = = 0.75 kips R2 = 40 − 2(11.5 92 .5) = 15.5 29.

. (a) How far 4 does point C move upon gradual application of the load if the movement of A and B is negligible? (b) How much energy is absorbed? Problem 83.5) RB = 10. as rolled. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES 83.5) RA = 8. 3 L = 10 in .83 kips [∑ M B =0 ] dRA = LF 3RA = 10(2. It is made of AISI 1035. The bar shown supports a static load F = 2.. b = 1 in .5 kips with θ = 0 . h = 2 in . Solution: [∑ M A =0 ] dRB = (d + L )F 3RB = (3 + 10 )(2.33 kips 93 . d = 3 in .

805 x − 3 + C1 x + C2 When x = 0 .492 3 EIy = 1.492 x When x = d + L = 13 in 3 EIy = 1.805 10 − 12.75) 3 I= = = 1. as rolled .000 ksi bh 3 (1)(2. 94 .492(13) = 1082 3 For AISI 1035.165 x 2 − 5.805 x − 3 − 12.388(3) − 1. y = 0 3 EI (0 ) = 1. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES M = RA x − RB x − 3 d2y M = EI 2 = 8.805 0 + C1 (3) + 0 3 C1 = −12.388 x 3 − 1.33 x − 10.7331 in 4 12 12 EIy = 1082 (30.388 x 3 − 1.7331)y = 1082 y = 0. y = 0 3 EI (0 ) = 1.021 in .805 0 + C1 (0 ) + C2 3 C2 = 0 When x = 3 .83 x − 3 dy dy 2 EI = 4.388(0) − 1. E = 30.415 x − 3 + C1 dy 3 EIy = 1. upward.388(13) − 1.000)(1.

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

PRESSURE VESSELS

84. A storage tank for air, 36 in. in diameter, is to withstand an internal pressure of
200 psi with a design factor of 4 based on su . The steel has the strength
equivalent of C1020 annealed and the welded joints should have a relative
strength (efficiency) of 90 %. Determine a suitable plate thickness. Compute the
stress on a diametral section and compare it with the longitudinal stress.

Solution:
For C1020 annealed
su = 57 ksi

su 57
s= = = 14.25 ksi
N 4
Solving for plate thickness
pD
s=
2 tη
p = 200 psi = 0.2 ksi
D = 36 in
s = 14.25 =
(5.2)(36)
2 t (0.9)
t = 0.281 in
5
say t = in
16
Stress on diametral section
s=
pD
=
(0.2 )(36) = 6.40 ksi
4 tη 5
4 (0.9)
 16 
Stress on longitudinal section
s=
pD
=
(0.2 )(36) = 12.80 ksi
2 tη 5
2 (0.9)
 16 
Stress on diametral section < stress on longitudinal section

85. A spherical air tank stores air at 3000 psig. The tank is to have an inside diameter
of 7 in. (a) What should be the wall thickness and weight of the tank if it is made
of 301, ¼-hard, stainless steel, with a design factor of 1.5 based on the yield
strength and a joint efficiency of 90 %. (b) Compute the wall thickness and
weight if annealed titanium (B265, gr. 5) is used? (c) What is the additional
saving in weight if the titanium is hardened? Can you think of circumstances for
which the higher cost of titanium would be justified?

95

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Solution:

(a) For 301, ¼ hard, stainless steel
s y = 75 ksi (Table AT 4)
sy 75
s= = = 50 ksi
N 1.5
p = 3000 psi = 3 ksi
pD
s=
4 tη

50 =
(3)(7)
4t (0.90)
t = 0.117 in

γ = 0.286 lb in 3
W = 4π r 2t γ = π D 2t γ = π (7 ) (0.117 )(0.286 ) = 5.2 lb
2

(b) For annealed titanium B265, gr. 5
s y = 130 ksi (Table AT 3)
sy 130
s= = = 86.67 ksi
N 1.5
p = 3000 psi = 3 ksi
pD
s=
4 tη

86.67 =
(3)(7)
4t (0.90)
t = 0.061 in

γ = 0.160 lb in 3
W = 4π r 2t γ = π D 2t γ = π (7 ) (0.061)(0.160) = 1.5 lb
2

(c) For hardened titanium
s y = 158 ksi (Table AT 3)
sy 158
s= = = 105 ksi
N 1.5
p = 3000 psi = 3 ksi
pD
s=
4 tη

105 =
(3)(7 )
4t (0.90 )

96

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

t = 0.056 in

γ = 0.160 lb in 3
W = 4π r 2t γ = π D 2t γ = π (7 ) (0.056)(0.160 ) = 1.38 lb
2

1.50 − 1.38
Savings in weight = (100%) = 8%
1.50
Circumstances: less in weight and small thickness.

86. Decide upon a material and estimate a safe wall thickness of a cylindrical vessel
to contain helium at –300 F and 2750 psi. The welded joint should have a relative
strength ≥ 87 %, and the initial computations are to be for a 12-in.-diameter, 30-
ft.-long tank. (Note: Mechanical properties of metals at this low temperature are
not available in the Text. Refer to INCO Nickel Topics, vol. 16, no. 7, 1963, or
elsewhere.)

Solution:
From Kent’s Handbook, Table 8
Material – Hot Rolled Nickel
At – 300 F, su = 100 ksi , N = 4 (Table 1.1)
s 100
s= u = = 25 ksi
N 4
pD
s=
2 tη
p = 2750 psi = 2.75 ksi
D = 12 in
η = 87%
s = 25 =
(2.75)(12)
2 t (0.87 )
t = 0.759 in
3
say t = in
4

CONTACT STRESSES

87. (a) A 0.75-in. diameter roller is in contact with a plate-cam surface whose width is
0.5-in. The maximum load is 2.5 kips where the radius of curvature of the cam
surface is 3.333 in. Compute the Hertz compressive stress. (b) The same as (a)
except that the follower has a plane flat face. (c) The same as (a) except that the
roller runs in a grooved face and contacts the concave surface. (d) What is the
maximum shear stress for part (a) and how far below the surface does it exist?

Solution:

97

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

(a) 2r1 = 0.75 in , r1 = 0.375 in
r2 = 3.333 in
F = 2.5 kips
b = 0.5 in
1
  1 1 2
 0.35 F  +  
sc max =   r1 r2  
  1 1  
 b +  
  E1 E2  
E = 30,000 ksi
1
  1 1 2
 0.35(2.5) + 
sc max =   0.375 3.333  
= 279 ksi
  2  
 0.5  
  30,000  

1
  1 1 2
 0.35(2.5 ) + 
(b) sc max =  3 .333 3 . 333   = 126 ksi
  2  
 0.5  
  30,000  

1
  1 1 2
 0.35(2. 5) − 
(c) sc max =   0.375 3.333  
= 249 ksi
  2  
 0.5  
  30,000  

(d) Maximum shear stress
s s max = 0.3sc max = 0.3(279 ) = 84 ksi
Location:
 1 1   2 
( ) (
4 sc max 1 − µ 2  +  4(279 ) 1 − 0.32 
E1 E2 
) 
w=  =  30,000 
= 0.023 in
1 1  1 1 
 +   + 
 r1 r2   0.375 3.333 

88. Two 20o involute teeth are in contact along a “line” where the radii of curvature
of the profiles are respectively 1.03 and 3.42 in. The face width of the gears is 3
in. If the maximum permissible contact stress for carburized teeth is 200 ksi, what
normal load may these teeth support?

98

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Solution:
r1 = 1.03 in
r2 = 3.42 in
b = 3 in
sc max = 200 ksi
1
  1 1 2
 0.35 F  +  
sc max =   r1 r2  
  1 1  
 b +  
  E1 E2  
E = 30,000 ksi
1
  1 1 2
 0.35 F  + 
sc max = 200 =   1.03 3.42  
  2  
 3  
  30,000  
F = 18 kips

TOLERANCES AND ALLOWANCES

89. The pin for a yoke connection has a diameter of D of ¾ in., a total length of 2 ½
in., with a head that is 1 ¼ in. in diameter and 3/8 in. thick. The tolerance on D
(both pin and hole) is 0.003 in., with an allowance of 0.001 in., basic-hole system.
Sketch the pin showing all dimensions with appropriate tolerances.

Solution:
D = 0.75 in
For pin
+ 0.000
D = 0.749 in
− 0.003
For hole
+ 0.003
D = 0.750 in
− 0.000
Sketch

99

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

90. A shaft with a nominal diameter of 8 in. is to fit in a hole. Specify the allowance,
tolerances, and the limit diameters of the shaft and hole on a sketch for: (a) a close
sliding fit, (b) a precision-running fit, (c) medium-running fit, (d) a loose-running
fit.

Solution: D = 8 in

(a) For close-sliding fit, RC 1

Hole, in Shaft, in
+0.0008 - 0.0006
-0.0000 -0.0012

Allowance = 0.0006 in
With tolerances,
+ 0.0008
Hole D = 8.0000 in
− 0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 7.9994 in
− 0.0006
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 8.0000 to 8.0008 in
Shaft D = 7.9994 to 7.9988 in
Sketch

100

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

(b) For a precision-running fit, RC 3
Hole, in Shaft, in
+0.0012 -0.0020
-0.0000 -0.0032
Allowance = 0.0020 in
With tolerances,
+ 0.0012
Hole D = 8.0000 in
− 0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 7.9980 in
− 0.0012
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 8.0000 to 8.0012 in
Shaft D = 7.9980 to 7.9968 in
Sketch

(c) For medium-running fit, RC5, RC 6. Say RC 5

Hole, in Shaft, in
+0.0018 -0.0040
-0.0000 -0.0058

Allowance = 0.0040 in
With tolerances,
+ 0.0018
Hole D = 8.0000 in
− 0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 7.9960 in
− 0.0018
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 8.0000 to 8.0018 in
Shaft D = 7.9960 to 7.9942 in
Sketch

101

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

(d) For loose-running fit, RC 8, RC 9. Say RC 8

Hole, in Shaft, in
+0.0070 -0.0100
-0.0000 -0.0145

Allowance = 0.010 in
With tolerances,
+ 0.0070
Hole D = 8.0000 in
− 0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 7.9900 in
− 0.0045
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 8.0000 to 8.0070 in
Shaft D = 7.9900 to 7.9855 in
Sketch

91. The same as 90, except that the nominal diameter is 4 in.

Solution:
D = 4 in

(a) For close-sliding fit, RC 1

102

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Hole, in Shaft, in
+0.0006 -0.0005
-0.0000 -0.0009

Allowance = 0.0005 in
With tolerances,
+ 0.0006
Hole D = 4.0000 in
− 0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 3.9995 in
− 0.0004
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 4.0000 to 4.0006 in
Shaft D = 3.9995 to 3.9991 in
Sketch

(b) For a precision-running fit, RC 3
Hole, in Shaft, in
+0.0009 -0.0014
-0.0000 -0.0023
Allowance = 0.0014 in
With tolerances,
+ 0.0009
Hole D = 4.0000 in
− 0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 3.9986 in
− 0.0009
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 4.0000 to 4.0009 in
Shaft D = 3.9986 to 3.9977 in
Sketch

103

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

(c) For medium-running fit, RC5, RC 6. Say RC 6

Hole, in Shaft, in
+0.0022 -0.0030
-0.0000 -0.0052

Allowance = 0.0030 in
With tolerances,
+ 0.0022
Hole D = 4.0000 in
− 0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 3.9970 in
− 0.0022
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 4.0000 to 4.0022 in
Shaft D = 3.9970 to 7.9948 in
Sketch

(d) For loose-running fit, RC 8, RC 9. Say RC 9

Hole, in Shaft, in
+0.0090 -0.0100
-0.0000 -0.0150

Allowance = 0.0100 in

104

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

With tolerances,
+ 0.0090
Hole D = 4.0000 in
− 0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 3.9900 in
− 0.0050
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 4.0000 to 4.0090 in
Shaft D = 3.9900 to 3.9850 in
Sketch

92. A cast-iron gear is to be shrunk onto a 3-in, steel shaft. (a) Determine the
tolerance and the maximum, minimum, and average interferences of metal for
class FN 1 fit. (b) Sketch and dimension the shaft and hole with proper tolerances.
(c) Compute the stresses by the method given in the Text (i3.8) for the maximum
and minimum interferences of metal.

Solution: D = 3 in

(a) For class FN 1 fit, Table 3.2

Tolerances
Hole, in Shaft, in
+0.0007 +0.0019
-0.0000 +0.0014
Max. interference = 0.0019 in
Min. interference = 0.0014 – 0.0007 = 0.0007 in
Ave. interference = 0.5(0.0019 + 0.0007) = 0.0013 in

(b)

105

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

(c) For maximum interference

Ei
s=
D
E = 23,000 ksi
s=
(23,000 )(0.0019 ) = 14.6 ksi
3

For minimum interference

s=
(23,000 )(0.0007 ) = 5.4 ksi
3

93. The same as 92, except that the gear hub is C1035 steel and class of fit is FN 3.

Solution: D = 3 in

(a) For class FN 3fit, Table 3.2

Tolerances
Hole, in Shaft, in
+0.0012 +0.0037
-0.0000 +0.0030
Max. interference = 0.0037 in
Min. interference = 0.0030 – 0.0012 = 0.0018 in
Ave. interference = 0.5(0.0037 + 0.0018) = 0.0028 in

(b)

106

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

(c) For C1035 steel, E = 30,000 ksi

For maximum interference

Ei
s=
D
s=
(30,000)(0.0037 )
= 37 ksi
3

For minimum interference

s=
(30,000)(0.0018) = 18 ksi
3

94. For a No. 7 ball bearing, the New Departure Handbook states that the maximum
bore should be 1.3780 in. and the minimum, 1.3775 in.; for average conditions,
the shaft should have a maximum diameter of 1.3784 in. and a minimum of
1.3779 in. (a) Determine the corresponding tolerances and allowances. (b) What
class of fit is this? (c) New Departure states: “. . . bearing bores are held
uniformly close, . . . averaging within 1.3778 in. to 1.3776 in.” What will be the
maximum and minimum interference of metal with these diameters (if maximum
and minimum sizes are deliberately chosen for assembly)?

Solution:

(a) Tolerances:

For No. 7 ball bearing
Bore, 1.3780 – 1.3775 in = 0.0005 in
+ 0.0005
Therefore, D = 1.3775 in
− 0.0000

107

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Shaft, 1.3784 – 1.3775 = 0.0009 in
1.3779 – 1.3775 = 0.0004 in
+ 0.0000
D = 1.37845 in
− 0.0005

Tolerances
Hole, in Shaft, in
+0.0005 +0.0009
-0.0000 +0.0004

Allowance = 0 – 0.0009 in = - 0.0009 in

(b) Since allowance is < 0.
It is a force and shrink fil class.

(c)

1.3778 – 1.3775 = 0.0003 in
1.3776 – 1.3775 = 0.0001 in

New tolerances
Hole, in Shaft, in
+0.0005 +0.0003
-0.0000 +0.0001

Maximum interference = 0.0003 in
Minimum interference = 0.0000 in (since 0.0001 – 0.0005 = - 0.0004 < 0)

95. For a roller bearing having a bore of 65 mm. an SKF catalog states that the largest
diameter should be 2.5591 in. and the smallest, 2.5585 in. If this bearing is to be
used in a gear transmission, it is recommended for the shaft (where the bearing
fits) to have a maximum diameter of 2.5600 in. and a minimum of 2.5595 in. (a)
Determine the tolerances and allowances (or interferences of metal) for this
installation. (b) What class of fit would this be?

Solution:

(a) 65 mm = 2.5591 in

2.5591 – 2.5585 = 0.0006 in
2.5600 – 2.5585 = 0.0015 in
2.5595 – 2.5585 = 0.0010 in

108

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Tolerances
Hole, in Shaft, in
+0.0006 +0.0015
-0.0000 +0.0010

Maximum interference = 0.0015 in
Minimum interference = 0.0010 – 0.0006 = 0.0004 in

(b) Class of fit, Force and shrink fit

TOLERANCES, STATISTICAL CONSIDERATION

96. (a) A machine tool is capable if machining parts so that the standard deviation of
one critical dimension is 0.0006 in. What minimum tolerance may be specified for
this dimension if it is expected that practically all of the production be acceptable?
Assume that it is possible to “center the process.” (b) The same as (a), except that
it has been decided to tolerate approximately 4.56 % scrap.

Solution:

(a)

T = NS = 6σ = 6(0.0006 ) = 0.0036 in

(b)

0.0456
A= = 0.0228 in
2

109

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

From Table 3.3
z
= 2. 0
σ
z = 2σ
T = 2 z = 4σ
T = 4(0.0006 ) = 0.0024 in

97. A pin and the hole into which it fits have a nominal diameter of 1 ½ in. The pin
tolerance has been set to 0.002 in., the bore tolerance at 0.003 in., and the
allowance at 0.001 in., basic hole system. The parts are to be a natural spread of
0.0015 in. for the pin and 0.002 in. for the hole. Assuming that the processes are
centered, determine the expected minimum clearance and the maximum
clearance. What is the most frequent clearance?

Solution:

1.5015 – 1.4980 = 0.0035 in
NS 0.0015
σ 1 ( pin ) = 1 = = 0.00025 in
6 6
NS 0.0020
σ 2 (hole ) = 2 = = 0.00033 in
6 6
σ D2 = σ 12 + σ 22 = (0.00025)2 + (0.00033)2
σ D = 0.00041 in

Natural Spread of Difference = 6σ D = 6(0.00041) = 0.00246 in

110

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Expected minimum clearance = 0.00227 in
Expected maximum clearance = 0.00473 in
Most frequent clearance = 0.0035 in

98. A rod and the hole into which it fits has a nominal diameter of 2 in. The
tolerances are 0.003 in. for both rod and hole, and the allowance as 0..001 in.,
basic hole system. The natural spread of the process of manufacturing the hole is
0.002 in., and for the rod, 0.0015 in. What are the probable maximum and
minimum clearances, provided that the tolerances are met, but assuming that the
processes might simultaneously operate at their extreme permissible position?

Solution:

NS1 0.0015
σ 1 (rod ) = = = 0.00025 in
6 6
NS 0.0020
σ 2 ( pin ) = 2 = = 0.00033 in
6 6
σ D2 = σ 12 + σ 22 = (0.00025)2 + (0.00033)2
σ D = 0.00041 in

111

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

NS = 6σ D = 6(0.00041) = 0.00246 in

2.0020 – 1.99675 = 0.00525 in

Probable maximum clearance = 0.00648 in
Probable minimum clearance = 0.00402 in

99. It is desired that the clearance in a 4-in. bearing neither exceed 0.004 in. nor be
less than 0.002 in. Assume that the natural spread of the processes by which the
journal and the bearing surfaces are finished is the same. (a) What should be the
natural spread of these processes? (b) Assuming this natural spread to be equal to
the tolerance, determine the corresponding allowance. (c) If the foregoing
conditions are not practical decide upon practical tolerances and allowances for
the computed natural spread.

Solution:

(a) NS = 6σ D
NS 0.002
σD = = = 0.00033 in
6 6

(b) σ D = 2σ
σ 0.00033
σ= D = = 0.000233 in
2 2

112

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

NS = 6σ = 6(0.000233) = 0.0014 in
Tolerance = 0.0014 in

Corresponing allowance = 0.0016 in

(c) From Fig. 3.4, T > NS

Tolerance = T = 1.3NS = 1.3(0.0014 ) = 0.0018 in
Allowance = 0.003 – 0.0018 = 0.0012 in

100. A 4-in, journal-bearing assembly is made for class RC 6 fit. Assume that the
natural spread of the manufacturing process will be about 75 % of the tolerance.
Compute the probable maximum and minimum clearances (which occur when the
processes are not centered) and compare with the allowance. Make a sketch of the
journal and hole properly dimensioned.

113

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES Solution: From Table RC 6.997 in − 0.0024 in 114 .0022 -0.0004 ) = 0.000 in − 0.00028 in 6 σ D = 2σ = 2 (0. D = 4 in Hole Shaft +0.0030 -0.0000 + 0.00028) = 0.0000 -0.0000 D (shaft ) = 3.0004 in NS D = 6σ D = 6(0.0022 NS = 6σ 0.00165 σ= = 0.0052 or + 0.0022 D(hole ) = 4.

0009 115 .0000 + 0. D = 4 in Hole Shaft +0.0000 -0.9986 in − 0. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES Maximum clearance = 0. The same as 100.0009 -0.0023 or + 0.0014 -0. Table 3. except that class RC 3 fit is used.0000 D (shaft ) = 3. Solution: From Table RC 3.1.00912 in Minimum clearance = 0.00336 in Sketch 101.000 in − 0.0009 D(hole ) = 4.

0001125 in 6 σ D = 2σ = 2 (0. (Suggestion: compute first a theoretical natural spread for bearing and journal from the given spread of the clearances. Let the tolerances be approximately equal to this computed NS. bearing be between approximately 0. The natural spread of the processes of finishing the journal and bearing are expected to be virtually the same ( σ 1 = σ 2 ).0001125) = 0. and assume that manufacturing processes are available that produce an actual NS of about 70 % of this computed NS.) Check for processes being off center but within ± 3σ limits so that virtually no scrap is manufactured. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES NS = 6σ 0. and 0.003 in. Decide upon a suitable tolerance and allowance with a sketch properly dimensioned (to a ten thousandth).00016 in NS D = 6σ D = 6(0.00096 in Maximum clearance = 0.00016 ) = 0.001595 in Minimum clearance = 0.007 in.000675 σ= = 0. It is desired that the running clearance for a 3-in. Solution: 116 .002555 in Sketch 102.

00197 in T = NS1 = (6)(0. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES σ D = 0.70 NS1 NS = 0.00067 in σ 12 + σ 22 = σ D2 2σ 12 = (0.70(6)(0.00282 in 117 .00047 ) = 0.00067 ) 2 σ 2 = 0.00047 ) = 0.00047 in NS = 0.

00785 in running clearance = 0.00218 in ≈ 0. what would be the approximate overall tolerances and limit dimensions? 118 .00215 in. If the tolerances shown are maintained during manufacture.00615 in since allowance = 0. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES For processes off-center running clearance = 0. it is checked.00385 in to 0.00215 in to 0. say with the processes centered. 103.

SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES Problem 103. what process would you recommend for finishing the surface in each instance? (a) 0. (e) 0.000 to 5. Text.008 − 5..05 in. Boring (b) 0. If a cylindrical part needs to have the following tolerances.7114 in 104.000 = 0. page 95.004) + (0.000 to 4. Rough turning 3.008) + (0..? Solution: Use fi. 3. Rough grinding 5.. Solution: T1 = 4.0114 in 6. (f) 0.005 in. (c) 0.004 − 4..707 − 6.0001 in. Contour sawing 4.0114 in 5.004 in T2 = 5.01 in Surface finishes = 63 to 250 119 . Shaping and planning 6. (a) 0.000 = 0.007 ) 2 2 2 T = 0.007 in T 2 = T12 + T22 + T32 = (0... Flame cutting-machine 2.700 to 6.05 in Surface finishes = 500 or greater Processes: 1. Drilling 7. (b) 0.0114 in Limit dimensions 4.01 in.9.008 in T3 = 6. (d) 0. Milling – high speed steel 8.001 in.700 = 0.00005 in.

Boring 4. Milling – carbides 10. Shaping and planning 2. Honing (d) 0. Boring 7. Gear shaping 11. Drilling 5. Reaming 8. Barrel finishing (c) 0. Barrel finishing 9. Broaching 3. Commercial griniding 6. Finish turning 7. Boring 9. Roller burnishing 10. Shaping and planning 4. Rough grinding 3. Barrel finishing 12. Broaching 6. Diamond turning 120 . Finish turning 5. Milling – high speed steel 4. Drilling 3. Reaming 10. Reaming 5.005 in Surface finishes = 32 to 125 Processes: 1. Contour sawing 2. Commercial grinding 9. Milling – carbides 7. Finish turning 2.001 in Surface finishes = 8 to 32 Processes: 1. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES Processes: 1. Commercial grinding 11. Broaching 8. Milling – high speed steel 6. Gear shaping 8.

Honing 2. Precision finish grinding 6. rms Processes: 1. Processes: 1.00005 in Surface finishes = 0 to 2 µin. 3. Superfinishing (f) 0. Diamond and precision boring 12. Honing 7. Honing 14.0001 in Surface finishes = 1 to 8 µin.75 (a) Relative cost of 125 µin rms = 3  3  Cost = $100  = $171  1.75  121 . Production lapping 8. Production lapping 15. Diamong and precision boring 5. Roller burnishing 3. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES 11. rms? Solution: From Fig.9 Relative cost of 500 µin rms = 1. what would be the approximate cost to finish it to the following roughness: (a) 125. Superfinishing 105. Production lapping 3. Barrel finishing 2. If it cost $100 to finish a certain surface to 500 microinches rms. (d) 2 µin. Precision finish grinding 13. Diamond turning 4. Superfinishing (e) 0. (b) 32. (c) 8.

Rolled Advantage 106 700 12 C1020 1. (c) Sketch to scale each part. Design a bell crank.75  7. on occasion. showing all dimensions with tolerances necessary to manufacture.75  (d) Relative cost of 2 µin rms = 11. As Mech. The mechanical advantage ( L1 L2 = F2 F1 ).75  DATA LACKING – DESIGNER’S DECISIONS* * Properties of rolled structural sections are found in various handbooks. One approach could be to compute dimensions of the yoke connections first. and the material are given in the accompanying table.5 114 650 18 C1035 3 115 600 20 C1040 4 116 900 12 C1020 1.5  Cost = $100  = $657  1. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES (b) Relative cost of 32 µin rms = 5  5  Cost = $100  = $286  1.5  11. No.75  (c) Relative cost of 8 µin rms = 7. t should be a little less than a . similar to the one shown. An assumption for the shaft may be that.5 107 650 14 C1020 2 108 600 15 C1022 2. including tolerances and allowances. the length L1 . 106-125. the torque for F1 is transmitted through the shaft (ignoring bending for local convenience). Prob.5 109 550 18 C1035 3 110 500 20 C1040 4 111 800 12 C1020 1. the force F1 .5 117 850 14 C1020 2 122 .75  Cost = $100  = $443  1. to carry a mild shock load. modify as desirable. (b) Check all dimensions for good proportion. Load F1 L1 AISI No. (a) Make all significant dimensions.5 112 750 14 C1020 2 113 750 14 C1020 2.

5 For AISI C1020 as rolled (Table AT 7) su = 65 ksi sus = 49 ksi Designing based on ultimate strength N = 6 (Table 1.5 119 750 18 C1035 3 120 700 20 C1040 4 121 1000 12 C1020 1. one direction su 65 s= = = 10 ksi N 6 s 49 s s = us = = 8 ksi N 6 Consider yoke connection A 123 .1) mild shock.7 kip L1 = 12 in MA = 1.5 124 850 18 C1035 3 125 800 20 C1040 4 Problems 106 to 125.5 122 950 14 C1020 2 123 900 15 C1022 2. Solution: F1 = 700 lb = 0. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES 118 800 15 C1022 2.

L1 = 1.5 F2 = 1.7 8= 1 π d12 2 d1 = 0. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES F1 F1 ss = = 1  1 π d12 2 π d12  4  2 0. 7 10 = 1 a1   4 a1 = 0.7 ) = 1. 7 10 = 1 D1   4 D1 = 0.5(0.5 L2 12 L2 = = 8 in 1.24 in 1 say d1 = in 4 F1 s= a1d1 0.5 F1 F2 = 1.28 in 5 say a1 = in 16 since t1 < a1 1 say t1 = in 4 F1 s= D1t1 0.05 kip F2 F2 ss = = 1  1 π d 22 2 π d 22  4  2 124 .28 in 5 say D1 = in 16 Consider yoke connection B.

05 10 = 5 a2    16  a2 = 0.0006 allowance = 0.2495 in − 0.0000 − 0.05 10 = 5 D2    16  D2 = 0. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES 1.70 )(12) = 8.2500 in d1 = 0.75 in = 1 in 4 Tolerances and allowances.4 in − kips 16T1 ss = π d s3 16(8.29 in 5 say d 2 = in 16 F2 s= a2 d 2 1.05 8= 1 π d 22 2 d 2 = 0.0000 d1 = 0.34 in 3 say D2 = in 8 For shaft diameter Assume torque.4) 8= π d s3 3 d s = 1.0006 + 0.1) Hole Shaft + 0.34 in 3 say a2 = in 8 since t 2 < a2 5 say t 2 = in 16 F1 s= D1t1 1. consider RC 4 (Table 3. T1 = F1L1 = (0.0005 in 125 .

9988 in − 0.0000 in d s = 1.0006 + 0.0012 in Female Male + 0.0008 + 0.0008 126 .0000 d s = 1.0000 − 0.0012 + 0.0000 − 0.0000 − 0.0012 allowance = 0.0000 d 2 = 0.3750 in a2 = 0.3120 in − 0.0010 allowance = 0.0006 + 0.0000 − 0. consider RC 4 (Table 3.0000 d s = 2.0010 + 0.7492 in − 0.0010 in Female Male + 0.3125 in d 2 = 0.0000 in a1 = 0.0000 − 0.0008 in + 0.0008 in + 0.0008 allowance = 0.0000 − 0.0000 a2 = 1.0008 + 0. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES + 0.1) Hole Shaft + 0.0008 allowance = 0.0008 + 0.0008 allowance = 0.0006 + 0.0000 in a2 = 0.7500 in d s = 1.7492 in − 0.0006 allowance = 0.0000 d1 = 0.0006 allowance = 0.3120 in − 0.7500 in d 2 = 0.0000 − 0.0005 in (b) For good proporion use the following dimension D1 = D2 = 1 in 3 d1 = d 2 = in 4 3 t1 = t 2 = in 4 a1 = a2 = 1 in d s = 2 in Tolerances and allowances.0008 + 0.0006 allowance = 0.0000 − 0.9992 in − 0.0000 a1 = 1.0000 a2 = 0.0000 a1 = 0.3745 in − 0.7500 in d1 = 0.3125 in a1 = 0.0000 − 0.0000 d 2 = 0.0005 in + 0.0005 in + 0.9992 in − 0.7490 in − 0.0008 in + 0.

(c) What size beam should be used if the deflection is not to exceed ¼ in. Table AT 7 s y = 48 ksi Mc s y s= = I N 127 .? Solution: N = 2. as rolled.5 based on yield strength. A simple beam 12 ft. long is to support a concentrated load of 10 kips at the midpoint with a design factor of at least 2. 5 (a) For AISI C1020. as rolled) I-beam that can be used? (b) Compute its maximum deflection. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES allowance = 0.0008 in (c) Sketch 126. (a) What is the size and weight of the lightest steel (C1020.

25 = (10)(144 )3 48(30.000 ksi δ= (10 )(144 )3 = 0. I-beam is used as a simple beam.8 in 4 .8 in 4 .000 )(145.2 in 3 I = 145. 2nd Edition Select 10I35 Section Index Unsupported length = 12 ft Weight per foot = 35 lb I = 145. moment of inertia Size (Depth) = 10.8) FL3 (c) δ = 48 EI 0. and carrying a total uniformly distributed load of 6000 lb.95 in 3 s 19 From Table B-3. moment of inertia Size (Depth) = 10.0 in Weight of beam = (35)(12) = 420 lb FL3 (b) δ = 48 EI E = 30.142 in 48(30. supported on 18-ft. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES 48 s= = 19 ksi 2.5 FL (10 )(144) M= = = 360 lb − in 4 4 M s= Z Z = section modulus M 360 Z= = = 18. Singer.. Strength of Material by F.0 in 127. centers.9 in 4 From Table B-3. 2nd Edition Select 10I35 Section Index Unsupported length = 12 ft Weight per foot = 35 lb Section Modulus = Z = 29. A 10-in. Solution: 128 . Determine the maximum stress and the maximum deflection. Singer. Strength of Material by F. 35-lb.000)I I = 82.

2nd Edition For 10-in.170 lb − in = 716.17 kips − in 8 2 M 716.000)(145. I-beam I = 145.13 ksi 29.8) 128.3.2 5FL3 δ max = 384 EI E = 30.2 129 .17 s max = max = = 24. Singer.7 )(216) = 6631 lbs = 6.631 kips 5(6.7 lb in (18)(12) Table B.8 in 4 Z = 29. Solution: wL2 (30. 35-lb.2 in 3 M max s max = Z wL2 (30.000 ksi F = wL = (30. F.20 in 384(30. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES 6000 + 630 w= = 30. except the beam is a cantilever.7 )(216 ) 2 M max = = = 179.L..631)(216 ) 3 δ max = = 0. The same as 127.042 lb − in = 179 kips − in 8 8 179 s max = = 6. From Strength of Materials.53 ksi Z 29.7 )(216) 2 M max = = = 716.

9375 in 3 s 20 1 For each angles. except that a rolled T-section is to be used.L. The same as 129. L = 40 in . Solution: Table AT 2 M s= Z Fab M= L a = 15 in L = 40 in b = L − a = 40 − 15 = 25 in M= (2 )(15)(25) = 18.9375) = 0. What size angles should be used if the maximum stress is not to exceed 20 ksi? The stress due to the weight of the angles is negligible. thickness = ¼ in I Z = = 0. act as a simple beam and are to support a load of F = 2.91 in 4 8EI 8(30. a = 15 in .75 Z= = = 0. No. 2nd Edition Table B-5 Say size 3” x 3”.. Two equal angles.000 lb .8) 129.000 )(145.7 lb in (18)(12) δ max = wL4 = (30.7 )(216) = 1. F. 130. Singer. Problems 129..46875 in 3 2 From Strength of Materials. Solution: From Table AT 1.58 in3 c 130. placed back to back as shown.75 kips − in 40 M 18. 6 130 . SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES 6000 + 630 w= = 30. Z = (0.

25t )2 + t (4t )3 + t (4t )(1. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES aH 2 + bt 2 c1 = 2(aH + bt ) c2 = H − c1 Bt 3 ah 3 Ix = + (Bt )d 2 + + (ah )e 2 12 12 say a = t h=B B = 4t H = h+t = B+t b = B−a t (B + t ) + (B − t )t 2 2 c1 = 2[t (B + t ) + (B − t )t ] t (B + t ) + (B − t )t 2 t (5t ) + (3t )t 2 2 2 c1 = = = 1.17t 4 12 12 Mc2 s= I M = 18.25t 2 a=t h = B = 4t h e = c2 − = 3.75t = 3.5(4t ) = 1.25t )2 = 18.75t − 0.75 kips − in 131 .75t 2(2 Bt ) ( ) 4 4t 2 c2 = H − c1 H = B + t = 5t c2 = 5t − 1.25t − 0.25t Bt 3 ah 3 Ix = + (Bt )d 2 + + (ah )e 2 12 12 t d = c1 − = 1.25t 2 Ix = (4t )t 3 + (4t )t (1.5t = 1.

end - 132 .55 in 9 say t = in 16 9 1 B = 4t = 4  = 2 in  16  4 1 9 H = B + t = 2 + = 2.8125 in 4 16 say H = 3 in ″ ″ 1 9 Size: 2 × 3′′ × T section 4 16 .75)(3.25t ) 18.17t 4 t = 0. SECTION 1– DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES s = 20 = (18.

A link as shown is to be made of AISI 2330. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS VARYING STRESSES – NO CONCENTRATION DESIGN PROBLEMS 141. Page 1 of 62 . what should be its diameter for N = 1.75 52 d = 1.85)(76. (b) The same as (a). ignore stress concentrations. What should be the diameter of the piston rod if it is made of AISI 3140. (a) If its surface is machined. How does your answer compare with that obtained for 4? Solution: For AISI 3140.270 lb = 39. The maximum pressure of air in a 20-in.27 kips 2 4 Fmin = − F = −39. For the time being. OQT 1000 F su = 153 ksi s y = 134 ksi sn = 0.8)(0.5 ksi For axial loading. except that the surface is mirror polished. and if there are no stress raisers and no column action? Let N = 1. WQT 1000 F. with size factor sn = 0.27 kips sm = 0 4 F 4(39.27 ) 50 sa = = = 2 π d2 πd2 d  50   2 = 0+   1 1 d = N 1.5(153) = 76.40 .5su = 0. except that the surface is as forged. indefinite life desired.5) = 52 ksi Soderberg line 1 sm sa = + N s y sn For double-acting π  Fmax = F = pA = (125) (20 ) = 39. 142. cylinder (double-acting air compressor) is 125 psig. The load F = 5 kips is repeated and reversed. OQT at 1000 F.2972 in 5 say d = 1 in 16 comparative to Problem 4. What would be the percentage saving in weight? (c) The same as (a).5su = (0.75 .

345 sa = 2 = πD 1 .7 sa = 2 = πD 1 . AF 5) sn = 0.542 in 9 say D = in 16 (b) Mirror polished surface Surface factor = 1.5su = (0.85 (Fig.5su = (0.00 (Fig.00)(52.85)(1.7 ksi 20 35.5su = 0.80 (a) Machined surface Surface factor = 0.4 D = 0.345 ksi 20 30. 142 – 144 Solution: For AISI 2330.5 ksi sm = 0 4F 4(5) 20 sa = 2 = 2 = πd πd π d2 Soderberg line 1 sm sa = + N s y sn 1 s = 0+ a N sn s sa = n N Size factor = 0.5) ksi = 35.85)(52. WQT 1000 F su = 105 ksi s y = 85 ksi sn = 0.85)(0.80)(0.85 Factor for axial loading = 0.4 Page 2 of 62 .5) ksi = 30.80)(0. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS Prob. AF 5) sn = 0.5(105) = 52.

85)(36.80)(0. sn = 30 ksi at 3 x 108 s y = 69 ksi su = 93. Solution: For cold-drawn silicon bronze.82 ksi 20 24.5su = (0.085  3 × 108  sn at 3 x 10 = (30 ) 7  7  = 36.5 ksi  3 × 10  sn = (0.40 (Fig. The same as 142.4 D = 0.60 in 5 say D = in 8 144. Type B.28 sa = = π D2 1 .40 )(52. the link is made from cold-drawn silicon bronze B and the number of reversals of the load is expected to be less than 3 x 107.82 sa = 2 = πD 1 .80)(0.5) ksi = 14. Solution: For AA 2024-T4 s y = 47 ksi su = 68 ksi sn = 20 ksi at 5 x108 Page 3 of 62 . The same as 142.28 ksi 20 14. except that the link is made of aluminum alloy 2024-T4 with a minimum life of 107 cycles.5) = 24.75 ksi 0. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS D = 0.5 in 2 2  9  1   −  Savings in weight =   2  (100% ) = 21% 16 2 9    16  (c) As forged surface Surface factor = 0.4 D = 0. AF 5) sn = 0.79 in 3 say D = in 4 143. except that.85)(0. because of a corrosive environment.

SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS 0. carburized sn = 90 ksi s y = 100 ksi su = 141 ksi Size Factor = 0.32 ksi sm = 0 32 M sa = π D3 FL (2000 )(18) M= = = 9000 in − lb = 9. With the shaft rotating. What should be its diameter if there are no surface discontinuities? Solution: For AISI 3120 steel. is made of carburized AISI 3120 steel (Table AT 10).85)(27.88 sn = (0. The surfaces are ground. Indefinite life is desired with N = 1. long.085  5 × 108  sn at 10 (20 ) 7 7   = 27.9 ksi  10  sn = (0. 18 in.85 Surface factor (ground) = 0.4 D = 0.80)(0.6 based on endurance strength.0 in − kips 4 4 Soderberg line 1 sm sa = + N s y sn Page 4 of 62 . is appliled midway between the bearings.85)(0.88)(90) = 67. a steady load of 2000 lb. A shaft supported as a simple beam.685 in 11 say D = in 16 145.9) = 19 ksi 20 19 sa = 2 = π D 1 .

for a design factor of N = 2 . Find the dimensions of a section without discontinuity where b = 2.6 D = 1.5) = 15.4t 2 2 M = FL = (900)(14) = 12.8t ) 3 I= = = 1.4t ) = 9. as rolled su = 65 ksi s y = 48 ksi s n = 0. with an as-forged surface. The material is AISI C1020.8t c= = = 1.55)(32.55 (a) sm = 0 Mc sa = I tb3 t (2. (b) compute the dimensions at a section where e = 4 in .5 ksi Surface factor (as forged) = 0.2964 in 1 say D = 1 in 4 146.6)(1.643 1.8t and L = 14 in .8293t 4 12 12 b 2. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS 1 s = 0+ a N sn s sa = n N 32(9 ) 67. (a) A lever as shown with a rectangular section is to be designed for indefinite life and a reversed load of F = 900 lb .8293t 4 t3 sn = (0. 147 Solution: For AISI C1020.600 in − lb = 12. Problems 146. as rolled.85)(0.32 = πD3 1 .5su = 32.6 in − kips sa = (12.20 ksi Page 5 of 62 .

55)(39.713) = 1.755 15. The same as 146. b = 3.6 in − kips sa = (3.5) = 18.8t = 2.5 = t3 2 Page 6 of 62 . except that the reversal of the load are not expected to exceed 105 (Table AT 10).08) = 3.6)(1.713 in b = 2.0 in 16 (b) M = Fe = (900)(4 ) = 3.755 18293t 4 t3 2.643 15.5 ksi  10  sn = (0.4t ) = 2.5 ksi sn (a) sa = N 9.085  106  sn at 10 = (32.5) 5  5 = 39.5 ksi 0.996 in 23 say t = in . b = 2 in 32 147.20 = t3 2 t = 1.20 = t3 2 t = 0.85)(0.8t = 2.600 in − lb = 3. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS Soderberg line 1 sm sa = + N s y sn 1 s = 0+ a N sn s sa = n N 9.8(0.643 18.0 in 1 say t = 1 in .08 in b = 2. Solution: sn = 32.8(1.

3 ksi s ys = 0.5su = 76 ksi For machined surface. b = 1 in 16 8 148. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS t = 1.014 in b = 2. A shaft is to be subjected to a maximum reversed torque of 15.85 sns = (0. Surface factor = 0.6678 in b = 2.4 ksi 1 sms sas = + N s ys sns sms = 0 16T sas = πD3 T = 15 in − kips 16(15) 240 sas = = πD3 πD3 1 s = 0 + as N sns s sas = ns N Page 7 of 62 .839 in 13 say t = 1 in .870 in 11 7 say t = in .8(1.6(134 ) = 80.755 18.8t = 2.78)(134) = 53. AF 2).5 = t3 2 t = 0.6 s y = 0.75 ? Solution: For AISI 3140 steel.6678) = 1. OQT 1000 F (Fig. b = 2 in 16 sn (b) sa = N 2.000 in-lb.85)(0.8t = 2. OQT 1000 F su = 152 ksi s y = 134 ksi sn = 0.8(0.014) = 2.78 Size factor = 0. It is machined from AISI 3140 steel.6)(0. What should be its diameter for N = 1.

75 Di = 0. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS 240 53.3587 in 3 say D = 1 in 8 149. Solution: For AISI 1035. as rolled. The same as 148. (a) Determine these dimensions for N = 1.40 (Soderberg) at a section without stress concentration.694 in 11 3 say Di = in . and subjected to a repeated tensile load that varies from zero to 10 kips. The link shown is machined from AISI 1035 steel.3 = πD 3 1. 158. Do = 1 in 16 8 150.5su = 42.75 D = 1. except that the shaft is hollow with the outside diameter twice the inside diameter. 151. Solution: Do = 2 Di 16TDo 16(15)(2 Di ) 32 sas = = = 4 4 [ π (Do − Di ) π (2 Di ) − Di 4 ] 4 πDi3 s sas = ns N 32 53. (b) How much would these dimensions be decreased if the surfaces of the link were mirror polished? Problems 150. steel as rolled su = 85 ksi s y = 55 ksi sn = 0.3 = πDi3 1. h = 2b .5 ksi Page 8 of 62 .

40 3b (55) 3b (28.4 ksi 1 10 10 = 2 + 2 1.88)(42. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS 1 Fm = (10 + 0 ) = 5 kips 2 1 Fa = (10 − 0 ) = 5 kips 2 F 5 10 sm = m = 2 = 2 bh 1. Factor = 0.5) = 25.00)(42.85 sn = (0. except that the link operates in brine solution.5182 in 9 say b = in 16 27 h = 1.85)(0. (Note: The corroding effect of the solution takes precedence over surface finish.5) = 28.) Page 9 of 62 . Factor = 1.40 3b (55) 3b (25.85)(1.9 ksi 1 10 10 = 2 + 2 1.85 sn = (0.5b = in 4 151.5b 3b (a) Soderberg line 1 sm sa = + N s y sn For machined surface.4963 in 1 say b = in 2 3 h = 1.80)(0.4 ) b = 0.5b = in 32 (b) Mirror polished.80)(0. The same as 150.9 ) b = 0.00 Size factor = 0.5b 3b F 5 10 sa = a = 2 = 2 bh 1.88 Size factor = 0.

85)(24. factor = 0. determine b and h .85)(0. At d = 10 in .40 3b (55) 3b (16.5su = 36 ksi For as forged surface Figure AF 5.6) = 16. in brine. Problem 152. F2 = 2400 lb. (Ignore stress concentration). is repeated. AISI 1035.73 ksi 1 10 10 = 2 + 2 1.52 Size factor = 0.85 sn = (0.6 ksi s y = 58 ksi sn = (0.60 in 5 say b = in 8 15 h = 1. is made of AISI C1022 steel. 153 Solution: For AISI C1022. as rolled su = 72 ksi s y = 52 ksi sn = 0.73) b = 0. F1 = 3000 lb. as rolled. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS Solution: Table AT 10.5b = in 16 152.52)(36) = 16 ksi Loading: Page 10 of 62 . 30-in. is a dead load. For N = 1. sn = 24. reversed load. indefinite life. and h = 3b .80)(0. At a = 10 in .5 . left a forged. The simple beam shown. long ( = a + L + d ).

000 in − lb = 28 in − kips M D1 = (2600 )(10 ) = 26. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS ∑M A =0 10(3000) + 20(2400 ) = 30 R2 R2 = 2600 lb ∑F V =0 R1 + R2 = F1 + F2 R1 + 2600 = 3000 + 2400 R1 = 2800 lb Shear Diagram M C1 = (2800 )(10 ) = 28.000 in − lb = 26 in − kips Then Loading ∑M A =0 10(3000) + 30 R2 = 20(2400 ) R2 = 600 lb ∑F V =0 R1 + F2 = F1 + R2 R1 + 2400 = 3000 + 600 R1 = 1200 lb Page 11 of 62 .

000 in − lb = 12 in − kips M D2 = (600 )(10 ) = 6.5b 2 Mm Ma sm = 3 .5b3  = + 1. The same as 152.25b 4 12 12 h c = = 1.000 in − lb = 6 in − kips Then using M max = M C1 = 28 in − kips M min = M C2 = 12 in − kips 1 Mm = (M max + M min ) = 1 (28 + 12) = 20 in − kips 2 2 1 1 M a = (M max − M min ) = (28 − 12 ) = 8 in − kips 2 2 M c M c sm = m .5b3 1 sm sa = + N s y sn  20   8      1  1.5b3   1.5 52 16 b = 0.5b 1.000 and all surfaces are machined. sa = a I I b(3b ) 3 3 bh I= = = 2. Solution: Page 12 of 62 . SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS Shear Diagram M C2 = (1200 )(10 ) = 12.96 in say b = 1 in h = 3b = 3 in 153. except that the cycles of F2 will not exceed 100. sa = 1.

8 ksi  10  su = 72 ksi Machined surface.85)(39) = 20 ksi s ys = 0.5b3  = + 1.85)(0. made of cold-finished AISI 1020 steel.8543 in 7 say b = in 8 5 h = 3b = 2 in 8 154. A round shaft. (b) the torque varies from zero to a maximum.5 on the Soderberg criterion. is subjected to a variable torque whose maximum value is 6283 in-lb.6(66 ) = 40 ksi 1 sms sas = + N s ys sns (a) Reversed torque sms = 0 16T sas = πD3 T = 6283 in − lb 16(6283) 32.5 b = 0.5 ksi  20   8      1  1.90 sn = (0. factor = 0.85 sns = (0.5su = 39 ksi size factor = 0. (c) the torque varies from 3141 in-lb to maximum.5b3   1.6)(0.000 32 sas = 3 = 3 psi = 3 ksi πD D D 1 sas = 0+ N sns Page 13 of 62 .8) = 33. Solution: For AISI 1020.90)(43. cold-finished su = 78 ksi s y = 66 ksi sn = 0.6 s y = 0. For N = 1. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS 0. determine the diameter if (a) the torque is reversed.5 52 33.085  106  ( ) sn at 10 cycles = 36  5  5 = 43.

5 40 20 D = 1. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS  32   3 = 0+  1 D  1.000 8 sas = 3 = 3 psi = 3 ksi πD D D  24   8      1  D3   D 3  = + 1.34 in 3 say D = 1 in 8 (b) Tmin = 0 .145 in 5 say D = 1 in 32 Page 14 of 62 .5 40 20 D = 1.22 in 1 say D = 1 in 4 (c) Tmin = 3141 in − lb .000 16 sas = 3 = 3 psi = 3 ksi πD D D  16   16      1  D3   D 3  = + 1. Tmax = 6283 in − lb 1 Tm = (6283) = 3141 in − lb 2 1 Ta = (6283) = 3141 in − lb 2 16(3141) 16.000 24 sms = 3 = 3 psi = 3 ksi πD D D 16(1571) 8.000 16 sms = 3 = 3 psi = 3 ksi πD D D 16(3141) 16.5 20 D = 1. Tmax = 6283 in − lb 1 Tm = (6283 + 3141) = 4712 in − lb 2 1 Ta = (6283 − 3141) = 1571 in − lb 2 16(4712 ) 24.

86 157. long is made of AISI C1045 steel.85 sn = (0. A 1 ½-in.000 in − lb = 24 in − kips 4 4 6(24 ) sa = = 16 ksi (1)(3)2 1 16 = 0+ N 40. are 1 in. The same as 155. SAE 080.85)(35) = 29. x 3 in. A simple beam 2 ft. shaft is made of AISI 1045 steel. as rolled. reversed load of 4000 lb. The dimensions of the beam.8 ksi 1 sm sa = + N s y sn sm = 0 6M sa = 2 bh h = 3 in b = 1 in FL (4000 )(24 ) M= = = 24. At the midpoint is a repeated. as rolled. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS CHECK PROBLEMS 155. as rolled su = 96 ksi s y = 59 ksi sn = 0. Solution: Table AT 6 sn′ = 35 ksi s y = 40 ksi sn = (0. which is set on edge.75 N = 1. except that the material is normalized and tempered cast steel. What is the factor of safety? Solution: For AISI C1045. what repeated and reversed torque can the shaft sustain indefinitely? Page 15 of 62 .5(96) = 48 ksi size factor = 0. For N = 2 .85)(48) = 40.8 N = 2.55 156.75 ksi 1 16 = 0+ N 29.5su = 0.

Let h = 2b and N = 1. The load on the link shown (150) is a maximum of 10 kips. (c) for indefinite life but with a ground and polished surface.4 ksi 1 sms sas = + N s ys sns sms = 0 1 s = 0 + as 2 24.80)(0.85)(0. and it has a ¼ in-hole drilled on the center line of the wide side.6 )(59 ) = 35. as rolled su = 65 ksi s y = 48 ksi sn = 0. (b) for 50.5) = 12. Determine b and h at the hole (no column action) (a) for indefinite life.48 sas = 12.5 ksi For as forged surface Surface factor = 0.55)(32.24 ksi 16T sas = = 12.5(65) = 32.5(96) = 48 ksi sns = (0.6 s y = (0. as rolled su = 96 ksi s y = 59 ksi sn′ = 0. The link is forged from AISI C020. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS Solution: For AISI 1045.000 repetitions (no reversal) of the maximum load.6)(0.24 πD 3 T = 8 in − kips VARIABLE STRESSES WITH STRESS CONCENTRATIONS DESIGN PROBLEMS 158. In this case.5su = 0. as rolled.48 ksi s ys = 0.55 Size factor = 0.5 .5su = 0. Solution: For AISI C1020.2 ksi 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn Page 16 of 62 . repeated and reversed.85)(48) = 24.85 sn = (0. compute the maximum stress.

2 )  4  = 15.3 1 K fl sa = N sn 1 = (2.25b = 4.25)(12.01 1+ 1+ r 0.5 d 1 Figure AF 7.03 = 0 b = 1.3 ) 3 K fl = n f = (5 ×104 ) = 2.489 in 1 say b = 1 in .000 repetitions or 50.000 cycles 0.25)(15. b h > 1 Assume K t = 3.5 b(2b − 0.125b − 0. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS Fig.3 ( ) sm = 0 F 10 sa = = b(h − d ) b(2b − 0.25) 1 K s (a) = 0+ f a N sn 1 = 0+ (3.926 a 0.90 Page 17 of 62 .125b − 2. r = = in = 0.906 b 2 − 0.5 b(2b − 0.2) 2 2b − 0.125 in 2 8 a = 0. ground and polished surface Surface factor = 0.0 log K 10 f 10log 3.74) 2b 2 − 0.0)(10) 1. AF 8.25b = 1.125 K f = q K t − 1 + 1 = 0.74 ksi  5 ×10  (log K ) 3 (log 3.953 = 0 b = 1.926(3.04 in 1 1 say b = 1 in . h = 2b = 2 in 16 8 (c) For indefinite life.06 b 2 − 0.3)(10) 1.01 in 1 1 q= = = 0.085  106  sn = (12. h = 2b = 3 in 2 (b) For 50.5 − 1) + 1 = 3.

(c) In the link found in (a) what is the maximum tensile stress? Problem 159 Solution: For AISI 2330. except that there is a 1/8-in.25) 159. d h = 0.125b − 1.85)(0. h = 2b = 2 in 16 8 Kf F Maximum stress = b(h − d ) b h > 1 . radial hole drilled through it at the center section.926(3.1875(2.85 sn = (0. and it is subjected to a repeated.80 Size factor = 0.80)(0.5 − 1) + 1 = 3.5 ksi For machined surface.5 .3)(10) 1.375 = 0.375 − 0. For N = 1. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS sn = (0. Fig.105 Figure AF 8 K t = 3.5(135) = 67.5su = 0.25)(20) b 2 − 0.80)(67. AF 7.90)(32.5) = 36. WQT 1000 F.5 b(2b − 0.18 in 3 3 say b = 1 in .315 smax = (3.80)(0.5 K f = q (K t − 1) + 1 = 0. determine the diameter of the link at the hole (a) for indefinite life. WQT 1000 F su = 135 ksi s y = 126 ksi sn = 0.315)(10) = 13.85)(0. A connecting link as shown.72 ksi Page 18 of 62 .2375 = 0 b = 1.14 ksi 1. surface factor = 0. reversed axial load whose maximum value is 5 kips. (b) for a life of 105 repetitions (no column action).5) = 20 ksi 1 K f sa = N sn 1 = (3.25 2. It is machined from AISI 2330.

72 ) 5  = 44.0625 K f = q(K t − 1) + 1 = 0.44 (a) Indefinite life.72(πD 2 − 0.5 D ) πD 2 − 0.5 36. K f = 2.72 ksi sm = 0 F 4F 4(5) 20 sa = = = = πD 2 2 πD − 4 Dd  1  πD − 0.5 − 1) + 1 = 2.96 a 0.4 ) 3 n f K fl = log K f = (105 ) = 1.44)(20) 1.66(πD 2 − 0.5D = 2.216 D = 0.5D ) πD 2 − 0.44 sn = 36.66 ksi  10  (log K ) 3 (log 2.5 44.5 D 2 − Dd πD 2 − 4 D  4 8 1 K s = 0+ f a N sn 1 = (2.0625 in 2 16 a = 0.0025 in 1 1 q= = = 0.5 d 1 Figure AF 7. b h > 1 Assume K t = 2.88 in 7 say D = in 8 (b) For a life of 105 repetitions or cycles 0.96(2.81)(20) 1.81 10 10log 2.00 D = 0. AF 8.0025 1+ 1+ r 0.085  106  sn = (36.71 in Page 19 of 62 . SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn Fig.44 1 K fl sa = N sn 1 = (1. r = = in = 0.5D = 1.

82 ksi 7 7 π   − 0.90 Size factor = 0. as rolled su = 65 ksi s y = 48 ksi sn′ = 0.54 4(2.85)(0. (a) For a design factor of 1.80)(0.14 8 D 0. 161 Solution: For AISI C1020.5) = 20 ksi 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn (a) For flat plate with fillets Figure AF 9 b d r= = 3 3 Page 20 of 62 .5  8 8 160.6 − 1) + 1 = 2.875 Figure AF 8 K t = 2. A machine part of uniform thickness t = b 2.8 (Soderberg).125 D = in . Let d = b .5D 7 d 0.5 ksi For machined surface Surface factor = 0.5 is shaped as shown and machined all over from AISI C1020.5(65) = 32.90)(32.6 K f = q(K t − 1) + 1 = 0.85 sn = (0. what should be the dimensions of the part? (b) What is the maximum tensile stress in the part designed? Problems 160.96(2. as rolled. = = 0.5su = 0. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS 3 say D = in 4 4K f F (c) smax = πD 2 − 0. The design is for indefinite life for a load repeated from 1750 lb to 3500 lb.54)(5) smax = 2 = 25.

0 a 1+ r K f ≈ K t = 1.000b 2 20.65)(2187.01 in 1 q= ≈ 1.8 48.5 For flat plate with central hole Fig. d h = b 2b = 1 2 Assume K f ≈ K t = 2.3 in 2 .5  875 2187.5 1 Fm = (3500 + 1750 ) = 2625 lb 2 1 Fa = (3500 − 1750 ) = 875 lb 2 2625 6562.9 Fm Fm F sm = = = m (h − d )t (2b − b )t bt Fa Fa F sa = = = a (h − d )t (2b − b )t bt Page 21 of 62 . b h > 1 .333 d 3 h 2b = =2 d b K t = 1.000b 2 b = 0.5  1 6562.65 a = 0.75 t= = = 0.5 (1.7556 in or b = 0. AF 8.65 Fm sm = bt Fa sa = bt b t= 2 .75 in b 0.5 sm = =  b  b2 b   2 .5) = + 1. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS r 1 = = 0.5 sa = =  b  b2 b   2 .5 2 .

5 2187.98(2. Determine the diameter D if r = 0.904 in 15 or b = 0. t = in .98 0.000b 2 20. indefinite life.5 (2.5  1 6562.86 )(2489 ) = 14. Page 22 of 62 .5 8 15 d = b = in 16 15 3 15 use b = in . The beam shown has a circular cross section and supports a load F that varies from 1000 lb to 3000 lb.2 D and N = 2 . d = in 16 8 16 (b) smax = sm + K f sa d 15 r= = in 2 32 1 q= = 0.000b 2 b = 0. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS 2625 6562.586 psi 162.5 sa = =  b  b2 b   2 .5  875 2187.86 Fm 6562. as rolled.9 K f = q(K t − 1) + 1 = 0.8 48.9 − 1) + 1 = 2.9)(2187.01 1+  15     32  K t = 2.5 sa = a = = 2 = 2489 psi bt b2  15     16  smax = sm + K f sa = 7467 + (2.5 sm = =  b  b2 b   2 .5) = + 1.9375 in = in 16 b 3 t= = in 2 . it is machined from AISI C1020 steel.5 sm = = = 2 = 7467 psi bt b2  15     16  F 2187.5 6562.

2 K t = 1.5 ksi For machined surface Surface factor = 0. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS Problems 162 – 164.42 Page 23 of 62 .5) = 24.5su = 0.5 r d = 0.42 assume K f ≈ K t = 1.5d d =1.5(65) = 32. as rolled su = 65 ksi s y = 48 ksi sn′ = 0.85)(0. Solution: For AISI C1020.86 ksi ∑M A =0 12 F = 24 B F = 2B F B= 2 F A= B= 2 At discontinuity 6F M= = 3F 2 M max = 3(3000) in − lb = 9000 in − lb = 9 in − kips M min = 3(1000) in − lb = 3000 in − lb = 3 in − kips 1 M m = (9 + 3) = 6 in − kips 2 1 M a = (9 − 3) = 3 in − kips 2 32 M s= πD3 Figure AF 12 D d =1.85 sn = (0.2d d = 0.90 )(32.90 Size factor = 0.

821 in 13 say D = 1 in 16 At maximum moment 12 F M= = 6F 2 M max = 6(3000) in − lb = 18000 in − lb = 18 in − kips M min = 6(1000) in − lb = 6000 in − lb = 6 in − kips 1 M m = (18 + 6 ) = 12 in − kips 2 1 M a = (18 − 6 ) = 6 in − kips 2 32 M s= πD3 K f = 1.2 D and N = 2 .42 )(32 )(3) = + 2 48πD 3 24.0 )(32 )(6 ) = + 2 48πD 3 24. It is subjected to a torque that varies from zero to 10. What is the maximum torsional stress in the shaft? Solution: For C1040.86πD 3 D = 1. Compute D . AF 1). Let r = 0.4368 in 13 Therefore use D = 1 in 16 164. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn 1 (32 )(6 ) (1.00 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn 1 (32 )(12 ) (1.000 in-lb. The shaft shown is machined from C1040. ( F = 0 ).86πD 3 D = 1. OQT 1000 F su = 104 ksi s y = 72 ksi Page 24 of 62 . OQT 1000 F (Fig.

2πD 3 22. F varies from 400 lb to 1200 lb.6 s y = 0. with a fillet radius r ≈ 0. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS sn′ = 0.5(104) = 52 ksi For machined surface Surface factor = 0. (b) Compute D at section BB. compute D and the maximum tensile stress.000 ) = 5000 in − lb = 5 in − kips 2 s ys = 0.. would a smaller diameter be permissible if the fillet were shot-peened? Problems 165 – 167 Page 25 of 62 .2 ksi 16T sms = sas = πD3 1 sms K fs sas = + N s ys sns Figure AF 12 D d =1.2)(16)(5) 2 43. to the proportions shown. OQT 1000 F.85 Size factor = 0. An axle (nonrotating) is to be machined from AISI 1144.60)(0.85 sns = (0. the supports are to the left of BB not shown.6(72 ) = 43. Let N = 2 (Soderberg line).5 r d = 0. (a) At the fillet.2 K ts = 1.2d d = 0.5734 in 9 say D = 1 in 16 smax = sm + K f sa smax = (16)(5) + (1.5πD 3 D = 1.2 assume K fs ≈ K ts = 1.2 1 = (16)(5) + (1.686 ksi 3 3  9  9 π 1  π 1   16   16  165.5d d =1.5 ksi 1 Ta = Tm = (10.85)(52) = 22.85)(0.5su = 0. (c) Specify suitable dimensions keeping the given proportions.25 D .2)(16)(5) = 14.

4 in − kips 2 32 M s= πD3 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn 1 (32 )(4.4034 in 7 say D = 1 in 16 (b) At section BB.83 Size factor = 0.2 + 2.35)(32 )(2.25d d = 0.5su = 59 ksi For machined surface Surface factor = 0.4 ) = 4.4 in − kips 1 M m = (7. M = 30 F M max = 30(1200) in − lb = 36000 in − lb = 36 in − kips M min = 30(400) in − lb = 12000 in − lb = 12 in − kips 1 M m = (7.4 ) = 2.35 M = 6F M max = 6(1200) in − lb = 7200 in − lb = 7.2 in − kips M min = 6(400) in − lb = 2400 in − lb = 2.35 assume K f ≈ K t = 1.4 ) = 2.8 in − kips 2 1 M a = (7. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS Solution: For AISI 1144.2 + 2.5 r d = 0.83)(59) = 41.62 ksi (a) At the fillet D d =1.85)(0.25 K t = 1.4 ) = 4. OQT 1000 F su = 118 ksi s y = 83 ksi sn′ = 0.4 ) = + 2 83πD 3 41.8) (1.2 − 2.5d d =1.2 − 2.4 in − kips 2 Page 26 of 62 .8 in − kips 2 1 M a = (7.62πD 3 D = 1.85 sn = (0.

0)(32)(12) 2 83π (1.5 ksi Page 27 of 62 . and N = 1. OQT 1100 F.62π (1.6335 in 11 say D = 1 in 16 (c) Specified dimension: D = 2 in .5su = 0. The material is AISI 1050. (a) What should be the diameter? (b) If the fillet radius were increased to D 4 would it be reasonable to use a smaller D ? Solution: Tmax = 15 in − kips Tmin = 5 in − kips 1 Tm = (15 + 5) = 10 in − kips 2 1 Ta = (15 − 5) = 5 in − kips 2 For AISI 1050.6 .5 D )3 41. The fillet radius r = D 8 and the torque passes through the profile keyway at C. A pure torque varying from 5 in-kips to 15 in-kips is applied at section C.5(101) = 50. 1.5 ksi sn = 0. ( F = 0 ) of the machined shaft shown.0 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn 1 = (32)(36) + (1. 166. OQT 1100 F su = 101 ksi s y = 58.5 D )3 D = 1. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS 32 M s= πD3 K f = 1 .5 D = 3 in A smaller diameter is permissible if the fillet were shot-peened because of increased fatigue strength.

SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS For machined surface Surface factor = 0. smaller D is not reasonable.5 Figure AF 12 K ts = 1. AF 11).5) = 21. Assume that the stress concentration at the point of application of F is not decisive.1 for Soderberg line.6 use K fs = 1. Start by assuming a logical K f for a logical h (Fig. The load F is repeated from zero to a maximum of 1400 lb. Considerable estimation inevitable.85)(0.1 ksi 1 sms K fs sas = + N s ys sns 1 = (16)(10) + (1.7433 in 3 say D = 1 in 4 (b) r = D 4 r D = 0. The beam shown is made of AISI C1020 steel.6 Therefore.85 Size factor = 0.3 At the key profile K fs = 1. N = 1.5) = 35. e = 8 in .5 K ts = 1.6 s ys = 0. as rolled.6)(16)(5) 1. Page 28 of 62 .9 ksi (a) At the fillet r d =r D = =1 8 D d =1.18 < 1.3 assume K fs ≈ K ts = 1.18 K fs ≈ K ts = 1.1πD 3 21. with a final check of K f .85 sns = (0.60)(0. 170.25 D d =1.5 ± 0. Iteration is necessary because K f depends on the dimensions.85)(50.6(58.9πD 3 D = 1. Determine the depth h and width t if h ≈ 4t .6 35.6 s y = 0.

5su = 0.75 0.4 ) = 2.75 in 2 22 For AISI C1020.5 in 2 1 11 c = 1 +   = 1.5 Page 29 of 62 .5 ksi Size factor = 0.5 = 3.4 ) = 2.5 > 0.8 in − kips 2 1 M a = (4 F ) = 2 F = 2(1. c d = 1.5(65) = 32.5) = 27. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS Problem 170 Solution: 1 A= B= F 2 At the hole F M = eB = (8)  = 4 F 2 M max = 4 F M min = 0 1 M m = (4 F ) = 2 F = 2(1. as rolled su = 65 ksi s y = 48 ksi sn = 0.8 in − kips 2 Mc s= I I= (h − 2d )3 t 12 1 d = in = 0.85 sn = (0.62 ksi Fig.85)(32. AF 7.

8)(1.5 b 5 −1 1 2 2 Therefore K t = 3.25 K f = q (K t − 1) + 1 = 0.010 1+ 1+ r 0.5 .5 − 1) + 1 = 3.75) = + 1.4 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn 1 12(2.50) = 5 in 1 d = 2 = 0 .8)(1.4 )(12 )(2.5 in 1 1 1 h > 1 + 1 + in 2 2 2 h > 3. (Iteration involves. Check the safety of the edges (forged surfaces). The length L = 17 in. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS Assume K t = 3.5 in Figure AF 11. Design a crank similar to that shown with a design factor of 1.16 based on the modified Goodman line. holes.4 1 Use h = 5 in . It is estimated that the material must be of the order of AISI 8630.62(h − 2d ) t 3 (h − 2d )3 t = 12.962 a 0. The crank is to be forged with certain surfaces milled as shown and two ¼-in.5 48(h − 2d )3 t 27.) (b) Without redesigning but otherwise considering relevant factors .70 [h − 2(0.5  1  1  r =    = 0.50)]3 t = 12. WQT 1100 F. . Page 30 of 62 .010 in 1 1 q= = = 0.25 in  2  2  a = 0. (a) Compute the dimensions at section AB with h = 3b .75) (3.962(3.6 ± 0. .8627 in 7 say t = in 8 h = 4t = 3. and the load varies form + 15 kips to –9 kips. a = 5 in.70 t = 0. t = 1 in 4 171. h d > 10 h = 10d = 10(0. K f = 3. one could first make calculations for forged surfaces and then check safety at holes.70 (4t − 1)3 t = 12.

50 q = 0.68 ksi At AB. AF I) Surface factor = 0. Problems 171-174.4 sn = (0. Solution: (a) AISI 8630.85)(0.5 in 2 1 d = in = 0.998 K f = q (K t − 1) + 1 = 0. WQT 1100 F su = 96 ksi sn = 0. machined 1 sm K f sa = + N su sn Figure AF 11 1 b = in = 0.5su = 0.5(96) = 48 ksi Size factor = 0.25 in 4 d 0.85)(48) = 34.42)(48) = 17 ksi Milled surface (Machined) Surface factor = 0.495 Mc s= I I= (h − 2d ) b 3 12 Page 31 of 62 .85 As-forged surface (Fig. holes must remain as located.25 = in = 0. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS quantitatively discuss actions that might be taken to reduce the size.5 Assume K f = 3.5 − 1) + 1 = 3.85)(0.5 b 0 .85 sn = (0.998(3.

2 (3b − 0.5) b 3 (4b − 1) = 1 (3b − 0.68(3b − 0.5M (4b − 1) s= (3b − 0.5)3 b 4.5(36 )(4b − 1) (3.5)3 b 34.5)(144 )(4b − 1) = + 1.5)3 b M = F (L − a ) M max = (15)(17 − 5) = 180 in − kips M min = (− 9)(17 − 5) = 108 in − kips 1 M m =  (180 − 108) = 36 in − kips 2 1 M a =  (180 + 108) = 144 in − kips 2 1 sm K f sa = + N su sn 1 4. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS h 1  1  1  1  1 1 1 c= − +    =  h − 1 +  = (4h − 4 + 1) = (4h − 3) 2 2  2  4  2  4 8 8 h = 3b 1 M  (4h − 3) s=   8 3   1  h − 2 4  b    12 3 M (12b − 3) s= 2 (3b − 0.2 (4b − 1) b = 2.6 96(3b − 0.5)3 b 107.6 in 5 say b = 2 in 8 7 h = 3b = 7 in 8 Checking at the edges (as forged) M max = (15)(17 ) = 255 in − kips M min = (− 9)(17 ) = −153 in − kips 1 M m =  (255 − 153) = 51 in − kips 2 Page 32 of 62 .5)3 b = 107.495)(4.

L = 15 in . The load F varies from +5 kips to –3 kips. ∴ safe. a = 3 in .0)(2)(204) = 3 + 1. WQT 1100 F.0 1 sm K f sa = + N su sn 1 2(51) (1. CHECK PROBLEMS 173. with significant changes of dimensions prohibited. what various steps could be taken? What are your particular recommendations? Solution: For as forged surface sn = 17 ksi For machined surface sn = 34. b = 1.5 in . Suppose it were desired to improve the margin of safety. except for machined areas indicated.5 in . It is as forged from AISI 8630.68 ksi s n = 72 ksi In section AB. 8 8 (c) Action: reduce number of repetitions of load. In section AB only. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS 1 M a =  (255 + 153) = 204 in − kips 2 6M 6M 2 M s= 2 = 3 = 3 bh 9b 3b K f ≈ 1 .6 3b (96) 3b3 (17 ) b = 2.373 in 3 say b = 2 in 8 5 3 since b = 2 in > 2 in . machined Page 33 of 62 . d = 4. For the crank shown. compute the factor of safety by the Soderberg criterion. The crank has been designed without detailed attention to factors that affect its endurance strength.

5(12 )[4(1. reduce the number of repetitions of loads 2.5) 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn K f = 3. good surface roughness Recommendation: No.8125 (3.5]3 (1. Page 34 of 62 .85 < 1 . a = in .25 ksi [3(1.8125 ksi [3(1.5 in .5) − 1] sm = = 2.5) − 1] sa = = 11.5) − 0. 1 2. (b) if it is repeated varying from zero to maximum.495)(11. 8 16 16 1 h = 1 in . Considering sections at A.25) = + N 72 34.5M (4b − 1) s= (3b − 0. and C.5)3 b 4. It is loaded 3 9 5 in tension by pins in the D = in holes in the ends. shot-peening 3.5) 4. unsafe To increase the margin of safety 1.5]3 (1.495 from Problem 171.5 in h =3 b 4. b = 1. 1. B. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS M = F (L − a ) M max = (+ 5)(15 − 3) = 60 in − kips M min = (− 3)(15 − 3) = −36 in − kips 1 M m =  (60 − 36 ) = 12 in − kips 2 1 M a =  (60 + 36 ) = 48 in − kips 2 d = h = 4. determine the ratio of the endurance strength for a repeated load to that for a reversed load (Soderberg line).5(48)[4(1. The link shown is made of AISI C1020.5) − 0.68 N = 0. t = in . (c) if it is repeatedly varies or F = −W to F = 3W . as rolled. machined all over. reducing the number of repetitions of loads. determine the maximum safe 8 axial load for N = 2 and indefinite life (a) if it is repeated and reversed. 175. (d) Using the results from (a) and (b).

90)(0.178 Solution: For AISI C1020. as rolled su = 65 ksi s y = 48 ksi sn = 0.33 h 11 8 9 b 16 = = 0.5su = 0.5 h 1 1 8 K tA = 3.6 d 3 r = = in 2 16 a = 0.5(65) = 32.01 in Page 35 of 62 .80)(32.5) = 20 ksi 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn at A.85)(0.90 sn = (0.85 For machined all over Surface factor = 0. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS Problems 175 .5 ksi Size factor = 0. Figure AF 8 9 b = in 16 1 h = 1 in 8 3 d = D = in 8 5 t = in 16 3 d = 8 = 0.

95(3.95 a 0.47 ( ) F F 64 F s= = = (h − d )t 1 1 − 3  5  15  8 8  16  1 64 Fm 3. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS 1 1 q= = = 0.01 1+ 1+ r 3 16 k fA = q ktA − 1 + 1 = 0.63 − 1) + 1 = 1.95(1.47(64)Fa = + 2 15(48) 15(20) 8 1= Fm + 1.63 a = 0.48 Fa at A 45 At B Figure AF 9 9 d = a = in 16 1 h = 1 in 8 3 r = in 16 5 t = in 16 3 r 16 = = 0.6 F F 256 F s= = = dt    9 5 45     16  16  Page 36 of 62 .6 − 1) + 1 = 3.01 in 1 1 q= = = 0.01 1+ 1+ r 3 16 k fB = q (ktB − 1) + 1 = 0.95 a 0.33 d 9 16 1 1 h = 8 =2 d 9 16 K tB = 1.

2(256)Fa = + 2 35(48) 35(20) 32 1= Fm + 1.455 Fa 135 32 At C.17 Fa 105 Page 37 of 62 . SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS 1 256 Fm 1. 1 = Fm + 0.6(256)Fa = + 2 45(48) 45(20) 32 1= Fm + 0.01 in 1 1 q= = = 0.862 a 0.2 F F 256 F s= = = (h − d )t  9 − 1  5  35  16 8  16  1 256 Fm 3. Figure AF 8. 1 = Fm + 1.5 d 1 r = = in 2 16 a = 0. 1 = Fm + 1. >1 h 1 D= in 8 9 h = a = in 16 1 d = 8 = 0.01 1+ 1+ r 1 16 k fC = q (ktC − 1) + 1 = 0.862(3.5 − 1) + 1 = 3.17 Fa at C 105 Equations 8 At A.48 Fa 45 32 At B.22 h 9 16 K tC = 3.455 Fa at B 135 b at C.

480 kips 32 at C.678 kip use F = 0.48(2W ) 45 W = 0. 1 = F + 0. 1 = F + 1. 1 = W + 0.17(2W ) 105 W = 0. Fmax = 3W 1 Fm = (3W − W ) = W 2 1 Fa = (3W + W ) = 2W 2 8 at A. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (a) Repeated and reversed load Fm = 0 Fa = F use at A 8 1= Fm + 1.884 kip 32 at C.455 F 135 F = 1.48 Fa 45 F = 0.676 kip (b) Fm = Fa = F 8 at A.48 Fa 45 8 1 = (0 ) + 1.17 F 105 F = 0. 1 = W + 1.455(2W ) 135 W = 0. 1 = F + 1.603 kip 32 at B.319 kip Fmax = 0.957 kip Page 38 of 62 .319 kip 32 at B.603 kip (c) Fmin = −W .378 kip use W = 0.48 F 45 F = 0. 1 = W + 1.

74 ksi 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn sm = 0 . has been machined to the following 3 1 dimensions: D = 1 in. hot rolled.4). Figure AF 12 1 r = e = in 8 Page 39 of 62 .892 F (a ) 0.85 (machined) sn = (0. .603 (d) Ratio = = = 0. e = in. AISI 2320.676 179. . A semicircular groove at the 4 8 1 1 midsection has r = in. An axial load of 5 kips is 8 4 repeated and reversed ( M = 0 ). reversed sa = s 1 K f sa = N sn s sa = n NK f at the fillet.85)(48) = 27. c = in. Compute the factor of safety (Soderberg) and make a judgement on its suitability (consider statistical variations of endurance strength – i4. . What steps may be taken to improve the design factor? Problems 179-183 Solution: AISI 2320 hot-rolled (Table AT 10) su = 96 ksi s y = 51 ksi sn = 48 ksi Size factor = 0.85 Surface factor = 0.80)(0. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS F (b ) 0.85)(0. for radial hole. a = in. A steel rod shown.

926(1.75 a = 0.62 sa K f (11. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS 3 d =c= in 4 D = 1 in 1 r 8 = = 0.17 d 3 4 D 1 = = 1.32)(1. Figure AF 14 1  3 d = b = D − 2r = 1 in − 2 in  = in 8  4 D = 1 in 1 r = in 8 1 r 8 = = 0.55 − 1) + 1 = 1.74 N= = = 1.010 in Page 40 of 62 .3 d 3 4 K t = 1.010 in 1 1 q= = = 0.17 d 3 4 D 1 = = 1.32 ksi 3 π  4 sn 27.926 a 0.010 1+ 1+ r 1 8 K f = q (K t − 1) + 1 = 0.55 a = 0.51 4(5) sa = s = 2 = 11.51) At the groove.3 d 3 4 K t = 1.

44 − 1) + 1 = 2.7 ( ) 4F 4(5) sa = s = 2 = 2 = 11. dimensions are not suitable.32)(1.926(2.75 − 1) + 1 = 1.010 1+ 1+ r 1 8 K f = q(K t − 1) + 1 = 0.33 F 5 sa = s = = = 9.32 min > 1.44 sa K f (11.34)(2.34 ksi πD 2 π (1) 2 1 − Dd − (1)  4 4 4 sn 27.76 sn Therefore.926 a 0.7 ) At the hole.44 a = 0.4 s = 0.926(1.926 a 0.76sn sn N= = 1.32 ksi πd 3 π  4 s 27.74 N= = = 1. Figure AF8 D = h = 1 in 1 d = a = in 4 1 D 4 = = 0.010 in 1 1 q= = = 0. Steps to be taken: 1.74 N= n = = 1.33) Factor of safety is 1. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS 1 1 q= = = 0.25 h 1 K t = 2.27 From i4. Reduce number of cycle to failure Page 41 of 62 .27 0.010 1+ 1+ r 1 8 K f = q K t − 1 + 1 = 0.27 sa K f (9.

85 sn = (0. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS 2. 532. b = in . at 2000 rpm for a 2500-hr life. The nature of the junction 8 16 4 of the diameters at B is not defined. The radial capacity of the needle bearing is given as 1170 lb. c = in .2 d 5 8 Assume K t = 2.7 K f ≈ K t = 2 . Problem 186 Solution: AISI 2317.9. Estimate the safe. where a = in . sharp corner 3 D 4 = = 1. A stock stud that supports a roller follower on a needle bearing for a cam is 5 7 3 made as shown. p. OQT 1000 F. OQT 1000 F su = 106 ksi s y = 71 ksi sn = 0. Assume that the inside corner is sharp.5su = 53 ksi Size factor = 0. Text.7 32 M s= π a3 7 M = Fb = F   = 0. The material of the stud is AISI 2317. repeated load F for N = 2 . Good surface condition 3. 20. Presetting 186.85)(53) = 45 ksi Figure AF 12 5 d = a = in 8 3 D = c = in 4 r d ≈ 0 . See Fig.4375 F  16  Page 42 of 62 .

. as rolled su = 85 ksi s y = 55 ksi sn = 0.5su = 42. c = 1 in.5 ksi size factor = 0. 187. The 8 8 2 16 axial load F varies from 3000 lb to 5000 lb and is applied by pins in the holes.7 )(18. (a) What are the factors of safety at points A.625 in 8 32(0.4375)F s= = 18. r = in.25 F ) = + 2 71 45 F = 0. . The link shown is made of AISI C1035 steel. as rolled. and C if the link is machined all over? What are the maximum stresses at these points? Problems 187. Ok. . . B. .85 sn = (0.25F 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn 1 18.370 kip = 370 lb < less than radial capacity of the needle bearing.68 ksi 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn 1 Fm = (5 + 3) = 4 kips 2 1 Fa = (5 − 3) = 1 kip 2 Page 43 of 62 .85)(42.6)(0. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS 5 a= in = 0.5) = 21. d = in.25 F π (0. b = in. L = 12 in.625)3 sm = sa = s = 18.25 F (2. with the following 3 7 1 1 dimensions a = in. 188 Solution: AISI C1035.

78 F s= (b − a )c 4 sm = = 8 ksi  7 3  − (1) 8 8 Page 44 of 62 .42 At B.9 a = 0. Figure AF 9 1 r = in 16 3 d = a = in 8 7 h = b = in 8 1 r 16 = = 0.010 in 1 1 q= = = 0.78 F s= ac 4 sm = = 10.33 d 3 8 K t = 1. K f = 1.68 N = 2.67 ksi  3  (1) 8 1 sa = = 2.17 d 3 8 7 h 8 = = 2.862(1.010 1+ 1+ r 1 16 K f = q(K t − 1) + 1 = 0.67 ) = + N 55 21. same as A.862 a 0.78)(2.67 (1.9 − 1) + 1 = 1. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS (a) at A.67 ksi 3  (1) 8 1 10.

45 (b) Maximum stresses at A s A = sm + K f sa = 10.78(2.962 a 0.15)(4 ) = + N 55 21.010 in d 1 r = = in = 0.23 At C.56 ksi Page 45 of 62 . Figure AF 8 1 d = in 2 h = c = 1 in b h >1 1 d 2 = = 0.25 K f = q(K t − 1) + 1 = 0.962(2.78)(2 ) = + N 55 21.67 + 1.68 N = 1.5 h 1 K t = 2.67 ) = 15.010 1+ 1+ r 0.42 ksi at B sB = sm + K f sa = 8 + 1.15 F s= (b − a )(c − d ) 4 sm = = 16 ksi  7 3  1   − 1 −   8 8  2  1 sm = = 4 ksi  7 3  1   − 1 −   8 8  2  1 16 (2.25 in 2 4 1 1 q= = = 0.2 − 1) + 1 = 2.68 N = 3.2 a = 0.78(2 ) = 11. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS 1 sa = = 2 ksi  7 3  − (1) 8 8 1 8 (1.

and strikes a stop at the end of the bar. . A wrought-iron bar is 1in. in diameter and 5 ft.15(4 ) = 24. E = 28× 106 psi (a) elongation F = 5000 lb δ= FL = (5000)(5)(12) = 0.741)(60 ) δ= = = 0.6 ksi IMPACT PROBLEMS 189. long.053 in E 28 × 106 (b) Aluminum alloy 3003-H14 E = 10× 106 psi F = 5000 lb δ= FL = (5000)(5)(12) = 0.01364 in π AE 4 ( (1)2 28 ×106 ) Stress and elongation h = 0. (a) What will be the stress and elongation if the bar supports a static load of 5000 lb? Compute the stress and elongation if a 5000 lb. weight falls freely 0. L = 5 ft For wrought iron.741 psi π 2 π 2 (1) (1) (60)(5000)  4 4    sL (24. Solution: D = 1 in.038 in AE π (1)2 10 ×106 ( ) 4 Stress and elongation h = 0. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS at C sC = sm + K f sa = 16 + 2.05 in.05 ) ( 28 × 10 )   (1)  s= + 1 +  4   = 24. (b) The same as (a). except that the bar is aluminum alloy 3003- H14.05 in Page 46 of 62 .05 in W = 5000 lb L = 5 ft = 60 in 1 W W  2hEA  2 s = + 1 +  A A LW  1  6 π  2 2 5000 5000  2(0.

7387 in.. what energy may each bolt absorb if the stress is not to exceed 25 ksi? (b) Short bolts used as described above sometimes fail under repeated shock loads.6 × 106 A  2 ) A A  (60)(500)  1 40 A = 1 + (1 + 1413 A)2 πD 2 A= = 0. The grip of the bolt is 4 in.09 in .05 ) 10 × ( 10  ) (1)  s= + 1 +  4   = 18.111 in E 10 × 106 190. say D = 1 in 16 191.000 = + 1+ ( 5000 5000  2(2 ) 10. (a) If the shank of the bolt is turned down to the minor diameter of the coarse-thread screw. What should be the diameter of a rod 5 ft. made of an aluminum alloy 2024-T4. long absorb for a stress of Page 47 of 62 .475)(60 ) δ= = = 0. It was found in one instance that if long bolts. Solution: For aluminum alloy.000 psi 1 W W  2hEA  2 s = + 1 +  A A LW  1 20.9332 4 1 D = 1. if it is to resist the impact of a weight of W = 500 lb dropped through a distance of 2 in. 2024-T4 E = 10. service failures were eliminated. were used. How much more energy will the bolt 21 in. long. 0.? The maximum computed stress is to be 20 ksi. A rock drill has the heads of the cylinder bolted on by 7/8-in. running from head to head.475 psi π 2 π 2 (1) (1) (60)(5000)  4 4    sL (18. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS W = 5000 lb L = 5 ft = 60 in 1 W W  2hEA  2 s = + 1 +  A A LW  1  6 π  2 2 5000 5000  2(0.6 × 106 psi W = 500 lb h = 2 in L = 5 ft = 60 in s = 20 ksi = 20. bolts somewhat as shown.

an 8.000 psi (25. long? As before.7387 )2 (21) U= 4 = 93.86 in − lb ( 2 30 × 106 ) (b) L = 21 in (25.86 = 75. what stress is induced in the wire? Problems 192.000)2  π (0.162 in. Problem 191 Solution: s2 2 U= ( AL ) = s AL 2E 2E 2 πD (a) A = 4 L = 4 in D = 0.75 in − lb ( 2 30 × 106 ) ∆U = 93. As seen in the figure. W & M gage 8 (0.000)2  π (0. diameter) and if for some reason the sheave D is instantly stopped. 193 Solution: s 2 AL U= 2E 1 2 1 U = mv = m(2ah ) = mah = maL 2 2 Page 48 of 62 . having started from rest at point C. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS 25 ksi.05-lb body A moving down with a constant acceleration of 12 fps2. let the bolt be turned down to the minor diameter.7387 in E = 30×106 psi s = 25 ksi = 25. If A is attached to a steel wire. The effect of the threads on the strength is to be neglected.7387 )2 (4) U= 4 = 17.89 in − lb 192. That the bolt 4 in.75 − 17.

162)2 (32) s = 93.05 lb a = 12 fps 2 g = 32 fps 2 b = 12 fps 2 E = 30×106 psi πD 2 A= 4 8WaE 8(8. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS s 2 AL = maL 2E 2maE 2WaE s2 = = A gA W = 8.05)(12)(30 × 106 ) s2 = = πD 2 g π (0. and moving at a constant v = 4 fps is attached to a 2 in. the sheave D is instantly stopped by a brake (since this is impossible. Solution: s 2 AL U= 2E 1 W 2 U = mv 2 = v 2 2g s 2 AL W 2 = v 2E 2g Wv 2 E s2 = gAL W = 5000 lb Page 49 of 62 .741 psi 193. in. The hoist A shown.6 sq. wire rope that has a metal area of 1. it represents the worst conceivable condition). weighing 5000 lb. compute the maximum stress in the rope. When h = 100 ft . and a modulus E = 12× 106 psi . Assuming that the stretching is elastic.

334 in 2 π A2 = (0.334)(2) = 1.000 )(0. in.442 in 2 4 s1 = 10.6 in 2 L = h = 100 ft g = 32 fps 2 s2 = (5000)(4)2 (12 ×106 ) (32)(1.6)(100) s = 13.334 sq. (a) What amount of energy in in-lb. of threaded and 3 in.442 L1 = 2 in L2 = 3 in E = 30 × 10 6 psi U1 = (10.262 in − lb 2(30 ×106 ) Page 50 of 62 . could be absorbed if the maximum calculated stress is 10 ksi? (b) From what distance h could the weight be dropped for this maximum stress? (c) How much energy could be absorbed at the same maximum stress if the unthreaded shank were turned down to the root diameter. with 2 in.000 psi s A (10.75) = 0. in diameter. ¾ in.442)(3) = 1.693 psi 194. of unthreaded shank.334 ) s2 = 1 1 = = 7556 psi A2 0. The area at the root of the thread is 0. receives an impact caused by a falling 500-lb weight. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS v = 4 fps E = 12× 106 psi A = 1.113 in − lb 2(30 × 106 ) U2 = (7556)2 (0.000)2 (0. A coarse-thread steel bolt. and the effects of threads are to be neglected. Solution: s 2 AL U= 2E (a) U = U1 + U 2 s12 A1L1 U1 = 2E 2 s AL U2 = 2 2 2 2E A1 = 0.

262 = 2.334)(5) 2 = 2.375 in − lb  1  W   2hEA  2  (b) s = 1 + 1 +  A  LW      1     2      W 2hE   s = 1 + 1 + A1    L L   W  1 + 2       A1 A2       1  W  2hEA1 A2  2  s = 1 + 1 +  A1   W ( A2 L1 + A1L2 )     W = 500 lb A1 = 0.442 )  2  0. raised and lowered by 1 ½-in. As the part being Page 51 of 62 .334 )(3)] h = 0. A part of a machine that weighs 1000 lb.442 in 2 L1 = 2 in L2 = 3 in E = 30×106 psi s = 10.113 + 1.000 psi U= (10.783 in − lb 2(30 ×106 ) 196.334 )(0. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS U = U1 + U 2 = 1. for minor diameter).334 in 2 L = 5 in E = 30×106 psi s = 10. steel rod that has Acme threads on one end (see i8. The length of the rod is 10 ft.18 Text.442 )(2 ) + (0.334  500[(0.000 psi 1 10. and the upper 4 ft are threaded.000 = 500 1 + 1 + ( )  2h 30 × 106 (0.334 in 2 A2 = 0.000) (0.0033 in s 2 AL (c) U = 2E A = 0.

186 psi 1. then falls freely a distance of 1/8 in. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS lowered it sticks.227  1000[(1.5)2 A2 = = 1.227 )(6 )]   1  W   2hEA  2  (b) s = 1 + 1 +  A  LW     2 A = A1 = 1.25 in 2 π (1.227 in L = L1 + L2 = 10 in Page 52 of 62 . (a) Compute the maximum stress in the rod.227 in 2 4 π (1. D1 = 1.25) 2 A1 = = 1.767 )  2  = 28.227 )(1.767 in 2 4 L1 = 4 in L2 = 6 in 1 h = in = 0. (b) What would be the maximum stress in the rod if the lower end had been turned down to the root diameter? Solution:  1  W   2hEA  2  s= 1 + 1 +  A  LW      1    2     W   2hE   s = 1 + 1 + A1    L L   W  1 + 2       A1 A2       1  W  2hEA1 A2  2  s = 1 + 1 +  A1   W ( A2 L1 + A1L2 )     1 see i8.18 .125) 30 × 106 (1. D2 = 1 in .767 )(4 ) + (1.125 in 8 W = 1000 lb E = 30×106 psi 1 s= 1000 1 + 1 + ( )  2(0.

552 psi 1.227 )  2  = 25.227  10(1000 )  197.038 lb 9. 6 ft. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS 1 s= 1000 1 + 1 + ( )  2(0. long.442)(6)1 + 3.013 lb 3 W = 50 lb v = 2 fps g o = 32 fps 2 E = 30×106 psi L = 6 ft 1  2  (50)(2) (30 ×10 )  = 8166 psi 2 6 s=  (32)(0.284)(0.442)(72) = 9.013     50   For AISI 1010. Compute the maximum stress in the rod.000 psi s y 55. cold drawn? Solution: 1  2  Wv E2  s=   g AL1 + We    o  W   W We = b 3 Wb = ρAL ρ = 0. A weight W of 50 lb is moving on a smooth horizontal surface with a velocity of 2 fps when it strikes head-on the end of a ¾-in.125) 30 × 106 (1.000 N= = = 6. cold drawn s y = 55 ksi = 55. What design factor based on yield strength is indicated for AISI 1010.284 lb in3 2 π 3 2 A=   = 0. round steel rod.038 We = = 3.74 s 8166 Page 53 of 62 .442 in 4 4 L = 6 ft = 72 in Wb = (0.

112 psi  0.1415  s = (59.6  0.6 in 4 ) that is simply supported on supports 10 ft apart..68 psi 301. upon the center of a 12 in. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS 199. I-beam ( I x = 301.6 in 4 48(30 × 106 )(301.333)  2  y= 1 + 1 +   = 0.6) Mc sst = I WL (100 )(120 ) M= = = 3000 in − lb 4 4 h 12 c= = = 6 in 2 2 sst = (3000)(6) = 59.6) k= = 251.68)  = 21. Compute the maximum stress in the I-beam both with and without allowing for the beam’s weight.0004 in 48EI 48(30 × 106 )(301.1415 in  251. 50-lb. Solution: Without beams weight y s = sst yst FL3 y= 48EI F 48EI k= = 3 y L  1  W   2hk  2  y =δ = 1 + 1 +  k   W     6 E = 30×10 psi L = 10 ft = 120 in I = 301. A rigid weight of 100 lb is dropped a distance of 25 in.0004  Page 54 of 62 .333   100   yst = WL3 = (100)(120) 3 = 0.333 lb in (120)3 W = 100 lb h = 25 in  1   100   2(25)(251.

00041 + 1 +   = 0. 0004  y  0. Made of AISI C1020.68)  = 11.0004  201. I-beam.292 243 1+ 100  1    2(25)(0. automobile (here considered rigid) strikes the midpoint of a guard rail that is an 8-in.correction factor = = 0. Solution: For AISI C1020. long.0764  s = sst = (59.correction factor = W 1+ e W 17Wb We = 35 Wb = (50 lb ft )(10 ft ) = 500 lb 17(500 ) We = = 243 lb 35 1 h .000 psi Fδ Wv 2 = 2 2 go F 48 EI k= = 3 δ L Mc FLc s= = I 4I 4 Is F= Lc Fδ F 2 L3 16 I 2 s 2 L3 s 2 IL = = 2 2 = 2 96 EI L c (96 EI ) 6 Ec 2 Page 55 of 62 . I = 64. 40 ft.0764 in   0 .400 psi yst  0. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS with mass of beam 1  2h  2 y = yst + yst 1 +   yst  1 h . (a) What level velocity of the automobile results in stressing the I-beam to the tensile yield strength? Compare results observed by including and neglecting the beam’s mass.2 in4 . A 3000 lb. the I-beam is simply supported on rigid posts at its ends. as rolled. as rolled s y = 48 ksi = 48. 23-lb.292 )  2  y = 0.

000) = 2 3Wv 2 Ec 2 = 3(3000 )v 2 (30 × 10 6 )(4 )2  1   447  2 go IL 32(64. what size I-beam should be used? Solution: Page 56 of 62 .000 psi s = (48. The length of the beam is 12 ft. weight that has fallen 20 in.2 in4 L = 40 ft s = s y = 48 ksi = 48.10 fps DATA LACKING – DESIGNER’S DECISIONS 202.2)(40) 1 +   3000  v = 7. If the stress is not to exceed 20 ksi.2 )(40 ) v = 6.62 fps Including mass of beam   2  2 3Wv Ec 1  s2 =   2 g o IL  1 + We     W  17Wb We = 35 Wb = (23 lb ft )(40 ft ) = 920 lb 17(920 ) We = = 447 lb 35   s 2 = (48. A simple beam is struck midway between supports by a 32.000 ) = 2 2 = ( ) 3Wv 2 Ec 2 3(3000 )v 2 30 × 106 (4 ) 2 2 g o IL 32(64. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS neglecting mass of beam Fδ s 2 IL Wv 2 = = 2 6 Ec 2 2 go 3Wv 2 Ec 2 s2 = 2 g o IL W = 3000 lb g o = 32 fps 2 h 8 c = = = 4 in 2 2 E = 30×106 psi I = 64.2-lb.

SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS 1  2h  2 y = yst + yst 1 +   yst  y s = sst yst h = 20 in s = 20. Hudson.000 psi WL3 yst = 48EI 1 y  96 EIh  2 = 1 + 1 +  yst  WL3  with correction factor 1    2 y  96 EIh  1  = 1 + 1 +   yst WL 3  We   1+    W  Mc WLd sst = = I 8I 17 wL We = 35  1       2 WLd   96 EIh  1   s= 1 + 1 +    8I   WL3  1 + 17 wL        35W     W = 32.2 lb h = 20 in L = 12 ft = 144 in E = 30×106 psi  1     2  (32. Page 57 of 62 .2)      1  579.B.2)(144)d  96 30 × 106 (I )(20)  ( ) 1   1 + 1 +   (32.6d    1  2  s= 1 + 1 + 599 I    I    1 + 0.181w     From The Engineer’s Manual By Ralph G. S.2)(144)3 1 + 17(w)(12)   s= 8I    35(32.

I = 2. Will it be safe to make these attachments as planned? Determine the factor of safety at the point of maximum moment and at points of stress concentration.6(3)   1 2 s= 1 + 1 + 599(2. 3 ft from the right end. 4 ft from the left end.4-lb. but the holes cause stress concentration.5 in4 1 579.7-lb I-beam ( I = 2.5)   = 19.181(5. No significant load is supported by these attachments.. 5.000 psi 2. There is a static load of F1 = 10 kips . as rolled. It is desired to make two attachments to the beam through holes as shown. A 10-in. I-bean. is 10 ft. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS Use 3”. 5.7 lb.. and a repeated reversed load of F2 = 10 kips .. as rolled s y = 48 ksi su = 65 ksi (∑ M A = 0) 4 F1 + (10 − 3)F2 = 10 B 1 B = (4 F1 + 7 F2 ) 10 (∑ M B = 0) 3F2 + (10 − 4)F1 = 10 A 1 A = (6 F1 + 3F2 ) 10 F1 = 10 kips F2 = −10 to 10 kips 1 Bmin = [4(10 ) + 7(− 10 )] = −3 kips 10 Page 58 of 62 . AISI 1020. 25. Problem 204 Solution: Mass of beam negligible For AISI C1020.600 psi < 20. long and is simply supported at the ends shown.5 in4 ) 204.5  1 + 0.7 )   Therefore use 3-in depth.

5 ksi size factor = 0.5su = 0.5 e 1.6 ksi left hole.010 1+ 1 8 K f = q (K t − 1) + 1 = 0.50 = = 6 > 0 .926 0. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS 1 Bmax = [4(10) + 7(10)] = 11 kips 10 1 Amin = [6(10 ) + 3(− 10 )] = 3 kips 10 1 Amax = [6(10 ) + 7(30 )] = 9 kips 10 Figure AF 11.07 b 3 .5) = 27.5 in 2 2 2 d 0.85 sn = 0.625 in 2 4 h = 10 in h 10 1 b = − e = − 1 = 3.625 in I = 122.25 = = 0.0 1 q= = 0. M = (2)A M max = 2(9) = 18 ft − kips M min = 2(3) = 6 ft − kips Mc s= I 1 M m = (18 + 6 ) = 12 ft − kips = 144 in − kips 2 1 M a = (18 − 6 ) = 6 ft − kips = 72 in − kips 2 c = 1.5 d 0. 2 1 d = in 4 1 1 c = 1 + 2  = 1.5(65) = 32.926(3 − 1) + 1 = 2. 1 e = 1 in .85 sn = 0.85(32.25 Use K t = 3.1 in 4 (Tables) Page 59 of 62 .

6 N = 7 .96 (2.5(11) = 16.5 ft − kips M min = 1.2 right hole . M = (1.6 N = 5.625) = 1.625) = 0.5 − 4. F2 M max = 3(11) = 33 ft − kips M min = 3(− 3) = −9 ft − kips Mc s= I 1 M m = (33 − 9 ) = 12 ft − kips = 144 in − kips 2 1 M a = (33 + 9 ) = 21 ft − kips = 252 in − kips 2 Page 60 of 62 .96 ksi 122. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS sm = (144)(1.1 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn 1 1.5 ft − kips = 126 in − kips 2 c = 1.5)B M max = 1.96 ) = + N 48 27.92 (2.68 ksi 122.1 sa = (72 )(1.67 at maximum moment.1 in 4 (Tables) sm = (72)(1.5 ft − kips Mc s= I 1 M m = (16.92 ksi 122.5) = 10.1 sa = (126)(1. or at .5) = 6 ft − kips = 72 in − kips 2 1 M a = (16.85)(0.625) = 0.68) = + N 48 27.625 in I = 122.5 + 4.1 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn 1 0.85)(1.5(− 3) = −4.625) = 1.96 ksi 122.

The runway of a crane consists of L = 20 ft. Neglecting the weight of the beam. Solution: (∑ M R2 = 0 ) (L − x )F + (L − x − a )F = LR1 R = (2 L − 2 x − a )F 1 L x M = R1 x = (2 L − 2 x − a )F L Page 61 of 62 .) Problem 205.. The wheels of the crane are 9 ft apart.0 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn 1 5.90 (1.9-lb. each section being supported at its ends. assume the wheels at some distance x from the point of support. and determine the dM reaction. = 0 gives position for a maximum bending dx moment. Since the maximum moment will occur under the wheel. it is safe to make these attachment as planned.0 )(10. 42.1 in 4 (Tables) sm = (144)(5) = 5. (Hint. 205.32 ) = + N 48 27. as shown. R1 as a function of x . I-beams. as rolled. lengths of 15-in.1 K f = 1 . find the design factor (a) based on variable stresses for 105 cycles.000 lb on each wheel. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS 10 c= = 5 in 2 I = 122.6 N =2 Since the design factor at the holes is much larger than at the point of maximum moment. (b) based on the ultimate strength. and the maximum load expected is F = 10.1 sa = ( 252 )(5) = 10.32 ksi 122.90 ksi 122. AISI C1020.

24 su 65 (b) N = = = 5.5su = 32.5 in 2 Mc (720.5 ksi size factor = 0. I-beam I = 441.end - Page 62 of 62 .6 5  = 34 ksi  10  s 34 N= n = =7 s 12. as rolled su = 65 ksi sn = 0.5) smax = = = 12.75 in − kips 2(240 ) For 15-in.085  106  sn = 27. SECTION 2 – VARYING LOADS AND STRESS CONCENTRATIONS dM F = [(2 L − 2 x − a ) + x(− 2 )] = 0 dx L 2L − 2x − a − 2x = 0 1 a x = L−  2 2 2 a  a L−  L−  F M max = 2 2 L −  L − a  − a  F =  2   L   2  2L L = 20 ft = 240 in a = 9 ft = 108 in F = 10.8 For AISI C1029.85 sn = 0.24 .8 in4 15 c = = 7.85(32.5) = 27.000 lb = 10 kips 2  108   240 −  (10 ) M max =  2  = 720.75)(7.6 ksi (a) at 105 cycles 0. 42.31 s 12.24 ksi I 441..9 lb.

334 sq.1 (a) UNC Threads 3 Use D = in . 4 (c) 8-Thread Series Use D = 1 in . 4 (b) UNF Threads 3 Use D = in .4 sy sd = 0. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS SIMPLE TENSION INCLUDING TIGHTENING STRESSES DESIGN PROBLEMS 221. as rolled s y = 45 ksi (Table AT-7) Fe = 5000 lb sy 1  3  i5. As = 0.in. sd = ( As ) 2  D < in  6  4  3 For D ≥ in 4 sd = 0.606sq.000 psi Fe 5000 As = = = 0. sd 18 .000) = 18. What size bolt should be used: (a) if UNC threads are used? (b) If UNF threads are used? (c) If the 8-thread series is used? Explain the basis of your choice of design factor. As = 0. Solution: B1113.2778 sq.in.in.4(45. A 5000-lb. gear box is provided with a steel (as rolled B1113) eyebolt for use in moving it. Page 1 of 42 . As = 0.000 Table AT 14 and Table 5.in.6.373sq.

in. Figure 8-13 Page 2 of 42 . Text. sd 10. Note: Fine threads are not recommended for brittle materials. Neglecting the effect of shearing stresses. As = 0.4 sq. 8 (b) UNF Threads 7 Use D = in . A wall bracket. s y = 25 ksi sd = 0. 8-13. (b) UNF threads are used.4 sy = 0.in. A motor weighing 2 tons is lifted by a wrought-iron eye bolt which is screwed into the frame. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS 222. Solution: Table AT-7 Wrought iron.000 Table AT 17 (a) UNC Threads 7 Use D = in .509 sq. The bolts are to be cold forged from AISI C1020 steel with UNC threads. As = 0.in. is loaded so that the two top bolts that fasten it to the wall are each subjected to a tensile load of 710 lb. determine the diameter of these bolts if they are well tightened. 8 224.4(25) = 10 ksi = 10.000 psi Fe 2(2000) As = = = 0.462 sq. Decide upon a design factor and determine the size of the eyebolt if (a) UNC threads are used. Fig.

(b) Compute the initial tension and corresponding approximate tightening torque if si = 0. Figure 5.000 3 710 = ( As ) 2 6 3 As = 0. AISI C1020 s y = 66 ksi (Table AT-7) Fe = 710 lb s 3  3  Fe = y ( As ) 2  D < in  6  4  66. 5. D < in 4 Table AT 14 . 16 225. UNC Threads 9 Use D = in . A connection similar to Fig.161 sq. . As = 0.9. is subjected to an external load Fe of 1250 lb.in. The bolt is made from cold-finished AISI B1113 steel with UNC threads.8). SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS Solution: cold forged.85s y (i5.1820 sq.9 Page 3 of 42 . (a) Determine the diameter of the bolt if it is well tightened. Text.in.

8 (b) si = 0.2 (13. UNC Threads 5 Use D = in . SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS Solution: Cold-finished AISI B1113 Table A-7.9 times the proof stress? Solution: Page 4 of 42 .2214 sq. (a) What size bolts should be used? (b) What approximate tightening torque should be needed to induce a tightening stress si of 0.000 ) = 61.200 )(0.831) = 1729 in − lb 8 226. . The cylinder head of a 10 x 18 in. D < in 4 Table AT 14 .in.85(72.in.000 3 1250 = ( As ) 2 6 3 As = 0. As = 0.200 psi Initial Tension Fi = si As = (61.85s y = 0. s y = 72 ksi Fe = 1250 lb s 3 (a) Fe = y ( As ) 2 6 72.2 DFi = 0.831 lb Tightening torque T = CDFi 5 T = 0.2260 sq. The cylinder pressure is 200 psi.2260 ) = 13. Freon compressor is attached by 10 stud bolts made of SAE Grade 5.

289) = 2161 in − lb 8 227./in. UNC Threads 5 Use D = in . be used (these bolts are also subjected to bending).in. It is also specified that. 9 s p s p = 85 ksi .2 SAE Grade 5 Assume s y = 88 ksi π  200 (10 ) 2 (a) Fe =   4 = 1571 lb 10 s 3 3 Fe = y ( As ) 2 .2 DFi = 0. 8 (b) T = CDFi C = 0. pipe where the steam or water pressure is 1500 psi.2260 ) = 17. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS Table 5.2255 sq.. ASTM 354 BD s p = 120 ksi s y = 125 ksi Page 5 of 42 .000 ) = 76.9(85.500 psi Fi = si As = (76. .in.2.289 lb Tightening torque 5 T = 0.2260 sq.2 (17. Determine (a) the diameter of the UNC bolts if they are well-tightened and made of ASTM 354 BD (Table 5-2).2) si = 0. The Standard specifies that 1 1/4 –in. the outside diameter of the gasket. (Table 5.500 )(0. 2 s i = 0. As = 0. D < in 4 Table AT 14 . bolts with 8 th.000 3 1571 = ( As ) 2 6 3 As = 0. How does your answer compare? Solution: Table 5. The American Steel Flange Standard specifies that 8 bolts are to be used on flanges for 4-in. should be used. (b) the approximate torque to tighten the nuts if the initial stress is 90 % of the proof stress. D < in 6 4 88. in calculating the bolt load. which is 6 3/16 in.

with a hexagonal head that is 9/16 in. As = 0. carries a tensile load of 3000 lb. ASTM A354 BD F 5638 As = e = = 0.in. Table AT 14 .000 psi Fi = si As = (108.000 3 5638 = ( As ) 2 6 As = 0. UNC Threads 3 Use D = in .000) = 108.in.000 psi § 5. thick.072) = 5411 in − lb 4 1 D < 1 in as specified by the standard.9(120.2 (36.3340) = 36. ¾ in.072 lb Tightening torque 3 T = 0. If the material is AISI 1015.-10-UNC-2. 9 s p si = 0.in.000)(0. 8 3 D> in 4 use sd = 50.in.2DFi = 0. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS 2  π  3  1500  6  Fe =  4  16  = 5638 lb 8 sy 3 3 (a) Fe = ( As ) 2 . As = 0.1128 sq. sd 50 .2 DFi s i = 0.4184 sq. . cold drawn. D< in 6 4 125. (d) Is there any need to consider the strength of standard cap-screw heads in design? Page 6 of 42 . A cap screw. find the factor of safety based on ultimate strengths of (a) the threaded shank.334 sq. 4 CHECK PROBLEMS 228. UNC Threads 7 Use D = in .4620 sq.000 Table AT 14 . and (c) the bearing surface under the head. 4 (b) T = 0.6. (b) the head against being sheared off.

cold drawn su = 77 ksi .57 sd 8982 F (b) s s = πDt 9 t= in 16 3000 ss = = 2264 psi  3  9  π     4  16  s 58.334 s 77. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS Solution: For ¾ in. UNC.in.  2  2  2   2  2    Page 7 of 42 .096 sq.000 N= u = = 8. As = 0. sus = 58 ksi F 3000 (a) s == = 8982 psi As 0.334 sq. 8 For AISI 1015. Table AT 14.6 ss 2264 360 o (c) θ = = 30 o 12 2  1  1  8  1  1  A  A  Area = 6(2)   tan θ  = 6(2)  tan 30 = 1. Head: 1 A = 1 in.000 N = us = = 25.in.

(d) Is there any need to consider the strength of standard bolt heads in design? Solution: 1 For SAE grade 2 (Table 5. 1 1/8 in.763 sq. 11 A =1 in 16 F = 10. 229.106 F (b) s s = πDt 3 t= in 4 Page 8 of 42 . D = 1 in 8 su = 55 ksi . F 10.763 s 55.000 lb. A bolt.-7-UNC-2 (Table AT 14) As = 0. find the design factor as based on ultimate stresses (a) of the threaded shank. is subjected to a tensile load of 10.000 (a) s = = = 13.in. The head has a thickness of ¾ in.106 psi As 0. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS F 3000 sb = = 2 = 4586 psi Area − Ab π 3 1. sus = 0. and (c) of the bearing surface under the head. If the material is SAE grade 2 (Table 5.2).000 N= = = 16. The bolt head is finished.000 N= u = = 4.-7-UNC-2. (b) of the head against being sheared off.000 lb.8 sb 4586 (d) No need to consider the strength of standard cap-screw heads since its factor of safety is very much higher than for the threaded shank.75su For 1 1/8 in.2 sd 13.2).096 −   4 4 su 77. and the nut a thickness of 1 in.

000 ) N = us = = 11 ss 3773 360 o (c) θ = = 30 o 12 2  11   1  16  1  1  A  A  Area = 6(2)   tan θ  = 6(2)  tan 30 = 2.  2  2  2   2  2    F 10. 16 Page 9 of 42 .000 N= u = = 8.4661 − 1  4  8 s 55. 230. bolt. (a) What is the ratio of the force necessary to shear the threads (all threads initially in intimate contact) to the force necessary to pull the bolt in two? Use coarse threads.405 sq.4661 sq.000 sb = = 2 = 6793 psi Area − Ab π  1 2.75su . An axial force is applied to a regular nut which of course tends to shear the threads on the screw. (b) Is failure of the thread by shear likely in this bolt? Solution: 1 ½ . 2 5 t = 1 in. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS 10. a 1 ½ -in. UNC As = 1. and assume that sus = 0. and the nut thickness is 1 5/16 in.75(55.1 sb 6793 (d) No need to consider the strength of standard bolt head in design since its factor of safety is higher than for the threaded shank.000 ss = = 3773 psi  1  3  π 1    8  4  s 0.in.in. The head thickness is 1 in.in. (a) Fs = shear force = susπDt 1 D = 1 in.

in.405su 4. What should be the approximate tightening torque? How does your answer compare with T = 90 ft − lb .75su )(π )1 1  = 4. One method of estimating the initial tensile stress in a tightened bolt is to turn the nut until it is snug.k. For bolted structural joints. which is the value in the specification? Solution: 1 T = 0.2 (12. Solution: For ¾ in.75su  1  5  Fs = (0.3 in.. If the initial tensile stress at the root diameter is to be about 75 % of the yield strength.. A ¾ . bolts (high- strength material) be tightened to an initial tension of Fi = 12. 232. specifications suggest that ½-in.500) = 1250 in − lb 2 T = 90 ft − lb = 1080 in − lb < 1250 in − lb o.2 DFi = 0.in.405su (b) Ratio > 1. 231. bolt of the type shown in Fig. and the effective strain length is estimated to be 5. = 10 AISI 4140. but with no significant stress in the bolt. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS sus = 0.334 sq. through what angle should the nut be turned after it is just snug? The threads are UNC and the parts being bolted are assumed to be rigid. is turned down until.6388su  2  16  F = su As = 1. The grip is 5 in. Text.3 1. 5. OQT 1200 oF. Then the nut is turned through a predetermined angle that induces a certain unit strain corresponding to the desired stress.500 lb . Th in.6388su Ratio = = 3.4.6273 in As = 0. UNC Dr = 0. the diameter of the entire shank is the minor diameter. for practical purposes. OQT 1200 oF Page 10 of 42 . The material is AISI 4140. failure by shear is not likely to occur.

OQT 1000 oF.A.70 s y si = 0.. Th in. (a) It is desired that the initial tensile stress be about 0. 8-thread series.3 in 1 pitch.? (b) Investigate the approximate tightening torque for the specified condition.7 s y .900 psi Page 11 of 42 . where G is the grip (by W. Let the bolt material be AISI 8742. 8-thread series Table 5. How could this torque be obtained? Solution: 1 ¼ in.1 Dr = 1.97G + 1. thence to stress. For a 1 ¼-in steel bolt. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS s y = 115 ksi s = 0.10)(30 ×106 ) 233. p = in = 0.75(115) = 86.25 ksi sL δ= E L = 5.1 in. North Carolina State College). the total elongation δ caused by tightening can be determined by measuring lengths before and after tightening.000 sq. What total elongation should be obtained for a grip length of 4.0966 in As = 1.250)(5. threaded for its full length.10 in 10 δ θ= p (360o ) sL θ= pE (360 o ) θ= (86. In order to reduce this total elongation to unit elongation.in.3) (360o ) = 55o (0.9 ksi = 102. When both ends of a bolt are accessible for micrometer measurements. the effective strain length for the bolt must be known. OQT 1000 oF s y = 147 ksi (a) si = 0. McDonald.70(147 ) = 102.8 in. the effective strain length has been found by experiment to be Le = 0. . = 8 AISI 8742.

The member C shown is part of a swivel connection that is to be clamped by a 1-in.0966) (11.. UNC threads. bolt D to the member B.97G + 1.125 T = 22. (b) After tightening an external axial force Fe of 5000 lb. HT aged.125 in 8 0. locating points A.8) + 1.756 ) θ= = π (1. unlubricated. (c) Determine the load required to “open” the connection. B.8 in Le = 0.5 ×10 6 psi 1 p = in = 0. which has large dimensions in the plane perpendicular to the paper. G = 4. it is well tightened with a torque of 250 ft- lb. Determine the total normal stresses in the bolt and in B and C. consider the unthreaded shank to be 2 in.5 ×106 ) 4 0.900 )(5. Let the effective strain length be 2 in.2). Text. (a) Estimate the initial tension by equation (5. assume elastic action. The bolt is made of AISI C1113.97(4. is applied to member C.1 in.6. = 5.756 in si Le (102. cold-drawn steel. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS si Le δ= E Le = 0.01975 in E 30 × 106 δ 64TL (b) θ = = p πDr4G G = 11. long. Page 12 of 42 . 5. Draw a diagram similar to Fig. and compute the bolt elongation and the total deformation of B and C. D and M.408 in − lb ELASTIC CONSIDERATIONS 235.1 in.01975 64T (5. Both B and C are aluminum alloy 2024-T4.756 ) δ= = = 0.

E = 10.6 ×106 psi s y = 47 ksi For AISI C1113.785 sq. cold-drawn steel.000686 in. 236 Solution: For aluminum alloy. T = 250 ft − lb = 3000 in − lb Fi = 15.in. π 2 Ab = (1) = 0.000 lb Deformations: L = 2 in. 2 2 2 π 2 π 2 Ac = De − D 4 4 π [ ] Ac = (2.6 × 10 6 ) (b) Fe = 5000 lb Page 13 of 42 .000)(2) = 0. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS Prob. As = 0. UNC Bolt. 1-in. 235.000)(2) = 0. 4 2 FL δc = i = (15.00127 in Ab Ei (0.in. 4 Bolt: δi = i = FL (15. Table AT 14.5) − (1)2 = 4.in.785)(30 × 10 6 ) Member B and C FL δc = i Ac Ec π π Ac = De2 − D 2 4 4 h De = (Nut or head width across flats) + 2 Table AT 14 1 A = 1 in 2 1 2 1 De = 1 + = 2 in. Ac Ec (4.1234 sq.2 DFi D = 1 in. 2024-T4 HT aged.66 sq. E = 30×106 psi s y = 72 ksi (a) T = 0.1234 )(10.

754 lb  0.000 + 1754 = 16.000686  Fo = Fi  i  = 15. 5. and tightened so as to have a tensile tightening stress of 30 ksi in the unthreaded shank while steel at 200 oF.00127 + 0.00127  Fig.754 lb F 16. Text. the inserted in the aluminum plates. 5.000686  ∆Fb = Fe   = Fe   = 5000   kb + k c   δb + δc   0.606 Member B and C  kc  Fc = Fi − Fe    kb + k c   δc  Fc = Fi − Fe    δ b + δ c   0.00127  ∆Fb = 1754 lb Bolt: Ft = Fi + ∆Fb = 15.754 sb = t = = 29.102 lb  δi   0 . What is the tensile stress in the bolt after assembly has cooled to 80 oF? The deformations are elastic.000  = 23. steel bolt is used to clamp two aluminum (2014-T6.000686  F 11. HT aged) plates together as shown by Fig. The bolt is heated to a temperature of 200 oF. The aluminum plates have a total thickness of 2 in. Figure 5.000686 + 0.1234 (c) Fo = opening load  δ + δc   0.754 sc = c = = 2851 psi Ac 4.9. which are at 80 oF.9 Page 14 of 42 . SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS  kb   δb   0.132 psi As 0.6 237. A 1-in.00127  Fc = 15. and an equivalent diameter of 2 in.00127 + 0.000 − 5000  = 11.

3562 sq.6 × 10 6 psi δc = i = FL (23.998113 in.002 in. − F ) for steel ∆L = (0. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS Solution: For aluminum 2014-T6 E = 10.562 lb 4 Steel bolt.6 × 10 6 ) L′ = L − δ c = 2 − 0.000007 )(1.6 × 106 psi s b = 30.001887 = 1.001887 in ( Ac Ec (2.000322 in. ∆L = αL′∆t α = 0.3562) 10.001678 = 0.000007 in. Page 15 of 42 .000 )(2 ) δi = b = = 0. Eb 30 × 10 6 Fi L δc = . Ac E c π π Ac = De2 − D2 4 4 π Ac = 4 [(2) 2 2 ] − (1) = 2. Eb = 30 × 10 6 psi s L (30.562)(2) = 0.001678 in. (in. δ i′ = δ i + ∆L = 0.002 − 0. Ec = 10.000 psi π  2 Fi = s b Ab = (30.in.000 ) (1) = 23.998113)(80 − 200 ) = −0.

E = 15× 10 6 psi Steel bolt E = 30× 106 psi Table AT 14. steel bolt A passes through a yellow brass (B36-8) tube B as shown. (virtually the unthreaded bolt length). Th in = 7 L = 30 in. A 1 1/8-in.763 sq. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS sb′ L δ i′ = Eb sb′ (2 ) 0. 238 Solution: For Yellow brass. UNC Dr = 0.000322 = 30 × 106 sb′ = 4830 psi 238. 1 1/8 in. (a) What normal stresses will be produced in the bolt and in the tube? Assume that washers. and head are rigid. (b) What are the stresses if an axial load of 5 kips is now applied to the bolts end? Compute the bolt load that just results in a zero stress in the tube. After the nut is snug it is tightened ¼ turn. and the tube’s cross-sectional area is 2 sq. 7 1 θ = turn 4  1  1  1 δ i =    = in.in. Prob.. the threads on the bolt are UNC. The length of the tube is 30 in.  4  7  28 Page 16 of 42 . B36-8. nut. As = 0. in.9497 in. δi θ= p 1 p = in.

000  F 38.000.500 −  (5000 ) = 33.000  F 33.000 lb in L 30 2  π  1   1  30 × 10 Ab Eb  4  8  6 ( ) kb = = = 994.763 Tube:  kc  Fc = Fi −   Fe  kb + kc   1.500 +  (5000 ) = 38.000.500 sc = i = = 17.000 sc = c = = 16.000 lb  994.750 psi Ac 2 (b) Fe = 5000 lb kc = = ( Ac Ec (2 ) 15 × 106 ) = 1. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS Fi L δi = Ab Eb 1 Fi (30) = 28  π  1  2 (  1  30 × 10 6 )  4  8  Fi = 35.000 st = t = = 49.527 psi As 0.500 lb Fi 35.500 (a) Bolt: sb = = = 46. F 35.800 psi As 0.000 + 1.763 Fi Tube: sc = Ac Ac = 2 sq.in.000 lb in L 30 Bolts:  kb  Ft = Fi +   Fe  kb + k c   994.000 + 1.000.000.000  Ft = 35.000  Fc = 35.500 psi Ac 2 For zero stress in the tube Page 17 of 42 .000 lb  994.

(b) from the modified Goodman line.000  Fo =  b c  Fi =  (35.5s y .000.787 lb  kc   1.000. and they are tightened to give an initial stress of about si = 0.000 psi Fi = si As = 23 As kip = 23.000  ENDURANCE STRENGTH DESIGN PROBLEMS 239. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS k +k   994. (c) What size do you recommend using? Problem 239 Solution: For AISI C1118. The equivalent diameter of the compression area may be taken as twice the bolt diameter. determine the size of the screw: (a) from the Soderberg line.000 + 1. varying from 0 to 1500 lb. carried half the total bearing load.75.5(46) = 23 ksi = 23. For a design factor of 1. The screws are to be made of AISI C1118. a bearing is supported in a pillow block attached to an overhead beam by two cap screws. The pillow block is made of class-20 cast iron.5s y si = 0. as rolled.500) = 70.000 As lb  kb  ∆Fb =   Fe k +  b ck Ab Eb kb = Lb Page 18 of 42 . it may be assumed. This load acts vertically downward. as shown. and that the head and beam are rigid (overly conservative?). each of which. Assume that the effective length of screw is equal to the thickness t . As shown diagrammatically. as rolled s y = 46 ksi su = 75 ksi si = 0.

6 × 10 ) 588 6 6 ∆Fb1 = 0  kb   300  1500  ∆Fb 2 =   Fe =    = 383 lb  k b + kc   588  2  1 1 Fm = Fi + (∆Fb 2 + ∆Fb1 ) = 23.6 × 106 ) t kb 30 ×10 6 300 = = kb + k c 30 × 10 + 3(9.000 As + (383 + 0) = 23.500 psi ) = 25.000 As + 192 lb 2 2 1 1 Fa = (∆Fb 2 − ∆Fb1 ) = (383 − 0) = 192 lb 2 2 s n = 0.85)(37.8)(0.5su = 0.5(75.500 psi N = 1.500 psi For axial loading with size factor s n = (0. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS Eb = 30× 10 6 psi (steel) Lb = t Ac Ec kc = Lc For cast-iron class 20 Ec = 9.6 × 106 psi Lc = t π π Ac = De2 − D2 4 4 π Ab = D2 4 De = 2 D π Ac = (2 D )2 − π D 2 = 3π D 2 = 3 Ab 4 4 4 AE kb = b b Lb kb = ( Ab 30× 10 6 ) t kc = b ( 3 A 9.000 As 192 192 sm = = + = 23.000 psi ) = 37.75 Fm 23.000 + As As As As Page 19 of 42 .

A connection similar to Fig. Text. It is desired that the connection not open for an external load of 1. and an external diameter of 2 D .0775 sq.The aluminum parts C (3003 H14) have a total thickness of 1 ½ in. As = 0.8 (a) Soderberg line 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn  192   192   23.334 sq. K f = 1.9 Page 20 of 42 . Fig.9. Table AT 14.000 +  (1. − UNC 4 240.000 +  (1.000 25. 5.75 46. 5. UNC 3 Use D = in.in.0609 sq.in. is subjected to an external load that varied from 0 to 1250 lb.in.75 75. . UNC 3 Use D = in.8)  1  As   As  = + 1. D = in. Determine (a) the initial tensile load on the bolt. 8 3 (c) Recommended. (b) the bolt diameter for N = 2 based on the Soderberg line.5Fe . 4 (b) Modifies Goodman line 1 sm K f sa = + N su sn  192   192   23. .8)  1  As   As  = + 1.in. As = 0.500 As = 0. UNC threads.500 As = 0. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS Fa 192 sa = = As As Table AT 12.000 25. Table AT 14. The bolt is cold forged from AISI B1113 steel.2482 sq.

5 AE kb = b b Lb π Ab = D2 4 Eb = 30 × 10 6 psi 1 Lb = 1 in.5 kb + k c 30 ×10 6 + 3 10 × 10 6( ) Page 21 of 42 . 2 kb = b ( A 30 × 10 6 )  1 1   2 kc = b ( 3 A 10 × 10 6 )  1 1   2 kc = ( 3 10 × 10 6 ) = 0. 2 Ac Ec kc = Lc π π Ac = De2 − D2 4 4 De = 2 D π Ac = (2 D )2 − π D 2 = 3π D 2 = 3 Ab 4 4 4 6 Ec = 10 × 10 psi (3003-H14 aluminum) 1 Lc = 1 in. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS Solution:  kc  (a) Fi = QFe   lb k +  b ck Q = 1.

500 psi For axial loading with size factor s n = (0.5 ksi = 41.5 sa = a = As As Soderberg line.5(83) = 41.220 As As = 0. cold forged su = 83 ksi s y = 72 ksi s n = 0. Table AT 14.07459 sq. UNC Page 22 of 42 .500 psi ) = 28.5 lb (b) For AISI B1113 steel. K f = 1.8)(0. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS Fe = 1250 lb  kc  Fi = QFe   lb k +  b ck Fi = (1.5su = 0.000 As 28.5 + 1 (625 + 0) = 1250 lb 2 2 1 1 Fa = (∆Fb 2 − ∆Fb1 ) = (625 − 0) = 312.5) = 937.5) 2 72.8)(312.5 lb 2 2 F 1250 sm = m = As As F 312.85)(41.8 Table AT 12 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn 1 = 1250 + (1.in.5)(1250 )(0.220 psi  kb  ∆Fb =   Fe  kb + k c  ∆Fb1 = 0  kb   30 × 106  ∆Fb 2 =   Fe =  6  (1250 ) = 625 lb  30 × 10 + 3(10 × 10 ) 6  kb + k c  1 Fm = Fi + (∆Fb 2 + ∆Fb1 ) = 937.

it will be satisfactorily to assume the equivalent diameter of the compressed parts to be twice the bolt size. (a) For N = 2 on the Soderberg criterion. . This problem concerns the Freon compressor of 226: size. UNC. assumed to be equally loaded.0775 sq. The initial tension in the bolts. 10 studs. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS 3 Use D = in. Solution:  π  (10 ) 2 Fo = 300  = 2356 lb. what bolt size is required? (b) Compute the torque required for the specified initial tension. is such that a cylinder pressure of 300 psi is required for the joint to be on the opening. as rolled. made of C1118. 200 psi gas pressure.  4  10  kc  Fi = Fo    kb + k c  Ab Eb kb = Lb π Ab = D2 4 Eb = 30 × 10 6 psi Lb = L AE kc = c c Lc π π Ac = De2 − D2 4 4 De = 2 D π Ac = (2 D )2 − π D 2 = 3π D 2 = 3 Ab 4 4 4 6 Cast Steel. Ec = 30 × 10 psi Lc = L Ab (30× 10 6 ) kb = L kc = ( 3 Ab 30 × 106 ) = 3kb L  kc   3kb  Fi = Fo   = (2356 )  = 1767 lb  kb + k c   kb + 3kb  Page 23 of 42 . 8 243.in. 10 x 18 in.. As = 0. The bolted parts are cast steel and for the first calculations.

2 (1767 ) = 176.1419 sq. .500 psi For axial loading with size factor s n = (0. UNC 1 Use D = in.500 psi ) = 25. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS  kb  (a) ∆Fb =   Fe  kb + k c  ∆Fb1 = 0  kb   k b  π  (10 )2 (200 ) ∆Fb 2 =   Fe =    = 393 lb  k b + kc   kb + 3kb  4  10 1 Fm = Fi + (∆Fb 2 + ∆Fb1 ) = 1767 + 1 (393 + 0 ) = 1964 lb 2 2 1 1 Fa = (∆Fb 2 − ∆Fb1 ) = (393 − 0) = 196 lb 2 2 F 1964 sm = m = As As F 196 sa = a = As As For C1118.in. A cast-iron (class 35) Diesel-engine cylinder head is held on 8 stud bolts with UNC threads.5(75) = 37. as rolled su = 75 ksi s y = 46 ksi s n = 0.2 DFi 1 T = 0.8)(196) 2 46. Table AT 14.500 As As = 0.7 in − lb.in. AF2). Assume that the compressed material has an equivalent diameter twice Page 24 of 42 . OQT 1000 oF (Fig.1131 sq.500 psi K f = 1.5su = 0. As = 0.85)(37.5 ksi = 37. 2 (b) T = 0.8 Table AT 12 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn 1 = 1964 + (1.8)(0.000 As 25. 2 245. These bolts are made of AISI 3140 steel.

5 × 10 psi .5 × 10 6 )  Fi = Fo   = (9425)  = 5578 lb 6   30 × 10 + 3(14. Let the initial bolt load be such that a cylinder pressure of 1500 psi brings the joint to the point of opening. (b) using the Goodman equation.5 × 106 ) L  kc   3(14. For a design factor of 2.5 × 10 )  6  kb + k c  Page 25 of 42 .8). 4 8  kc  Fi = Fo    kb + k c  Ab Eb kb = Lb π Ab = D2 4 Eb = 30 × 10 6 psi Lb = L AE kc = c c Lc π π Ac = De2 − D2 4 4 De = 2 D π Ac = (2 D )2 − π D 2 = 3π D 2 = 3 Ab 4 4 4 6 Ec = 14. for cast-iron (class 35) Lc = L kb = ( Ab 30× 10 6 ) L kc = ( 3 Ab 14. The maximum cylinder pressure is 750 psi and the bore of the engine is 8 in. (c) What approximate torque will be required to induce the desired initial stress? (d) Determine the ratio of the initial stress to the yield strength. what factor of safety is computed from the Soderberg equation? Solution:  π  (8) 2 Fo = 1500  = 9425 lb. determine the bolt diameter (a) using the Soderberg equation. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS the bolt size. Considering the lessons of experience (i5. what initial stress would you recommend? Using this value.

K f = 3.5 × 10 ) 4  6  kb + k c  8 1 Fm = Fi + (∆Fb 2 + ∆Fb1 ) = 5578 + 1 (1923 + 0) = 6540 lb 2 2 1 1 Fa = (∆Fb 2 − ∆Fb1 ) = (1923 − 0) = 962 lb 2 2 Fm 6540 sm = = As As F 962 sa = a = As As (a) For AISI 3140 steel.5(153) = 76.3)(962) 2 134. .8)(0. UNC 5 Use D = in.in. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS  kb  ∆Fb =   Fe  kb + k c  ∆Fb1 = 0  kb   30 × 10 6  π  (8)2 (750 ) ∆Fb 2 =   Fe =  6   = 1923 lb  30 × 10 + 3(14.000 As 52.500 psi ) = 52.3 (hardened) Soderberg Equation 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn 1 = 6540 + (3. As = 0. Table AT 14.5su = 0.226 sq.85)(76.in.2197 sq.500 psi For axial loading with size factor s n = (0.000 psi Table AT 12. 8 (b) Goodman Equation 1 sm K f sa = + N su sn Page 26 of 42 . OQT 1000 oF su = 153 ksi s y = 134 ksi s n = 0.000 As As = 0.5 ksi = 76.

8 Fi 5578 (d) si = = = 24.000-lb.226 Soderberg Equation 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn 1 118.226 ) = 25.000 As 52.2076 sq.900 )(0.681 Ratio = i = = 0.226 s 24.742 lb 1 Fm = 25.184 s y 134.in.85s y = 0. The frequency can be varied from 5 to 10.3)(4257 ) = + N 134.704 lb 2 1 Fa = (1923) = 962 lb 2 Fm 26.8 si = 0. The harmonic force will exert a tensile load on the bolts that Page 27 of 42 . 8 (c) T = 0.000 i5.226 sq. is the time.in.2 DFi 5 T = 0.3)(962) 2 153. body is to be mounted on a shaker (vibrator).742 + (1923) = 26.704 sm = = = 118.226 F 962 sa = a = = 4257 psi As 0.000) = 113.000 cps. UNC 5 Use D = in. The shaker will exert a harmonic force of F = 30.000 sin 2π t f lb. .159 (3.000 As As = 0. As = 0.159 psi As 0. on the body where f cps is the frequency and t sec.000 N = 0.2 (5578) = 697 in − lb. Table AT 14.900 psi Factor of safety Fi = si As = (113.681 psi As 0.85(134.000 52. A 30. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS 1 = 6540 + (3.87 246.

Solution: Fe min = 0 Fe max = 30. (Aluminum 2014-T6) Lc = L Page 28 of 42 .6 × 10 psi . The material of the bolts is to be AISI 8630.-UNF bolts that must be used for N = 2 based on Soderberg line. It may be assumed that the equivalent diameter of the material in compression is twice the bolt diameter.25 times the maximum force exerted by the shaker.25 AE kb = b b Lb π Ab = D2 4 Eb = 30 × 10 6 psi Lb = L AE kc = c c Lc π π Ac = De2 − D2 4 4 De = 2 D π Ac = (2 D )2 − π D 2 = 3π D 2 = 3 Ab 4 4 4 6 Ec = 10. Determine the minimum number of ½-in. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS attach the body to the shaker when F is positive.000 lb  kc  Fi = QFe   k +  b ck Q = 1. 2014-T6 and the joint is not to open for an external force that is 1. the material of the body that is to be vibrated is aluminum alloy. WQT 1100 oF.

WQT 1100 oF K f = 3.300 sm = m = = nAs 0.5 ksi = 68. 6 × 10 ) 1 Fm = Fi + (∆Fb 2 + ∆Fb1 ) = 19.296 + 1 (14.25)(30.563 + 0) = 26.in.000 ) = 14.1419n n For AISI 8630.000 ) ( 3 10.5(137 ) = 68.318 sa = a = = nAs 0.578 187.563 lb  k b + k c   30 × 10 6 + 3(10 . 6 × 10 )   kb  ∆Fb =   Fe k +  b ck ∆Fb1 = 0  kb   30 × 106  ∆Fb 2 =   Fe =  6  (30. 296 lb 6   30 × 10 6 + 3 10(.-UNF (Table AT 14) As = 0.3 su = 137 ksi s y = 125 ksi s n = 0.500 psi For axial loading with size factor Page 29 of 42 .563 − 0 ) = 7282 lb 2 2 Fm sm = nAs F sa = a nAs For ½-in. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS Ab Eb Ab (30× 106 ) kb = = Lb L Ac Ec 3 Ab (10.1419 sq.578 lb 2 2 1 1 Fa = (∆Fb 2 − ∆Fb1 ) = (14.5su = 0.6 × 106 ) kc = = Lc L  kc  Fi = QFe    kb + k c   Fi = (1.6 × 10 6 )  = 19.1419n n F 7282 51. F 26.

(a) Does a 5/16-24 UNF satisfy this situation? If not. The grip for through bolts is 1. and discuss. 3 and use an equivalent De = 1 in. Considering the manner in which the bolt is loaded.000n 46. For the initial computation.8)(0.. N = 2 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn 1 187. The threads extend 8 a negligible amount into the grip.75 Fe . The maximum external load on the cap bolts of an automotive connecting rod end. we decide that a design factor of 1.3 Minimum number of bolts = 10 bolts 248. an initial stress of the order suggested in i5. How does it change? Would you be concerned about the safety in this case? Consider the variation of si as a consequences of the use of torque wrench and also the stress relaxation with time (due to seating and other factors). Text. assume that s n′ = 0. Decide upon such an si and recomputed N . what size do you recommend? (b) Experience suggests that.5 in.75(4000) = 7000 lb  kc  Fi = Fe    kb + kc  AE kb = b b Lb π Ab = D2 4 Eb = 30 × 10 6 psi Page 30 of 42 . Solution: Fo = 1. the minimum load is zero at bottom dead center.580n n = 10.500 psi ) = 46. in situations such as this. OQT 1100oF (qualifying for SAE grade 5). Compute the required tightening torque for each si . is good insurance against fatigue failure.3)(51.300 (3. use an opening load Fo = 1.85)(68. let each bolt take half the load.318) = + 2 125. imposed by inertia forces at top dead center. for the connected parts.580 psi Soderberg Equation. For design purposed. is taken to be 4000 lb.4 (Soderberg) should be quite adequate.75Fe = 1.8.45su . The material is AISI 4140. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS s n = (0.

5 1.000 psi F 7000 sm = m = − 3367 As As F s a = a = 1347 As Page 31 of 42 .45su = 0.485  1 Fm = Fi + (∆Fb 2 + ∆Fb1 ) = 7000 − 4714 As + 1 (2694 As + 0) = 7000 − 3367 As 2 2 1 1 Fa = (∆Fb 2 − ∆Fb1 ) = (2694 As − 0 ) = 1347 As 2 2 Table 5.485 − D = 1.2 su = 120 ksi s y = 88 ksi s n′ = 0.485 − As  Fi = 7000 = 7000 − 4714 As  1. (Aluminum 2014-T6) Lc = 1.5 in.6 × 106 psi . SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS Lb = 1.45(120 ) = 54 ksi = 54.485   kb  ∆Fb =   Fe  kb + k c  ∆Fb1 = 0  kb   A  ∆Fb 2 =   Fe =  s (4.5 in.485 − Ab 4  8 4 4 Ec = 10. As ≈ Ab Ab Eb Ab (30 × 106 ) kb = = Lb 1.485 − As )(30 × 106 ) kc = = Lc 1.000 ) = 2694 As  kb + k c   1.5 Ac Ec (1. AE kc = c c Lc π π Ac = De2 − D2 4 4 2 π  3 2π π 2 Ac = 1  − D = 1.

800)(0.1187 ) = 6440 lb Page 32 of 42 .85(88) = 74.85s y = 0. si tends to exceeds the limiting stress therefore reduces the factor of safety.in. N = 1. 7 Table At14. (b) i5.000 54.800 psi Fi = si As = (74.in.3 (hardened. (c) Fi = 7000 − 4714 As = 7000 − 4714(0.000 N = 1. As = 0. Table AT 12) Soderberg Equation.000 54.1187 sq.1187 =  + (3.1187 sq. safe. Instead use D= in .3)(1347 ) N 88. 16 7 (a) 5/16-24 UNF will not satisfy the situation. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS K f = 3.1187 sq. we D = in . Text si = 0. therefore.000 As = 0. While stress relaxation tends to reduce the limiting stress approaching the si and causing lower design factor.3)(1347 ) = − + 1. 16 As = 0.8.4 88.4 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn 1 7000 3367 (3. it decreases N > 1 .in.000 As 88.1187 ) = 8879 lb 1 1 Fm = Fi + (∆Fb 2 + ∆Fb1 ) = 8879 + (2694 As + 0 ) = 8879 + 1347 As 2 2 1 1 Fa = (∆Fb 2 − ∆Fb1 ) = (2694 As − 0 ) = 1347 As 2 2 F 8879 sm = m = + 1347 As As F s a = a = 1347 As 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn  8879   + 1347  1  0.8 ksi = 74.06 . Considering variation of si .

8466 in. thick and are assumed not to bend (clearances are exaggerated).. is repeatedly applied to the bolt.2 (8879 ) = 777 in − lb  16  CHECK PROBLEMS 249. A 1-in. and the UNC bolt threads extend a negligible amount below the nut. ½ hard) as shown.2 DFi = 0.2 (6440) = 564 in − lb  16  at Fi = 8879 lb 7 T = 0. (a) If an external tensile axial load. = 8 1 1 p= = in. The nut is turned ¼ turn. in. Problem 249. what is the factor of safety of the bolt by the Soderberg criterion? (b) What is the external load on the bolt at the instant that the load on the tube becomes zero. cold-rolled threads) passes through a yellow brass tube B (B36-8. The tube length is 30 in. UNC As = 0.2 DFi = 0. steel bolt A (normalized AISI 1137.606 sq.in. varying from 0 to 5 kips. Dr = 0. 250 Solution: For 1-in. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS 7 T = 0. Th in. Th in 8 δ 1 = p 4 1 1 1 δ =   = in. its cross-sectional area is 2 sq. 4  8  32 Page 33 of 42 . The steel washers are ¼ in.

000  1 1 Fm = Fi + (∆Fb 2 + ∆Fb1 ) = 24.5(98) = 49 ksi = 49.5 AE kc = c c Lc Ac = 2 sq.5su = 0. cold-rolled thread su = 98 ksi s y = 58 ksi s n = 0.606 F 1090 sa = a = = 1799 psi As 0. Lc = 30 in.000 psi K f = 1.5) δ= = π 32 4 (1)2 30 ×106( ) Fi = 24.000.141 lb  kb  ∆Fb = Fe    kb + k c  π Ab Eb 4 (1)2 (30 ×106 ) kb = = = 772.227 psi As 0.525  ∆Fb 2 = (5000 )  = 2179 lb  772.230 sm = = = 38.141 + (2179 + 0 ) = 25.525 Lb 30.000 30 (a) ∆Fb1 = 0  772.000.in. Ec = 15× 106 psi (Yellow Brass) kc = ( 2 15 ×10 6 ) = 1.4 (Table AT 12) Page 34 of 42 . SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS 1 Lb = 30 + 2  = 30. 4 Eb = 30× 10 6 psi 1 Fi (30.5 in.606 For normalized AISI 1137.230 lb 2 2 1 1 Fa = (∆Fb 2 − ∆Fb1 ) = (2179 − 0) = 1090 lb 2 2 Fm 25.525 + 1.

external diameter. The washers are each ¼-in.4418 sq.000  Fo = 42. 7/8 in. 1 ¼-in. (a) Compute the factor of safety of the bolt by the Soderberg criterion. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS For axial loading. The tube is 4 in.000  24.000.8(49. internal diameter. long.2 DFi 3 1800 = 0.in.200 psi 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn 1 38.4 )(1799) = + N 58.38  kc  (b) Fi = Fo    kb + k c   1.200 N = 1.000 lb  kb  ∆Fb = Fe    kb + k c  1 1 1 = + kb kb1 kb 2 AE kb1 = b b Lb1 Lb1 = 3 in.000 39. thick. varying from 0 to 4 kips. with rolled threads.790 lb 250. The unthreaded part of the bolt is 3 in. as shown. cold drawn. made of AISI 1117.000. passes through a yellow brass tube and two steel washers.227 (1.2  Fi 4 Fi = 12. Is there any danger of failure of the bolt? (b) What pull must be exerted by the washers to remove all load from the brass tube? Solution: T = 0. is axially applied to the washers an indefinite number of times.141 = Fo    772.525 + 1. 2 π 3 Ab =   = 0. 4 4 Page 35 of 42 . fine-thread bolt. s n = 0. A ¾-in. The unlubricated bolt is tightened by a torque of 1800 in-lb. long. The external load.000 ) = 39. Assume that there is no stretching of the bolt inside the nut in finding its k .

000 + (2167 + 0) = 13.078 psi As 0.347.in.418.733 AE kc = c c Lc π  1   7   2 2 Ac = 1  −    = 0.5 in.774. 1 Lb 2 = 4 + 2  − 3 = 1.6259 sq.774.125 4 ∆Fb1 = 0  2.373 For AISI 111.5 1 1 1 = + kb kb1 kb 2 1 1 1 = + kb 4.6259)(15 ×106 ) = 2.4418)(30 ×106 ) = 4.733 + 2. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS Eb = 30× 10 6 psi kb1 = (0.in.460.774.000 1.084 lb 2 2 1 1 Fa = (∆Fb 2 − ∆Fb1 ) = (2167 − 0) = 1084 lb 2 2 F 13.000 3 As Eb kb 2 = Lb 2 For ¾-in. kc = (0.347. UNF (Table AT 14) As = 0.000 kb = 2.000 7. 4  4   8   Ec = 15× 106 psi Lc = 4 in.373 sq.125  1 1 Fm = Fi + (∆Fb 2 + ∆Fb1 ) = 12.733  ∆Fb 2 = (4000)  = 2167 lb  2. 2 kb 2 = ( ) (0. rolled threads s n = 40 ksi Page 36 of 42 .084 sm = m = = 35.373 F 1084 sa = a = = 2906 psi As 0.418.460.373) 30 ×106 = 7. cold drawn.

945.078 (1.19635 sq.19635)(30 ×106 ) = 2.000 psi . The bolt tightened to have an initial tension of 4000 lb.347.000 = Fo    2. which is also nearly the unthreaded length.13. The diameter of the coarse-thread bolt is ½-in.125  Fo = 26. The parts support an external load Fe that tends to separate them and it varies from zero to 5000 lb.347.4 s n = 0.125  12. Text) is used to connect two parts made of cast-iron.in. kb = (0. What is the factor of safety. A coupling bolt (i5. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS s y = 68 ksi K f = 1.250 2 Table AT 14. UNC Page 37 of 42 ..186 lb 251.8(40) = 32 ksi = 32. (unthreaded length) 4 2 Eb = 30× 10 6 psi Lb = 2 in.000 32. class 35..4 )(2906 ) = + N 68. (Soderberg)? Solution: Fi = 4000 lb  kb  ∆Fb = Fe    kb + k c  AE kb = b b Lb 2 π 1 Ab =   = 0.000 N = 1.774.733 + 2. axial loading 1 sm K f sa (a) = + N sy sn 1 35. its grip is 2 in.56  kc  (b) Fi = Fo    kb + k c   2.

5 × 106 psi .2).945.in. 3 A = in.945.5su For axial loading s n = (0. (2.000 psi K f = 1.1419 F 389 sa = a = = 2741 psi As 0. 4 4 4  4   2   Ec = 14.250 2 ∆Fb1 = 0  2. 2 su = 125 ksi s y = 109 ksi s n = 0.in.250  ∆Fb 2 = (5000 )  = 777 lb  2.5 × 106 ) kc = = 16. 4 h De = A + 2 h = 2 in.5)(125) = 50 ksi = 50. 4 2 4 AE kc = c c Lc π  3   1   2 2 π π Ac = De2 − D2 = 1  −    = 2. class 35) Lc = 2 in.8 Soderberg Line Page 38 of 42 .015.930 psi As 0.1419 sq.250 + 16.015.1419 1 For ASTM 354 BC (Table 5. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS 1 D= in. 2 As = 0.8)(0. 3 2 3 De = + = 1 in.209 )(14. D = in.209 sq.250  1 1 Fm = Fi + (∆Fb 2 + ∆Fb1 ) = 4000 + (777 + 0 ) = 4389 lb 2 2 1 1 Fa = (∆Fb 2 − ∆Fb1 ) = (777 − 0) = 389 lb 2 2 Fm 4389 sm = = = 30. (Cast iron.

The nuts are to be tightened with a torque of 20 ft-lb.2 DFi 5 240 = 0. 6 252.000 N = 2. OQT 1000 oF.000 50.600 ) 5   8 AE kc = c c Lc π  3   5   2 2 π π Ac = De2 −   −    = 0.930 (1. on an unthreaded length of virtually 5/8 in.0767 sq. These bolts have UNF threads with a 5/8-in. Is this satisfactory? (c) If the bolt material is AISI 4140.2  Fi  16  Fi = 3840 lb  kb  ∆Fb = Fe    kb + k c  AE kb = b b Lb 2 π5 Ab =   = 0. (a) Estimate the maximum force on the bolt. D2 = 4 4 4  4   16   Ec = 30× 10 6 psi . what is the factor of safety based on the Soderberg criterion? Solution: T = 20 ft − lb = 240 in − lb T = 0.in.681. 8 kb = ( (0. bolts that are forged integrally with the main connecting rod. Let the equivalent diameter of the connected parts be ¾ in. class 35) Page 39 of 42 .8)(2741) = + N 109.in. (Cast iron.3651 sq. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn 1 30.0767) 30 ×106 = 3. (unthreaded length) 4  16  Eb = 30× 10 6 psi 5 Lb = in. The cap on the end of a connecting rod (automotive engine) is held on by two 5/16-in. and the maximum external load on one bolt is expected to be 2330 lb. (b) Compute the opening load.

0580 sq.5su For axial loading s n = (0.690 psi As 0. Table AT 14.000 psi Soderberg Line 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn For 5/16-in.800 5   8  3. K f = 2.80  Fo = 4647 lb < Fmax ∆Fb 405 (c) Fm = Fi + = 3840 + = 4042 lb 2 2 ∆F 405 Fa = b = = 202 lb 2 2 For AISI 4140.8)(0.5)(170) = 68 ksi = 68.524.0580 F 202 sa = a = = 3843 psi As 0.6 s n = 0. As = 0.800  3840 = Fo    3.681.-UNF.0580 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn Page 40 of 42 . SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS 5 Lc = in.524. F 4042 sm = m = = 69.3651) 30 × 10 6) = 17.600 + 17.in.800  (a) Fmax = Fi + ∆Fb = 3840 + 405 = 4245 lb  kc  (b) Fi = Fo   k +  b ck  17. OQT 1000 oF su = 170 ksi s y = 155 ksi Table AT 12. 8 kc = ( ( 0.524.681.600  ∆Fb = (2330)  = 405 lb  3.524.681.600 + 17.

is to be applied normal to the lever at its end.72 SET SCREWS 254.3. is applied to the eccentric rod perpendicular to the line of centers.25  Assume tangential force = holding force Table 5. what would be the tangential load that could be applied to the teeth and what horsepower could be transmitted by the screw. What size set screw should be used for a design factor of 6? Solution:  1. The center of the eccentric is 1 ¼ in. gear is mounted on a 2-in. shaft by a set screw. 255. setscrew. from the center of the shaft when a tensile force of 1000 lb. pulley is fastened to a 1 ¼ in. Solution: Page 41 of 42 . use Screw size ¾ in. use Screw size 8. What size of set screw should be used for a design factor of 5? Solution: Torque = (16)(40) = 640 in − lb 2(640 ) Tangential force = = 640 lb 2 Holding force = (5)(640 ) = 3200 lb Table 5. An eccentric is to be connected to a 3-in.000 68.6 )(3483) = + N 155. If a net tangential force of 75 lb.000 N = 1. long is to be fastened to a 2-in. Holding force = 385 lb. For a design factor of 3. shaft. 257. what size screw should be used when the load is steady? Solution:  6  Tangential force = (75 lb )  = 365 lb  1.3. A lever 16 in. 256. shaft and is held in place by a 7/16 in. A 6-in.25  Tangential force = (1000 lb )  = 833 lb 32 Holding force = (6)(833) = 5000 lb Table 5. use Screw size 9/16 in. shaft by a setscrew.690 (2. is applied to the surface of the pulley. A load of 40 lb. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS 1 69.3. A 12-in.

3. SECTION 3 – SCREW FASTENINGS Table 5.000 . Holding force = 2500 lb 2500 Tangential force = = 833 lb 3 2 Tangential load on gear = 833  = 139 lb  12  Assume vm = 4500 fpm Hp transmitted = (139)(4500) = 19 hp 33.end - Page 42 of 42 . 7/16 in.

85)(7 − Dw )  47.304 ss = K  = 3   πDw  Dw0. number of active coils. pitch.72 in Page 1 of 70 .304 use ssd = ksi = 54 ksi (0.. with an outside diameter of 6 in. wire.304 ss = 1. 18.19 Dw0.3 =  πDw3  Dw0. The spring should have a free length of approximately 18 in.324 su 0. when compressed to a length of 15 in.19 say K = 1. and 11 ½ free coils for a similar application.6 s u design stress. [0. SECTION 4 .3  = 54  πDw3  Dw = 1. Text) is to be actuated by a helical compression spring. “solid stress”). (average service) ssd = 0.2.3  8(2.5] Dw “solid stress” = 0.19  8(2.3  = 54  π (1)  3 Dm = 5. A solenoid brake (Fig.324(146 ) 47.015 in say Dw = 1.85)Dm  ss = 1. Table AT 17 146 su = 0. (wire diameter. and is to exert a maximum force of 2850 lb. The outside diameter must not exceed 7 in. Using oil-tempered wire.062 in > 0. MEDIUM SERVICE 271.19 ksi .85)(7 − Dw )  ss = 1. design a spring for this brake.032 < Dw < 0.5 in 47.0 in  8(2.5)0. coil diameter. pitch angle.85 kips  8FDm  47. General Electric used a spring made of 1 in. Solution: For oil tempered wire.19 Dw + Dm ≤ 7 F = 2850 lb = 2.19 Dw = 1.SPRINGS HELICAL COMPRESSION SPRINGS DESIGN – LIGHT.304 ssd = = ksi Dw0.

Dw > in 8 8(2.6(146 ) sso = 0.05 say N c = 11.93 ksi (0.615 K= + = + = 1.0 δ = Free length – Compressed length = 18 in – 15 in = 3 in.3105 4C − 4 C 4(5) − 4 5  8(2.5) 3 δ= = 3.85)(5) (11.SPRINGS say Dm = 5.85)(5) N c 3 δ =3= (10.500 ksi . SECTION 4 .6 su = ksi = 99.56 = (P − 1)(11.0 in OD = Dm + Dw = 5.12 = 18.5) P = 1.12 in At 2.55 99.500)(1) N c = 11.85 kips  8FDm  ss = K   3   πDw  C =5 4C − 1 0. D 5 .12 δT δ T = 6.500)(1) Free length = 15 + 3. 8FC 3 N c δ= GDw 3 G = 10.5)0.570 in Page 2 of 70 .85)(5)  ss = 1.0 C= m = =5 Dw 1.615 4(5) − 1 0.0 = 6 in < 7 in.19 F k= using δ or let δ T = Free length – Solid height 47.93 = 3.5 8(2.55 ksi  π (1)  3 Permissible solid stress 0.0 + 1.56 in δ T = Free length – Solid height = (P − Dw )N c 6.12 in (10.3105  = 47.

166 ksi . A coil spring is to be used for the front spring of a automobile.93 ksi . How much is the pitch angle? Solution: Table AT 17 Cr-V steel 168 su = 0.324su 0. SECTION 4 ..166 ksi Dw0. The spring is to have a rate of 400 lb.5 − 1)(11.75 sso = 87. Be sure “solid stress” is all right. with squared-and-ground ends. N c = no.437] Dw average service ssd = 0..75 in. o. πD  π (5 )  For actual solid stress δ T = (1.63 ksi < 99.. The material is to be oil- tempered chrome vanadium steel. 47.SPRINGS 1 use P = 1 in 2 Pitch angle. of active coils = 11 1/2 P = pitch = 1 ½ in.5) = 5. Dm = coil diameter = 5 in.032 < Dw 0.12 5.6su Page 3 of 70 .5 < 12 .5  λ = tan −1 = tan −1  o o  = 5. and a free length of 14 1/8 in./in. [0.324(168) 54.166 Dw Max “solid stress” = 0.5o sso = solid stress = 87.432 ssd = = 0.k.55 sso = 3. an inside diameter of 4 3/64 in. P  1.63 ksi 272. γ = pitch angle = 5. ok Summary of answer: Dw = wire diameter = 1 in. Decide upon the diameter of the wire and the number of free coils for a design load of F = 1500 lb .

046875 in  8FDm  ss = K   = ssd 3   πDw  Assume K = 1.046875 in 64 Dm = Dw + 4.k.747 in > 0.615 K= + = 1.)  3 3   π     4  8FC 3 N c δ= GDw Page 4 of 70 . SECTION 4 .45  πDw3  Dw = 0.64 ksi < 62.5) 4   ss = 1.45 ksi .3  = 62.046875)  ssd = 1.046875)  ssd = 0.615 K= + 4C − 4 C  51  4  Dm  64  C= = ≈ 6. (o.437 in use 54.4) − 1 0.4) − 4 6.4 Dw 3   4 4(6.5 kips 54.432 ssd = ksi = 62.432  8(1.235 4(6.5)(Dw + 4.SPRINGS 3 ID = Dm − Dw = 4 in = 4.3  Dw  πDw3  Dw = 0.5)(Dw + 4.19  8(1.166 = 1.4   51    8(1.724 in 3 use Dw = in 4 3 3 51 Dm = + 4 = 4 in 4 64 64  8FDm  ss = K   3   πDw  4C − 1 0.235  64   = 53.437 )0.3 F = 1500 lb = 1.45 ksi (0.

No.4 Table AT 16.500) 3  4 N c = 9.1o < 12o .64 ) 8  = 78.4 To check for solid stress.4 for square and grounded end.55  Solid stress = (53.65 ksi (0.4 ) + 2  = 14 4 8 11 P = 1. of free coils = 11.500 ksi . o.SPRINGS 3 G = 10. SECTION 4 .4 + 2 = 11.k.55 in 4  1   14 − 8.65 ksi (safe)  3.437 )0.343 in = 1 in 32 Pitch angle.5)(6. Total coils = N c + 2 = 9.75      Pitch: 1 PN c + 2 Dw = 14 in 8 3 1 P(9.75 = (10.74 ksi < 115. −1 πD  π  4 51     64   Page 5 of 70 .75 in k 400 8(1.6(168) Permissible solid stress = = 115.  11   1  −1 P λ = tan = tan  32  = 5. 0. Summary of answer: Dw = wire diameter = ¾ in.4 ) = 8.4 ) N c 3 δ = 3. D w > in 8 F 1500 δ= = = 3.166 Free length = PN c + 2 Dw 3 Solid height = Dw ( N c + 2 ) =  (11.

647 lb  4  8  Using hard-drawn spring wire.556 Dw1.85) 140 su = 0.647 )C  K  = 38.19 ksi = 0. the spring is to exert a pressure on the piston equivalent to 5 psi of piston area. For one position of the piston.845)C = 38.556 Dw1.534 lb  4  8  2  π  5  F2 = (46 + 5)   = 15. and investigate the pitch angle.625 CDw + 1.324(0. Specify the cheapest suitable material. in diameter.556 38. the overall length of the spring must not exceed (but may be less than) 2 in.625 0.556 ssd = 0.5 Dw = in 8 2  π  5  F1 = (5)   = 1. Cost Index = 1 ssd = 0. and “solid stress”.5Dw = 0. from the position described above.19 psi  πDw  Dw Dw  8(15. A pressure of 46 psi on the piston is to compress the spring ¾ in.19 ksi Dw . [0. SECTION 4 .81 Dm + 1.SPRINGS 273.19 = Dw Dw0. A coiled compression spring is to fit inside a cylinder 5/8 in.19  8FC  38. and in this position.625 Dw = C + 1 .5Dw = 0.19 140 38.556 ss = K  = 2  0. number of total and active coils for square-and-ground ends.81  π  K (39. Solution:  8FDm  ss = K   3   πDw  5 D OD = Dm + Dw = in − w 8 2 5 Dm + 1.85) 0.028 < Dw < 0. Design a spring for medium service.5 Page 6 of 70 .324su (0.625] 70 Max “solid stress” = ksi Dw0.

082 − 0.81  +  4C − 4 C  C = 7.615  (C + 1.534 )(7.0720) = 0.8 + 2 = 17. Dw = 0.845)C = 38.0720) = 1. Total coils = N c + 2 = 15.8) 3 δ1 = = 0.625 0.3 1.81  4C − 1 0.647 )(7.0720) ) Solid Height ≤ Free Length .5 × 106 psi 3 8(15.0720) Free length = 2 + 0.082 in 8(F2 )C 3 N c δ2 = GDw 8(15.5 × 106 (0.035) (15.0720) ) N c = 15.25 in But Solid Height > 1.5 × 106 (0.625 Dw = = = 0. ( ) 11. ( 11.5) C = 413.832 in.5 7.5 Page 7 of 70 .δ 2 Solid Height ≤ 2.647 − 1.082 = 2.5065 in For N c 8(F2 − F1 )C 3 N c δ 2 − δ1 = GDw G = 11.8 Solid height = ( N c + 2)Dw = (15.082 in.035(0.5 × 106 (0.615   0. Cost Index = 1. Therefore change material to Oil-tempered spring wire.25 in.035) (15.035 0.556   4C − 4 C   C + 1 .28 in Free length = PN c + 2 Dw Free length = 2 + δ1 8(F1 )C 3 N c δ1 = GDw 8(1.5   4C − 1 0.832 in Solid Height ≤ 1.035) N c 3 δ 2 − δ1 = = 4 ( 11.5 Table AT 15.8) 3 δ2 = = 0.0732 in C + 1.SPRINGS 4C − 1 0.035 + 1.534)(7.0720 in .8 + 2)(0. W & M 15 Dm = 7.615 K= + 4C − 4 C 1.8 Table AT 16.625   + (39. SECTION 4 .

615  (C + 1.647 C  = 47.6 ksi  π (0.615 4(7.5 Max “solid stress” = ksi D w0.625 Dw = = = 0.0680 in C + 1.684 + 1.5) − 1 0.81 0.600 psi = 91.5  8(15.304 47.46875 C= m = = 7 .5 Table AT 15.324 = Dw0.SPRINGS Table AT 17 146 su = 0.19 146 47.615   0.304 Dw1.647 )(7.028 < Dw < 0.625   + (39.304 Dw1.19 ksi . 0.845)C = 47.5 4C − 1 0.615 K= + = + = 1.5) C = 507.1974 4C − 4 C 4(7.0625  8FC  ss = K   2   πDw  4C − 1 0.46875 in 32 D 0.19 ksi = 0.625 Dw = C + 1 .0625) = 0.5)  ss = 1.0625)  For N c Page 8 of 70 .5 Dw 0.81   π  K (39.5 7.81  4C − 1 0.5 Dw 87.5   4C − 1 0.684(0. W & M 16 Dm = 7.845)C = 47.1 1.48025 in 15 say Dm = = 0.625 0.684 0.19  8FC  47.19 Dw0.1974 2  = 91.304 ssd = 0.304 ss = K  2  = 0.615 K= + 4C − 4 C 1. Dw = 0.81  +  4C − 4 C  C = 7.5) − 4 7.19 psi π  wD Dw D w K ( )  8 15.0625 in . SECTION 4 .304   4C − 4 C   C + 1 .

is to produce a deflection of 1 ¾ in.534)(7. safe.8325  sso = (91. A maximum load of 8 lb.0625) = 0. but is subjected to relatively high temperatures and corrosive atmosphere. Select a material and determine the necessary wire size.1729  λ = tan −1 = tan −1  o o  = 6.32 274. P  0.46875 )  Solid stress  2 − 0. or less.32 + 2 = 13.5) N c 3 δ 2 − δ1 = = 4 ( ) 11.k.082 in = P(11.32) + 2(0.32 Solid height = ( N c + 2)Dw = (11. N c = 11. Meet all conditions advised by Text.0625) 11 P = 0. and number of coils.32) 3 δ1 = = 0.6 )  = 142.7 < 12 .5) (11. o. Page 9 of 70 .0625) N c = 11. πD  π (0.19 Summary of answer: Suitable material = Oil-Tempered Spring Wire Total Coils = 13.1729 in ≈ in 64 Pitch angle.8 ksi > 137.32 Table AT 16.0625) Free length = 2 + 0.75  87.5 Permissible solid stress = = 148.8325 in Free length = PN c + 2 Dw Free length = 2 + δ1 8(F1 )C 3 N c δ1 = GDw 8(1. ( ) 11.32 Active Coils.5 × 106 (0. mean coil diameter. The spring is expected to be compressed less than 5000 times during its life. (0.082 = 2.5 ksi . SECTION 4 .6 ksi  0.647 − 1.082 in.32 + 2)(0.5 × 106 (0.SPRINGS 8(F2 − F1 )C 3 N c δ 2 − δ1 = GDw G = 11. rod with a free length of 2 ¾ in. squared and ground ends Total coils = N c + 2 = 11.5 × 106 psi 3 8(15.0625)0. A helical spring is to fit about a 11/16-in.534 )(7.

14  4C − 1 0.919 − 1.14 = 0. Table AT 17.01 < Dw < 0.615 K= + 4C − 4 C 170 assume su = 0.919(0.41 ksi .78125 in 32 Page 10 of 70 . 16 W & M Dm = 12. SECTION 4 .5 4C − 1 0.86  4C − 1 0.6875 in CDw − 1.919 0.47 su  8FDm  ss = K  3    πD w  F = 8 lb 11 D Dm − Dw = + w 16 2 Dm − 1.400 ssd = 0.6875   +   = 54.375] Dw Maximum “solid” so = 0.5Dw = 0.86  +  4C − 4 C  C = 12. ASTM A313 – for relative high temperature and corrosive atmosphere. type 302 (Cr-Ni).8074 in 25 say Dm = in = 0. Dw = 0.6875 Dw = C − 1 .13 < Dw < 0.13] Dw0.14 ksi Dw 0.5 Dw = 0.615  (C − 1.400   4C − 4 C  π   C − 1 .32su (i) 170 su = ksi . ssd = 0. [0.0602) = 0. [0.5) C = 1330 1.400 D1w.615  64C   0.32(170 ) 54.4 54.5 Use Table AT 15.0602 in 12.6875 0.86  4C − 4 C  π  1.615   8(8)C   +   = 54.0625 in .6875 Dw = = 0.SPRINGS Solution: For 5000 cycles < 104 cycles. use light service Use stainless steel.5   4C − 1 0.14 97 su = 0.14 ksi = psi Dw Dw Dw0.

6875 0.0625 > 0.k. ASTM A313 Page 11 of 70 .5o < 12o . SECTION 4 .14 Free length = PN c .71875 − 0. o. o.3) = 2 4 P = 0.648) 2 3 − 0.5  8(8)(12. su = 170 ksi is o.58125 in (72.71875 C= = = 12.000 psi = 90 ksi 3 1 4 Permissible solid stress = (0. (0.78125 − 0.2957 in Pitch angle. P  0. 2 Dm 0.k.0625)(9. Cr-Ni. therefore.k.71875 > 0.0625 [0.3 To check for solid stress and pitch Minimum solid height = Dw N c = (0.1144 4(12. πD  π (0.13].0625)  8(F )C 3 N c δ= GDw G = 10. minimum 3 P (9.0625)0. o.2957  λ = tan −1 = tan −1   = 7.5) − 1 0.6875 Dw 0.648 psi  π (0.58125  Solid stress =  4  = 90.47 )(170) = 117.8 ksi > 90 ksi .6 × 106 psi 8(8)(12.6 × 106 (0.6875 = 0.5) N c 3 3 δ =1 = ( ) 4 10.3) = 0.5)  ss = 1.0625) N c = 9.615 K= + = 1.03125 = .1144 2 = 72.5) − 4 12.k.5 Dw 0.0625 < 0.71825)  Summary of answer Material. Stainless Steel.SPRINGS 11 Dm − Dw > 16 0.14  8FC  ss = K   2  πD  w 4(12. Dw0.

number of coils. Solution: Use Music wire (The best material) Table AT 17 190 su = 0.405(190 ) 76. Recommend a spring for this application.405su 0.SPRINGS Dw = 0. ssd = 0. wire size. [0.154 Page 12 of 70 . In order to isolate vibrations.154 = 0.192)0.154 psi Dw Dw Dw  8FC  ss = K   2   πDw  F = 3500 lb OD = Dm + Dw = 6 in (C + 1)Dw = 6 6 Dw = C +1    4C − 1 0. SECTION 4 .154 ksi = 0.192 in 5.635 6 Dw = = 0. The static load on each spring is 3500 lb.004 < Dw < 0..95 76.3 275.216 psi (0.0625 in . include scale. and pitch of coils.846 = 235.950 ssd = 0.950 ss =  +  =  4C − 4 C    6    6  0.615    4C − 4 + C  [  C (C + 1) ] 1.154 ksi .615  8(3500 )C   76. 16 W & M 25 Dm = in 32 N c = 9.154   C + 1    C + 1  π    4C − 1 0.635 + 1 76.5su Light service.5 in. helical compression springs are used to support a machine. static stress.192] Dw Maximum “solid” sso = 0. solid stress. material. and the outside coil diameter should not exceed 6 in.950 use ss = = 99. The solid deflection should be about 1 in. under which the deflection should be about 0.9 C = 5.9043 in > 0.

154  8FC  ss = K  2    πDw   8(3500)(6.2763 45. not o.615 K= + = 1.488 psi .8125 in 16 Dm = (6.488 ksi = 122.5385)  ss = 1.205 + 1 13 Say Dw = in = 0.5385 Dw 0.154)  ss = 1.  π (0. not ok  0 . SECTION 4 .8125)  2 To check for solid stress Permissible solid stress = (0.k.216 psi .154) − 4 6.  1  Page 13 of 70 .8125)  2 Use Dm = 4.2763  = 95.5 C= m = = 5.205)(0.5 in D 4 .615 K= + = 1.154) − 1 0.435 psi > 99.k.192 )0.2455 4(6.435) = 190.154 Dw 0.SPRINGS    4C − 1 0.5385  8(3500)(5.5  ssd = 122.870 psi > 122.244 psi .8125 4(6. o.5  Use  0 .042 in Say Dm = 5 in D 5 C= m = = 6.216 psi .216  4C − 4 C   6     C + 1   π  4C − 1 0.5385) − 1 0.5)(190) = 122.154  1  Solid stress =  (95.5385 − 4 5.615  C (C + 1) = 400.481 psi > 99.205 6 Dw = = 0.8125) = 5.615  8(3500 )C   ss =  +   = 99.  π (0.488  = 61.488 psi (0.8 2  +  4C − 4 C  C = 6.2455  = 103.8328 in 6.8125 4(5.

9836 in 5 .3105 2  = 58.1)(1.  π (1.5714 in ≈ 1 in 16 Pitch angle.4 2  +  4C − 4 C  C = 5 .400 ) = 116.3105 4(5) − 4 5  8(3500)(5)  ss = 1.1 in Say Dm = 5 in D 5 C = m = =5 Dw 1  8FC  ss = K   2   πDw  4(5) − 1 0.75) = 1 9 P = 1.0) N c = 1.0 in Dm = (5.75 Free length – Solid length = Solid Deflection PN c − Dw N c = 1 in P(1.0 in .  0 .244 psi o.488 psi .k.SPRINGS    4C − 1 0.615  8(3500 )C   ss =  +   = 61.1 + 1 Say Dw = 1.400 psi > 61. o.7143 say N c = 1.615  C (C + 1) = 247.800 psi < 122.k. Page 14 of 70 .75) − (1)(1.0 )  Use Dw = 1. SECTION 4 .0) = 5.5 = ( ) 12 ×106 (1.615 K= + = 1.244  4C − 4 C   6     C + 1   π  4C − 1 0. Dm = 5 in  1  Solid stress =  (58.5  8(F )C 3 N c δ= GDw (Table AT 17) G = 12× 106 psi 8(3500 )(5) N c 3 δ = 0.1 6 Dw = = 0.

k.800 psi 9 Pitch of stress = P = 1 in 16 CHECK PROBLEMS – LIGHT. with a diameter of 43/64 in. Compute (a) the rate (scale) of the spring.0 in Material = Music Wire Solid sress = 116.. and a free length of 14 ¼ in. F 3500 Scale. 7 3/8 active coils (square-and-ground ends). an inside diameter of 4 3/64 in.68o < 12o . MEDIUM SERVICE 276. (c) Can 95 % of the solid stress be repeated 105 times without danger of failure? Would you advise shot peening of the spring? Solution: 8FC 3 N c (a) δ = GDw 43 3 Dw = in > in 64 8 6 G = 10. (b) the “solid stress” and compare with a permissible value (is a stop needed to prevent solid compression?). OQT 1000oF. The front spring of an automobile has a total of 9 ½ coils. πD  π (5)    Summary of answer.5 Wire size.SPRINGS  9  P 1  λ = tan −1 = tan −1  16  = 5. k = = = 7000 lb in δ 0 . It is made of SAE 9255 steel wire. o. SECTION 4 .0233 43 64 Page 15 of 70 . Dw = 1.5 × 10 psi D C= m Dw Dm − Dw = ID 43 3 Dm − = 4 in 64 64 23 Dm = 4 in 32 23 4 C = 32 = 7.

25(96.800 psi = 123. [Dw > 0.95(130. An oil-tempered steel helical compression spring has a wire size of No.8672(345) = 2714 lb  8F C  Solid Stress = K  so2   πDw  4C − 1 0.8672 in.000 psi < 130.5 in] SAE 9255.317 in.8 ksi > 58. OQT 1000 oF s y = 160 ksi su = 180 ksi . shot peening is advisable s ys = 1. (a) What maximum load is permitted if the recommended stress is not exceeded (static approach)? Compute (b) the Page 16 of 70 .13. SECTION 4 ..0233)  7   8 (b) “Solid Stress”  43  1  Solid height = N c = (Dw )(Total Coils ) =   9  = 6.6(160 ) = 96 ksi = 96.5 ×10 ) 64 6 43   F GD k = rate = = 3 w =   = 345 lb in δ 8C N c 3 3  8(7.212 = 130.0233      8(2714)(7.95sso 277.32 ksi There is a danger of failure.3828 = 7.SPRINGS 3 Nc = 7 8 (10.000 ) = 120.0233) − 4 7.0233) − 1 0.0233)  ss = 1.212 4(7.322 psi   43  2   π     64   Permissible value. (c) ssd = 0. ground-and- squared ends.95sso = 0.324su (105 cycles) ssd = 0. ss = s ys = 0.32 ksi 0.3828 in  64  2  Solid deflection = Free length – Solid height = 14 ¼ . 30 active coils. 3 W & M. a pitch of 0.322 psi Therefore a stop is needed to prevent solid compression.615 K= + = 1.324(180) = 58. medium service. Solid Force = Fso = 7. a spring index of 4.000 psi ≈ 0.6.322) = 123. s ys = 0.6 sy .615 K= + 4C − 4 C 4(7.

5 Maximum “solid” sso = 0.324(146 ) ss = ssd = = 61.858 = 1.19  8(F )(4.858 ksi = 61.52 in ( ) 11. No.2437 in C = 4.”. (e) scale. SECTION 4 . [0.3885 2  π (0.13)  ss = 61.13 Dm = CDw = 4. (g) Is there any danger of this spring buckling? (h) What maximum load could be used if the spring were shot peened? Solution: Table AT 17.3885 4(4.13) − 1 0.5 × 106 psi N c = 30 8(252)(4.2437 )0.0 in  8F C  (a) ss = K  s 2   πDw  4C − 1 0. 3 W & M Dw = 0.032 < Dw < 0.2437 ) (c) For solid stress .13) − 4 4.25 in. (d) pitch angle.19 ksi Dw ssd = 0.2437 ) = 1. to that of the working load.324su (medium service) Table AT 15.317 )(30) + 2(0.SPRINGS corresponding deflection. Square-and-ground end) Free length = PN c + 2 Dw = (0.13(0.2437 ) = 9. (c) “solid stress.13) (30) 3 δ= = 1.9974 in Page 17 of 70 .615 K= + 4C − 4 C 4(4. oil-tempered 146 su = 0.5] Dw 87.5 × 106 (0.13 0. (f) the energy absorbed by the spring from a deflection of 0.858 psi (0.2437 )  F = 252 lb 8FC 3 N c δ= GDw G = 11.615 K= + = 1.19 ksi .

0 There is a danger for spring buckling (h) Shot peened. Table AT 17 ssd = (61. and at least 2 in.2437 ) = 7.300 lb.3 free coils.9974 > 4 Mean Diameter 1 .. an outside diameter of 5 3/8 in.199 in.13)  ss = 77. (d) What steel should be used? Solution: Page 18 of 70 .52 in 1 [ ] U s = (166 ) (1.9974 = = 9. o.9974 – 7.19 Dw (0.6 in − lb 2 2 2 (g) i 6.7984 = 2.5 Maximum “solid” sso = ksi = ksi = 114.  2.491 ksi .25 in δ 2 = 1.18 Free length = 9. Under the weight. (c) the “solid stress”. from the surroundings by mounting it on helical springs.7984 in Solid deflection = 9.858)  = 89.52 1 (f) U s = k (δ 22 − δ12 ) 2 k = 166 lb in δ1 = 0.5 87.2437 )  F = 314 lb 280.k. before becoming solid.322 psi  8(F )(4. SECTION 4 .25) = 186. 4.SPRINGS Solid height = Dw N c + 2 Dw = (30 + 2)(0.9974 in Mean Diameter = Dm = 1.322 = 1.4 ksi > 89.76o < 12o .199  Solid stress = (61.25) = 77. o.. (b) the stress caused by the weight. safe 0.491 psi  1. πD  π (1)  F 252 (e) scale = k = = = 166 lb in δ 1.52  87.52 ) − (0.858)(1.19 P  0. the springs should deflect approximately 1 in. Determine (a) the number of springs to be used.317  (d) λ = tan −1 = tan −1   = 5.k. It is desired to isolate a furnace.2437 )0.3885 2  π (0. It has been decided to use springs having a wire diameter of 1 in.. weighing 47.0 in Free length 9..

300 (b) F = = = 3638 lb 13 13  8F C  ss = K  s 2   πDw  4C − 1 0.SPRINGS Dw = 1 in 3 Dm + Dw = 5 in 8 3 Dm = 4 in 8 3 4 D C = m = 8 = 4.3 3 G = 10. SECTION 4 .5 × 106 (1)) F = 3645 lb W 47.235  = 110.0)2  2 (c) “Solid Stress” = ss = 55.375)  ss = 1. Dw > in 8 8F (4.375) − 4 4. of springs = = = 13 F 3645 W 47.470 psi 1 (d) s ys ≈ 110.470 psi s ys 110.375 Dw 1 8FC 3 N c (a) δ = GDw Assume N c = 4.117 psi = 184.6 From Table AT 7.615 K= + = 1.615 K= + 4C − 4 C 4(4. Use AISI 8760. s y = 200 ksi Page 19 of 70 .375  8(3638)(4.470 sy = = = 184.0 = ( 10.3) 3 δ = 1.6 0.300 No. OQT 800 oF.3628  = 55.235 psi  π (1.375) − 1 0.3628 4(4.117 ksi 0.375) (4.5 × 106 psi .

31 4(5) − 4 5 Fig. Let the free length be between 6 and 8. Conform to good practice. subjected to a load varying from 100 lb.15 < Dw < 0.19 For oil-tempered wire. showing checks for all significant parameters. [0.075 kip 2 2 Wahl’s line 1 sms − sas 2sas = + N s ys sno 8 KFa Dm 8 KFa C sas = = πDw3 πDw2 8 KFm Dm 8 KFmC sms = = K cπDw3 K cπDw2 C =5 4C − 1 0..19 Dw . Determine the diameter of the wire and the mean diameter of the coil for a design factor of 1. to 250 lb. A spring. AF 15.175 kip 2 2 1 1 Fa = (Fmax − Fmin ) = (250 − 100 ) = 75 lb = 0.5] 47 sno = Dw0.15] 30 sno = 0. cold-wound wire.032 < Dw < 0.SPRINGS VARYING STRESS APPROACH DESIGN PROBLEMS 282. C = 5 K c = 1. Solution: Fmax = 250 lb Fmin = 100 lb 1 1 Fm = (Fmax + Fmin ) = (250 + 100 ) = 175 lb = 0.041 < Dw < 0.5 s ys = 0.1 .25 Page 20 of 70 . [0.615 K= + = 1.25 based on Wahl’s line.625] N = 1. The spring index is to be at least 5. [0. is to be made of oil- tempered.34 Dw . SECTION 4 . 87.615 K= + 4C − 4 C 4(5) − 1 0.

4 by the Wahl line. use No.5   30   0.5 and 4 in. Choose a steel and for a design factor of 1.31)(0.2857 in > 0.8 Dw 11.34 ksi Dw 1 sms − sas 2sas = + N s ys sno  2./in.175)(5) 2. The outside diameter should be between 3. A carbon-steel spring is to be subjected to a load that varies from 500 to 1200 lb. o.075)(5) 1.SPRINGS 8(1. W & M Dw = 0. approximate scale of 500 lb. find the wire diameter..75 in  16  Increase Dm 1 Dm = 1 in 2  1 Free length = 4 Dm = 41  = 6 in .19   0. 1.66 Dw = 0.25  87.2830 in 1 Dm = 1 in 2 283.31)(0.  2 Summary of answer Dw = 0.453 − 1.k. Also determine the number of active Page 21 of 70 .99 Dw1.25 72.2830 in Dm = CDw = 5(0.2830) = 1.251   2  2 2  Dw  +  Dw  = 1 1.453 sms = = (1.81 + 1.19)πDw2 Dw2 30 say sno = 0. the spring index between 5 to 10. SECTION 4 .415 in 7 say Dm = 1 in 16 Check for Free length 6 in < Free length < 8 in  7 Free length = 4 Dm = 41  = 5.251 sas = = πDw2 Dw2 8(1.251   1.15 in Table AT 15.34   Dw   Dw  1 1 1 = 1.

25] Dw 49 sno = 0.85 kip 2 2 1 1 Fa = (Fmax − Fmin ) = (1200 − 500 ) = 350 lb = 0. Table AT 17 91 s ys = 0.125)πDw3 Dw3    3.0695) 3.SPRINGS coils and the free length for squared-and-ground ends. SECTION 4 .4  91   49   0.75 − Dw ) sms = = (1.85)(3.093 < Dw < 0.3088 − 1.75 in Dm = 3. Conform to the general conditions specified in the Text.75 − Dw 8(1.35 kip 2 2 OD = 3.75 − Dw ) 1.0 in C = 5 ~ 10 Wahl’s line 1 sms − sas 2sas = + N s ys sno Figure AF 15.2 )(0.9 + 1.25 in Use Page 22 of 70 .75 − Dw = 2. Solution: For carbon steel.75 − Dw 3.75 − Dw ) 2.2 )(0.1 ksi .3088(3.85 Dw = 0. [0.0695(3.2 .5 ~ 4.35)(3. [0.1   0.093 < Dw < 0. C = 5 ~ 10 Assume K = 1.6171 in > 0.9079 Dw2.4285 Dw 22.15 ksi .4 73.0695)  1  Dw +  Dw3  = 1.75 −3 Dw  2(1.75 − Dw ) sas = = πDw3 Dw3 8(1.25] Dw Fmax = 1200 lb Fmin = 500 lb 1 1 Fm = (Fmax + Fmin ) = (1200 + 500 ) = 850 lb = 0.125 8 KFa Dm sas = πDw3 8 KFm Dm sms = K cπDw3 OD ≈ 3.15   Dw   Dw  1 3.75 − Dw  (2. K c = 1.

316 ) N c 3 N c = 10.53 60. SECTION 4 . o.25)0.4 Table AT 16.25)0.15    3.137 Dw3 Dw = 0.316 Dw  19     32  .75 − Dw = + 1.205 Dw3 1 3.k.5 ×10 ) 19 6   500 =   32 8(5.75 − Dw 3.1 49 sno = = 60.4 21.4 104.4 84.53 ksi (0. square-and-ground ends Page 23 of 70 .33 ksi (0.75 − Dw = 1.33 1 3.0695) 3.75 −3 Dw  2(1. Carbon Steel 32 Number of coils: 8FC 3 N c δ= GDw 3 G = 10. 19 Wire Diameter Dw = in .500 ksi .5935 in use 19 Dw = in 32 3 Dm + Dw ≈ 3 in 4 19 3 Dm + = 3 in 32 4 5 Dm = 3 in 32  5  3  Dm  32  C= = = 5. Dw > in 8 F GDw =k = 3 δ 8C N c (10.75 − Dw  (2.3088 − 1.SPRINGS 91 s ys = = 104.0695)  1  Dw +  Dw3  = 1 .346 Dw3 28.5 × 106 psi = 10.

316  5 8(1.8474 in   P  0.033 psi = 23.615 K= + 4C − 4 C 4(5. o.29 4(5. for an indefinite time (severe).4 in k 500 Min.53 ksi ) 3 3 ys πDw  19  π   32  284. πDm π  3 5     32   Solid stress: δ T = solid deflection = 10 − 7. compute the factor of safety as given by the Wahl line. Free length = 2. made of oil-tempered.316) − 1 0. A mean coil diameter of 2 in.3625 = 2.7625 in Use Free length = 10 in To check for pitch angle.4 + 7.3625 in = 9.3625 in  32  F 1200 δ= = = 2. (a) Using the static approach. (b) For this wire size.k. Free length = PN c + 2 Dw  19  P(10.033 ksi < s (= 104.29)(1319) 3  ss = 8 KFDm =  32  = 23.4 ) + 2  = 10  32  P = 0. Solution: Page 24 of 70 . cold-wound carbon steel. A helical compression spring.8474  λ = tan −1 = tan −1   = 4.885o < 12o .6375 in F = kδ T = (500)(2. SECTION 4 . should be satisfactory.4 + 2 )  = 7.SPRINGS Free length = PN c + 2 Dw Solid height = Dw N c + 2 Dw Total Coils = N c + 2  19  Solid height = Dw N c + 2 Dw = (10. compute a wire diameter. is to be subjected to a working load varying from 100 to 300 lb.6375) = 1319 lb 4C − 1 0.615 K= + = 1.316) − 4 5.

SECTION 4 .1 Dw0.866 ksi Dw0.25 in 6.1 ksi Dw 49 sno = 0.3 kip severe service.615 K= + 4C − 4 C Dm C= Dw D 2 Dw = m = C C      4C − 1 0.093 < Dw < 0.1 Page 25 of 70 .075 47. Fmax = 300 lb Fmin = 100 lb (a) F = 300 lb = 0. ssd = 0. For carbon steel.984 ksi (0.SPRINGS Table AT 16.1 ksi 91 Dw Max. 182 su = 0.075 2 Dw = = 0.1  π      C   C   4C − 1 0.866 ss =  + =  4C − 4 C    2 3   2  0.615  2.9  4C − 4 + C C = 233.263su = (0.3292 in > 0.866 Therefore use ssd = = 54.25] Dw 91 s ys = 0.15 ksi .25)0.1  8F C  ss = K  s 2   πDw  4C − 1 0. “solid” s ys = 0.615   8(0. [0.25] Dw Dm = 2 in.84   C = 6.263)(182) = 47.093 < Dw < 0.3)(2 ) 47. [0.1 ksi .

2 )(2)  sms = = 31.3)(2 ) ss =  + = 54.53 ksi (0.984  4C − 4 C    2 3   π    C   4C − 1 0.15 K = 1.15   21 3  π     64   8 KFa Dm sas = πDw3 Page 26 of 70 .33 ksi (0.2 kip 2 2 1 1 Fa = (Fmax − Fmin ) = (300 − 100 ) = 100 lb = 0.25 K  8Fm Dm  sms =   K c  πDw3      1.3259 in 6.1 49 sno = = 60.1 kip 2 2 Dm 2 C= = = 6.615  3  4C − 4 + C C = 287.SPRINGS      4C − 1 0.25)0. SECTION 4 .15 1 1 Fm = (Fmax + Fmin ) = (300 + 100 ) = 200 lb = 0.9   C = 6.25)0.095 Dw  21     64  Figure AF 15 K c = 1.136 2 Dw = = 0.34 ksi 1.136 21 say Dw = in 64 91 (b) s ys = = 104.25  8(0.615   8(0.

38 285. A helical spring of hard-drawn wire with a mean diameter of 1 ½ in.02 ksi   21 3  π     64   Wahl’s line 1 sms − sas 2sas = + N s ys sno 1 31. (b) How many total coils are required if the scale is 800 lb. what is the factor of safety according to Wahl line? Would it be safe for an indefinite life? Solution: Table AT 17.19 ksi Dw sno = (0.9)(30) ksi . [0.15] w Dw0.325 kip 1 Dm = 1 in 2  8 FDm  ss = K  3   πDw  Page 27 of 70 . Hard-drawn wire. SECTION 4 .1)(2)  sas = 1. and square- and-ground ends is to be subjected to a maximum load of 325 lb.15 < D < 0.2754(140 ) 38.02 2(18.19 Dw0. (a) Compute the wire diameter for average service.324 )su = 0.19 F = 325 lb = 0.SPRINGS      8(0./in.85(0.25 = 18.041 < D < 0.33 N = 1.1 sno = (0.625] w Dw0.2754 su = = ksi Dw0.02 ) = + N 104.556 (a) ssd = 0. [0. 140 su = 0.53 60.? (c) For a minimum load of 100 lb.34 Average service 0.028 < Dw < 0. [0..9)(47 ) ksi .34 − 18.19 ksi .625] Dw 70 Maximum “solid” ss = s ys = 0.

586 1 .57 Dw  21     64  4(4.19  21     64  1 Fm = (325 + 100 ) = 212.2125 kip 2 Page 28 of 70 .625 in C 4.586 21 Dw = in 64 Dm 1 .556 ss =  +  =  4C − 4 C   1.5 Dw = C      4C − 1 0.5 lb = 0.8 kip in (11.05  4C − 4 C  C = 4. Dw > 0.3271 in < 0.9)(30) = 39.5 (b) C = = = 4.500) 21  0.615 K= + 4C − 4 C 1 .8 =  64  3 84.5 ksi  21     64  sno = (0.44 ksi .57 ) − 4 4.345 4(4.5)  38.57 N c N c = 6.5    1.325)(1.615  2. SECTION 4 .57 8FC 3 N c δ= GDw F GD =k = 3 w δ 8C N c k = 800 lb in = 0.19  π      C   C   4C − 1 0.15 in 0.19 = 86.615   8(0.81  + C = 97.2 70 (c) s ys = 0.57 ) − 1 0.5 1 .SPRINGS 4C − 1 0.5  3 0.5 Dw = = = 0.615 K= + = 1.

(d) if the minimum force is 25 lb.. Solution: For carbon steel ASTM A230 Table AT 17 182 su = 0.25] Dw Medium Service ssd = 0.36 2(16.1  = 0.5) sms =   = = 25.212 .36) = + = + N s ys sno 86. (a) Determine the wire size suitable for medium service if the material is carbon steel ASTM A230.1 ksi .1 ksi = psi  Dw  Dw Dw0.1125 kip 2 K c = 1. [0.5 ksi K c  πDw3  1. AF 15 K = 1.SPRINGS 1 Fa = (325 − 100) = 112.093 < Dw < 0. [0.07 < 1. 286. [0.345  8(0.324su  182  58.25] Dw 91 s ys = 0.345 = 16.1 Page 29 of 70 .5 lb = 0.5 − 16. Determine the factor of safety of this spring according to the Wahl line (b) If the minimum force is 150 lb.36 ksi  πDw    21  3   π     64   1 sms − sas 2sas 25.1 ksi .345     K  8Fm Dm  1.15[N min ] Not safe for indefinite life. Fig.212   21  3   π     64      8Fm Dm     8(0. SECTION 4 .44 N = 1.093 < Dw < 0.968 58.1125)(1.15 ksi .093 < Dw < 0. C = 6 .2125)(1.25] Dw 49 sno = 0. A helical spring is to be subjected to a maximum load of 200 lb.324 0.5 39.968 (a) ssd = 0. (c) if the minimum force is 100 lb..5)  sas = K  3  = 1.

8 ksi Dw (0.968 ss = 1.25 in . use Dw = 0.025)(6 )  sas = K  a 2  = 1.2437 )  1 sms − sas 2sas = + N s ys sno 1 48.615 K= + = 1.2525 2 = 8.156  π (0.175 kip 2 1 Fa = (200 − 150) = 25 lb = 0.56 N = 1.1 49 49 sno = 0.SPRINGS  8 FDm  ss = K  3   πDw  4C − 1 0.2525 2 =  πDw  Dw0.2525 4(6) − 4 6 F = 200 lb  8(200)(6)  58.8 − 8. SECTION 4 .2437 in < 0.56 ksi Dw (0.1 ksi  πDw   π (0. 3 W & M Dw = 0. Factor of safety.2371 in Table At 15.1 2(8. No. o.1 Dw = 0.156 K  8FmC  1.15 ksi = ksi = 60.05 kip 2 Page 30 of 70 .15 kip 2 1 Fa = (200 − 100) = 50 lb = 0. 91 91 s ys = 0.175)(6 )  sms =  =   = 48.525 1 (b) Fm = (200 + 100) = 150 lb = 0.2525  8(0.2437 )2   8F C   8(0.8 60.2437 ) 1 (a) Fm = (200 + 150) = 175 lb = 0.2437 )0. K c = 1.025 kip 2 Figure AF 15.8 ksi K c  πDw2  1.615 K= + 4C − 4 C 4(6) − 1 0.2437 in .k.1 ksi = ksi = 104.1) = + N 104.

solid length is 4 1/8 in.156 K  8FmC  1.8 ksi Kc  πDw  1.8 60. shot-peened.2525 2 = 16. shot-peened. 6 ¼ in.11 ksi  πDw   π (0. K c = 1.. length when open..8 − 16.8 60.13.2525 2  = 28.156 K  8FmC  1. Table AT 17 Page 31 of 70 . SECTION 4 . 7 active coils.1125 kip 2 1 Fa = (200 − 25) = 87.0875)(6)  sas = K  a 2  = 1.56 N = 1.0875 kip 2 Figure AF 15.2525  8(0.5 lb = 0.15)(6 )  sms =  2  =  2 = 41. (b) Is there any danger of damage to the spring if it is compressed solid? (c) What is the natural frequency? If this spring is used on a 4-stroke Diesel engine at 450 rpm. is there any danger of surge? Compute the change of stored energy between working lengths. free length is 7 3/8 in. chrome-vanadium steel wire.36 − 28.36 ksi K c  πDw2  1. (a) Compute the spring constant and the factor of safety as defined by the Wahl criterion (see § 6. length with valve closed.2437 )  1 sms − sas 2sas = + N s ys sno 1 31.5 lb = 0.1125)(6)  sms =  =   = 31. Text).20 ) = + N 104.11) = + N 104.2437 )   8F C   8(0. K c = 1. inside diameter is 3 in. Solution: For chrome-vanadium steel wire.2437 )2   8F C   8(0.287 1 (c) Fm = (200 + 25) = 112.05)(6)  sas = K  a 2  = 1.156  π (0.156  π (0.04 CHECK PROBLEMS A Diesel valve spring is made of 3/8-in.2525  8(0.11 2(16.56 N = 1.20 2(28.2437 )  1 sms − sas 2sas = + N s ys sno 1 41.SPRINGS Figure AF 15.2 ksi π  w  D  π (0.. 5 1/8 in..

25)(100 ) ksi .33 + 118.375) = 105.85) = 231.5 × 106 )(0.437] w Dw0.25)(49) ksi .125) = 118.24 lb = 0.64)(3.5] w Dw0.33 − 118.25 in 8 8 F1 = kδ1 = (105.375 in Dm − Dw = ID = 3 in Dm = 3.33 lb 3 1 δ 2 = 7 − 6 = 1.96 ksi (0.25) = 343.166 sno = (1.5 × 106 psi Nc = 7 Dw = 0.1 ksi (0. [0. [0.028 < D < 0.166 s ys = (1.15 8FC 3 N c (a) δ = GDw F GD =k = 3 w δ 8C N c G = 11.125 in 8 4 F2 = kδ 2 = (105.437 ] Dw0.231 kip 2 1 Fa = (343.25)(49) ksi = 70.375 k = spring constant k= 3 = GDw ( 11.25)(100) ksi = 147.032 < D < 0.375 in 8 s ys = (1.11224 kip 2 K  8FmC  sms =   K c  πDw2  Page 32 of 70 .25)(168) ksi .85 lb 1 Fm = (343.375)0.SPRINGS (1.64)(1.375 in D 3.166 sno = (1.15 3 Dw = in = 0. [0. SECTION 4 .032 < D su = w < 0.375)0.64 lb in 8(9 ) (7 ) 3 8C N c 3 1 δ1 = 7 − 4 = 3.09 lb = 0.85) = 112.375 C= m = =9 Dw 0.

1 ksi  πDw   π (0. there is danger of surging.1 ksi Min.375)  There is no danger of damage (c) Natural frequency For steel 14.8 ksi Kc  πDw  1. 47 Page 33 of 70 .75) = 501.3) = + N 147.162  8(0.375)(7 ) = 2. φ = 450  = 47 cps  60  66 = 1.050 φ= cps = 66 cps (7 )(9)2 (0.4 < 12 .375)   8F C   8(0.10  π (0. SECTION 4 . “solid” ss = s ys = 147.1 70.5018)(9)  Solid stress = ss = K  2  = 1.10 K  8FmC  1.8 lb = 0.SPRINGS 4C − 1 0.375)  2  πDw  1 sms − sas 2sas = + N s ys sno 1 39.615 K= + = 1.615 K= + 4C − 4 C 4(9) − 1 0.050 Dw φ= cps N c Dm2 14.625 = 4.050 φ= cps N c C 2 Dw 14.377 (b) max. K c = 1.162 2  = 95 ksi < 147.96 N = 1.162 4(9 ) − 4 9 Figure AF 15.231)(9)  sms =  2  =  2  = 39. Solid Height = Dw N c = (0.3 2(21.3 ksi  π (0.5018 kip  8 FC   8(0.162  = 21.64)(4.8 − 21.375)  2π  For 450 rpm.625 in 3 Solid deflection = 7 − 2.75 in.11224 )(9)  sas = K  a 2  = 1. 8 F = kδ = (105.

4207 kip 2 1 Fa = (1967.3 lb 2  1 F2 = kδ 2 = (1748. (d) the change of stored energy between the working lengths. Dw > 0. [0.3) = 1420. A helical spring is hot wound from 5/8-in. is required to compress the spring 1 ¾ in to the solid heigh.31 117 ss = ksi = 35. (0.15 117 Permissible solid stress = ss = ksi . to1 1/8 in.1 ksi .5 ksi . (0. [Dw > 0. [0.31 F 3060 (a) k = = = 1748.6 )  = 874.4 ksi (0. SECTION 4 . A force of 3060 lb.SPRINGS (d) U s = 1 2 ( ) 1 [ ] k δ12 − δ 22 = (105.125) = 491 in − lb 2 2 2 289.25] Dw 91 s ys = ksi = 104.1 49 sno = 0.25 in. (e) the factor of safety if the spring is peened? Solution: For hot-wound carbon steel wire 5 Dw = in 8 Table AT 17 91 s ys = 0.375 in.25) − (1.6 )1  = 1967.25)0.33 ksi .3) = 546.7 lb = 1.625)0.4 lb = 0.3 Dw0.] § 6.75 1 F1 = kδ1 = (1748.5464 kip 2 Page 34 of 70 . Dw > 0.2 − 874.093 < Dw < 0. (a) What is the factor of safety by the Wahl criterion? (b) Is the “solid stress” safe? Compute (c) the pitch angle.6 lb in δ 1. In service the spring is compressed so that its deformation varies form ½ in.64 ) (3.25] Dw 49 sno = ksi = 60.2 + 874.093 < Dw < 0.25)0.2 lb  8 1 Fm = (1967.25 in. carbon-steel wire with an outside diameter of 3 ¼ in.15 ksi .

2)  sas = K  a 2  = 1.625)2   8F C   8(0.3808 2  = 115.615 K= + = 1.106 (b) Permissible solid stress = 135. ss = K  2  = 1.4 ksi .625)  2  πDw  1 sms − sas 2sas = + N s ys sno 1 43.625 in D 2. SECTION 4 .3808  8(1.5 − 20.625 in 8 1 Dm + Dw = 3 in 4 Dm = 2.615 K= + 4C − 4 C 4(4.7 2(20.3808  = 20.75 in 8FC 3 N c δ= GDw G = 10.2)  sms =  =   = 43.2) − 1 0.3808 4(4.5 ksi K c  πDw2  1.060)(4.625 C= m = = 4 .5464)(4.2) − 4 4.5 60.234  π (0.SPRINGS 5 Dw = in = 0.625)  3 (c) Solid deflection = 1 in 4 (P − Dw )N c = 1.234 K  8FmC  1. hot-wound F GD k= = 3w δ 8C N c Page 35 of 70 .4 ksi F = 3.33 N = 1. safe  πDw   π (0.4207 )(4.2)  Solid stress.5 × 106 psi .2 Dw 0.7 ksi  π (0.625 4C − 1 0.7 ksi < 135.7 ) = + N 104.060 kip  8 FC   8(3.2 K c = 1.

2)(0.2 ) N c 3 N c = 6.405)su = ksi Dw0.33) = 75. [0.5(104.5) = 130. coil diameter. [0.1 ksi . Determine appropriate values of wire diameter.6 ksi sno = 1.855 ssd = (0. A 10-lb.6 = (10.5) = 888 in − lb 2 2 2 (e) When peened s ys = 12. Design a hard- drawn carbon steel spring that will absorb this shock occasionally without permanent damage. and scale. free length.9014 in Pitch angle P P tan λ = = πDm πCDw P  0. Solution: For hard-drawn carbon steel.25] Dw 36.093 < Dw < 0.6 )(1.25(60.125) − (0. closed length. and then strikes a helical spring. Let C = 7 .1 ss2V Us = 4 K 2G Page 36 of 70 .7 2(20. Table AT 17 182 su = 0.4 N = 1. pitch.332 (P − 0.332) = 1. and the maximum stress under the specified conditions.50 )(0. “solid” ss = 0.1 ksi .093 < Dw < 0.24o πCDw  π (4.625)(6.5 ×10 )(0.4 ksi 1 43. body falls 10 in.9014  λ = tan −1 = tan −1   = 6.75 P = 0.25] Dw 91 Max.625) 6 8(4. SECTION 4 .7 ) = + N 130.6 75.38 ENERGY STORAGE 293.SPRINGS 1748.5 − 20.625)  (d) U s = 1 2 ( 1 ) [ ] k δ12 − δ 22 = (1748.

500) 0.855)2 π 2 (7)Dw2.SPRINGS 4C − 1 0.855πD w0.500) 2 (1.855πD w0.615 K= + = 1.9 (7 )2 (0.9C 2W 2 2 2.010)(10) (36.615 K= + 4C − 4 C 4(7 ) − 1 0. SECTION 4 .213 4(7 ) − 4 7  πD 2  V ≈  w (πDm )N c  4  π 2 Dw2 Dm N c V= 4 Dm = CDw π 2CDw3 N c V= 4 8FC 3 N c δ= GDw U s = W (h + δ )  8 FC  ss = K  2   πDw  s πD 2 F= s w 8KC  s πD 2   8C 3 N c  δ =  s w    8KC   GDw  s sπDwC 2 N c δ= KG 2 2 3  ssπDwC 2 N c  s s π CD w N c U s = W h + =  KG  16 K 2G Wh Nc = 2 2 2 ss π CDw s sπDwC 2W − 16 K 2G KG 36.10 Nc = 0.8 Page 37 of 70 .855) π CDw − 36.8 − 36.004067 D w0.213) (11.3466 Dw − 0.213)(11.855 when ss = ksi Dw0.1 Wh Nc = (36.9 2.8 16 K 2G KG Nc = ( 0.010) 16(1.

1 4.2437 in < 0.0 16.1) = 5.2437 )0.2437 in .41 in Assume squared and ground end Solid height = Dw N c + 2 Dw = (0.855π (0.0 8 0.6 10 0.2437 )(18.0 in Solid deflection = (0.1920 40.2437 )(18.1483 108.2437 )0.1055 991. N c = 18.4 Use Dw = 0.25 in .855πD w C N c 36.1 in  42.1770 53.2 7.7 9.1205 312.855 ss = = 42. 3 W & M Page 38 of 70 . No.1 37.2437 ) (7 ) (18.1 P = 0.1) = 5.4 4 0.1620 75.44 ksi (0.2 105 11 0.500) 36. W & M Dw Nc Dw N c 12 0.2070 31 6.213)(11.7059 in = 1 in 64 0. SECTION 4 .5 6 0.4 9 0.066 ) = 5.1 = = 104.1 91 91 sso = 0.2in Summary of answer: Dw = 0.7 5 0.1) + 2(0.5255 in 17 say P = = 0.2 in = 10.2 in Free length = 5.4 5.1) 0.2437 18.2437 ) = 5.8  = (2.2 7 0.2437 ) = 1.53125 − 0.1350 166.3 3 0.44  (P − Dw )N c = 5.9 2 δ= = = = 2.066 in KG KG (1.2 12.0 in + 5.9 2 s sπDwC 2 N c 36.2253 23.2437 )(18.2437)(18.SPRINGS combination of Dw and N c Gage No.53125 in 32 Minimum Solid Height = Dw N c = (0.1) = 4.1 45 Dm = 7 Dw = 7(0.1 (P − 0.1 22.8 ksi Dw (0.1 Solid deflection  104.

075 =  0.324)su = (0.85)(0. of hard-drawn steel wire.62 N c Table AT-15 W&M Dw Nc Dw N c Page 39 of 70 .2525) (11. Dm .44 ksi 294.19  = 0. free length. shock load.625] Dw 70 Max.19 ksi  Dw  Dw s 2V s 2π 2 Dw3 CN c Us = s 2 = s 4K G 16 K 2G C=6 4C − 1 0. Dw . N c . “solid” ss = 0.500) 2 0. solid stress. SECTION 4 .2525 4(6) − 4 6 U s = 75 in − lb = 0.50)(0.19   Dw  16(1.2 in Closed length = 5 in Maximum stress = 42.615 K= + 4C − 4 C 4(6) − 1 0.SPRINGS 45 Dm = 1 in 64 17 P= in 32 Free length = 10. volume of metal.19 ksi .85)(0.278  π 2 Dw3 (6)N c U s = 0.19 ksi .028 < Dw < 0. A helical spring.625] Dw  140  19. Let C = 6 .9837 = Dw2.278 ssd = (0.075 in − kip 19.615 K= + = 1. average service 140 su = 0. Decide upon satisfactory dimensions. pitch angle. [0. is to absorb 75 in-lb of energy without being stressed beyond the recommended value of average service. possibility of spring buckling.50)(0.028 < Dw < 0. Solution: For hard-drawn steel wire. [0.324) 0.

SPRINGS 9 0.4305)0.500)  82.278 ss = = 22.3938 11.3065 21.5 (P − 0. Solid Stress = sso = = 82.4305)(6) (9) 2 δ= = = 0.4305 in .89 3-0 0.583 in ≈ 2 in 16 19.19 s sπDwC 2 N c (22.16 ksi (0.328125 in ≈ 6 in  64  64 Pitch Angle Page 40 of 70 .16  Solid deflection =  (0.4305)(9 ) = 3.2437 40 9.75 2 0.7083 in 45 say P = = 0.6885) = 2.6885  7 Minimum Solid Height = Dw N c = (0.2525)(11.4305) = 2.1920 74 14.3 4.3625 14.3310 17.9 7.4305)(9) = 2.5 in  22.5 P = 0.453625  Solid stress = 22.04 3 0.4305)0.68 2-0 0.8745 in ≈ 3 in 8   45 21 Minimum Free Length = PN c =  (9 ) = 6.6885 in KG (1.61 0 0. SECTION 4 .63)(π )(0.8 5.79 7 0.63 4 0.703125 − 0.2830 26.19 70 Max.1620 116 18.1770 92 16.2253 49 11.95 3.0 5.45 5-0 0.28 6 0. 5-0 W & M Nc ≈ 9 9 Dm = 6(0.65 8 0.85 Use Dw = 0.65 ksi  0.207 61 12.2625 32.453625 in  2.4305 8.1483 146 21.075 4-0 0.63  (P − Dw )N c = 2.8 6.58 1 0.63 ksi (0.4305)(9) = 2.7 8.63  = 80.21 5 0.703125 in 64 Solid deflection = (0.

) Solution: For oil-tempered wire Table AT 17 Page 41 of 70 . no possibility 9 2 16 CONCENTRIC HELICAL SPRINGS 297. to a maximum of 50 lb. (Start with oil-tempered wire and assume a diametral clearance between the outer D spring and the cylinder of w . and free length of both springs.4305 in . determine the wire diameter. number of coils.55 in3 Possibility of spring buckling 21 6 64 = 2.SPRINGS  45  P   λ = tan −1 = tan −1  64  = 5o < 12o πDm π  2 9     16   Volume  πDw2   π (0. Two concentric helical springs are to be subjected to a load that varies from a maximum of 235 lb. assume a similar clearance between springs. Using the “static approach” for severe service (maximum load). solid length. 5-0 W & M 9 Dm = 2 in 16 Nc = 9 21 Free length = 6 in 64 Pitch Angle = λ = 5o Solid Stress = 80. No. and the deflection when compressed solid is to be approximately 1 in.47 < 4 . cylinder.. The maximum deflection is to be ¾ in. SECTION 4 . They are to fit inside a 1 5/8 in.65 ksi Volume of metal = 10. mean coil diameter.4305)2    9  V ≈  (πDm )N c =   π  2 (9 ) = 10.55 in 3  4   4    16  Summary of answer: Dw = 0. 2 Search for a suitable spring index and wire size.

5 1.398 ssd = 0. Co = Ci 3GDwo Fo = 32C 3 N co 3GDwi Fi = 32C 3 N ci  8F C  sso = K  o2   πDwo   8F C  ssi = K  i 2   πDwi  D D C = mo = mi Dwo Dwi 4C − 1 0.19 Dw0.5] Dw Severe service 0.615 K= + 4C − 4 C D Dmo − Dwo − wi = Dmi + Dwi 2 Dmo − Dmi = Dwo + 1.5 CDwo − CDwi = Dwo + 1.5] Dw0.5)Dwi Page 42 of 70 .19 ksi .032 < Dw < 0. SECTION 4 . [0.625 − wo = Dmo + Dwo 2 Dmo + 1.625 1.032 < Dw < 0. “solid” ss = 0.5Dwi (C − 1)Dwo = (C + 1.625 Dwo = C + 1 .SPRINGS 146 su = ksi .625 CDwo + 1.625C Dmo = C + 1 .5Dwo = 1.19 87.19 F = 235 lb = 0.263(146 ) 38.5 Max.263su = = ksi Dw0. [0.5Dwi D 1.5Dwo = 1.235 kip δo = δi 8FoCo3 N co 8Fi Ci3 N i = GDwo GDwi Assume.

81 15.625 Dwo = = 0.19 ksi  πDwo  Dwo 1.08Dwi Fi = KC Fo + Fi = F = 0.81 15. 8 W & M and Dwo = 0.235 kip 1. No.08  + 15.5)2 1.81 1.8631 in ≈ in 8 7   =   = 5.357 Dwo 0.328 + 1.08 = 0.328 − 1) Dwi = = 0.5)  1.3986 in ≈ 1 in 32 7 Dmi = CDwi = (5.2625) = 1.625(C − 1) Dwi = (C + 1.328 + 1.81 15.625(5.81  4C − 4 C  C = 5. No.08 Dwi = 0.625C (C − 1) Dmi = (C + 1.81 15.81 1.08 Dwo + 15.62  = 0.81 1.1509 in (5.2625 in .5) (C + 1.328 1.08Dwi + = 0.1620  13  1  = Dmo 32  Co = = 5.615  154.81   4C − 1 0. 2 W & M 13 Dmo = CDwo = (5.401 Dmi 8 Ci = Dwi 0.625(C − 1)  15. use Dwi = 0.81  1.328)(0.328)(0.5   C + 1.08Dwo 15.SPRINGS 1.2625 Page 43 of 70 .235 KC KC 1.235 KC  C + 1 .19 ksi  πDwi  Dwi 1.1620 in .5 Table AT 15.5)2  8F C  38.398 ssi = K  i 2  = 0.625  1. SECTION 4 .08Dwo Fo = KC  8F C  38.2380 in 5.398 sso = K  o2  = 0.5)2 1.1620 ) = 0.235 KC 1.5   1 (C − 1) 1.52  + 3.235 + C  (C + 1.

401 15.01 ksi < 112.275 kip > 0.82 ksi  0.19 87.615 Ko = + = 1. ok 3GDwo Fo = 32C 3 N co 3(11.357 ) 1.5 3GDwi Fi = 32C 3 N ci 3(11.82 ksi (0.287 )(5.81 15.194 = 32(5.1620)0.19 ksi .194 kip (1.1620)0.51 ksi (0.500)(0.08Dwo Fo = K o Co 4(5.287 4(5.194 + 0. Dw 87.401) Fo + Fi = 0.SPRINGS 1.65 ksi (0.398 sso = = 49.1620) 0.357 ) N co 3 N co = 9.401) − 1 0.5 Max.08(0.357 15.071 = 32(5.081 kip (1. solid stress.500)(0.19 38.2625)0.08Dwi Fi = K i Ci 4(5.357 ) − 1 5.81 15.357 ) − 1 0.2843)(5.6 87.75  Page 44 of 70 .2625) 0.401) N ci 3 N ci = 15.2625)0.1620) Fi = = 0.2843 4(5.5 sssi = = 123.19 Stress 38.08(0. SECTION 4 .235 kip .19 Solid stress  1  sso = 49.401) − 1 5.615 Ki = + = 1.398 ssi = = 54.51  = 66.2625) 1.071 = 0. sss = 0.5 ssso = = 112.26 ksi (0.81 Fo = = 0.

The larger spring has an outside diameter of 7 in. The working load on the two springs is 11. a free length of 7 1/8 in. a free length of 6 13/16 in.1620 in .43 Free Length = 3 in + 1 in = 4 in Summary of answer: Outside wire. and 7..5 + 1. and is made of a 1 ¾ in.5) = 2. Dwi = 0.2625)(9.93 Total coils = 9. No. (b) the stress in each spring when compressed solid.. (c) the stresses induced by the working Page 45 of 70 .5 in Dwi N ci = (0.6) = 2.5 + xo ) = 3 in xo = 1. .52 Dwo ( N co + xo ) = (0.1620)(15.93 = 11.000 lb..43 Solid length = 3 in Free length = 4 in Inside wire. steel bar.65 ksi  0.92 = 18. SECTION 4 .26  = 72. 8 W & M 7 Dmi = in 8 N ti = 18. helical compression springs are used on a freight car. No.350 lb.53 in assume solid length = 3 in Dwi ( N ci + xi ) = (0. Two concentric. respectively.SPRINGS  1  ssi = 54.2625)(9. The solid height of each spring is 5 ¼ in..6 + 2.2625 in . 2 W & M 13 Dmo = 1 in 32 N to = 11.1620 )(15. steel bar. and is made of 7/8 in.530 lb. Dwo = 0. Determine (a) the number of free coils in each spring.92 Total coils = 15.52 Solid length = 3 in Free length = 4 in 298.75  Solid length Dwo N co = (0. and the forces required to compress them solid are 15.6 + xi ) = 3 in xi = 2. The smaller has an outside diameter of 4 1/8 in.35 ksi < 123.

615 Ko = + = 1.091 Dwo 1.091) − 4 4.714 Page 46 of 70 .875 4(3.SPRINGS load. before the inner one takes a load.530 lb Fi = 7000 lb  8 FC  ss = K  2   πDw  3 Dmo = 7 − 1 = 5.714) − 4 3. Notice that the outer spring deflects 5/16 in.375 5.714) − 1 0. SECTION 4 .375 4(4.625 in 8 Dmo 5.714 Dwi 0.25 in 8 8 D 3.091 1 7 Dmi = 4 − = 3.393 4(4.625 Co = = = 4.091) − 1 0.875 (b) Fo = 15.442 4(3.615 Ki = + = 1.25 N Ti = =6 0.82 1.25 Ci = mi = = 3. (d) What energy is absorbed while changing deflection from that at the working load to that when the springs are compressed “solid”? Solution: ODo = 7 in 3 Dwo = 1 in 8 1 FLo = 7 in 8 1 ODi = 4 in 8 7 Dwi = in 8 13 FLi = 6 in 16 1 (a) Solid height = Dw N T = 5 in 4 5.25 N To = = 3.

SECTION 4 .375)  2  8(3076)(3.3125 + 0.350 lb δ i = 0.442  = 54.792 psi  π (0.9990 in 1 [ ] U so = (8283)(1.875)  2 (d) Energy 1 U so = ko (δ o22 − δ o21 ) 2 1 1 δ o 2 = 7 − 5 = 1.442  = 124.6865 in δ o = 0.393  = 119.3125 + δ i ) Fi + Fo = koδ o = 4480δ i + 8283(0.203 psi  π (1.516 psi  π (1.6865) = 3076 lb Fo = (8283)(0.714 )  ssi = 1.350 lb 15.427 in − lb 2 2 2 Page 47 of 70 .9990 in Fi = (4480)(0.530 ko = = 8283 lb in  1 1 7 − 5   8 4 7000 ko = = 4480 lb in  13 1 6 − 5   16 4 5 δ o − δ i = = 0.714)  ssi = 1.689 psi  π (0.999 ) = 10.9990) = 8275 lb Stresses  8(8275)(4.530)(4.375 ) 2   8(7000 )(3.3125 + δ i ) = 11.091)  sso = 1.875)  2 (b) Stresses induced by working load Fi + Fo = 11.6865 = 0.875 in 8 4 δ o1 = 0.3125 in 16 Fi = kiδ i = 4480δ i Fo = koδ o = 8283(0.875) − (0.091)  sso = 1.393  = 63.SPRINGS Solid stress  8(15.

of deflection of the end of the arm which is e = 10 in.SPRINGS 1 U si = 2 ( ) ki δ i22 − δ i21 13 1 δ i 2 = 6 − 5 = 1.3. OQT 900 oF s y = 192 ksi su = 215 ksi s ys = 0. (a) Determine its diameter and length so that no permanent set occurs due to a 30 % overload (limited by a stop). perpendicular to the centerline of the arm. Its rate should be 400 lb. D d = 3 . 300 Solution: e = 10 in For AISI 9261. long. Text.6 s y . (b) Determine the factor of safety according to the Soderberg criterion if the load varies from 1200 lb./in.2 ksi = 115.6865) = 4. (c) The same as (b) except that the bar is shot-peened all over.5625 in 16 4 δ o1 = 0.200 psi Page 48 of 70 . It is made of AISI 9261.6 s y = 115. but check with equation (c) § 6. to 1500 lb. minimum r d = 0. SECTION 4 .. What other steps may be taken to improve the fatigue strength? Problem 299.413 in − lb 2 2 2 TORSION-BAR SPRINGS 299. The support is such that bending of the bar is negligible. and the maximum repeated load is 1500 lb.6865 in 1 [ ] U si = (4480 )(1.5625) − (0.1 . Use s ys = 0. if appropriate. A torsion-bar similar to that shown is to be used for the front spring of an automobile.OQT 900 oF.

r d = 0.25(115.45)(7.5)(215) = 64.5) sas = = 7.8 (1.5 N = 1.45 K f ≈ K t = 1.500 in − lb = 13.3 = 0.625 Page 49 of 70 .30 (c) Shot-peened s ys = 1.64 ) = + N 115.3 = 117 ksi ≈ s ys Dw (1) (b) Soderberg Criterion 1 sms K f sas = + N s ys sns sns = (0.6)(0. D d = 3 K t = 1.3 ss = 0.45)(7.45 1 Fm = (1500 + 1200) = 1350 lb 2 Tm = (1350)(10) = 13.64 ksi π (1)3 1 68.5) sms = = 68.2 64.5 ksi Figure AF 12.2 ) = 144 ksi sns = 1.8 (1.SPRINGS 16T (a) ss = πd3 T = Fe = (1.6 ksi 1 68.95 in use d = 1 in 117 117 § 6.500 in − lb 16(19. SECTION 4 .200 = π d3 d = 0.5) = 80.25(64.500 ) 115.1 .6 N = 1.5 in − kips 16(13.8 ksi π (1)3 1 Fa = (1500 − 1200) = 150 lb 2 Ta = (150)(10) = 1500 in − lb = 1.64 ) = + N 144 80.5 in − kips 16(1.3)(1500)(10) = 19.

45) 3 1. 8 r d = 0. let D d = 3 . 300 Solution: Fig. The bar is d = in..SPRINGS 300.45 16T ss = πd3 16(7. Problem 299.45 1 Fm = (1000 + 500) = 750 lb 2 1 Fa = (1000 − 500 ) = 250 lb 2 Tm = (750)(10) = 7500 in − lb = 7.000)(log1.5 in − kips Ta = (250)(10) = 2500 in − lb = 2. (a) Determine the maximum stress in the bar./in. AF 12. (b) Select a material and heat treatment for this bar for a minimum N = 1.33)(19 ) = 82. in diameter and 30 in.5) sms = 3 = 57 ksi 7 π  8 16(2.5 in − kips (log K f ) 3 K fl = n = (200. the angular deflection. 7 200. arm as shown.27 ksi Page 50 of 70 . SECTION 4 . and the scale (lb.) where F is applied. The support is such that bending of the bar is negligible. A solid steel torsion bar is loaded through a 10 in.000 cycles.1 . K f = 1. Soderberg criterion. The load F perpendicular to the center-line of the arm varies from 500 to 1000 lb.5) sas = 3 = 19 ksi 7 π  8 (a) smax = sms + K fl sas = 57 + (1.33 Kf 1.2 . long.

032 < Dw < 0. the “solid stress” must be satisfactory. and the pitch angle not excessive). A spring is to be designed of square oil-tempered steel wire and subjected to a repeated maximum load of 325 lb.344su Use AISI 8760. deflection.5 ×10 6 ) 8 F 1000 scale = = = 110.SPRINGS TL 64TL θ= = JG π d 4G 64(500 )(10 )(30 ) θ min = 4 = 0.6su Page 51 of 70 .19 . [0.9066 rad 7 ( π   11. SECTION 4 .3 lb in θ e (0. (d) What amount of energy is stored when the load is 325 lb. and Btu.4533 rad 7 ( π   11. (b) the required number of active coils.085  10 6  sns = (0.5] Dw Max. OQT 800 oF s y = 200 ksi su = 220 ksi N = 1.33)(19) 1.6 s y 1 = 57 + (1. and pitch (the ends are squared and ground. 146 su = 0. (c) the solid height.5)su   = 0.344 su  200.5 ×10 6 ) 8 64(1000 )(10 )(30 ) θ max = 4 = 0. 1 ½ in.000  s ys = 0.6s y 0.9066)(10) 1 sms K f sas (c) = + N s ys sns 0. Determine (a) the wire size for average service..24 HELICAL SPRINGS – NON CIRCULAR SECTION 301.6 )(0. “solid” ss = 0. 13/32 in.? Express in in-lb. Solution: For oil-tempered wire. mean coil diameter.. free length.2 0.

19 F = 0.19 109.8t ) 2.275  = 48.34) = 0.4 FDm 0.5) ss = Kq   = 1. t = b K FD (3b + 1.275 2.44(11. K q = 1.313 Figure AF 15.324(146 ) 1. use b = 0.2 ksi (0.45FDm3 N c (b) δ = = Gt 3 (b − 0.2902 in Table AT 15.6(146 ) solid stress = = = 109. b = Dw .65 ksi  (0.SPRINGS (a) average service.8 b 0.92 in Free length = PN c + 2b F = 0.19   b = 0.325 lb  2.25 b3 = b 0.4(0.325)(1.5) 0.313)4 N c = 7.324su .65  32  (P − b )N c = 0.44Gb 4 13 2.4 FDm ss= q m 2 2 = Kq 2b t b3 s sd = 0.325 kip 1 Dm = 1 in 2 K q = 1.34 + 2) = 2.313 in . # 1 wire size D 1 .325)(1.325)(1.500 )(0.45 FDm3 N c 2.91 (P − 0.91 in 48.5 C= m = = 4 .25 (assumed)  2.313)0. average service 2.313)(7.437 in Page 52 of 70 .324(146 ) Kq = 2b 3 b 0.2  13  solid deflection = =   = 0.45(0.4(0.56t ) 0. SECTION 4 .5) N c 3 = 32 0.4 FDm   2.34 (c) Solid height = b( N c + 2) = 0.313) 3 3  b   0.313(7.91 P = 0.

is to deflect 1 in. 5/32 in. (a) if the wire is round. (c) if the wire is rectangular 1/8 x 3/16 in. A coil spring. 5/32 in.or rectangular-wire to round wire spring? Solution: Dm + Dw = 1 in 5 (a) Dw = in 32 5 27 Dm = 1 − = in 32 32  27    Dm  32  C= = = 5.5) λ = 5. on the side.. long dimension parallel to the axis. in diameter.3 Page 53 of 70 . SECTION 4 ..313) = 3. short dimension parallel to the axis. of hard-drawn carbon steel.325)  = 0. Compute the number of active coils.085 Btu 778 302.4 Dw  5     32  8FC 3 N c δ= GDw 8(100 )(5.837 in ≈ 3 in  16  32 7   =   P 16 tan λ = πDm π (1. (e) What is the maximum stress in each of the above springs under the 100-lb load? (f) What is the ratio of the approximate volumes.4 ) N c 3 1=  5  ( 11.5 × 10 6  )  32  N c = 14.34 ) + 2(0.SPRINGS 7 use P = in 16 7 27 Free length = PN c + 2b =  (7. (d) If the wire is rectangular 3/16 x 1/8 in. square. (b) if the wire is square. The outside coil diameter is to be 1 in.3o < 10o 1 2 1 1  13  (d) U s = kδ = Fδ = (0. under a load of 100 lb.066 in − kip = 66 in − lb 2 2 2  32  66 Us = = 0.

56   8  16  8  N c = 16.5 (e) Maximum Stress Page 54 of 70 . SECTION 4 .5 × 10 6    − 0.56t ) 3  13  2.45 FD m3 N c δ= 0.45FD m N c δ= 3 Gt (b − 0.5 × 10 6    − 0.45(100 )  N c 1=  16  3  3  1  3  ( ) 11. b = in 32 5 27 Dm = 1 − = in 32 32 2.5 × 10    32  N c = 20.56t ) 3 7 2.5 3 1 (c) b = in .SPRINGS 5 (b) Square.45(100 )  N c 1= 8 3 1  3  1  ( ) 11. t = in 8 16 3 13 Dm = 1 − t = 1 − = in 16 16 3 2.1 1 3 (d) b = in .44 11.45FD m N c δ= 3 Gt (b − 0. t = in 16 8 1 7 Dm = 1 − t = 1 − = in 8 8 3 2.56   16   8  16  N c = 11.44Gb 4 3  27  2.45(100)  N c 1=  32  4 6  5  ( ) 0.

SECTION 4 .8t ) For (d) ss = K q 2b 2t 2  13    Dm  16  C= = = 4.8t ) 2.615 K= + = 1.284 4(5.355 psi   5  3        32   FD m (3b + 1.4     8(100)(5.1  7   (100)   ss = 1.8 1  = 68.4 b  5     32  K q = 1.4 FD m For (b) ss = K q 2 2 = Kq 2b t b3  27    Dm  32  C= = = 5.25   27    2.4) − 4 5.992 psi       3   1  2    16  2  8   2       16   8   FD m (3b + 1.4(100)   ss = 1.320 psi   5 3   π     32   FD m (3b + 1.8t ) For (c) ss = K q 2b 2t 2 7   C = m =   =7 D 8 t 1   8 K q = 1 .4) − 1 0.4)  ss = 1.284 = 72.25  32   = 66.33 t 3    16  Page 55 of 70 .SPRINGS 8 FC For (a) ss = K π Dw3 4(5.1  8   3 3  + 1.

SECTION 4 .327 = b = = 1.037 in3  16  8    8  For (d) rectangular wire Vd = bt (π Dm )N c  1  3    13  Vd =    π   (11.727 in 3  4  32     32  For (b) Square wire Vb = b 2 (π Dm )N c 2  5    27  Vb =   π   (20.2  16   3 1  + 1.688 in 3  8  16    16  Ratio of volume Square to round wire V 1.5) = 0.327 in 3  32    32  For (c) rectangular wire Vc = bt (π Dm )N c  3  1    7  Vc =    π   (16.825 Va 0.8 3  = 63.5) = 1.688 = d = = 0.232 psi       1   3  2    8  2  16   2       8   16   (e) Ratio of the approximate volumes For (a) Round wire π  Va =  Dw2 (π Dm )N c 4   π  5  2    27  Va =     π   (14.1) = 1.727 Rectangular to round wire (short dimension parallel to the axis) V 0.727 Rectangular to round wire (long dimension parallel to the axis) V 1.426 Va 0.727 Page 56 of 70 .946 Va 0.3) = 0.037 = c = = 1.2   13    (100)   ss = 1.SPRINGS K q = 1 .

25 Dw = C +1 § 6.21. including wire diameter.8(87.SPRINGS TENSION SPRINGS 305.25 in 1. assume oil tempered wire 146 su = 0.19 = 0.2 8 K cFi Dm 8 K cFa Dm ss = + π Dw3 π Dw3 8 K cFaC s s = K c si + π Dw2 OD = Dm + Dw = 1. assume K c = 1.19 ksi Dw 0. number of coils.5] Dw Dw F = Fi + kδ 8 K cFDm ss = π Dw3 2r D C= m = m Dw Dw 8FaC 3 N c δ= G Dw GD k = 3w 8C N  G D  8F C N c  3 kδ =  3 w  a = Fa  8C N  GDw  Fa = 100 lb = 0. [0.19 ksi . and the total length including end loops must not exceed 9 ½ in.5) 70 ssd = 0. Each spring supports a maximum load of 100 lb. and free length.032 < Dw < 0. Solution: Table AT 17.5 s ys = 0. Design two tension springs for a spring balance with a capacity of 200 lb. assume si = 18 ksi ssd = ss Page 57 of 70 .19 ksi Dw 87. SECTION 4 . Select a material and determine the dimension.10 kip Figure AF 15. The outside diameter must not exceed 1 ¼ in.

1620 ) = 1. Fig.15(17.19 = (1.1623 in C + 1 6 .15 8(1. (0.1(C + 1) − 0. The capacity of the scales is 30 lb.2 )(18) + Dw π Dw2 70(C + 1) 8(1. o.SPRINGS 70 8(1.7 + 1 Table AT 15.0 C= m = = 6.1(C + 1) = 21. The springs are made of No. 29/32 in.0 in D 1 .18 in.1)C 0.7 ksi To check.10 )(6.17 Dw 0.1620 si = 17.0 + 0.19 Total length = Dw N c + 2(Dm + Dw ) 9.162)N c + 2(1.6 + (1. W & M steel wire.1620)0.1956C (C + 1) 0. oil-tempered wire Dw = 0.1)C (C + 1) 0. outside diameter. 8 W & M N c = 44.1620 in . 306. use Dw = 0. 8 W & M Dm = CDw = (6. with a deflection of 3 9/16 in.6 + 0.2 )(0.. Two helical tension springs are to be used in scales for weighing milk.7 )(0. (a) how many coils should each spring have? (b) What is the maximum stress in the wire? What material should be used? Page 58 of 70 .18 in Summary of answer: Material.3) = 7.19 2 C = 6 .25 Dw = = = 0.25 1. 14.25)0.15)(0.92 ksi > 89.1620)2 70 ssd = = 98.k.6 0.1620 in .7 ) + = 89.7 1.1956C (C + 1) = 21.3 coils Free length = 7.3 coils Free length = Dw N c = (0. AF 15.085 in say Dm = 1.19 2 = 21.1620)(44.2 )(0. K c = 1.20 ksi .20 ksi π (0.19 π (1.19 2 67. SECTION 4 .162) N c = 44.5 = (0.25)2 67. each spring carries 15 lb.17 ) ss = 1.

19 307.8 (b) F = Fi + kδ π si Dw3 Fi = 8Dm § 6.09 )(17.5 ×106 (0.743 + 15 = 17. No.82625 C= m = = 10.82625) F = 2.82625) ss = = = 79. K c = 1.8 0 . When the spring is extended to a length of 6 5/16 in.82625 in 32 D 0. A tension spring for a gas-control lever is made of Dw = 0.080) ) N c = 24.476 s ys ≈ s = = 99.328 si = 11. SECTION 4 . it must exert a force 5 ½ lb.476 psi πDw3 π (0.345 psi = 99.743)(0.8 Table AT 17.080)3 s 79.080)0..328) N c 3 3 = ( 16 11.078 in steel wire.SPRINGS Solution: kδ = 15 lb 9 δ = 3 in 16 (a) Table AT 15.21.19 = = 113 ksi > 99.0800 = 0. use Hard drawn wire 70 70 s ys = 0. it must extend to (a) the initial tension. 5 9/16 in. number of coils.609 in.328 Dw 0.. free length including end loops.09 8 K c FDm 8(1. 0.272 psi π (11.743 lb 8(0.345 ksi 0 .272)(0. (b) the stress in the spring caused by the initial tension (compare with the recommended Page 59 of 70 .345 ksi Dw (0. 55.743 lb Figure AF 15. inside diameter.0800 in 29 Dm = OD − Dw = − 0.0800 8(kδ )C 3 N c δ= GDw 9 8(15)(10..08)3 Fi = = 2. 14 W &M Dw = 0. C = 10.

244 = 3.687 in D 0.078) kδ = 2.75 in 16 16 8(kδ )(8.5 × 106 (0.687 C= m = = 8 .SPRINGS maximum values).284 psi π (0.078)2 (d) maximum stress kδ 2. (d) the maximum stress. C = 8.256 )(8.8) ss = = 22.000 psi . (c) the stress caused by the 5 ½-lb load.256 lb 8 F C 8(3.5 − 2.5)(8.8 si = 13.609 + 0.8) (b) si = i 2 = = 12. ok (c) F = 5.? (Data courtesy Worthington Corporation.21.244 k= = = 2.078 in Dm − Dw = 0.300 psi > 12.1)(5.244 lb (a) Fi = F − kδ = 5.992 lb in δ 0.1 8(1. SECTION 4 .75 Page 60 of 70 .078 = 0. What material should be used? (e) What energy is absorbed from the point where the load is the initial tension until the spring’s length is 6 5/16 in.8) (5) 3 δ = 0.5 lb 8 K c FC ss = π Dw2 C = 8 .078 N c = 55 8FC 3 N c δ= GDw 1 F = 5 lb 2 5 9 δ = 6 − 5 = 0.75 = ( ) 11.) Solution: Dw = 0.8 Figure AF 15 K c = 1.609 in Dm = 0.8 Dw 0.078)2 § 6.000 psi π Dw π (0.

(c) the energy the spring has absorbed when the force is 55 lb.1 KMc (a) ss = I For round wire.476 )(8. Solution: T = M = Fa F = 55 lb a = 2 in T = M = (55)(2) = 110 in − lb Dm = 2.093 < Dw < 0. Compute (a) the diameter of the wire for average service.25] Dw Average service  182  117.19 1 2 1 kδ = (2.300 psi = 73.8415 in − lb 2 (e) U s = 2 2 TORSION SPRINGS 308.8 0 .078)0. su = 0.3 ksi 0 . (b) the number of coils for a deflection of 180o under the given torque.405)su = 0.992 )(0.75) = 0.936 sd = (1.078)2 Table AT 16 s 58.476 lb 8 K c FC 8(1.1 ksi .08 . at a radius of 2 in.658 ksi > 73..75) = 14.256 + (2.648 0. Table AT 18 D c= w 2 Page 61 of 70 .5 in 182 Table AT 17.1)(14.992)(3. SECTION 4 .SPRINGS F = kδ ′ 5 9 δ ′ = 9 − 5 = 3.651 psi π Dw2 π (0. the mean diameter is to be 2 ½ in.1  = 0.8 Table AT 17. A carbon-steel (ASTM A230) torsion spring is to resist a force of 55 lb.19 = = 113. use Hard drawn wire 70 70 s ys = 0.3 ksi Dw (0. [0. assume K c = K ci = 1.6 )(0.1 ksi = psi  Dw  Dw Dw0.75 in 16 16 F = Fi + kδ ′ = 3.936 117.651 s ys ≈ s = = 73.8) ss = = = 58.

use Dw = 0. 5 W & M. K = 1.936 π Dw3 Dw0. OQT 1000 oF su = 184 ksi Page 62 of 70 .29 1 1 (c) U s = Tθ = (110 )(π ) = 172.054 psi > 136. ok c Dw 0.1 Dw = 0.2070 in MπDm N c (b) θ = EI 6 E = 30× 10 psi π Dw4 I= 64 θ = 180o = π 64 MDm N c θ= EDw4 64(110 )(2 )N c π= (30 ×106 )(0. as the follower oscillates through 30o.2070 in .2060 in < 0. use No.2070 )3 117. The moment exerted by the spring varies from 20 lb-in to 50 lb-in.936 ssd = = 138.08)(110)(32) = 117.75 based on the Soderberg line? Would this be a conservative or risky approach? Solution: AISI 6152. No. OQT 1000 oF.66 > 9 . A pivoted roller follower is held in contact with the cam by a torsion spring.430 psi (0.2070 Table AT 18.430 psi π (0. What should be the value of Dw . SECTION 4 .25 in Table AT 15. Dw = 0.2070)4 N c = 12.SPRINGS I π Dw3 = c 32 ss = (1.08 ss = (1.08)(110)(32) = 136. 5 W & M r D 2 To check: = m = = 9.1 Therefore.2070)0. The spring is made of AISI 6152 steel. Dm .8 in − lb 2 2 312. and N c if the factor of safety is 1.

1920)3 32(15)K sa = = 21. use Dw = 0.08)(35) 385 sm = = = 3 psi πDw3 πDw3 Dw 32 KM a 32(1.0868 r Dm = = 9.000 Dw 92.875 in 8 ∆MπDm N c 64∆MDm N c ∆θ = = EI EDw4 30π 64(50 − 20 )(1.369 K psi π (0.32 > 9 .1920)4 N c = 5.75 173.587 K = + 1.1920 in .5su = 92 ksi 1 M m = (50 + 20 ) = 35 lb − in 2 1 M a = (50 − 20 ) = 15 lb − in 2 assume K = 1.7894 in 7 use Dm = 1 in = 1. 6 W & M Page 63 of 70 .SPRINGS s y = 173 ksi sn = 0.1920) = 1.75 173.0868 Table AT 18 K ci = K = 1.000 Dw3 3 Dw = 0.1920 in .08)(15) 165 sa = = = 3 psi πDw3 πDw3 Dw 1 s m sa = + N s y sn 1 385 165 = + 1. No.875)N c = 180 (30 ×106 )(0.1920)3 1 50.369 K 20.000 K = 1.1916 in Table AT 15.000 92. 6 W & M To solve for K 32(35)K sm = = 50.587 K psi π (0. ok c Dw Dm = 9.93 Summary of answer: Dw = 0.08 32 KM m 32(1.32(0. SECTION 4 . No.

. (b) Determine the deflection of the spring for each set of values found in (a). Fig.000 psi 1 Us = Fδ 2 s bh 2 F= B 6L  s bh 2  L3 s B L2 δ = 6 B  3 =  6 L  Ebh Eh 1  s bh 2  s B L2  1  s B2 bhL  U s =  B  =   2  6 L  Eh  12  E  U s = 500 ft − lb = 6000 in − lb Page 64 of 70 . Table AT 9 s B = 0. s y = 104 ksi ..5(104 ) = 52 ksi = 52. OQT 900 o F. 48 in. 6/20 6 FL sB = bh 2 6 FL3 δ= Ebh3 AISI 1095.4 . (a) Find the width b of the spring at the widest point in terms of the length L . Determine values of b for lengths of 36 in.93 . Fig. Text. and 72 in. 6. therefore conservative.SPRINGS 7 Dm = 1 in 8 N c = 5. be ½ in.20. A cantilever flat spring of uniform strength. AISI 1095. SECTION 4 .. FLAT AND LEAF SPRINGS 315.5s y = 0. N > 1. Let the thickness of the steel. Solution. and let the maximum stress be half of the yield strength. is to absorb an energy impact of 500 ft-lb. 60 in. OQT 900 oF.

6 in 60 in 1598 in 2 L = 72 in . b = = 44.2 in 72 in s B L2 (b) δ = Eh L = 36 in . b = = 26. Text.000)(72 ) 2 = 17. .000)2 b 1  L 6000 = 1 2 12 30 × 106 bL = 1598 in 2 1598 in 2 b= L 1598 in 2 L = 36 in .9872 in 6 1 ( 30 ×10   ) 2 L = 60 in . One of the carbon contacts on a circuit breaker is mounted on the free end of a phosphor-bronze beam ( µ = 0.48 in 6 1 ( 30 ×10   ) 2 L = 72 in . b = = 33. (b) the maximum stress. L = 4 in. This beam has the shape of the beam 9 1 1 shown in Fig. δ = (52.SPRINGS (52. δ = (52. and h = in. with b = 1 in.3 in 48 in 1598 in 2 L = 60 in . b′ = in. the beam deflects ¾ in. 6.000 )(60 ) 2 = 12.24.9712 in 6 1 ( 30 × 10   ) 2 317. δ = ( 52.4928 in 1 ( 30 × 10  6 ) 2 L = 48 in . SECTION 4 . . b = = 22.35 ). Compute (a) the force on the contacts. .000 )(36 ) 2 = 4. Solution: Page 65 of 70 . 16 2 16 When the contacts are closed.000 )(48) 2 = 7.4 in 36 in 1598 in 2 L = 48 in . δ = (52.

(c) The same as (b). except that the surface is peened all over. long is to support a load of 175 lb.24 6 FL 3WL s= 2 = bh bh 2 δ= 1 ( K FL3 1 − µ 2 ) ( K WL3 1 − µ 2 = 1 ) 3EI 6 EI 9   b′  16  = = 0.5) (b) s = = 2 = 55.296 psi bh 2 1 (1)   16  318. 3/16 in.5625 b 1 Figure 6.SPRINGS Figure 6.14 )F (4. (a) How many leaves should be used if the surfaces are left as rolled? (b) The same as (a) except that the leaves are machined and the surfaces are not decarburized. SAE 9255 steel. SECTION 4 . Text. The leaves are to be 2 in. OQT 1000 oF.14 (a) Force on contacts = F δ= 1 ( K FL3 1 − µ 2 ) 3EI E = 16× 106 psi (phosphor bronze) bh3 as a beam.35) 2 ] 3 4 (16 ×106 )(1) 161    F = 8 lb 6 FL 6(8)(4. wide. K1 = 1.5) 1 − (0. thick. (d) Which of these springs absorbs the most energy? Compute for each: (e) What are the load and deflection of the spring in (b) when the maximum stress is the standard-test yields strength? Solution: Figure 6. The construction is similar to that shown in Fig. 6. A cantilever leaf spring 26 in. I = 12 δ= 1 ( 4 K FL 1 − µ 2 3 ) Ebh 3 = 3 [ 3 4(1. 107 cycles (§ 6.22 (a) 6 FL sA = 2 bh Page 66 of 70 .22 (a).25.26).

75) = 23 ksi = 23.275 sd = 0. SECTION 4 .000 psi 6 FL sA = 2 bh 6(175)(26 ) 23.75(83.800 psi 6 FL sA = 2 bh 6(175)(26 ) 62.275(83.2 say N1 = 7 (c) Peened surface.75 ksi (a) As rolled.88 say N1 = 17 (b) Machined.8 ksi = 62.26. SAE 9255. Figure AF 5 Surface factor = 0.SPRINGS 6 FL3 δA = Ebh3 b = N1b′ F = 175 lb b′ = 2 in 3 h = in 16 L = 26 in § 6. Figure AF 5 Surface factor = 0.1875 in 16 sd = 83.800 = 2 3 N 1 (2 )   16  N1 = 6.000 = 2 3 N 1 (2 )   16  N1 = 16. OQT 1000 oF su = 180 ksi s y = 160 ksi 3 t= in = 0.75 sd = 0.75) = 62. (b) Page 67 of 70 .

25(62.5 ksi = 78.666 in  3  ( ) 30 ×10 6 (7 )(2 )   16  1 U s = (175)(6.745) = 240 in − lb 2 For (b) N1 = 7 6(175)(26 ) 3 δ= 3 = 6.666 ) = 583 in − lb 2 For (c) N1 = 5 6(175)(26 ) 3 δ= 3 = 9. N1 = 7 (b) Page 68 of 70 .SPRINGS sd = 1.745 in 3 ( ) 30 × 10 (17 )(2 )  6  16  1 U s = (175)(2.332 in 3 ( ) 30 × 10 (5)(2 )  6  16  1 U s = (175)(9. SECTION 4 .332 ) = 817 in − lb 2 answer – spring (c) (e) sd = s y = 160 ksi .500 psi 6 FL sA = 2 bh 6(175)(26 ) 78.500 = 2 3 N 1 (2 )   16  N1 = 4.95 say N1 = 5 1 (d) U s = Fδ 2 F = 175 lb 6 FL3 δ= EN1b′h 3 For (a) N1 = 17 6(175)(26 ) 3 δ= 3 = 2.8) = 78.

and a width of 2 in. The length of the spring is 56 in. the number of applications of the maximum load expected during the ordinary life of a car? (If the leaves are cold rolled to induce a residual compressive stress on the surfaces. (c) What approximate repeated maximum force (0 to Fmax ) would cause impending fatigue in 105 cycles. OQT 1000 oF. 6. SECTION 4 . the endurance limit as su 2 should be conservative. Assume the spring to have the form shown in Fig. k = = δA 3L3 k= = ( ) 8 EN1b′h 3 8 30 × 10 6 (9 )(2 )(0.000 = 2 (7 )(2) 3   16  load F = 505 lb 6(505)(26 ) 3 δ= 3 = 19.590 psi 2(9 )(2 )(0. and the total weight on the spring is 1300 lb.242 ) 3 = 116. Determine (a) the rate of the spring.242 in N1 = 9 b′ = 2 in L = 56 in F 8Ebh3 (a) Rate .22 (b) 3FL sA = 2bh 2 3FL3 δA = 8Ebh 3 F = 1300 lb h = 0.22 (b). Text. material is SAE 9261..) Solution: Figure 6.242 ) 2 2 2 N1b′h Page 69 of 70 .242 in.SPRINGS 6 FL 6 FL sd = 2 = bh N1b′h 2 6 F (26 ) 160.21lb in 3(56 ) 3 3L3 3FL 3(1300 )(56 ) (b) s A = = = 103. each with an average thickness of 0. The rear spring of an automobile has 9 leaves.24 in 3 ( ) 30 × 10 (7 )(2 )  6  16  319. (b) the maximum stress caused by the dead weight.

(a) What stress is caused by a force of twice the dead weight? (b) What load would stress the spring to the yield strength? Solution: Figure 6.740 psi (6)(2)(0.213)2 W = 1613 lb . b′ = 2 in . h = 0.end - Page 70 of 70 . Text.213 in 36 in L= = 18 in 2 (a) W = 2(775) = 1550 lb 3(1550 )(18) s= = 153.242 ) 2 F = 1200 lb 321. OQT 1000 oF.000 = (6)(2)(0. material is SAE 9255.213)2 (b) SAE 9255.213 in. OQT 1000 oF su = 192 ksi 192 sn = = 96 ksi 2 3FL sA = 2 N1b′h 2 3F (56 ) 96.000 = 2(9 )(2 )(0. N1 = 6 .23. The front spring of an automobile is made similar to Fig. OQT 1000 oF s y = 160 ksi 6 FL 3WL 3WL s= 2 = 2 = bh bh N1b′h 2 3W (18) 160. SECTION 4 . 6.SPRINGS (c) SAE 9261. The average thickness for each of the 6 leaves.23 6 FL 3WL 3WL s= 2 = 2 = bh bh N1b′h 2 W = 775 lb .. 0. The load caused by the weight of the car is 775 lb.

centrally loaded with 10 kips. (b) L = 50 in. . Johnson   Le   2  sy    Fc = NF = s y A1 −  2   k  4π E      2 πD A= 4 D k= 4 E = 30 × 103 ksi    2       (48) 25 D         2 (3)(10) = (48) πD 1 − 2  4  3   (  4   4π 30 ×10 )         4  30 = 12πD 2 1 − 2 2   π D  48 30 = 12πD 2 − π D = 1. Determine the diameter for (a) L = 25 in. SECTION 5 – COLUMNS DESIGN PROBLEMS 334.B. (c) The same as (a) and (b) except that the material is AISI 8640. OQT 1000 F.as rolled s y = 48 ksi F = 10 kips N =3 (a) Le = L = 25 in. Is there any advantage in using this material rather than structural steel? Solution: For AISI C1020. as rolled. A round steel rod made of structural steel.096 in 1 say D = 1 in = 1.0625 in 16 Page 1 of 18 . is to be used as a column. Consider first J. AISI C1020. N = 3 .

SECTION 5 – COLUMNS Le 25 = = 94 < 120 ∴ o.5 in 2 Le 50 = = 133 > 120 ∴ o. Consider first J.B. OQT 1000 F s y = 150 ksi 1 Le  2π 2 E  2 = k  s y  1 ( Le  2π 2 30 × 103  2 ) = k  150  = 62.k.1875π D D = 1.5     4  (c) For AISI 8640. Johnson   Le   2  sy    Fc = NF = s y A1 −  2   k  4π E      Page 2 of 18 .83  For (a) Le = L = 25 in.k. k  1 . Consider Euler’s Equation π 2 EA Fc = NF = 2  Le    k   πD 2  ( π 2 30 ×103  ) 4   (3)(10 ) =  2    50     D   4 3 4 30 = 0. k  1.507 in 1 say D = 1 in = 1.0625     4  (b) Le = L = 50 in.

25 in Le 25 = = 80 > 62.25     4  π 2 EA Fc = NF = 2  Le    k   πD 2  ( π 2 30 ×103 ) 4   (3)(10) =  2    25     D   4  3 4 30 = 0.0625     4  For (b) Le = L = 50 in.0625 in 16 Le 25 = = 94 > 62.75 30 = 37.5πD 2 − π D = 1.83 ∴ ok k  1. SECTION 5 – COLUMNS    2       (150) 25 D         2 (3)(10) = (150) πD  1 − 2  4  3   (  4   4π 30 ×10 )         12.5πD 2 1 − 2 2   π D  468.83 ∴ use Euler’s equation k  1.75π D D = 1.5  30 = 37.0657 in 1 say D = 1 in = 1.23 in say D = 1. Consider Euler’s Equation π 2 EA Fc = NF = 2  Le    k  Page 3 of 18 .

k  1 .033556 Do4 A= = [ π (Do2 − Di2 ) π Do2 − (0. A hollow circular column.75Do .343612 Do2 Page 4 of 18 .1875π D D = 1. (c) What factor of safety is given by the secant formula for the dimensions found in (a)? Solution: For AISI C1020.75Do )2 ] = 0.507 in 1 say D = 1 in = 1. as rolled. made of AISI C1020.75Do I k= A π (Do4 − Di4 ) I= 64 [ 4 ] = π Do4 − (0.83 ∴ o. as rolled s y = 48 ksi Le = L = 40 in F = 10. SECTION 5 – COLUMNS  πD 2  π 2 (30 ×103 )  (3)(10) =  4  2    50     D   4 3 4 30 = 0. Determine Do by (a) using either Euler’s or the parabolic equation.343612 Do2 4 4 0.5 in 2 Le 50 = = 133 > 62. Di = 0.033556 Do4 k= = 0.3125Do 0. is to support a load of 10.000 lb = 10 kips N =3 Di = 0.5     4  There is no advantage. Let L = 40 in .k. 335. and N = 3 . (b) using the straight- line equation.75Do ) = 0.000 lb. structural steel.

343612)Do2 1 −  2 4 3     ( 4π 30 × 10 )        30 = 16.625) (c) Secant formula NF  ec  Le NF   sy = 1 + sec  A  k 2  2k EA  Do = 1.000 − 70 A k 10.000  40  2 = 16.000 = 5498 Do2 − 3078 Do Do = 1.k. k 0.3125Do = 0.625 in 8 Le 40 = = 78.5625) (b) Straight-line equation F L = 16.k. SECTION 5 – COLUMNS (a) Consider parabolic equation   Le   2  sy    Fc = NF = s y A1 −  2   k  4π E         2    25    (48)     0.4883 in A = 0.3125(1.000 − 70  0.3125(1. k 0.8 < 120 ∴ o.5625 in 16 Le 40 = = 82 < 120 ∴ o.3125Do   (3)(10) = (48)(0.576 in 9 say Do = 1 in = 1.343612 Do2 = 0.3125 Do  10.5625 in k = 0.493376 Do2 − 10.8389 in 2 Page 5 of 18 .6574 in 5 say Do = 1 in = 1.343612 Do  0.9519 Do = 1.

92 N 1 + 0. Johnson   Le   2  sy    NF = s y A1 −  2   k  4π E        72   2  (48)   (2. It is 6 ft long and centrally loaded to 80. into a square box-section.74)(80) = (48)A 1 − 2  k  3    4π (30 ×10 )     10. AISI C1020. (i7.74 .B.74.000 lb.74 Consider J.8389)   [ ( 48 = 11.81645 N )] N = 2.000 lb = 80 kips (a) N = 2.085 A 219.8) k2 N (10)   40 10 N   1 + 0.. Solution: For AISI C1020. (b) Compute N from the secant formula for the size found and compare with 2.25 sec 0.289 336. SECTION 5 – COLUMNS ec = 0. (a) Determine the size of section for N = 2.2 = 48 A − k2 Page 6 of 18 .25 sec  48 = 0.25 . A column is to be built up of ½-in. rolled-steel plate s y = 48 ksi 4 4 b 4 (b − 1) b 4 − (b − 1) I= − = 12 12 12 2 A = b − (b − 1) 2 4 I b 4 − (b − 1) k= = A [ 12 b 2 − (b − 1) 2 ] Le = L = 6 ft = 72 in F = 80.4883) (30 ×103 )(0. rolled-steel plates.8389   2(0.

46)  [ ( 48 = 14.23 − 1) = 5. welded into an I-section as shown in Table AT 1 with G = H .1331) (30 ×103 )(5.23) − (3.46 in 2 10.46 ) 219. The column.25 sec 0. (c) Compute N from the secant formula. (a) Determine the cross-sectional dimensions from the straight-line equation.2 < 2. (i7.23) − (3.1331 in 12[(3.70214 N )] N = 2. SECTION 5 – COLUMNS try b = 3.085(5. compute the equivalent stress and the factor of safety.23 − 1) ] 2 2 2 2 A = b 2 − (b − 1) = (3.23 in 4 4 (3.23) − (3. as rolled s y = 48 ksi Le = L = 15 ft = 180 in F = 125 kips Page 7 of 18 . is to support a load of 125 kips. A column is to be made of ½-in structural steel plates (AISI 1020.74 337.652 N 1 + 0.23 in Le 72 = = 63.25 sec  48 = 5. 15 ft long.25 . (Using either Johnson’s or Euler’s equation.2 = 48(5.k. Solution: For AISI C1020.1331)2 Therefore use b = 3.1331 1 b = 3. k 1.23 in or b = 3 in 4 NF  ec  Le NF   (b) s y = 1 + sec  A  k 2  2k EA  ec = 0.8) k2 N (80)   72 80 N   1 + 0.54 < 120 ∴ o.46 ) − = 219.23 − 1) k= 2 = 1.46   2(1. as rolled).2 ok (1.

5)(H − 1) = H 2 − H 2 − 1.37 )4 − (7.37 in 3 Or H = 7 in = 7.37 ) − 1] = 10. SECTION 5 – COLUMNS Table AT 1. Johnson.37 in k= (7. G=H ( ) A = GH − gh = H 2 − (H − 0.81  3.B.37 − 1)3 = 3.04527  Therefore use H = 7.5H + 0.555 1 −  3.8 ksi   Le   2   180   2  sy     (48)    A 1−  k    10.5)(7.5 = 0.5)(H − 1) k=   =  = 12  GH − gh  12  0.5H − 0.5(3H − 1) 1  GH 3 − gh3  1  H 4 − (H − 0. e = = 59 < 120 k 3.0044   k  125.5 = 1.8125 = A1 −   k  use H = 7.000 A1 − 0.555 in  0.5[3(7.37 ) − 1) A = 0.0044 (180)  k   0.792  7.792  7.8125 ≈ 10.375 in 8 L 180 (b) Consider J.04527 in 6(3(7.000 A1 − 0.5(3H − 1)  6(3H − 1) (a) Straight-line equation  L F = 16.04527 s se = y N F 125 se = = = 13.5)(H − 1)  3 3 H 4 − (H − 0.5551 −  = 7.000 = 16.04527    4π 2 E   ( 4π 2 30 ×103  )         Page 8 of 18 .37 − 0.

(a) Determine the diameter considering buckling only. Estimate an appropriate strength-reduction factor (see Fig. Problem 338.25 sec 0. SECTION 5 – COLUMNS sy 48 N= = = 3.5 to support an axial compressive load that varies from 0 to 15 kips. L = 20 in .04527 ) (30 ×10 )(10.5 (a) F = 15 kips Consider J. (b) Determine the diameter considering varying stresses and using the Soderberg line (perhaps too conservative).8 (c) From secant formula NF  ec  Le NF  sy = 1 + sec  A  k 2  2k EA  ec = 0.B. The link shown is to be designed for N = 2. Solution: For AISI C1030. as rolled s y = 51 ksi su = 80 ksi 1 1 Le  2π 2 E  2  2π 2 30 ×103  2 ( ) = k  s y  = 51  = 108   L = 20 in N = 2 . (c) Keeping in mind that the stress is always compressive.843 N 1 + 0.8) k2 N (125)   180 125 N   1 + 0.555   2(3.555)  3 [ ( 48 = 11. (i7. as rolled. Johnson Page 9 of 18 .5872 N )] N = 2 .25 sec  48 = 10. do you think that the answer from (a) will do? Discuss. Material AISI 1030.8 338.48 se 13. AF 6).25 .

5 = 12.5su = 0.101 in 3 say D = 1 in = 1.k.68 37.5(80) = 40 ksi Size factor = 0. k 1.923 ksi Page 10 of 18 .85(40) = 34 ksi K f = 2.8 (Figure AF 6) 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn F = 0 to 15 kips Fm = Fa = 7.5 51 34 sem = 3.75π D 2 1 − 2 2   π D  34.1875 in 16 Le 20 = = 68 < 108 ∴ o.72  37.1875 4 (b) Variable stresses sn = 0.75π D 2 − π D = 1.8)sem 2.5 = 12.5 kips sem = sea 1 s = em + (2. SECTION 5 – COLUMNS   Le   2  s y   NF = s y A1 −  2   k  4π E      D k= 4 πD 2 A= 4 Le = L = 20 in   20   2   (51) D    2 (2.85 sn = 0.5)(15) = (51) πD 1 − 2  4  3   4   4π (30 ×10 )        2.

The cross section is to have the proportions G = 0.5 = 0.5. as rolled s y = 48 ksi su = 65 ksi Page 11 of 18 . material. fillet radius r ≈ 0.65 in 5 say D = 1 in = 1.05 H . AISI C1020. 340 Solution: For AISI C1030. L = 10 in .5 = (3. determine the dimensions for a design factor of 2.72  7.98π D 2 1 − 2 2   π D  2. The connecting link for a machine (see figure) is subjected to a load that varies fro + 450 (tension) to –250 lb. t = 0.625 in 8 Le 20 = = 49 < 108 ∴ o.67 7.923)  1 − 2  4  3   4   4π (30 ×10 )        2. SECTION 5 – COLUMNS   Le   2  sem    Fm = sem A1 −  2   k  4π E        20   2  (51) D   2   πD   7.625 4 (c) The answer in (a) will not do because it is lower than (b) 339.k. Problems 339.4 H .98π D 2 − π D = 1. (a) Considering buckling only. (b) For the dimension found compute the factor of safety from the Soderberg criterion. k 1.5 = 0.1H . as rolled.

16 H 2 1  GH 3 − gh3  1  (0. Johnson   Le   2  s y   NF = s y A1 −  2   k  4π E      F = 350 lb = 0.8H ) = 0.1H r ≈ 0.3H h = H − 2(0.4 H = 0.3H )(0.2425 H = 0.35824 H 12  GH − gh  12  ( 0.4 H t = 0.35) = (48) 0.05 H A = GH − gh g = G − t = 0.8 H A = (0.35 kip Le = 10 in   10   2  48  2   ( 2  (2.B.68 H 2 − 0.046875 in = in 64 Page 12 of 18 .4 H )(H ) − (0.16 H 1 −  2 ) (0.1H = 0.4 H )(H ) − (0.1875 in = in 16 3 t = 0.35824 H )   ( 4π 30 × 10 3 )      0.35824)(0.1H ) = 0.3815 in Le 10 = = 73 < 120 ∴ ok k (0.3H )(0.46875 in 32 3 G = 0. SECTION 5 – COLUMNS Table AT 1 G = 0 .3815) 15 say H = in = 0.875 = 7.5)(0.4 H − 0.1H = 0.8 H )  3 3 k=   =   = 0.16 H 2 )  (a) Consider J.

01 1+ 1+ r 0.70 0.5) ksi = 27.5sn = 0.(0. Assume a loose fit with the Page 13 of 18 . The link shown is subjected to an axial compressive load of 15 kips.5(65) = 32.6 ) = 0.2 )(12.16(0.05 d H h 1 .0352 = −11.6 ksi   Le  2    10   2  s y     48   1 −  k   1 −  0.1679    ( 4π 2 E   4π 2 30 × 103  )         F + 450 smax = max = = +12.2 1 sm K f sq = + N sy sn 1 0.46875) = 0.46875 in 2 A = 0.85 su = 0.023 h = 1.0352 1 sm = (12. SECTION 5 – COLUMNS (b) with H = 0.5 d H K t = 2.7031 in d = H = 0.85(32.5 ksi Size factor = 0.1 ksi 2 su = 0.024 CHECK PROBLEMS 341.1679 in Fmin − 350 smin = s e = A = 0.6 ksi 2 1 sa = (12.5 H = = 1 .70(2.05H = 0.6 (2.05(0. r = 0.62 ksi Figure AF 9.8 − 11.5H = 15.023 K f = 0.4688 in r 0.35824(0.6 ) = 12. it has sectional length of 20 in.46875) = 0.05 H = = 0.62 N = 1.1) = + N 48 27.800 psi = +12.8 psi A 0.01 0.65 1 1 q= = = 0.0352 in 2 k = 0. Made of AISI C1030.8 + 11.46875) = 0.600 psi = −11.46875) = 0.65 − 1) + 1 = 2. as rolled.

43 ksi A 1.42 kips  4π 2 E   4π 2 (30.16 F 15 (d) Actual s = = = 11.26 ksi N 4.3125 in 2 For loose fit bh3 I= 12 I bh 3 h 1. (c) the equivalent stress under a load of 15 kips? What material does the secant formula indicate as satisfactory for the foregoing load.5052 in A 12bh 12 12 Le 20 = = 39. SECTION 5 – COLUMNS pins. Johnson equation   Le   2   20   2  sy     51    (a) Fc = s y A 1 −  k    = (51)(1. when (e) ec k 2 = 0. as rolled k 0.5052   = 62.25 .5052 use J.75) = 1.3125) 1 −  0. (b) the design factor.75 in A = bh = (0.42 N= c = = 4. 400 Problem 341. What is (a) the critical load for this column.3125 Page 14 of 18 .75)(1.B.16 F 15 s 51 (c) se = y = = 12. (f) L e= e .75 in h = 1. as rolled s y = 51 ksi b = 0.000)          (b) Fc = NF F 62. 342 Solution: For AISI C1030.6 < 108 for AISI C1030.75 k= = = = = 0.

174 sq.3125)   3 use AISI C1045.12 ksi 1. I = 3.3125)   3 use AISI C1020. s y = 59 ksi 343. (b) What is the equivalent stress in the column? Solution: For AISI C1015.75 c= = = 0. cold drawn. (a) What minimum number of these columns should be used if a design factor of 2.5  = 114   L = 15 ft = 180 in Le = 0. Di = 4.026 in .875 in 2 2 ec (0.5 in .5 ksi 1 1 Le  2π 2 E  2  2π 2 30 × 103  2 ( ) = k  s y  = 45.1714 sec    = 59. .3125   2(0.5052) 30 × 10 (1.5052 ) ( ) 30 × 10 (1. 4-in.1714 k2 (0. L = 15 ft . s y = 66 ksi Le 20 (f) e = = = 0.25 k 62.4 ksi 1. as rolled. pipe is used as a column. Some of its properties are: Do = 4. A schedule-40.65L as recommended by AISC.5 is desired and the load evenly distributed among them? For the approximately fixed ends. The total load to be carried is 200 kips.42   sy = 1 + 0. cold drawn. SECTION 5 – COLUMNS Secant Formula NF  ec  Le NF  sy = 1 + sec  A  k 2  2k EA  ec (e) 2 = 0.65(180) = 117 in Le 117 = = 77.05)(0.875) = = 0.3125  ( )  2(0. as rolled s y = 45.5052)2 62.42   sy = 1 + 0.05 in 400 400 h 1.65L = 0. material equivalent to AISI C1015. use Le = 0.509 Page 15 of 18 .in.42   20 62.5 < 114 k 1.42   20 62.25 sec    = 64.

5(77.174)  45. A generally loaded column is a 10-in.000)      No.4 sq.5 say 5 columns 44.5)  2 (a) F = 1− = 1 − 2  = 44.5  4π (30.5)(3.5   2  45.174 = 16. Johnson equation   Le   2 sy    s y A   k   (45. material AISI 1022.25. SECTION 5 – COLUMNS Use J. x 49 lb. I x = 272. Let the ends be a “little” fixed with Le = 0. of columns 200 = = 4. (b) according to the secant formula if ec k 2 is assumed to be 0.9 in 4 . k y = 2.4 ksi   77.5   1 −  k    4π 2 (30. k x = 4.000)      344..35 in . Page 16 of 18 .in. length L = 30 ft . .54 in .4 F (b) se = A   Le   2  s y   1 −  k    4π 2 E      200 F= = 40 kips 5 40 se = 3. as rolled. area A = 14.8L and determine the critical load (a) according to the Johndon or the Euler equation. I y = 93.0 in 4 .B.4 kips N  4π 2 E  2. wide-flange I-beam whose properties are (see figure).

Text).54 in I = 93.12. ku = 1. 5 ft.4 Fc ]} Fc = 273 kips 348.25 sec 0. SECTION 5 – COLUMNS Solution: For AISI C1022.25 sq. k y = 0.4 Fc   52 = c 1 + 0. but use the Johnson formula and compare. A 4 x 3 x ½-in.000)(14.8(30)(12) = 288 in Le 288 = = 113. long.4   2 (30 ×10 )(14.86 in .64 in .in.25 sec  14. angle is used as a flat-ended column.54 Use Euler’s Equation π 2 EA π 2 (30.4)2   k  (b) Secant formula NF  ec  Le NF   sy = 1 + sec  A  k 2  2k EA  F  113. k x = 1. as rolled s y = 52 ksi 1 1 Le  2π 2 E  2  2π 2 (30 ×103 ) 2 = k  s y  = 52  = 107   (a) k = 2. with the resultant load passing through the centroid G (see figure).0863 14. Page 17 of 18 .37 in .4)   3 F { [ 52 = c 1 + 0. (c) magnesium alloy AZ 80A.25 in . kv = 0.8 and the material is (a) structural steel. (d) magnesium alloy AZ 80A as before.0 in 4 Le = 0.4 > 107 k 2. Find the safe load if N = 2.\. (b) magnesium alloy AZ 91C (i7.4) Fc = 2 = = 332 kips  Le  (113. A = 3.

s y = 48 ksi Le = 46.000)  2     .900(46.900 psi 2 3.4 × 106 F = 25.875 < 120 k use J.134 kips (d) By J.875)  2 F= 1− = 1 − 2  = 50.B.end - Page 18 of 18 .25)  48(46.8  4π (30.000 psi 2 3.4 × 10 C = 57.875) 1+ 64.900 (2. Johnson For magnesium alloy AZ 80A.875) 1+ 64.25) 1 − 36(46.8)(F ) = 82. Johnson   Le   2 sy    s y A   k   (48)(3.000(46.000 (2.134 lb = 25.134 kips F=   N  4π E  2.000 )     (b) magnesium alloy AZ 91C NF C = 2 A  Le  C  1+   6 k 64.75 kips N  4π 2 E  2.25 82.467 lb = 22.875 k 0.64 in Le 30 = = 46. SECTION 5 – COLUMNS Solution: L (5)(12 ) Le = = = 30 in 2 2 k = k min = 0.8  4π (30. s y = 36 ksi   Le   2 y   s y A  s 1−  2   = k (36)(3.B.25 57.8)(F ) = 57.467 kips (c) magnesium alloy AZ 80A C = 82.4 ×106 F = 22.875)2  = 39 kips > 25.64 (a) Structural steel.

5b)  26.5b 2 h e = a + = a + 1. sy 52 σ= = = 26 ksi = 26.25b 4  1 2.625 in = in 8 7 h = 3b = 3(0.000 = 2500 2 +   3b 2. The bottom edge of the midsection is displaced upward a distance a = 2 ½ in. with a design factor of 2 based on the yield strength.5b 3  By trial and error method: 5 b = 0.5b  26.25b 4 12 12 h c = = 1. what should be h and b? Solution: F = 2500 lb Ny = 2 a = 2. above the line of action of the load. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES ECCENTRIC LOADING (NORMAL STRESSES) DESIGN PROBLEM 361.5 + 1.875 in = 1 in 8 Page 1 of 133 . as rolled.5b)(1.5 + 1. For AISI C1022.625) in = 1.5b = 2.5 + 1.000 psi Ny 2 A = bh = 3b2 bh 3 b(3b )2 I= = = 2.000 = 2500 2 +   3b 1. It is to support a steady tensile load of 2500 lb. sy = 52 ksi (Table AT7).5 in F Fec σ= ± A I For AISI C1022. as rolled. It is necessary to shape a certain link as shown in order to prevent interference with another part of the machine. and h ≈ 3b.5b 2 F Fec σ= ± A I  1 (2.

Solution: Soderberg Line: 1 sm sa = + N s y sn For AISI 1045. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 362.5b )  sa = 1500 2 +   3b 2. as rolled. above the center line of the pins. A tensile load on a link as described in 361 varies from 0 to 3000 lb.5 + 1. Determine the dimensions of the link for N = 2 based on the Soderberg line.5su = 48 ksi Size factor = 0.5b 2  1 ec  sm = Fm  +  A I   1 (0.5b  sm = 1500 2 +   3b 1. it is machined from AISI 1045.5 + 1.5 in.85(0.5 + 1.24b 3  1 0.80 sn = 0.5b  sa = 1500 2 +   3b 1..5 + 1.85 Load factor (axial) = 0. and the lower edge of the link is a = 0. as rolled (Table AT 7).5b 3   1 ec  sa = Fa  +  A I   1 (0.5b )(1.5b)  sm = 1500 2 +   3b 2. h ≈ 3b.5b)(1.5 + 1. sy = 59 ksi su = 96 ksi sn′ = 0.64 ksi 1 Fm = (3000 lb + 0 ) = 1500 lb 2 1 Fa = (3000 lb − 0 ) = 1500 lb 2 h e = a + = a + 1.5b = 0.24b 3  1 0.80)(48) = 32.5b 3  1 sm sa = + N s y sn Page 2 of 133 .

5b)(1.24b 3  1 0.5 + 1.5 + 1.53 in h = 3b = 3(0.24b 3  1 0.5 + 1.5b  = +  +  2  59.5b 3 By trial and error method: b = 0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 1  1500 1500  1 0.5b )(1.59 in Use b x h = 9/16 in x 1 5/8 in 363. except that the load continuously reverses.5b 3   1 ec  sa = Fa  +  A I   1 (0. Solution: 1 Fm = (3 − 3) = 0 lb 2 1 Fa = (3 + 3) = 3 kips 2  1 ec  sm = Fm  +  A I   1 (0.5b  sm = (0) 2 + =0  3b 1.5 + 1.5b 2 + = 5.5b  =0+  2 +  2  32.5 + 1.00 3b 1.5b  sa = 3 2 +   3b 1.64  3b 1.5905 in Page 3 of 133 .5 + 1.5b 3 By trial and error method: b = 0.000 32.5b3  1 0.5b)  s a = 3 2 +   3b 2.53) in = 1. The same as 362.5b 3  1 sm sa = + N s y sn 1  3  1 0.5 + 1.5b)  sm = 1500 2 +   3b 2.5b 3  1 0.44 3b 1. 3 kips to -3 kips.5b 2 + = 7.640  3b 2 1.5 + 1.

Johnson   Le   2  sy    = se 1 −  2   F k A  4π E      For SAE 1020.109375πDo2 Page 4 of 133 . Text). as rolled.75Do? (b) What should be the diameter if the column is solid? Solution: a. (a) What should be the outside diameter Do if the column is hollow and Di = 0. A circular column (See Fig. Let N = 3.5905) in = 1. the material of which is SAE 1020.7715 in Use b x h = 5/8 in x 1 13/16 in 364. 8. is to have a length of 9 ft. s y = 48 ksi E = 30×10 6 psi Transition point 1 1 ( Le  2π 2 E  2  2π 2 30 ×10 6  2 = = )  = 111 k  sy   48000  Le = 2L L = 9 ft = 108 in Le = 2L = 2(108) = 216 in I k= A I= ( ) [ π Do4 − Di4 π Do4 − (0.3. as rolled.75Do )4 0. from the center line. Try J. and support an eccentric load of 16 kips at a distance of 3 in.6836πDo4 = = ] 64 64 64 π π A= 4 (D2 o − Di2 =) 4 [D 2 o ] − (0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES h = 3b = 3(0.75Do )2 = 0.B.

5642 Do2 16(3)(0.109375πDo2 F 16 46.363   0.6836πDo4 k= 64 = 0.3125Do 0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 0.363  Do3 1 −   Do2  By trial and error method Do = 3.5Do ) σ = 16 = +  19.0094 Therefore use Euler’s equation π 2E se = 2 L  N e  k Page 5 of 133 .5642 Do2 715.3125(3.5642 2 A 0.363  2  s y    48    1 −  k    0.0094 in Le 2L 216 = = = 214 > 111 k k 1.23) = 1.109375πDo Do2 se = = =   Le    2  216   1 − 19.22 σ = 16 = +  19.6836Do4  1 −     Do2   64  46.5Do 2 e = 3 in F = 16 kips sy 48 σ= = = 16 ksi N 3 46.23 in k = 0.3125Do    Do2    4π 2 E  1 − 4π 2 30 ×103  ( )           Fec σ = se + I Do c= = 0.

3125Do  Fec σ = se + I 16(3)(0.1322D 2 + = 0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES π 2 (30. also using Euler’s equation.20658Do2 + = 0.75Do = 0.20658Do2 +  0.25D  Fec σ = se + I 16(3)(0.5Do ) 715.22 16 = 0.8515 in To check: k = 0.20658Do2 ksi  216  3   0. I k= A πD 4 I= 64 πD 2 A= 4 πD 4 k= 64 = 1 D = 0. Di = 2 13/16 in b.802) in = 1.3125(3.6836πDo  4 Do3    64    Do = 3.25D πD 2 4 4 π 2E se = 2 L  N e  k π 2 (30.000) se = 2 = 0.1322D 2 ksi  216  3   0.802 in Di = 0. Page 6 of 133 .1322D 2 + 3  πD  4 D    64  By trial and error method.3125Do = 0.000) se = 2 = 0. For solid.188125 in Use Do = 3 13/16 in.802) = 2.188125 in Le 216 in = = 182 > 111 k 1.5D ) 489 16 = 0.75(3.

718 in To check: k = 0.3125Do = 0.75(3. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES D = 3.1325 in Use Do = 3 5/8 in.25(3. 365. Di = 2 5/8 in Page 7 of 133 . Solution: Euler’s Equation: Le = 2L = 2(15)(12 ) = 360 in σ = 16 ksi e = 3 in 0.25D = 0.07437Do2 ksi  360  3   0.07437Do2 +  0.000) se = 2 = 0.624 ) = 2.6836πDo4 a.3125Do π 2E se = 2 L  N e  k π 2 (30.80525 in Le 216 in = = 268 > 111 k 0.6836πDo  4 Do3    64    Do = 3.07437Do2 + = 0. I = 64 A = 0.1325 in Le 216 in = = 191 > 111 k 1.624 in Di = 0.3125(3.80525 in Use D = 3 ¼ in. except that the length is 15 ft.5Do ) 715.109375πDo2 k = 0.22 16 = 0.221) in = 0.624) in = 1.75Do = 0.3125Do  Fec σ = se + I 16(3)(0. The same as 364.221 in k = 0.

aluminum alloy 2024-T4.158) in = 0. A link similar to one shown is to be designed for: steady load F = 8 kips.25(3.0476D 2 + 3  πD  4 D    64  By trial and error method.7895 in Use D = 3 3/16 in. 366. L = 20 in. D = 3.0476D 2 + = 0. N = 2. It seems desirable for the dimension b not to exceed 1 3/8 in. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES πD 4 b.158 in use 3 3/16 iin k = 0. I = 64 πD 2 A= 4 k = 0.6 on the yield strength.7895 in Le 216 in = = 274 > 111 k 0. The support is made so that the pin at B carries the entire horizontal component of F.25D  Fec σ = se + I 16(3)(0. Page 8 of 133 .5D ) 489 16 = 0.25D π 2E se = 2 L  N e  k  π (30.25D = 0.000) 2 se = 2 = 0. θ = 30o.0476D 2 ksi  360  3   0. Determine b and h and check their proportions for reasonableness.

375 in 8 L = 20 in F sin 30o 6FL cos 30o σt = + bh bh 2 Page 9 of 133 . 6 F = 8 kips 3 b = 1 in = 1. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Solution: Aluminum alloy (2024-T4). sy = 47 ksi RBH = F sin 30o FL cos 30o RA = d F (L + d )cos 30o RBV = d M = RAd = FL cos 30o Mc s2 = I h c= 2 bh 3 I= 12 6M 6FL cos 30o s2 = 2 = bh bh 2 F sin 30o s1 = bh σ t = s1 + s2 F sin 30o 6FL cos 30o σt = + bh bh 2 s 47 σt = y = = 18 ksi N 2.

The upper end of the column is free.75h 2 − 4h − 831.375h 1. use h = 5 in . b = 1 in 8 8 367.000 ksi depth c= 2 Le = 2L = 2(15)(12 ) = 360 in Page 10 of 133 . SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES (8)sin 30o6(8)(20)cos 30o 18 = + 1.4 = 0 7 h = 5. Select a suitable I-beam for a design factor of 3 based on yield strength. from the axis of the column as shown (with F1 = 0). long is to support a load F2 = 50. A column 15 ft. Solution: Use C1020. structural steel.877 in ≈ 5 in 8 7 5 in h = 8 = 4.27 b 1 3 in 8 7 3 Therefore. Acting at a distance of e = 8 in.000 lb. sy = 48 ksi Secant Formula NF  ec L NF  sy = 1 + 2 sec e  A  k 2 EI  F = F2 = 50.000 lbs = 50 kips e = 8 in N =3 E = 30.375h 2 24. See handbook for the properties of rolled sections.

83 in I = 1.83)  2 (30.000 ksi Le = 2L = 2(15)(12 ) = 360 in Transition Point 1 1 Le  2π 2E  2  2π 2 (30.000)(338.000)  2 = =  = 111 k  sy   48  F = F1 = 50.    (8) 14     3(50)   2  sec 360 (3)(50) 48 ≥ 1 +   10  (5. (English units) A = 10 in2 Depth = 14 in k = 5.S. pg.41 x 108 mm4 = 338. 640. Solution: Use C1020. The same as 367.000)(I )     rd From Strength of Materials. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES   (8) depth   3(50)   2  sec 360 (3 )(50 )   48 ≥ 1 +    A  k2  2 (30. Then selecting W360 x 51. structural steel.8 in4 368.000 lb.000 lbs = 50 kips Page 11 of 133 .08 Therefore suitable wide flange I-beam is W14 x 34 lb. 3 Edition by F. except that F1 = 50. select Wide-Flange Sections by trial and error. properties are A = 6450 mm2 = 10 in2 Depth = 355 mm = 14 in k = 148 mm = 5.8)   2   48 ≥ 47. Singer and A. sy = 48 ksi N =3 E = 30. Pytel.83 in I = 338. Table B-2.8 in4 Substitute.

select Wide-Flange Sections by trial and error. (English units) A = 4. 640.61 in Substitute.8 Check for validity of JB Johnson Formula Le 360 = = 78. properties are A = 2690 mm2 = 4. Then selecting W310 x 21.2549  4.17 in2 k = 117 mm = 4.61)  48 ≥ 47.000)      150 48 ≥  5. Table B-2.61 in Page 12 of 133 . Johnson Formula   Le   2  sy    Fc = NF1 = sy A 1 −  2   k  4π E      NF1 sy =   Le   2  sy    A 1 −  2   k  4π E      3(50 ) 48 ≥   360   2  48   A 1 − 2 k    4π (30.61 Therefore.61)  150 48 ≥  5. 3rd Edition by F.2549  A1 −   k2  From Strength of Materials. pg.1 < 111 k 4. 150 48 ≥  5. Pytel. Singer and A. JB Johnson formula is valid and suitable wide flange I-beam is W12 x 14 lb.2549  4. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Check J.17 1 − 2  (4.S.B.17 1 − 2  (4.17 in2 k = 4.

what is the Page 13 of 133 . and t = 1/8. from the inside face of the frame. If these plates are 1 in. A manufacturer decides to market a line of aluminum alloy (6061-T6) C-clamps. B = 17/32. (see Fig. from the inside edge of the plates that make up the frame. Text. a = 1/8.2 ksi 12 36 370. Text). (a) For N = 3 on the yield strength. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES CHECK PROBLEMS 369. thick and the horizontal section has a depth of 6 in. 19-1. One frame has a T-section with the following dimensions (letters as in Table AT 1): H = 1 1/16 . what will be the maximum stress in this section? Solution: F Fec σ= + A I F = 10 kips 6 e = 7 in + in = 10 in 2 6 c = in = 3 in 2 A = 2(1)(6 ) = 12 in 2 (1)(6 )3 I=2 = 36 in 4 12 F Fec σ= + A I 10 (10)(10)(3) σ= + = 9. A cam press.. The center line of the screw is 2 3/8 in. exerts a force of 10 kips at a distance of 7 in. 8.4. similar to that of Fig.

(C-clamp) T-section F Fe′c σ= + A I  1 e′c  σ = F +  A I  From Table AT 1 (T-section) A = Bt + a(H − t ) Bt 2 ah 2 I= + (Bt )d 2 + + (ah )e 2 12 12 H = 1.9375)(0.125 in h = H − t = 1. 8.53125)(0.9375  c1 [(0.53125)(0.125)  2  c1 = 0.125) + (0.4.53125 in a = 0.125)  2   0.9375 in For c1 :  h t  c1 (Bt + ha ) =  t + (ha ) +  (Bt )  2 2  0.125 in t = 0. sy = 40 ksi (Table AT 3) See Fig.9375)(0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES capacity of the clamp (gripping force)? (b) Above what approximate load will a permanent deformation of the clamp occur? Solution: AA 6061-T6.4016 = 0.0625 − 0.125  + (0.125)] =  0.6609 in Page 14 of 133 .125 + (0.0625 in B = 0.0625 − 0.4016 in c 2 = H − c1 = 1.125 = 0.

. Page 15 of 133 .53125)(0.125)(0.4016 = 2.7766 in sy 40 a.. A C-frame (Fig. ASTM A27-58 and has a section similar to that shown.1836 0.02063 in 2 4 c = c1 = 0. from the inside face.3391 in 2 2 h 0. d = e= f = 1 in.7766)(0.19215) = 0.0625 − 0. The various dimensions of the sections are: a = 3 in.125)2 (0.4016)  σ = 13 = F  +   0.1836 0.125)(0.3391)2 + 12 12 + (0.9375)(0.4016)  σ = 40 = F  +   0. Determine the force F for N = 6 based on the ultimate strength.125) = 0. σ = sy = 40 ksi  1 (2.4016 in e′ = 2.1836 in 2 Bt 2 ah 2 I= + (Bt )d 2 + + (ah )e 2 12 12 (0.. h = 5 in.5 Text) of a hand-screw press is made of annealed cast steel. b = 6 in.375 + 0.9375 e = t + − c1 = 0.4016 = 0.672 kips = 672 lbs 371.4016 − = 0.125)(0. 8.218 kips = 218 lbs b.02063 F = 0.125) + (0. σ = = = 13 ksi N 3  1 (2.53125)(0.9375)2 I= + (0.53125)(0.7766)(0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES t 0.125 d = c1 − = 0.19215 in 2 2 A = Bt + a(H − t ) A = (0.125 + 0. The force F acts normal to the plane of the section at a distance of 12 in.125)(1.02063 F = 0.

583 = 3.583 in c 2 = b − c1 = 6 − 2.417 in Page 16 of 133 . SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Solution: a = 3 in b = 6 in h = 5 in d = e = f = 1 in A = fa + dh + (b − f − d )e A = (1)(3) + (1)(5) + (6 − 1 − 1)(1) = 12 in 2 For c1 : d b  f c1 A = hd   + (b − f − d )  + af  b −  2 2  2 1 6  1 c1 (12) = (5)(1)  + (6 − 1 − 1)  + (3)(1) 6 −   2 2  2 c1 = 2.

583 − = 2. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES b − f −d b− f +d 6 −1 + 1 j= − (c1 − d ) = − c1 = − 2.083)2 12 12 12 I = 53.917 )2 + + (1)(6 − 1 − 1)(0.917 in 2 2 d 1 m = c1 − = 2.417 − = 2.083 in 2 2 af 3 e(b − f − d )3 hd 3 I= + afk 2 + + e(b − f − d ) j 2 + + hdm 2 12 12 12 (3)(1)3 (1)(6 − 1 − 1)3 (5)(1)3 I= + (3)(1)(2.92 in 4 For ASTM A27-58 Annealed Cast Steel su = 60 ksi su 60 σ= = = 10 ksi N 6 Page 17 of 133 .417 in 2 2 2 f 1 k = c2 − = 3.583 = 0.417 )2 + + (5)(1)(2.

5 in h = 2 in L = 18 in θ = 60o  sin 60 6(18)cos 60  16 = F  +  (0..5)(2)2  F = 0. cold drawn (10% work).92 F = 12.. material is AISI C1020.789 lbs 372. L = 18 in. material AISI 1040. d = 2 in.583 in e′ = 12 + 2.5)(2) (0. and F2 varies from 0 to a maximum. h = a = d = 2 in..583 = 14... SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES  1 e′c  σ = F +  A I  c = c1 = 2.1 kips.583)(2.583 in  1 (14. and θ = 60o.789 kips = 12.. sy = 48 ksi . let b = ½ in. h = 2 in. b = 0. 366. F sinθ 6FL cos θ σt = + bh bh 2  sinθ 6L cos θ  σ t = F +   bh bh 2  For AISI C1020. L = 18 in.5 in.574 kips = 574 lbs 373. as rolled. The dimensions are such that all of the horizontal reaction from F2 occurs at A. What may be the value of F for N = 3 based on the yield strength? Solution: Refer to Prob. as rolled.. acting Page 18 of 133 . In the link shown (366).583)  10 = F  +  12 53. The clearance at the pins A and B are such that B resists the entire horizontal component of F. sy 48 σ= = = 16 ksi N 3 b = 0. The link shown is subjected to a steady load F1 = 2.

what is the maximum value of F2? Assume that the stress concentration at the holes can be neglected.1 − 0.5 in h = a = d = 2 in L = 18 in F1 = 2. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES towards the right.191 kip 2 + 18 + 2 Ay = F1 − E = 2.1) + 0 = 0. For N = 1.191 = 1.909 kips Ax = F2 = 0 M = aAy = (L + d )E M= (L + d )(aF1 + hF2 ) a+L+d F2 = 0 Page 19 of 133 . Solution: b = 0.1 kips ∑M A =0 (a + L + d )E = aF1 + hF2 aF1 + hF2 E= a+L+d ∑F V =0 Ay = F1 − E ∑F H =0 Ax = F2 For F2 = 0 : E= (2 )(2.5 based on the Soderberg line.

material is similar to AISI C1015. pipe.).1) + 2F2 ] Mmax = = 1.908 in2. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES M= (18 + 2)[(2)(2. I = 160.91F2 2 Mmax − 3. schedule 40.67 in.82 )(2. The load completely reverses and e = 15 in. (c) Determine the safe load from the secant formula.82 in − kips 2 + 18 + 2 Let F2 = max F2 Mmax + 3.1 + F2 ) − 3. (Do = 10... Am = 11.5  1 (0. (b) Judging the varying loading by the Soderberg criterion.82 Ma = 2 1.785 kips 376.1 + F2 )(1) 0. compute the safe (static) load as a column only..82(2.9  1 (0.7 in4. long. L = 12 ft. Z = 29.. is made of 10-in.9 in3. Di = 10.91F2 )(1) 0.85) = 45.82 Mm = = 3. as rolled.82 Mm = 2 (18 + 2)[2(2. k = 3.5F2  85  (0. N = 3.5F2  = + + + 1.02 in. compute the safe maximum load.1 + F2 ) 2 + 18 + 2 1.82(2.9 ksi sy se = sm + sa sn syM c F  sy  Ma c Fa  se = = m + m +  +  N  I A  sn  I A     85  (1.5)(2)  45. A free-end column as shown..5F2 For SAE AISI 1040 Cold Drawn (10% Work) sy = 85 ksi sn′ = 54 ksi sn (bending ) = sn′ × size factor = (54)(0.1 + F2 ) + 3.. Page 20 of 133 . (d) Specify what you consider to be a reasonable safe loading.91F2 2 Fm = Fa = 0.82(2.82 Ma = = 0.82 + 0. (a) Using the equivalent-stress approach.1) + 0] = 3.75 in.5)(2)   3   3  F2 = 3.

5 < 120 k 3.5su = 0. as rolled.75 in Di = 10.5(61) = 30.B.02 in L = 12 ft k = 3.5 ksi Do = 10.000 ksi Use J. As a column only (static) Le = 2L = 2(12)(12) = 288 in Le 288 in = = 78. sy = 45.908 in 2 I = 160.07 in 4 Z = 29. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Solution: For AISI C1015.67 in Am = 11.67 in E = 30. Johnson Formula: F s1 =   Le   2  sy    A 1 −  2   k  4π E      Page 21 of 133 .5 ksi su = 61 ksi sn = 0.9 in3 N =3 a.

80) = 20.74  29.85)(0.5  F (15) F  se = = (0) +  +  = 2.9081 −   4π (30. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES F s1 =  (45.25F 3 F = 6.5 = 2.09 2 F = 24.908  45.5)(0.9 2 σ = s1 + s2 45.863 kips = 24.5)2  11. Varying load: Fmax = F .25F N 20.09 Fe s2 = Z e = 15 in F (15) F s2 = = 29.80 sn = sn′ × size factor × load factor = (30. Fmin = −F F −F Fm = =0 2 F − (− F ) Fa = =F 2 s se = sm + y sa sn Axial load factor = 0. Secant Formula NF  ec L NF  sy = 1 + 2 sec e   A  k 2 EI   I Z= c Page 22 of 133 .9 1.5)(78.863 lbs b.000)  2 F s1 = 9.5 F F = + 3 9.74 kips = 6740 lbs c.74 ksi F e F  s F e F  se =  m + m  + y  a + a   Z A  sn  Z A sy 45.

4 in4.05 in.5 kips = 22. wide flange I-beam (A = 56.5 = 0.). 377. A bracket is attached as shown (367) onto a 14-in. depth = 15.. The member is an eccentrically loaded column.354 in Z 29.252F A 11. For e = 12 in..73 sq.07 ) NF 3F = = 0.5 in.9 ec (15)(5.. x 193-lb..000 ksi e = 12 in k = kmax = 6.908 NF  ec L NF  sy = 1 + 2 sec e   A  k 2 EI  [ ( sy = 45.. kmin = 4.50 in Le = 2L = 2(40)(12) = 960 in Page 23 of 133 . in.4 in 4 E = 30.. Imax = 2402.252F 1 + 5.963 k2 (3.11382 F 2 EI 2 (30. and N = 4. 6740 lbs.000)(160.11382 F )] F = 22.1 in4.354) = = 5.710 in. Imin = 930. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES I 160.67 )2 Le NF 288 3F = = 0.500 lbs d. what may be the value of F2? Solution: Using secant formula: NF  ec L NF  sy = 1 + 2 sec e   A  k 2 EI  I = Imax = 2402.963 sec 0.07 c= = = 5. 40 ft. flange width = 15. with no central load (F1 = 0) and no restraint at the top. long.

SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Le = 148 k N=4 A = 56.05 in E = 30.75) 460 4F  sy = 48 = 1 + (30.9 kips = 104.000)(2402.1 in. what may be its value for a design factor of 4? Flange width = 15.). A 14-in.11308 F )] F = F2 = 104.71 c= = = 7.71 in..900 lbs 378. as rolled.0705F 1 + 2. sy = 48 ksi 4F  (12)(7.73  (6.73 sq.855 in 2 2 k = kmin = 4. wide flange I-beam is used as a column with one end free (A = 56. Imax = 2402..75 in 2 2 For C1020.73 in 2 depth 15. length L = 40 ft.000 ksi Page 24 of 133 . (with F1 = 0). structural steel. x 193-lb. If a load F2 is supported as shown on a bracket at an eccentricity e = 4 in.5 c= = = 7.4 in.5 in.4)  sec 56.2 sec 0.4..50)2 2 [ ( 48 = 0.4. in..73 in 2 e = 4 in flange width 15. kmin = 4. depth = 15. Imin = 930. Solution: Using secant formula: NF  ec L NF  sy = 1 + 2 sec e  A  k 2 EI  F = F2 A = 56.05 in.

0705F2 1 + 0.5F2 = 34. but was found to be too weak.880 lbs 379. Someone decided to strengthen it by using a T-section (dotted addition).18174 F2 ) F2 = 68.28 kips 380.554 sec 0.05) 2 2 (30. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES I = Imin = 930.18174 F2 By Trial and error: F2 = 68.73 ) 56.1 in 4 Le = 2L = 2(40 )(12) = 960 in N=4 s y = 48 ksi 4F2  (4)(7.73  (4.73 ( ) 12 = 0.855) 960 4F2  s y = 48 = 1 + sec   56. b = ½ in.009767F2 sec 0. with h and b as given above.5 F2.56 kips F1 = 0.554 sec 0.554 sec 0..01763F2 1 + 0.18174 F2 + 0. The same as 378. h = 2 in.000)(930.88 kips = 68.1)  ( 48 = 0. (b) What tensile load could each link carry with N = 3 based on yield? Page 25 of 133 . Solution: s F  ec L NF2  F1 σ = y = 2 1 + 2 sec e +  A N A k 2 EI  F1 = 0..5F2 48 F 0. except that F1 = 0.008814F2 12 = 0. (a) Will this change increase the strength? Explain.18174 F2 + 4 56. The cast-steel link (SAE 080) shown (solid lines) is subjected to a steady axial tensile load and was originally made with a rectangular cross section.026444F2 + 0.5F2 ( = 2 1 + 0.

5) (2 − 0.5 + 0.59 in 4 Page 26 of 133 .6786 = 1.3 kips T-section: h = 2 in .3 = (0.5) + 0.5(2)  2   2  c1 = 0.3214 − 1 (2 − 0.4286)2 12 12 I = 0.3214 in 1 d = c2 − (h − b) = 1.5) + 0.5714)2 + + 2(0.5(2) = 1.5) = 0. s y = 40 ksi (a) This change will not increase the strength because of increased bending action that tends to add additional stress. b = 0.5)3 I= + 0.5(2 − 0.5)(0.5 f = c1 − = 0.4286 in 2 2 b(h − b )3 hb 3 I= + b(h − b )d 2 + + hbf 2 12 12 0.5)(0.5)3 2(0.5(2 − 0.6786 − = 0.5 in A = b(h − b ) + bh = 0.5(2 − 0.75) = 0. s y 40 (b) σ = = = 13.5)(2 ) F = 13.3 ksi N 3 Rectangular cross section: F F σ= = A bh F 13. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Solution: For SAE 080.75 in 2 1  b c1 A = b(h − b ) (h − b ) + b + bh  2   2 1   0. 5  c1 (1.6786 in c 2 = h − c1 = 2 − 0.5714 in 2 2 b 0.5(2 − 0.

and c = 5 in. The load F = 5000 lb.59 F = 6. Determine the diameter D of the rivets and the thickness of plate for a design factor of 3 based in yield strengths.6786 in  1 (0. as rolled.6s y N=3 Page 27 of 133 . let a = 3D.6786)  13. The material of the plate and rivets is SAE 1020. θ = 0. The figure shows a plate riveted to a vertical surface by 5 rivets. s y = 48 ksi s sy = 0.. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES F Fec σ= + A I c = c1 = 0.941 kips COPLANAR SHEAR STRESSES 381.6786)(0.6786 in e = c = 0..3 = F  +  1. Solution: θ =0 For SAE 1020. b = 3 in.75 0.. as rolled.

6s y τ= = N N Page 28 of 133 . SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 1  F  2 2 R = F12 +      5   F2 F1 = a 2a F1 = 2F2 [∑ M C =0 ] 2F1 (2a ) + 2F2 (a) = F (c ) + F sinθ (2a − b) θ =0 a = 3D b = 3 in c = 5 in F = 5 kips F1 = 2F2 4(2F2 )(3D ) + 2F2 (3D ) = (5)(5) + 5 sin 0 o (6D − 3) 30F2 D = 25 5 F2 = 6D  5  5 F1 = 2F2 = 2  =  6D  3D π A= D2 4 R τ= A s sy 0.

85 = 3 0. The same as 383. 6 =   D 0.625t 1 t = 0. 5 D = 0.6(48) =  3D   5   3 π D2 4 1  2.625 in = in 8 For thickness of plate.85 kips +  3D   5    3(0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 0.778  2  2 + 1 9.7854D 2 By trial and error method.6 sy   5   = N A 1  5  2  5  2  2   +    0.285 in = in 4 382. Page 29 of 133 .6 sy R = N A 1  2  F 2  2 F1 +    0. A = Dt R σ= A 1 1  5  2  5  2  2  5   5   2 2 2 R =   +    =       = 2. except that θ = 30o.625)   5   s R σ= y = N Dt 48 2. t .

SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Solution: 1  F  2 F  2 R = F12 +   − 2F1   cos120o   5 5  1  2  F 2 F  2 R = F1 +   + 2F1   cos 60o   5 5  [∑ MC = 0 ] 2F1 (2a ) + 2F2 (a) = F (c ) + F sinθ (2a − b) ( ) 4(2F2 )(3D ) + 2F2 (3D ) = 5 cos 30 o (5) + 5 sin 30 o (6D − 3) 30F2 D = 21.15 F2 = 30D 0.5(2D − 1) = 15D + 14.472 F2 = 0.472  0.5 +  =1+  D  D R τ= A s 0.6 sy  5 5  = N A Page 30 of 133 .944 F1 = 2F2 = 2 0.6 sy R = N A 1  2  F 2 F  o 2 F1 +   + 2F1   cos 60  0.65 + 7.6s y τ = sy = N N 0.15 15D + 14.5 + D  0.

944  5  o 2 1 +  +   + 21 +   cos 60  0. Let the maximum spacing of the rivets.6(48)  D  5  D  5   = 3 π 2 D 4 1  0. The assembly will be such that there is virtually no twisting of the channel. The dimensions to determine at this time are: rivet diameter and minimum thickness of the plate.944  o 2 R = 1 +  + 1 + 21 +  cos 60  = 3.641 in 5 Say D = 0.944  o 2 R = 1 +  + 1 + 21 +  cos 60   D   D   1  0.625t 5 t = 0.31325 in = in 16 383.944  2  0.944  2  0. 8 For t .625   R σ= A s R σ= y = N Dt 48 3. D = 0. be 6D. similar to that shown.1325 in  0.944  o 2   1 +  + 1 + 21 +  cos 60   D   D   9. as rolled. 6 = 2 0. SAE 1020. horizontally and vertically.7854 D By trial and error method.625   0.1325 = 3 0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 1  0.944  2  5  2  0. Page 31 of 133 .944  2  0.625 in = in (same as 381). where D is the diameter of the rivet.5 based on yield. N = 2. 1  0. and θ = 0o. to support a steady vertical load of F = 1500 lb. when L = 18 in. is used for all parts. Design a riveted connection.

25 R= + = + 0. s y = 48 ksi .5 s sy = 0.6s y 0.375(6 + D ) 1.5(18 + 3D ) 0.375(6 + D ) F1 = D 0.6(48) τ= = = = 11.52 ksi N N 2.5 2.5 4F1c = F (L + c ) 4F1 (3D ) = 1. as rolled.75 D 4 D 1 A = πD 2 4 Page 32 of 133 .6s y s sy 0. N = 2. a = b = 6D 1 c= (6D ) = 3D 2 F R = F1 + 4 R τ= A For SAE 1020. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Solution: θ = 0 o .

25 + 0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES R τ= A 2.52 = D 1 2 πD 4 11 D = 0. The same as 383. σ = 19.52 ksi .6875 in = in 16 sy R σ= = N A′ 2.75 19.75 11.6875t 5 t = in 16 384.2 = 0 . Solution: τ = 11. except that θ = 45o. 6875 0.2 ksi Page 33 of 133 .25 + 0.5 Dt 2.25 + 0.75 48 = D 2.

and held in place by five ¾ in..5   0.59375 in 32 1   6 + 0.5  o R =  +  + 2    cos 45  D   4   D  4  2  0.28125   D  D  11.2 = 0. c = 6 in. and θ = 0. Page 34 of 133 .2 = Dt 3. as rolled.2815 in 1 say t = in .84375 2 R = 0. b = 4 in. 4 385.59375  0..2652(6 + D )   1.221 19.0703  + + 0.5 cos 45 o (18 + 3D ) 0.59375  2 0.2652(6 + D ) F1 = d 2 2 2  0.140625 + 0.28125 = 3..84375 2 0. a = 2 ½ in. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 2 2 F  F  R = F12+   + 2F1   cos 45 o 4 4 4F1 (3D ) = F cos θ (L + 3D ) = 1.0703  + + 0.59375  R σ= Dt R 19.59375t t = 0.2652(6 + D )  1. as rolled. Find the value of F for a design factor of 5 based on the ultimate strength. The plate shown (381) is made of SAE 1020 steel.28125  D  D R τ= A 1  6+D 2 0. The thickness of the plate is ½ in.221 kips   0..594 in 19 say D = in = 0. rivets that are made of SAE 1022 steel.0703  + + 0.2652(6 + D )  6+D R2 =   + 0.140625   D   D  2 2 6+D 0.84375 R = 0.52 =  1 2 πD 4 D = 0.

as rolled (Table AT 7) s su = 54 ksi s 54 τ = su = = 10. SAE 1020.77 )2 5 F = 9.173 kips = 9.24F F1 = 2(0.5) = F (6) 25F2 = 6F F2 = 0.8    = 4.24F ) = 0.3 kips  4  2  Rivets.48F ) 2 2 +   = (4. SAE 1022.48F 2 F  R = (0.77 ksi From 381.5) + 2F2 (2.8 ksi N 5   3 2  π     πD 2  = 10. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Solution: Plate.173 lbs Page 35 of 133 . 1  F  2 2 R = F12 +      5   F1 = 2F2 2F1 (2a ) + 2F2 (a ) = Fc 2(2F2 )(2 )(2.77 ksi 4 R =τ     4   4      use R = 4. as rolled (Table AT 7) su = 65 ksi su 65 σ= = = 13 ksi N 5 R = σπDt  3  1  R = (13)(π )   = 15.

except that θ = 90o.5) + 2F2 (2.77 kips F R = F1 + 5 F1 = 2F2 2F1 (2a) + 2F2 (a ) = F (2a − b) 2(2F2 )(2 )(2.5) = F [2(2.04F F1 = 0.08F F R = 4.5) − 4] 25F2 = F F2 = 0.000 lbs Page 36 of 133 . Solution: R = 4.08F + 5 F = 17 . SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 386. The same as 385.77 = 0.

5 in c = 4. d = 4 in. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 387.6 kips  4  2   πD 2  2  = 15.6(63) = 37.. the diameter of the rivets is ¾ in. Solution: 3 D = in 4 1 t = in 2 a = 8.68 kips π 3 R = τ    4   4  4   πD 2  2  = 15.5 in.8 ksi sy48 σ= == 19.12   = 6.5 in.. cols drawn.12   = 6.5  3  1  R = σ (πDt ) = 19.5 in b = 11. s sy = 0. AISI 1020 Steel. AISI C1015. s y = 48 ksi Rivet.12 ksi N 2. and is fastened to an I-beam (AISI 1020..2(π )   = 22.68 kips π 3 Use R = τ    4   4  4  F2 = 0 . and c = 4. The thickness of the plate and of the flanges of the I-beam is ½ in.5 s 37. b = 11.5 in.2 ksi N 2. as rolled.5 based on yield strength. as rolled) by three rivets that are made of a steel equivalent to AISI C1015. a = 8. as rolled.. The plate shown is made of AISI 1020 steel. For F2 = 0.8 τ = sy = = 15. calculate the value of F1 for N = 2. cold drawn. Page 37 of 133 .5 in d = 4 in Plate.

5  ρ 2 =   +   2  3  ρ = 2.5) +  3  2. 5 3 cos θ = = 0. 5 2 F  F  R 2 = F 2 +  1  + 2F  1  cos θ 3 3 2 2  F  F   F  F  R =  1  +  1  + 2 1  1 (0.60) 2  0.5 +  = 2F (2. 5   3  F1  8. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 2 2 d c ρ2 =  +  2  3 2 2  4  4.60 2.5 in F′ F =  2c  ρ    3 F  2c  F′ =   ρ 3   c  2c  F1  a +  = 2Fρ + F ′   3   3 2  2(4. 5 F1 = 0.86   3   0.86  3  Page 38 of 133 .86 c3 cos θ = ρ 4.5)  F  4.86F F F= 1 0.

Solution: R = 6. except that F1 = 0.5   2(4. 388. The same as 387.68 kips F2 R=F+ 3 Fρ F′ = (2c 3)  c   2c  F2  b −  = F   + 2F ′ρ  3  3   4.5)  2F (2. and the value of F2 is calculated.68 kips = 1.8 kips .5 − =F +  3   3   2(4.5)   3  F2 = 0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES R = 1.389F1 F1 = 4.389F1 R = 6.7167F Page 39 of 133 .5)2 F2 11.

Text. The bracket shown is held in place by three bolts as shown. Solution: 3 s y As 2  3  (a) Eq..1). SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 0.25)) 18FA + 3FB = 9070 lbs FA FB = 9 3 FA = 3FB Page 40 of 133 . (b) Assuming that the connecting parts are virtually rigid and that the initial stress in the bolts is about 0.7sy. (a) Compute the size of the bolts by equation (5. 5-1. as rolled. bolt material is equivalent to C1022. θ = 30o. (c) Compute the maximum normal stress. F = 1500 lb.24F F = 5.7167F R =F + = 1..24F 3 6. compute the factor of safety by (i) the maximum shear stress theory. (ii) the octahedral shear theory. Let a = 5 ¼ in.68 = 1. Fe = . D < in 6  4  [∑ M corner =0 ] 2FA (9 ) + FB (3) = F sinθ (3) + F cos θ (a ) ( ) ( 18FA + 3FB = (1500) sin 30 o (3) + (1500) cos 30 o (5.387 kips NORMAL STRESSES WITH SHEAR DESIGN PROBLEMS 389.

.000 As 2 Fe = 477... For the mounted bracket shown.1419 ss = F cos θ 3 (1500) cos 30 o 3 = ( ) = 3052 psi As 0.000) = 39. F = 2.4 = 6 2 As = 0.1419 in 2 2 Fe (b) st = + si A 477. θ = 0. As = 0.1419 (i) Maximum shear theory 1 1  2 2 2  2 2 1  s   ss  2   =  +   =  39.764  +  3052   N  s y  s   y 3     52. UNC. c = 17 in.293 (ii) Octahedral shear theory 1 1  2   ss  2 2   2 2 1  s  2 =  +   =  39.000 psi 3 s y As 2 Fe = 6 3 52. Page 41 of 133 . (c) the octahedral shear theory.4 st = + 0.764 psi.000 3       N = 1.296 (c) Maximum normal stress = 39. s y = 52. determine the rivet diameter (all same size) for N = 3.000   52. rivet material is AISI 1015. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 18FA + FA = 9070 lbs FA = 477. b = 14 ½ in.1448 in Select 1 Say D = in . a = 1 ½ in. the design being for the external loading (initial stress ignored).000 2     N = 1. 390. Compute for (a) the maximum shear theory.764 psi 0. as rolled. as rolled.3 kips. (b) the maximum normal stress theory.7(52.000   52.4 lbs Fe = FA For C1022.764  +  3052   N  s y   s 2   y    52.

5) + 0. as rolled.75 ksi Page 42 of 133 .2165 s= = ksi A A F 2.3)(17 ) F1 = 1.5 + 14.09375F1 2F1 (a + b) + F2 (a ) = Fc 2F1 (1.7667 ss = = = ksi 3 A 3A A For AISI 4015.5 1.09375F1 (1.3 0.5 + 14. s y = 45.5(45.5) = 22.5 F2 = 0.5sy = 0.5 ksi (a) Maximum shear theory 1    ss   2 2 2 1  s  +   = N  sy  s     ys    s ys = 0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Solution: F2 F = 1 a a+b F2 F1 = 1.5) = (2.2165 kips F1 1.

7667  2 1.7667  2 2 =   +  3  45.1291 in 2 πD 2 A= = 0.11874 in 2 πD 2 A= = 0.4054 in 3 say D = in 8 1 1 s  s   2 1.1046 in 2 πD 2 A= = 0.365 in 3 say D = in 8 sy 45.1046 in 2 4 D = 0.2165   0.5 = A 3 A = 0.5869 2 (b) σ = +   + s s2  = +   +  = 2  2   2A  2 A   A  A 1 σ = N sy sy σ= N 1.5 (c) s ys = = = 26.11874 in 2 4 D = 0.5A   22.2165  2  0.75A   A = 0.27 ksi 3 3 1 1  1.27 A  A = 0.7667   2 2 2 =   +   3  45.5869 45.2165   0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 1 1  1.5A   26.3888 in 3 say D = in 8 Page 43 of 133 .1291 in 2 4 D = 0.2165  1.

s y = 45.3)(17 ) F1 = 1.7667 ss = = = ksi 3 A 3A A For AISI 4015. Solution: δ2 δ1 = a a+b δ2 δ1 = 1.5 δ 2 = 0.09375δ1 F2 (1. except that the two top rivets are 2 in.5 ksi Page 44 of 133 .15F1 2F1 (a + b) + F2 a = Fc 2F1 (16) + 0.09375(2)F1 F2 = 0. The same as 390.25) = 0.15F1 (1.5) = (2. long.5 1. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 392.5 + 14. long and the bottom rivet is 1 ¼ in.3 0.2133 s= = ksi A A F 2.2133 kips F1 1. as rolled.

1045 in 2 4 D = 0.7667   2 2 =   +  3  45.5 A   22.5sy = 0.5843 2 (b) σ = +   + s s2  = +   +  = 2  2   2A  2 A   A   A 1 σ = N sy sy σ= N 1.5(45.2133   0.2133  2  0.1045 in 2 πD 2 A= = 0.7667   2 1.4051 in 3 say D = in 8 1 1 s  s   2 1.75A   A = 0.1186 in 2 Page 45 of 133 .5843 45.5 (c) s ys = = = 26.27 A   A = 0.75 ksi 1 1  1.1289 in 2 4 D = 0.2133  1.1289 in 2 πD 2 A= = 0.3648 in 3 say D = in 8 sy 45.5 A   26.2133   0.7667   2 2 2 =    +   3  45.5) = 22. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES (b) Maximum shear theory 1    ss   2 2 2 1  s  +   = N  sy  s     ys    s ys = 0.27 ksi 3 3 1 1  1.5 = A 3 A = 0.

Solution: 2 2 b 2 ρ = 6 +   3 2  14. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES πD 2 A= = 0.5  ρ 2 = 62 +    3  ρ = 7. except that the load is applied vertically at B instead of at A. The same as 390. The two top rivets are 12 in. apart.1186 in 2 4 D = 0. let AB = 8 in.705 in F1 F2 = ρ 2b 3  2b  F   2(14.2546F1  3  ρ   3  7.5)  F1  F2 =   1  =    = 1.3886 in 3 say D = in 8 393.705  Page 46 of 133 .

1957 in 2 πD 2 A= = 0.3536   2 2 2 =   +   3  45.3)(8) = 2F1 (7.2165   1.5)  (2.2165  1.3536   2 2.3  R = (0. 1.705 2 F  F  R 2 = F12 +   + 2F1   cos θ 3 3 2  2.10 2 (b) σ = +   + s s2  = +   +  = 2  2   2A  2 A   A   A 1 σ = N sy Page 47 of 133 .705) + 1.6682) +  2 2  + 2(0.3536 ss = = ksi A A 1  2   ss  2 2 1 s (a) =   +    N  sy  s      ys   From Problem 390.7787 ρ 7.5A   22.2165 s= ksi A s y = 45. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES  2b  F (8) = 2F1 ρ + F2    3  2(14.3536 kips R 1.2165  2  1.5 in 1 say D = in 2 1 1 s  s   2 1.6682 kips 6 6 cos θ = = = 0.7787 )  3   3  R = 1.5 ksi s ys = 22.1957 in 2 4 D = 0.2546F1   3  F1 = 0.6682) (0.3   2.75 ksi N=3 1 1  1.75A   A = 0.

) Solution: Bracket: SAE 1020. as rolled.471 in 1 say D = in 2 394.1742 in 2 4 D = 0.1742 in 2 πD 2 A= = 0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES sy σ= N 2.. (c) Decide upon a proper spacing of rivets and sketch the bracket approximately to scale. The bracket shown is made of SAE 1020.3536  2 2 =   +  3  45. cold drawn. s y = 63 ksi Page 48 of 133 . (No additional calculations unless your instructor asks for a complete design. if any. L = 7 in.27 ksi 1 1  1. Is some adjustment of dimensions desirable? Give suggestions. (b) Compute the rivet diameter by both maximum shear and octahedral shear theories and specify a standard size. as rolled.1385 in 2 4 D = 0.1385 in 2 πD 2 A= = 0. cold drawn.10 45. s y = 48 ksi Rivets: SAE 1015. The force F = 20 kips.5A   26. and θ = 60o. Let the design factor (on yield) be 2. and the rivets are SAE 1015.2165   1. (a) Determine the thickness t of the arm.42 in 7 say D = in 16 (c) s ys = 26.27 A  A = 0.5 = A 3 A = 0.

333t t = 1.31 20 sin 60 9. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES N=2 (a) Bracket.10 kips F1 = 3F2 = 3(2.333t 12 s= sy 48 20 sin 60 o = = + ( 20 cos 60 o (7 )(2) ) N 2 4t 5.31 kips F cos θ 20 cos 60 2 ss = = = 5A 5A A F1 F sin 60 6.5(63) = 31.5A   A = 0.10) = 6. (F cosθ )(L ) 4  F sinθ 2 s= + A I A = 4t t (4)3 I= = 5.3353 in 2 Page 49 of 133 .5 ksi 1 1  9. shear: s ys = 0.774 s= + = + = A 5A A 5A A 1  2 2 2 1  s   ss  +    = N  sy  s   ys      s y = 63 ksi Max.5sy = 0.275 in 1 say t = 1 in 4 (b) F2 F1 = 2 6 F1 = 3F2 ( ( ) ) 3F1 (6) + 2F2 (2) = F cos 60o (L ) + F sin 60 o (3) 3(3F )(6) + 2F (2 ) = (20)(cos 60 )(7 ) + (20)(sin 60 )(3) 2 2 o o F2 = 2.774   2   2 2 2 =   +   2  63A   31.

SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES πD 2 A= = 0.3353 in 2 4 D = 0.6474 in 3 say D = in 4 (c) Spacing F cos θ σ= 5(S − D )t t = 1.37 ksi 3 3 1 1  9.653 in 3 say D = in 4 sy 63 Octahedral shear.75 in F = 20 kips sy F cos θ σ= = N 5(S − D )t 48 20 cos 60 = 2 5(S − 0.5) S = 0.774   2   2 2 2 =   +   2  63A   36.5 in .3292 in 2 4 D = 0. s ys = = = 36. s y = 48 ksi D = 0.37 A   A = 0.75)(1.3292 in 2 πD 2 A= = 0.806 in 7 use S = in adjust to 2 in 8 Page 50 of 133 .

a = 2 in. (b) For rivets of naval brass. c = 14 in. (a) If the rivets supporting the brackets of 390 are 5/8 in.. compute the factor of safety by maximum shear and octahedral shear theories (initial tension ignored). SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Adjust spacing to 2 in from 7/8 in as shown. ¼ hard. CHECK PROBLEMS 396. and b = 18 in. in diameter. θ = 0. Solution: Page 51 of 133 . what are the maximum tensile and shear stresses in the rivets induced by a load of F = 10 kips..

865)  = 12.5(48) = 24 ksi Page 52 of 133 .865)  = 18. 1    ss   2 2 2 1  s  +   = N  sy  s     ys    Max.525  12.1F1 (2) = (10)(14) F1 = 3.525  2 2  + (10.541 ksi 2 (a) τ =   + s s  =   2    2   1 1 s  s  2 12.525  2 2 2 σ = +   + s s2  = +   + (10. s y = 48 ksi .625) 2 4 4 1 1  s  2 2  2  12. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES F2 F = 1 a a+b F2 F = 1 2 2 + 18 F2 = 0.525 ksi A π π D2 (0.1F1 2F1 (a + b) + F2 (a ) = Fc 2F1 (2 + 18) + 0. shear theory. s ys = 0.625)2 4 4 F F 10 ss = = = = 10.865 ksi 3A π  2 π  3 D 3 (0.8425 s= = 1 = = 12.8425 kips F1 F 3.5sy = 0. ¼ hard.804 ksi 2 2  2   2  2   (b) Naval Brass.

in diameter.525   10. except that the two top rivets are ¾ in.914 sy 48 Octahedral shear theory. in diameter and the bottom one is ½ in.123 397.865   2 2 2 =   +   N  48   27. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 1 1  12.865   2 2 2 =   +   N  48   24   N = 1. Solution: δ2 δ1 = a a+b a δ2 = δ1 a+b F2 a F1 = A2 a + b A1 Page 53 of 133 . The same as 396.71 ksi 3 3 1 1  12.71   N = 2. s ys = = = 27.525   10.

9043  7.9043   9. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 2  a  D2  F2 =   F1  a + b  D1  2  2   0.9043 ksi A1 π (0.384 sy 48 Octahedral shear theory.50) 2 2 4 4 1 1  s  2 2  2  7. s ys = = = 27.9043  2 2  + (9.71   N = 2.9043   9.492 kips F1 3.684 Page 54 of 133 .9043  2 2 2 σ = +   + s s2  = +   + (9. 5  F2 =    F1 = 0.0444F1  2 + 18  0.26   2 2 2 =   +   N  48   27.26   2 2 2 =   +   N  48   24   N = 2.492 s= = = 7.71 ksi 3 3 1 1  7.75) +  (0.75  2F1 (a + b) + F2 (a ) = Fc 2F1 (2 + 18) + 0.26)  = 10.0444F1 (2) = (10)(14) F1 = 3.5(48) = 24 ksi 1 1  7. shear theory.02 ksi 2 2  2   2  2   1    ss   2 2 2 1 s (b) =   +   N  sy  s     ys    Max.5sy = 0.26 ksi 2 A1 + A2 π  π  2 (0.26)  = 14.75)2 4 F 10 ss = = = 9.068 ksi 2 (a) τ =   + s s  =   2    2   1 1 s  s  2 7. s ys = 0.

c = 14. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 398. C1015.? Count on no help from friction and ignore the initial tension. g = 12 in.5) = F (14) F2 = 0. Check by both maximum shear and octahedral shear theories.5 + 9 1.5 + 9 ) + F2 (1.75)2 4 Page 55 of 133 . What static load F may be supported by the ¾-in.4417F s= = =F A π (0. a = 1 ½. Solution: For cold-finished. f = 9. rivets shown. b = 9.4417F F1 0.5 F1 = 7F2 θ = 0o 3F1 (a + b) + F2 a = Fc 3(7F2 )(1. θ = 0. s y = 63 ksi . with N = 3.0631F F1 = 7F2 = 0. made of cold-finished C1015. F1 F = 2 a+b a F1 F = 2 1.

. UNC cap screw shown has been subjected to a tightening torque of 20 in-kips. long? (See §5. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES F F ss = = = 0.5sy = 0. Solution: (a) T = CDFi C = 0. screw material is AISI C1137 as rolled.2(2)Fi Page 56 of 133 . and Q = 0. (a) What is the approximate initial tightening load? (b) What is the increase in this load caused by the external force F if the bar is 8 in.5 ksi 1 1  F   0. wide and 2 in. maximum shear. shear theory. b = 15 in. s ys = 0. L = 24 in.5   F = 13.5659F 4A π  ( 4  0.75 ) 2  4 1    ss   2 2 2 1  s  +   = N  sy  s     ys    Max.2 D = 2 in T = 20 in − kips 20 = 0..5(63) = 31. a = 20 in. Text. θ = 60o. thick and the unthreaded shank of the screw is 2 in.) (c) What are the maximum tensile and shear stresses in the bolt? (d) Compute the factor of safety from maximum normal stress.5659F   2 2 2 =   +    3  63   31..5659F   2 2 2 =   +    3  63   36.37 ksi 3 3 1 1  F   0. and octahedral shear theories. The 2-in.37   F = 15 kips 399. s ys = = = 36.9. The force F = 12 kips..9 kips sy 63 Octahedral shear theory.

s y = 55 ksi sy σ= N 55 23.5343E  F + ∆Fb 50 + 7.3 ksi  2    2   1 1 s  s   2 23.14  23.16)  = 23.87 = N Page 57 of 133 .5 1 1  s  2  2  23.5E kb = = 1.25E 2 π (3)2 E kc = 4 = 3.84 (c) s = i = = 23.14  2 2 2  + (4.25E + 3.16 )2  = 12.14 ksi As 2.50 in 2 Width across flat = 3 in. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Fi = 50 kips (b) θ = 60 o ( Fe (L − a ) = F cos 60 o (a )) ( Fe (24 − 20) = 12 cos 60 o (20) ) Fe = 30 kips  kb  ∆Fb = Fe    kb + kc  AE kb = s Lb AE kc = c Lc For 2”-UNC As = 2.25E  ∆Fb = (30)  = 7.16 ksi As 2. 2.50 F sinθ 12 sin 60o ss = = = 4.87 ksi 2 2 σ = +   + s s  = +  2  2   2  2   (d) For C1137.84 kips  1.5343E 2  1.14  2 2 τ =   + ss2  =   + (4. as rolled.

UNC s y = 88 ksi s p = 85 ksi si = 0.6sp (sp = proof stress. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES N = 2.. L = 26 in. a = 6 in. Heat-Treated.6s p = 0.5(55) 12.75   N = 2.6(85) = 51 ksi Page 58 of 133 . heat-treated bolt material.269 400.. (b) the largest stress? What safe static load can be supported by the screws for N = 1.5 based on the Hencky-Mises criterion? Solution: For ASTM A325. The plate shown is attached by three ½-in. θ = 0. ½-in. b = 4 in.304 Maximum Shear: 0.3 = N N = 2. UNC cap screws that are made of ASTM A325.5sy τ= N 0.236 sy 55 Octahedral shear.8.75 ksi 3 3 1    ss   2 2 2 1  s  +   = N  sy  s     ys    1 1  23. Which screw is subjected to (a) the largest force...16   2 2 2 =   +   N  55   31. §5. s ys = = = 31.14   4. Text). The shear on the screws is across the threads and they have been tightened to an initial tension of 0.

at A (b) Largest stress.1419 s = si = 51 ksi By Hencky-Mises Criterion.83 in (a) Largest force. 1  2 2 σ= 1− µ (s x + s y )+ (1 + µ ) s x − sy   + s s2  2  2   Page 59 of 133 .1F ss = = = 29F A 0.83) + F1   = F 26 +  3   3  F1 = 3.75F + = 4. As = 0.75F F F R = F1 + = 3.83F1 F2 = = = 0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 2 2 2 2 b a  4  6 ρ 2 =   +  =   +   2  3  2  3 ρ = 2.7075)(F1 )(2.7075F1 (2a 3) 2(6 ) 3  2a   2a  2F2 ρ + F1   = F  L +   3   3   2(6 )   2(6)  2(0.1F 3 3 For ½ in UNC. at A F2 F1 = ρ (2a 3) ρF1 2.1419 in 2 R 4.

5 2  2   F = 0. except that the cap screw A is ¾ in.3 = (51) + (1 + 0.3340)[2(6) 3] F2 = 0.262F + = 5.1419 )(2.3006F1 )(2.63 kips = 630 lbs 401.1419 in 2 (1/2 in UNC) F2 F1 = A2 ρ A1 (2a 3) F2 F1 = (0.3006F1 = 0.3340 in 2 (3/4 in UNC) A2 = As2 = 0.83) + F1   = F  26 +  3   3  F1 = 5. Solution: A1 = As1 = 0. in diameter.262F F2 = 0. F F R = F1 + = 5.3006F1  2a   2a  2F2 ρ + F1   = F  L +   3   3   2(6)   2(6)  2(0.262F ) = 1.83) (0.582F For ¾ in UNC. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES s x = s = 51 ksi sy = 0 s s = 29F µ = 0.6F 3 3 Page 60 of 133 .3) 51  + (29F )2  1. The same as 400.3006(5.3 1  2 2 σ= = sy 1− µ (s x + sy ) + (1 + µ ) s x − sy   + ss  2 N 2  2   1  2 2 88 1 − 0.

367F ss = = 9. s s = 16. stress.6F ksi 0.. The unsupported length is 3 ft.3) 51  + (16.8F ksi 0.1419 (a) Max. Since the computations are to be as though the stresses were steady.000 in- lb. and an end thrust of 25. force.000 in − lb L = 3 ft = 36 in Page 61 of 133 .7067 ) = 1.000 in-lb. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 5. normalized. a torque of 50.3 σ= = = N 1.582F )2 +   − 2(1. use N = 3.09 kips = 1090 lbs NORMAL STRESSES WITH TORSION DESIGN PROBLEMS 402.83 1  F  2 F  2 R = (1. A section of a machined shaft is subjected to a maximum bending moment of 70. at ¾ in.5 2  2   F = 1..8F )2  sy 88 1 − 0.3340 For ½ in. and the material is AISI C1030.7067 ρ 2.367F  3 3  1. 1  F  2 F  2 R = F22 +   − 2F2   cos θ   3 3  a3 63 cos θ = = = 0.000 lb.3. Compute the diameter from both the maximum-shear and the octahedral-shear theories and specify a standard size.8F ksi s = si = 51 ksi 1  2 2 (51) + (1 + 0. Solution: wL2 M = M1 + 2 M1 = 70.6F ss = = 16.582F ) (0. (b) Max. at ¾ in. UNC.

5sy = 0.831 1472  2 2  + +  2 1  D 3 = D2 D  +  254.223D 2 lb in 4 0.284 lb in 3 πD 2 A= 4 0.831 1472 s= + + D3 D2 D 16T 16(50.500 psi 1  713.014 31.000) 32 70.648   3.5 ksi = 23.5D 2 2 F = 25.000 + 144. normalized.000) 254. Page 62 of 133 .000   23.284πD 2 w= = 0.000 + 144.014 1472 s= + + D2 D3 D 713.3  47 .000 psi 1  2 2 2 1  s   ss  +    = N  sy  s   ys      Maximum shear s ys = 0. s y = 47 ksi = 47 .6548 ss = = = πD 3 πD 3 D3 For AISI C1030. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES w = ρA ρ = 0.000 + = 70.5D 2 + ) πD 2 πD 3 31.223D 2 (36 )2 M = 70.500D 3          By trial and error.000 lb F Mc s= + A I D c= 2 πD 2 A= 4 πD 4 I= 64 4F 32M s= 2 + πD πD 3 s= ( 4(25.014 31.5(47 ) = 23.831 713.

3  47 .000 + = 70. D = 5.6D 2 2 F = 25. Solution: L = 15 ft = 180 in 0.798  2 2   + +  2 1  D 3 = D2 D  +  254.125 in 1 use D = 4 in standard 4 403.125 in Octahedral Shear sy 47 s ys = = = 27.831 713. except that the unsupported length is 15 ft.831 36. D = 4.014 31. The same as 402.831 1472  2 2   + +  2 1  D 3 = D2 D  +  254.648   3.125 in Page 63 of 133 .000 + 3612. which acts in the same sense as the given bending moment.014 31.014 31.000   23.831 36.140D 3         By trial and error.14 ksi = 27 . Do not overlook the moment due to the weight of the shaft.798 s= + + D3 D2 D Maximum shear 1  713. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES D = 4.648   3.140 psi 3 3 1  713.500D 3         By trial and error.000   27 .798 s= + + D2 D3 D 713.000 + 3612.000) 32 70.3  47 .223D 2 (180)2 M = 70.6D 2 + ) πD 2 πD 3 31.014 36.000 lb F Mc s= + A I 4F 32M s= 2 + πD πD 3 s= ( 4(25.

b = 24 in. Solution: T = QL = (2)(20 ) = 40 in − kips T1 + T2 = T = 40 in − kips θ1 = θ 2 T1L1 T2 L2 = J1G J 2 G T1a Tb 4 = 24 πD1 πD2 32 32 8T1 24T2 = 4 D14 D2 Page 64 of 133 . SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Octahedral Shear 1  713.000   27 . somewhat as shown. The factor of safety is to be 2... and the load Q = 2 kips. D = 5. but they are designed to support the balancing reactions from Q without other moments. I and II.3  47 . so seldom repeated that the design is for steady load.648   3.014 31. A shaft is to be made in two sections. machined from AISI 1045.140D 3         By trial and error.2 on the basis of the octahedral-shear theory and closely the same in each section.798  2 2   + +  2 1  D = 3 D 2 D  +  254. The ends A and B are restrained from twisting. L = 20 in. It is expected that a = 8 in. Decide upon standard size for D1 and D2. annealed.0625 in 1 use D = 5 in standard 4 404.. of diameters D1 and D2.831 36.

N = 2.5 kips A = 1.2 Octahedral Shear Page 65 of 133 . SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 4 D  T1 = 3T2  1   D2  T1 + T2 = T = 40 in − kips  D  4  T2 3 1  + 1 = 40   D 2  40 T2 =   D 4  3 1  + 1   D 2   4 4 D  D  40(3) 1  120 1   D2   D2  T1 = =  D  4    D 4  3  + 1 3 1  + 1 1   D 2     D2   A + B = Q = 2 kips aA = bB 8A = 24B A = 3B 3B + B = 2 B = 0. annealed.5 kips   D 4  4 16120 1   D  1920 1  16T   D 2    D2  s s1 = 31 = = πD1   D 4    D 4  πD1 3  + 1 πD1 3 1  + 1 3   1   3   D 2     D 2   16T2 16(40) 640 s s2 = = = 3 πD 2  D  4    D 4  πD2 3  + 1 πD2 3 1  + 1 3   1   3   D 2     D 2   32M1 32 Aa 32(1.5)(8) 384 s1 = = = = 3 πD13 πD13 πD13 πD1 32M 2 32Bb 32(0. s y = 55 ksi .5)(24) 384 s2 = = = = 3 πD 23 πD23 πD 23 πD2 For AISI 1045.

75πD 2 3  + 1  3 1     D 2          1    2 2      2    1  2.2  55πD 2    D  4    31.75πD1 3  + 1   3 1     D   2       1   4  2 2   19.42 =   +   2. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 1  2 2 2 1  s   ss   +   = N  sy  s    ys     sy 55 s ys = = = 31.75 ksi 3 3 1  2 2 2 1  s1   s s1  +    = N  sy  s   ys      1   4  2 2   D     1920 1  1  384   2 D2    =   +    2.2224   6.2  55πD13     D 4     31.2224   2 =    2   +    2.2  D 23     D  4     D 2 3  + 1   3 1       2 D       Page 66 of 133 .25 D1     D    1  2.2  D13     D  4     D1 3  + 1   3 1      D 2        1  2 2 2 1  s2   s s2   +   = N  sy  s    ys     1    2 2      2     1  384   +   640 =  3    2.

The shaft shown overhangs a bearing on the right and has the following dimensions: a = 5 in. Using a static- design approach.284 lb in 3 π  w = 0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES By trial and error. Solution: ρ = 0. This shaft is subjected to a torque T = 10.284 D 2  = 0. The material is AISI C1040..3D1 = 1.820 1.37 1.000)(5) + 11.000 lb. and F2 = 20.37 2. use D1 = 2 in 2  1 D 2 = D1 + 2r = 1. determine the diameter D for N = 2.3 2  = 3..40 2. and e = 10 in.296 114 + πD 3 πD 3 D3 D Bending due to F2 Page 67 of 133 .25 1.25 in  2 1 say D 2 = 3 in 2 405. with computations from the maximum-shear and octahedral-shear theories.223D 2 (10 )2 M= = = 11.15D 2 509.403 1.223D 2  4  we 2 0.25 2. D D1 Trial 1 D1 D2 Actual D2 D2 1 2.398 1.40 1 3 Use standard D1 = 2 in .000 lb. forces F1 = 10. b = ½ in.730 1.372 1.. annealed.000 in-lb.5.40 1.714 1..15D 2 2 2 Bending due to F1 and load s1 = = [ = ] 32(F1a + M ) 32 (10. D 2 = 1 in 2 4 1 But D1 > D 2 .268 1.712 1.

710D 3         D = 2.437 25. AF 1) s y = 48 ksi Maximum shear. s ys = 0.465 114  2 2   + +  2 1  D 3 = D2 D  +  50.859 3 3 πD πD D3 Tension.930 ss = = = πD 3 πD 3 D3 N = 2.465 114  2 2   + +  2 1  D 3 = D2 D  +  50.5   48.296 114 101. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 1 32(20.95 in use D = 3.859 s= + + − D2 D3 D D3 407.5 1    ss   2 2 2 1  s  +   = N  sy  s     ys    For AISI C1040. annealed (Fig.5(48) = 24 ksi 1  407.95 in Octahedral Shear sy 48 s ys = = = 27.5sy = 0.930   2.465 509.5  48.465 s3 = = πD 2 D2 since s1 > s 2 s = s3 + s1 − s2 25.000   24.000 )  s2 = 32F2 b =  2  = 101.437 25.437 25. 4(20.930   2.71 ksi 3 3 1  407.000D 3         D = 2.000 ) 25.465 114 s= + + D3 D2 D 16T 16(10.000   27.000) 50.0 in Page 68 of 133 .

930   2.710D 3         D = 2. e = 8 in.. b = ¾ in.296 114  2 2   1  D 3 + 2 = D  +  50. a = 4 in.000D 3         D = 3 in Octahedral Shear sy 48 s ys = = = 27. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 406. and the octahedral-shear stress: (a) at points A and B (θ = 45o).296 114 s = s1 = + D3 D 50. The same as 405.5sy = 0. The shaft shown overhangs a bearing at the right and has the following dimensions: D = 2 in. except that F2 = 0. r = ¼ in.930    2. Solution F2 = 0 s 2 = 0 .000   27 . c = 2 in. (c) at point G.296 114  2 2   +  2 1  D 3 = D  +  50.. d = 6 in.. and forces F1 = 8000 lb.997 in use D = 3. This shaft is subjected to a torque T = 8000 in-lb.0 in CHECK PROBLEMS 407.. s ys = 0.930 ss = D3 N = 2.. Determine the maximum-shear and normal stresses.5 Maximum shear.000 lb.5(48) = 24 ksi 1  509.000   24. (b) at points M and N.71 ksi 3 3 1  509.. and F2 = 16.. Page 69 of 133 .5  48. s3 = 0 509.5  48.

114  2 2 2  + (5093)  = 24. Normal 1 1 s  s   2 23.279) sin 45o = 23.114 psi Max.629 psi 2  2    2   Max.892(6)2  32 (8000)(4) +   2  s1 = = 40.279 psi πD 3 π (2)3 Tension 4F 4(16.223D 2 = 0. Shear 1 1  s 2  2  23.223(2)2 = 0.892 lb in (A) x = e − c = 8 − 2 = 6 in  0.764 psi π (2 ) 3 at A s = s3 + (s1 − s 2 ) sin 45o = 5093 + (40.75) s2 = = = 15.000) s3 = 22 = = 5093 psi πD π (2)2 Bending due to F1 and weight of beam  wx 2  32 F1a +   2  s1 = πD 3 x from the free end.186 psi 2 2 τ = +   + s s  = +  2  2   2  2   Octahedral Shear Stress Page 70 of 133 .114  2 2 τ =   + s s2  =   + (5093)  = 12. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Solution: Bending due to F2 : 32F2 b 32(16. 16T 16(8000) ss = = = 5093 psi πD 3 π (2)3 w = 0.764 − 15.000 )(0.114  23.

592)2 + 3(5093)2 ] 2 = 15. Shear 1 1  s 2  2  12.778 − 15.592  2 2 2  + (5093)  = 31. Shear Page 71 of 133 .378 psi (B) 1 x =e −c =8− = 7.928 psi Max.764 − 15.114)2 + 3(5093)2 ] 2 = 11.418 psi 2 2 σ = +   + s s  = +  2  2   2  2   Octahedral Shear Stress 1 1 τo = 3 2 2 ( s + 3s s2 2 = 3 )2 [ (30.406 psi Max.928  12.592  2 2 τ =   + s s2  =   + (5093)  = 16.693 psi 2 2  2   2  2   Octahedral Shear Stress 1 1 τo = 3 2 2 ( s + 3s s2 2 = 3 )2 [ (12. Normal 1 1 s  s  2 12.778 psi π (2)3 at M s = s3 + s1 − s2 = 5093 + 40.592 psi Max.75)2  32(8000)(4 ) +   2  s1 = = 40.662 psi At B: s = (s1 − s2 )sin 45o − s3 = (40.928  2 2 2 σ = +   + s s2  = +   + (5093)  = 14.892(7. Normal 1 1 s  s   2 30.75 in 4  0.778 − 15.928)2 + 3(5093)2 ] 2 = 7 .279) sin 45o − 5093 = 12.122 psi 2  2    2   Max.592  30.928  2 2 τ =   + s s2  =   + (5093)  = 8229 psi 2  2    2   Max. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 1 1 τo = 3 2 2 ( s + 3s s2 ) 2 = 3 2 [(23.279 − 5093 = 20.279 = 30. Shear 1 1  s 2  2  30.009 psi At N: s = s1 − s 2 − s3 = 40.

material is AISI 8630.826  2 2 τ =   + s s2  =   + (5093)  = 10. s y = 125 ksi 32M 4F s= + πD 3 πD 2 16T ss = 3 πD 2 M= T 3 F = 20 kips Page 72 of 133 . The maximum bending moment is 2/3 of the twisting moment. Normal 1 1 s  s  2 20.406  20. Shear 1 1  s 2  2  17 .279) cos 30 o = 17 .406  2 2  + (5093)  = 11.406  2 2 2 τ = +   + s s2  = +   + (5093)  = 21. shaft carries an axial thrust of 20 kips. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 1 1  s  2  2  20. WQT 1100 F.892(2 )2  32 (8000)(4) +   2  s1 = = 40.406)2 + 3(5093)2 2 = 10.403 psi 2 2 τ =   + s s  =   2    2   Max. x = e − c = 8 − 2 = 6 in  0.746 − 15. A 4-in.826 psi Max.826  2 2 2 σ = +   + s s2  = +   + (5093)  = 19. Normal 1 1 s  s  2 17 .480 psi (C) At G.606 psi 2 2  2   2  2   Octahedral Shear Stress 1 1 τo = 3 2 2 ( s + 3s s2 2 = )3 2 [ ] (20.826)2 + 3(5093)2 ] 2 = 9376 psi 411.178 psi 2 2  2   2  2   Octahedral Shear Stress 1 1 τo = 3 2 2 ( s + 3s s2 2 = 3 )2 [ (17.826  17 . WQT 1100oF.746 psi π (2) 3 s = s3 + (s1 − s 2 ) cos 30 o = 5093 + (40. and N =3. Use the steady stress approach and compute the horsepower that may be transmitted at 2000 rpm? Solution: For AISI 8630.265 psi 2  2    2   Max.

59155   0.5)4 ] 1    ss   2 2 2 1  s  +   = N  sy  s     ys    1 1  0. It is transmitting 1500 hp at 1200 rpm. and an axial compressive force F = 10 kips. Solution: 32MDo 4F s= + (4 4 π Do − Di ) ( π D o − D i2 2 ) 2  32 T (4) 3  4(20) s= + = 0. and an ID of 2 ½ in. AISI 4130.5   T = 177 in − kips = 177. OQT 1100 F.5) 4 4 ] [ π (4)2 − (2.1252T + 2.0939T   2 2 2 =   +   3  125   62.1061T + 1.5s y = 0. alloyed-steel shaft. A hollow.5   T = 213 in − kips = 213.612   0.5 ksi 1    ss   2 2 2 1  s  +   = N  sy  s     ys    1 1  0.000 in − lb Tn (177.000 412. Page 73 of 133 .000)(2000) hp = = = 5619 hp 63. s ys = 0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES D = 4 in 2  32 T   3  4(20 ) s= + = 0.0796T π (4)3 By maximum shear.000 )(2000) hp = = = 6762 hp 63.1061T + 1. The same as 411.0939T 4 ( π Do − Di4 ) [ π (4)4 − (2.612 [ π (4) − (2. The length of the shaft between bearings is 10 ft.5)2 ] 16TDo 16T (4) ss = = = 0.000 in-lb.0796T   2 2 2 =   +   3  125   62. except that the shaft is hollow with an inside diameter of 2 ½ in.5(125) = 62.000 63.000 413. has an OD of 3 ¼ in. Using a steady stress approach.000 63. and at the same time is withstanding a maximum bending moment of 40.000 in − lb Tn (213.59155 π (4 )3 π (4)2 16T ss = = 0.1252T + 2.

5)4 ] 1 1  s  2  22.5(114) (C) N = = = = 2.732)(3.25) 4(10.554 σ 32.000  2 2 2  + (17 .000  2 2 2  + (17 . (c) the factor of safety in each case.750)(3.25) ss = = = 17 . s y = 114 ksi (Table AT 7) 63.82 ksi 3 3 Page 74 of 133 .962(120)2 M = 40.704 τ τ 21. (b) the maximum normal stress. 5s y 0.978)  = 21.25) − (2. Solution: For alloy-steel shaft.732 in − lb 8 32MDo 4F s= + 4 ( π Do − Di 4 ) ( π Do − Di2 2 ) 32(41.284  Do2 − Di2 = 0.000 psi [ π (3.076 psi 2 2 (B) σ = +   + s s  = +  2  2   2  2   sys 0. WQT 1100oF.000 + = 41. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES determine (a) the maximum shearing stress in the shaft.750 in − lb n 1200 1 Do = 3 in 4 1 Di = 2 in 2 π  π  ( ) [ w = 0.978)  = 32.962 lb in   4 4 ] 2 wL M = M1 + (Table AT 8) 8 L = 10 ft = 120 in 0.978 psi 4 ( π Do − Di 4 ) [ π (3.000  22.5)2 ] 16TDo 16(78.076 sy 114 N= = = 3.000) s= + = 22.076 1  2   ss  2 2 1 s (D) =   +   N  sy  s   ys      sy 114 s ys = = = 65.25)4 − (2.284  (3.25)2 − (2.076 psi 2 (A) τ =   + s s2  =   2    2   1 1 s  s   2 22.000hp 63. AISI 4130.5)2 = 0. (d) Also compute N from the octahedral –shear theory.5) 4 4 ] [ π (3.000(1500 ) T= = = 78.25)2 − (2.

10% worked. Compute the diameter D1 using the Soderberg-line approach with both the maximum-shear and octahedral-shear theories. indefinite life.85 Strength Reduction Factors With r d = r D1 = 0.54 K ts = 1. Solution: For SAE 040..99 VARYING STRESSES COMBINED DESIGN PROBLEMS 414. 10% Worked s n′ = 54 ksi s y = 85 ksi s n 54 1 = = sy 85 1.0   17.2 Fig. the material is cold-drawn SAE 1040.2 lb.978   2 2 2 =   +   N  114   65.574 SF = 0. L = 20 in.2D1. θ = 45o. to a minimum of -141. D2 = 1.5. the design factor N = 1. The force F on the lever in the illustration (in the plane of the lever) varies from a maximum of 424. AF 12 K t = 1.82   N = 2. r = 0..27 Page 75 of 133 .4 lb.. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 1 1  22.125 D d = D 2 D1 = 1.574 s ns s n 1 = = s ys s y 1. a = 15 in.125D1.

280 sas = = πD 3 D3 Page 76 of 133 .8 lb 2 2  πD 2  w = 0.4 lb 2 2 1 1 Fa = (Fmax − Fmax ) = (424.4)(20) + = 2828 + 44.233D 2 (20 )2 M m = (141.54 K fs = 1.2 lb Fmin = −141.6D 2 = ) 28.4) = 282.2 − 141.233D 2 (20)2 Ma = (282.806 454 + 3 πD D3 D sa = ( = ) 32 5656 + 44.223D 2   4  wL2 wL2 M = M1 + = FL + 2 2 0.6D 2 2 T = (F cos θ )a ( ) Tm = (141.284  = 0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Assume q = 1 K f = 1 + q (K t − 1) = 1 + (1)(K t − 1) = K t K f = 1.2 + 141.8)(20) + = 5656 + 44.4 lb 1 Fm = (Fmax + Fmax ) = 1 (424.4) = 141.27 Forces: Fmax = 424.6D 2 57 .612 454 + πD 3 D3 D 16T ss = πD 3 16(1500) 7640 sms = = 3 πD 3 D 16(3000 ) 15.6D 2 2 0.8)(cos 45 )(15) = 3000 in − lb o 32M s= πD 3 sm = ( 32 2828 + 44.4) cos 45o (15) = 1500 in − lb Ta = (282.

Use the Soderberg line for obtaining the equivalent stresses. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES sns K fs sas s es = sms + s ys SF 1  7640   1. The maximum bending moment is 40.000   31. has an inside diameter of one half of the outside diameter and is transmitting 1600 hp at 600 rpm.000D 3          9 D = 1.000 psi 1  122. sns = 0.5  54.000in-lb.5625 in = 1 in 16 sn 54. Specify a standard size.5sn = 0.85  D 3  D3 s K f sa se = n s m + sy SF 1  28.684   1.806 454   1.177D 3          D = 1. sns = = = 31.280  27. Determine the diameter for N = 3 by both the maximum-shear and octahedral shear theories.574  D 3 D   0.612 454  122.681 1111  2 2  +  2 1  D 3 = D  +  27 .27  15. A hollow steel shaft. SAE 1045.000) = 27.54  57.684 s es =  +  = 1. Page 77 of 133 .177 psi 3 3 1  122.684   1.574  D 3   0.000   27. as rolled.85  D 3 D  D3 D 1 1  se   ses   2 2 2 =   +    N  sn   s ns     Maximum shear.5(54.55 in 9 say D = 1 in 16 5 say D = 1 in 8 417.681 1111 se =  + +  + = + 1.5  54.000 Octahedral Shear.681 1111  2 2  +  2 1  D 3 = D  +  27.

229 Assume K f = K fs = 1 Do = 2Di For bending: sm = 0 sa = s s 1 se = n sm + K f sa = (0) + (1)s = s sy 1.25 in . Do = 2Di = 4.325   92. sns = = = 27.825   2 2 2 =   +    1.5 in sn 48. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Solution: For SAE 1045.825 ses = sms =  4  =  = s ys ( ) 1.5(48.5 in Page 78 of 133 .325   92.295 in say Di = 2.000)(2Di )  92.000D i3     Di = 2.713 psi 3 3 1 1  54.000 psi 1 1  54. Do = 2Di = 4.5  48. su = 96 ksi sn = 0.713Di3     Di = 2.325 se = s = = = ( 4 π Do − D i)4 [π (2Di )4 − Di4 ] Di3 For torsion: 63.5su = 48 ksi sn sns 48 1 = = = sy sys 59 1. as rolled.229 32MDo 32(40. sns = 0.000Di3   24.000hp 63. s y = 59 ksi .20 in say Di = 2.229  π Do − Di  1.229  π (2Di )4 − Di4  4 [ D i3] Maximum shear.000 in − lb n 600 s s es = ns sms + K fs sas sys sas = 0 s ms = s sns 1  16TDo  1 16(168.000(1600) T= = = 168.5sn = 0.000)(2Di ) 54.25 in .5  48.000) = 24.000 Octahedral Shear.825   2 2 2 =   +    1.000Di3   27.

5  88 ses = sms + sas =  +  = s ys SF 1.752  D 3 D 2   0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 1 1 Standard Size Di = 2 in .85  D 3  D 3 (a) Maximum shear. there is also a constant axial force of 40 kips.5 1 = = = sy sys 120 1. Solution: For AISI 2340.752 Assume K f = K fs = 1 1 Mm = (30 + 15) = 22.5) 76 sa = = = 3 πD 3 πD 3 D 16Tm 16(20) 102 sms = = = 3 πD 3 πD 3 D 16Ta 16(5) 25. s y = 120 ksi . A section of a shaft without a keyway is subjected to a bending moment that varies sinusoidally from 30 to 15 then to 30 in-kips during two revolutions.5 in − kips 2 1 Ma = (30 − 15) = 7.5su = 0. su = 137 ksi s n = 0.5 in − kips 2 1 Tm = (25 + 15) = 20 in − kips 2 1 Ta = (25 − 15) = 5 in − kips 2 32M m 4F 32(22.5) 4(40) 229 51 sm = 3 + = + = 3 + 2 πD πD 2 πD 3 πD 2 D D 32Ma 32(7. Determine the diameter by (a) the maximum-shear-stress theory. N = 1.5 sas = = = 3 πD 3 πD 3 D sn Kf 1  229 51   1  76  220 29 se = sm + sa =  + +   = + sy SF 1.5.5sn = 0. Do = 4 in 4 2 418. OQT 1000oF. OQT 1000 F.25 psi Page 79 of 133 .5 ksi sn sns 68.5(137 ) = 68.85  D 3  D 3 D 2 sns K fs 1  102   1  25. and to a torque that varies similarly and in phase from 25 to 15 to 25 in-kips.5(68. sns = 0.752  D 3   0.5) = 34. (b) the octahedral-shear-stress theory. the material is AISI 2340.

SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 1  220 29  2 2 1  D 3 D 2  + 2   88   = + 3  1.5 Octahedral Shear. Solution: K f = 1.5   34.5  68.5  97 ses = ns sms + sas =  +  = s ys SF 1.3  25.85  D 3  D 3 D 2 s K fs 1  102   1.93 in say D = 2 in .5 (b) Octahedral Shear. sns = 0.5sn = 0.5) = 34.752  D 3 D 2   0.3 sn Kf 1  229 51   1.25D 3         D = 2.55D         D = 1.25 psi 1  274 29  2 2 1  D 3 D 2  + 2 =  +  97   1. sns = = = 39.5   34.5  68. except that the shaft has a profile keyway at the point of maximum moment.04 in say D = 2 in sn 68.55 psi 3 3 1  220 29  2 2 1  D 3 D 2  + 2   88   = + 3  1.5(68.909 in say D = 2 in 419.5  68.6 K fs = 1.25D         D = 1.55 psi 3 3 Page 80 of 133 . sn 68. The same as 418.5   39. sns = = = 39.752  D 3   0.85  D 3  D 3 (a) Maximum shear.6  76  274 29 se = sm + sa =  + +   = + sy SF 1.

5  68.68 kips. s m = 0 Ma = Mm  32MC   32(16. elevated temperature drawn. Compute the factor of safety by the maximum-shear and octahedral-shear theories.6 sn se = sm + K f sa sy Mm = 0 .407 MB = (2.8 ksi  πD   π (2)  s s es = ns sms + K fs sas sys Tm = T .8)  s e = K f sa = K f  3  = 2. drawn.5   39.02 in say D = 2 in CHECK PROBLEMS 420. s y = 83 ksi .5(118) = 59 ksi sn 59 1 = = sy 83 1. MC = (1. A 2-in.0 .68)(10) = 16.0 3  = 42.62 kips and E = 1. In addition to the data on the figure. the reactions are B = 4.000hp 63.5su = 0.000 in − lbs = 21 in − kips n 600 Table AT 13 K f = 2. Solution: For AISI 1144. Ta = 0 Page 81 of 133 .55D         D = 2. Elevated Temperature. su = 118 ksi sn = 0. K fs = 1.8 in − kips 63. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 1  274 29  2 2 1  D 3 D 2  + 2   97   = + 3  1.1)(10) = 21 in − kips . shaft made from AISI 1144. transmits 200 hp at 600 rpm.000(200) T= = = 21.

the bar supports a static load Q = 3000 lb. The thickness of the bar is 2 in.05   N = 1.5   2 2 2 =   +   N  59   34.5su = 0. annealed.5 ksi K f = 2. In the figure (399).5 ksi s ys sys  πD  1.26 421.5   N = 1. s y = 50 ksi . is produced by a rotating unbalanced weight and is therefore repeated and reversed in both the horizontal and the vertical directions. cap screw. The 1-in. Solution: For AISI C1137.5(59 ) = 29. The force F = 2500 lb. with the conservative assumption that friction offers no resistance. L = 16 in.407  π (2)3  Maximum shear..5sn = 0. sns = 0. b = 7 in.5(85) = 42. acting down.5   2 2 2 =   +   N  59   29.577(59 ) = 34. is made of AISI C1137.8   9.8   9. with cut UNC threads. and (b) in the horizontal direction (maximum-shear theory).2DFi 4600 = 0. a = 12 in.5 1 = = = sy sny 50 1.1765 T = 0.05 psi 1 1  42.. annealed.5 psi 1 1  se 2 2 2   ses  =   +    N  sn   sns    1 1  42. and it has been subjected to a tightening torque of 4600 in-lb.2(1)(Fi ) Page 82 of 133 . su = 85 ksi sn = 0.8 (Table AT 12) sn sns 42. s ns = 0.26 Octahedral Shear. (a) Compute the factor of safety for the load reversing in the vertical direction.577 sn = 0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES sns s  16T  1 16(21)  ses = sms = ns  3  =   = 9.

0 − 2. Q > F (a − b)Fe max = (Q + F )(b) (12 − 7 )Fe max = (3.5)(7 ) Fe min = 0.9 sa = a = = 1.97 − 23.606 in 2 Nut: A = 1.2554 k b + k c As + Ac 0.9 kip 2 2 Fm 24.2554) = 1. UNC As = 0.18 = 23.5 ksi As 0.18) = 0.7 kips (a − b)Fe min = (Q − F )(b) (12 − 7 )Fe min = (3.1 kips 2 2 1 1 Fa = (Fb max − Fb min ) = (24.000 lbs = 23 kips For 1-in cap screws.5)(7 ) Fe max = 7. Moment at Edge = 0.8 ksi As 0.0 + 2. kc = c Le Le kb As 0.97 = 24.18 kips 1 Fm = (Fb max + Fb min ) = 1 (24.5 kips (a) Vertical.606 + π (1.606 F 0.18) = 24.97 kips ∆Fb min = (0.606 = = = 0.5)2 4 Q = 3000 lb = 3 kips F = 2500 lb = 2.7 kips ∆Fb max = (7.7 )(0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Fi = 23.97 + 23.5 in  kb  ∆Fb = Fe    kb + kc  AE AE kb = s .97 kips Fb min = Fi + ∆Fb min = 23 + 0.7 )(0.18 kips Fb max = Fi + ∆Fbmax = 23 + 1.606 Page 83 of 133 .1 sm = = = 39.2554) = 0.

5 sas = = = 4.8 2.85 .86   2 2 2 =   +   N  42.06 (b) Horizontal: (a − b)Fe = Qb (12 − 7 )Fe = (3)(7 ) Fe = 4.83 ksi sy SF 1.9 N = 1.2 kips ∆Fb = (4.5) = + N 50 28.80)(42.2554 ) = 1.5 kips 2 s ms = 0 Fa 2.85 1 1  se   ses   2 2 2 =   +    N  sn   sns    sns = 0. SF = 0.5sn = 0.13 ksi As 0.1 s= b = = 39.85)(0.8 ksi A 0.86 ksi s ys SF 0. maximum shear 1 1  33.5) = 21.5(42.8 .606 sm = s sa = 0 s K f sa 1 se = n sm + = (39. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn say K f = 2.0)(4.8) + 0 = 33.25 ksi .1765 Shear: Fm = 0 1 Fa = (Fmax − Fmin ) = 2.1 kips F 24.073 kips Fb = Fi + ∆Fb = 23 + 1.073 = 24.606 s ses = ns sms + K fs sas =0+ (1.5) = 28. Factor for tension = 0.83   4.5   21.2 )(0.25   N = 1.13) = 4.9 ksi 1 39.21 Page 84 of 133 .80 sn = (0.8(1.

as seen (404). The ends A and B of the shaft are restrained from turning through an angle but are supported to take the reactions A and B without other moments.74) = 20. The shaft is machined from AISI 1045.8192T2 = 0. assume that the shaft size changes at the section of application of Q.74 ) = 12. acts on the arm C and varies from 0 to 3 kips.27 in − kips 1 1 Ta1 = Tm1 = T1 = (20.27 ) = 10. as rolled.74 in − kips T1 = 0.14) sms1 = sas1 = 31 = = 6. b = 20 in.5.14 in − kips 2 2 1 1 Ta 2 = Tm 2 = T2 = (24. For calculation purposes.8192T2 + T2 = 45 in − kips T2 = 24. D2 = 2. The load Q. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 422. Investigate both sections I and II. L = 15. Would you judge the design to be 100% reliable? Solution: T = QL Tmax = (3)(15) = 45 in − kips T1 + T2 = 45 in − kips T1a T2 b = J J T1a T2 b = D14 D 24 T1 (10) T2 (20) = (2 )4 (2. D1 = 2.37 in − kips 2 2 16T sms = sas = πD 3 16T 16(10.8192T2 0. a = 10. Determine the factor of safety in accordance with the maximum-shear and octahedral-shear theories.8192(24.46 ksi πD1 π (2)3 Page 85 of 133 .5)4 T1 = 0.

968(1.73 ksi r = 0.73 ksi π (2)3 32(10) sm 2 = sa 2 = = 6.5 .15D1 = 0. 3 K f = q (K t − 1) + 1 = 0.968(1.30 1 1 q= = = 0.5 − 1) + 1 = 1.5)3 A + B = Q = 3 kips Aa = Bb A(10) = B(20) A = 2B 2B + B = 3 kips B = 1 kip A = 2 kips M = Aa = Bb = (2 )(10) = 20 in − kips Mmax = M = 20 in − kips 1 M m = Ma = Mmax = 10 in − kips 2 32M sm = sa = πD 3 32(10 ) sm1 = sa1 = = 12. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 16T2 16(12.3 Net Page 86 of 133 .46 ksi .37 ) sms 2 = sas 2 = = = 4.15D1 r D D 2.15 .73 ksi sas = 6. K ts = 1.01 1+ 1+ r 0.15(2 ) = 0.46 ksi .5)3 Use (1) sms = 6.03 ksi πD 23 π (2.0 K t = 1. = 2 = = 1. sm = 12.968 a 0.5 = 0. sa = 12.25 (Figure AF 12) r = 0.484 K fs = q (K ts − 1) + 1 = 0.52 ksi π (2.242 Profile Keyway K f = 1.6 . K fs = 1.25 D1 d D1 2.25 − 1) + 1 = 1.

5.242)(1. A steady torque T = 8 in-kips is applied at the end of the shaft.6 )(1 − 0.3)(1 − 0.20) = 1.5.85) (6.88   2 2 2 =   +   N  48   27. The horizontal force F2 varies in phase with the shaft rotation from 0 to 5 kips.85 .7 psi 1 1  43. D2 = 2.84 ksi sn K f sa 1 se = sm + = sy (SF )(RF ) 1.3 For AISI 1045.577 sn = 0.85)(0.7   N = 0.229 (0.5 from the octahedral-shear theory? Assume that the cycling of F2 may be such that the worst stress condition occurs at the hole.20 ) = 1. su = 96 ksi sn = 0. annealed. 423.73) + 1. s y = 59 ksi .46) = 16.85)(0. sns = 0.88   2 2 2 =   +   N  48   24   N = 0.73) = 43. Page 87 of 133 . as seen in the illustration. b = 5. N < 100. a = 2.3(6.9 K fs = (1.46) + 1.577(48) = 27.9(12. sns = 0. as rolled. A rotating shaft overhangs a bearing.84   16. e = 0.85 (12. r = ¼ in. hole is drilled at AB.84   16.5(48) = 24 psi 1 1  se 2 2 2   ses  =   +    N  sn   sns    1 1  43.91 Not 100% reliable. D = 2.229 SF = 0.85) Maximum shear.484)(1.5sn = 0. A ¼-in.88 ksi sns K fs sas 1 ses = s ms + = s ys (SF )(RF ) 1. The material is AISI C1040.5su = 48 ksi sns sn 48 1 = = = s ys sy 59 1. but its line of action does not move.87 Octahedral Shear.229 (0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES K f = (1. RF = 0. What steady vertical load F1 can be added as shown if the design factor is to be 2.

89 ksi πD 2 π (2)2 − dD − (0.5) = 4.01 1+ 1+ r 0.125 2 1 1 q= = = 0.25)(2)2 3 − − 32 6 32 6 Page 88 of 133 .04 ksi πD 3 dD 2 π (2) (0.11 K fs = q (K ts − 1) + 1 = 0.6 − 1) + 1 = 1.2 − 1) + 1 = 2.2 .08F1 πD 3 dD 2 π (2) (0.01 (annealed) 0. K ts = 1.926 a 0.5su = 40 ksi sn 40 1 = = sy 48 1.926(2. annealed.25)(2 )2 3 − − 32 6 32 6 s3 = F2 = (5) = 1. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Solution: AISI C1040.56 - At hole s = s3 + s1 − s2 Bending F2 : Mc M s2 = = I I c s2 = F2 e = (5)(0. AF 1).25 r= = 0.25)(2) 4 4 s1 = F1b = (F1 )(5) = 8.926(1. s y = 48 ksi (Fig.125 K t = 2. su = 80 ksi sn = 0.25 2 = 0.125 K f = q (K t − 1) + 1 = 0.2 For hole: d D = 0.6 a = 0.

which is to raise and support a load of 5 tons.78   4.75   2 2 2 =   +   2.15) = 1.70 ksi πD 3 dD 2 π (2 ) 3 (0.7 ) = 4.89 + 8.08F1 − 8. similar to that shown.08 ksi 3 1 1  se 2 2 2   ses  =   +    N  sn   sns    1 1  6.04 = 8.08 ksi 2 2 1 1 sa = (smax − smin ) = (8.74F1 − 1.08F1 − 2. Page 89 of 133 .08F1 − 1.15 smax = s1 = 8.08 ksi 2 2 se = 6.5 Octahedral Shear Theory s sns = n = 0. Design a square-thread screw for a screw jack.08F1 − 4. as rolled.15) = 8.5  40   23.08F1 − 2.2 N = 2. The maximum lift is to be 18 in.577(40) = 23.08F1 1 1 sm = (smax + smin ) = (8. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES T (8) ss = = = 5.78 s s es = ns sms + K fs sas sys s ms = s s sas = 0 1 ses = (5. The material is AISI C1035. and N ≈3.75 ksi 1.3 based on the yield strength.25)(2 )2 − − 16 6 16 6 smin = s3 + s1 − s2 = 1.08F1 + 8.08F1 + 2.577 sn = 0.74F1 − 1.3 kips POWER SCREWS 424.08   F1 = 2.

Dr = 1.400 in Page 90 of 133 .000) = 0.6 πD 2 A = r = 0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Solution: AISI C1035.3(36)2 πDr4 I= = 0.6 ksi N 3.000 = 3.6034 in 2 s 16.000 in L = 18 in Le = 2L = 36 in 1 1 k = Dr = (1.3 F = (5)(2) = 10 kips F 10 A= = = 0.876 in say 1 ¼ in. s y = 55 ksi sy 55 s= = = 16. Dr = 1.000)  2 = =  = 104 k  sy   55  L Use column formula.14444 64 Dr = 1.125 Transition: 1 1 Le  2π 2E  2  2π 2 (30.6034 in 2 4 Dr = 0. Eulers e > 104 k π 2EI F= 2 NLe π 2 (30 × 10 6 )I 10.31 in use 1 ¾ in.125 in 8 8 Le 36 = = 288 > 40 k 0. as rolled.

40 in 1 Lead Pitch = = 0. (a) For the screw of 424. Devise a method of turning the screw with a round steel rod as a lever and fix the details of a nonrotating cap on which the load rests.62 o  π (1. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 425. (c) What should be the diameter of the rod used to turn the screw? If a man exerts a pull of 150 lb. 575 )  f = 0.40  λ = tan −1   = 4.53o F cos(β + λ ) s= (Do − Dr )L 10.62 o = 1.40)L L = 16.30 tan 4.40 ) = 1.15 tan β = f = 0.53 + 4.5 Lead λ = tan −1 πD m 1 Dm = (1.30 in h = L tan λ = 16. what length of threads h will be needed for a bearing pressure of 1800 psi? (b) Complete the design of the jack.5 in Page 91 of 133 . Let the base be cast iron and the threads integral with the base.75 + 1.000 cos(8. at the end.15 β = 8. how long must the rod be? Solution: (a) Th/in = 2.575 in 2  0.4 in 2.75 − 1.32 in say h = 1.62 ) 1800 = (1.5 Dr = 1.

A screw jack. (b) If the load on the jack is such that it may sway.575) tan(8.4 ksi 5 20 s= = 4 ksi 5 F ss = πDh 10 6. N = 5 32 ss = = 6. 7 (c) D = in (Based on proportion) 8 T= FDm tan(β + λ ) = (10 )(1. normal pull.84 = 0.4 = πD(1. The material of the screw is AISI C1022. What is the equivalent stress and the factor of safety in this instance? (c) What force must be exerted at the end of a 20-in. (e) What torque is necessary to lower the load? Page 92 of 133 . with a 1 ¼-in.15. Method: Manual.53 + 4.62) = 1. lever to raise the load? (d) Find the number of threads and the length h of the threaded portion in the cast-iron base for a pressure of 500 psi on the threads. su = 20 ksi .15a a = 12.5) D = 0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES (b) Assume ASTM 20.84 in − kips 2 2 T = F ′a F ′ = 150 lb = 0.4 in > 0.33 in Dr = 1. supports a load of 6000 lb.33 in 3 Do = 1 in 4 Use proportions from figure based on diameter. (a) Considering the ends of the screw restrained so that Le = L.3 in 426. the screw probably acts as a column with one end free and the other fixe. find the equivalent stress and the design factor. as rolled. The maximum extension of the screw from the base is 15 in. and the coefficient of friction for the threads is about 0. sus = 32 ksi .15 kips 1. square thread.

SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Solution: From Table AT 7. = 3. Dr = 1. AISI C1022.125 Transition for AISI C1020. sy = 52 ksi F = 6000 lb = 6 kips For 1 ¼ in square thread.0)2 Design factor π 2E sd = N (Le k )2 Page 93 of 133 .0 in. Th/in. as rolled. Eulers > 107 k π 2EA Fc = NF = (Le k )2 F π 2E sd = = A N (Le k )2 Equivalent stress F 4F sd = = 2 A πDr 4(6) sd = = 7. 1 1 Le  2π 2E  2  2π 2 (30.15 (a) With Le = L = 15 in 1 1 k = Dr = (1.5 f = 0.000)  2 = =  = 107 k  sy   52  Le Use column formula.64 ksi π (1.0) = 0.125 in 8 8 Le 15 = = 120 k 0.

125 in 2 Lead 0.15 β = 8.2857 λ = tan−1 = tan−1 = 4.000) 7.000) 7.69 (b) With Le = 2L = 30 in Le 30 = = 240 k 0.64 = N (120)2 N = 2.25 + 1. lever to raise the load = Fa WDm T= tan(β + λ ) 2 1 Lead = Pc = = 0.62o πDm π (1. 1 1 Le  2π 2E  2  2π 2 (30.2857 in 3. Eulers > 107 k π 2EA Fc = NF = (Le k )2 F π 2E sd = = A N (Le k )2 Equivalent stress F 4F sd = = 2 A πDr 4(6) sd = = 7.0)2 Design factor π 2E sd = N (Le k )2 π 2 (30.53o W = 6000 lb Page 94 of 133 .00) = 1. 5 1 Dm = (1.000)  2 = =  = 107 k  sy   52  Le Use column formula.673 not safe (c) For force exerted at the end of 20-in. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES π 2 (30.125 Transition for AISI C1020.125) f = tan β = 0.64 ksi π (1.64 = N (240)2 N = 0.

square thread screw.4 < 112 k 0. and the material is AISI C1040.7 in (e) Torque necessary to lower the load.25)2 − (1. Dr = 1.125) tan(8. Di = 1.00 )2 Nt Nt = 27 Then h = Nt Pc = (27 )(0. Nt = number of threads. L = 16 in (a) For unsupported length.53 − 4. Figure AF-1. Do = 1. W = 6000 lb. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES WDm T = Fa a = tan(β + λ ) 2 6000(1.00 in. For AISI C1040. < 112 k Page 95 of 133 .000 lb = 24 kips. in a shaft- straightening press.612 in.62) 2 Fa = 39. WDm T= tan(β − λ ) 2 T= (6000)(1. annealed.25 from Table 8. 427. JB Johnson Formula. The maximum unsupported length of the screw is 16 in.000)  2 = =  = 112 k  sy   47.5  Then Le 16 = = 79. Le = L = 16 in. sy = 47. Th/in.1 W = 24. 2 in.7 in − lb.125) Fa (20) = tan(8. is used to exert a force of 24. (a) What is the equivalent compressive stress in the screw? Is this a satisfactory value? (b) What torque is necessary to turn the screw against the load for f = 0. 4W p= ( π Do − Dr2 Nt 2 ) 4(6000 ) 500 = [ ] π (1. 1 1 k = Dr = (1. A square-thread screw. in diameter.2857 ) = 7.53 + 4.000 lb.2015 in 8 8 1 1 Le  2π 2E  2  2π 2 (30.62) 2 T = 230.25 in.5 ksi Transition. Do = 2 in. = 2.15? (c) What is the efficiency of the screw? (d) What torque is necessary to lower the load? Solution: For 2 in. annealed.612 ) = 0.2015 Le Use column formula. h = length of threaded portion.43 lb (d) Let p = pressure = 500 psi.

48) 2 T =1535 in − lb.5 N= y = = 3. Page 96 of 133 .4445 in 2.48o πDm π (1.4)2  π (1.000)  se = 15.53o W = 24.000(1.612 ) = 1. (a) A jack with a 2-in.000 lb WDm T= tan(β + λ ) 2 24. square-thread screw is supporting a load of 20 kips.25 1 Dm = (2.0 satisfactory se 15. A single thread is used and the coefficient of friction may be as low as 0. WDm T= tan(β − λ ) 2 24..806) T= tan(8.5(79.806 in 2 Lead 0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES F  sy (Le k )2  = se 1 −  A  4π 2E  4W se =  sy (Le k )2  πDr2 1 −   4π 2E  4(24) se =  47.53 + 4.000(1.74 (b) Torque to turn the screw against the load WDm T= tan(β + λ ) 2 1 Lead = Pc = = 0.4445 λ = tan−1 = tan−1 = 4.10 or as high as 0.806) T= tan(8. 428.806) f = tan β = 0.74 ksi s 47.15 β = 8.53 − 4.48) 2 T = 5008 in − lb (c) Torque necessary to lower the load.15.00 + 1.612)2 1 − 2   4π (30.

10 f = tan β = 0.15 Page 97 of 133 .25 Lead 0. Th/in = 2.15 β = 8. Solution: Table 8.48) 2 T = 1. 2 Lead = 2Pc = = 0. 2 in.8889 λ = tan−1 = tan−1 = 8.48o πDm π (1.4445 in 2.71o If f = 0.279 in − kips. (b) Self-locking? And Torque necessary to raise the load.806) T= tan(8.53o Since β is always greater than λ.806) T= tan(8. Dr = 1.10 β = 5.806 in 2 1 Lead = Pc = = 0. (c) The same as (a) except that a triple thread is used.25 Lead 0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Will this screw always be self-locking? What torque is necessary to raise the load? What torque is necessary to lower the load? (b) The same as (a) except that a double thread is used.15 f = tan β = 0. square thread.173 in − kips Torque necessary to lower the load. WDm T= tan(β − λ ) 2 20(1. WDm T= tan(β + λ ) 2 W = 20 kips WDm T= tan(β + λ ) 2 20(1.1.612 ) = 1.71o If f = 0.904o πDm π (1.806) If f = 0.25 (a) Self-locking? And Torque necessary to raise the load.00 + 1. the screw is always self-locking.612 in.8889 in 2.10 f = tan β = 0.806) If f = 0.53 − 4.53 + 4. Do = 2 in.48) 2 T = 4. 1 Dm = (2.10 β = 5.4445 λ = tan−1 = tan−1 = 4.

the screw is always not self-locking.10 f = tan β = 0. β > λ.806 ) If f = 0. Assume that the coefficient of friction is equal to the tangent of the lead angle and show that the efficiency of a self-locking screw is always less than 50%.53 + 13.671 in − kips Torque necessary to lower the load = 0 (c) Self-locking? And Torque necessary to raise the load.224o πDm π (1.53o Since β is always less than λ.71o If f = 0.15 f = tan β = 0. the screw is always not self-locking.10 β = 5.53o Since β is always less than λ.806) T= tan(8. WDm T= tan(β + λ ) 2 W = 20 kips WDm T= tan(β + λ ) 2 20(1.3333 λ = tan−1 = tan−1 = 13.806) T= tan(8.23.25 Lead 1.15 β = 8. then β + λ > 2λ Then.224) 2 T = 7.15 β = 8. 3 Lead = 3Pc = = 1. The conditions for a self-locking screw are given in §8. WDm T= tan(β + λ ) 2 W = 20 kips WDm T= tan(β + λ ) 2 20(1. Solution: tan λ λ e= ≈ tan(β + λ ) β + λ For self-locking.3333 in 2.53 + 8. Page 98 of 133 . SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES f = tan β = 0.904) 2 T = 5. Text.207 in − kips Torque necessary to lower the load = 0 429.

Wrought aluminum alloy 2014 T6 sn = 18 ksi @5 ×108 cycles sy = 60 ksi At 106 cycles 0.09  106  sn = sn′     nc  0.85sn′ = 0. (a) If the section is round.09  10 6  18 = sn′   8   5 ×10  sn′ = 31. F = 2500 lb.50 e < 50% CURVED BEAMS 430. what should be its diameter D? (b) If the link is bend to form cold. L = 10 in. It is necessary to bend a certain link somewhat as shown in order to prevent interference with another part of the machine.49) = 26.49 ksi With size factor.. material is wrought aluminum alloy 2014 T6. with a radius of curvature of R ≈ 5.5 in.85(31. sn = 0.38 ksi N 2 Equation: F K Mc s= + c A I Page 99 of 133 . from the line of action of F.77 s= = = 13. Solution: (a) Table AT3. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES λ e< 2λ e < 0. N = 2 on the basis of the maximum shear stress.77 ksi sn 26. It is estimated that sufficient clearance will be provided if the center line of the link is displaced e = 3 in. with the number of repetitions not exceeding 106.. will the residual stresses be helpful or damaging? Discuss.

152)(2.92 Table AT 18: Kc = 1.5) 32(1.92 in r 11 = = 6.5)(3) s= + = 13. 431. Wrought aluminum alloy 2014 T6 sn = 18 ksi @5 ×108 cycles sy = 60 ksi At 106 cycles Page 100 of 133 .30 ksi ≈ 13. The same as 430.0908 c 1.5)(3) 13. except that the section is rectangular with h ≈ 3b.152 4(2. (b) Residual stress is helpful due to a decrease in total stress on tension side.38 ksi π (1.92)2 π (1.38 = + πD 2 πD 3 By trial and error D = 1.92)3 Use D = 2 in. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES πD 2 A= 4 πD 4 I= 64 D c= 2 M = Fe D K c (Fe )  4F s= 2 + 2 πD πD 4 64 4F 32K c Fe s= + πD 2 πD 3 Using Trial and error and Table AT 18: r 2R 2(5. see figure.5) 11 = = = c D D D 4(2. Solution: (a) Table AT3.5) 32K c (2.

5b Using Trial and error and Table AT 18: r 2R 2(5.1736 )(2. sn = 0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 0.49 ksi With size factor.66 c 3(0.85sn′ = 0. that will be repeated an indefinite number of times.25b 4 F K Fe s= 2 + c 3 3b 1.5)(3) 13.787 )2 1.25b 4 12 12 h c = = 0.77 s= n = = 13.38 ksi 3(0.5(0.77 ksi s 26.5)(3) s= + = 13. (a) Determine the diameter of the Page 101 of 133 . A hook is to be designed similar to that shown to support a maximum load F = 2500 lb.38 ksi N 2 Equation: F K Mc s= + c A I A = bh = b(3b) = 3b 2 bh 3 b(3b)3 I= = = 2.787 )3 Use b = 7/8 in.5b3 By trial and error b = 0.787 ) Table AT 18: Kc = 1.5b) s= 2 + c 3b 2.85(31.5 K (2.1736 2.09  10 6  18 = sn′   8   5 × 10  sn′ = 31. h = 3b = 2 5/8 in (b) Residual stress is helpful due to a decrease in total stress on tension side.49) = 26.5) 11 11 = = = = c h h h 3b 2.5h = 1.5b 2 M = Fe F K (Fe )(1.38 = 2 + c 3b 1. 432. the horizontal section is to be circular of radius c and the inside radius a is 1 ½ in.5 (1.09  106  sn = sn′     nc  0.787 in r 11 = = 4.

85(127 )  sd = 36. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES horizontal section for N = 2 based on the Soderberg line.85(su 2) Soderberg line: 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn s sm = sa = repeated load 2 K f = 1. WQT 1100 F. Table AT 7 sy = 114 ksi.85(su 2 ) 1  1 1  = + s N  2sy 0.85su  1  1 1  =  + s 2  2(114) 0. Solution: (a) For AISI 4130.63 ksi For curved beam F K Mc s= + c A I a = 1.85sn′ = 0. sn’ = su/2 for reversed bending sn = SFsn′ = 0.0 1 s s2 = + N 2 sy 0.5 in π A= (2c )2 = πc 2 4 F = 2500 lb = 2. su = 127 ksi. if the material is AISI 4130. WQT 1100 F. (b) Calculate the value of the static load that produces incipient yielding.5 kips M = F (a + c ) π (2c )4 πc 4 I= = 64 4 Page 102 of 133 .

Page 103 of 133 .37 .5 + 0.63 = 2 + c πc πc 4 4 2.5 + c )c 36.6875) 114 = + π (0.633 = = 3.5 K (2. 5 + c = = c c c Substitute: 2.5 10K c (1.6875 = = 3. K c = 1.5 + c )c 114 = 2 + c πc πc 4 4 F K (F )(1.5 10(1.5 + c ) 36.5)(1.633 2.293)(1.63 = s = + π (0.6875)3 F = 32. r =a+c r a + c 1.5 + 0.633 r 1.6875) 2 π (0.5 + c ) 114 = 2 + c πc πc 3 r 1.000 repetitions of the maximum load.633) 36. sd = sy = 114 ksi F K Mc s= + c A I F K (F )(1. K c = 1.60 ksi Use c = 11/16 = 0. except that the hook is expected to be subjected to 100.312(F )(1.63 = 2 + πc πc 3 By trial and error: c = 0.6875 F 1.5 + 0.633) 2 π (0. The same as 432.18 . SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Table AT 18.6875 in Diameter = 2c = 1.375 in = 1 3/8 in (b) Static load that produces incipient yielding.312 c 0.633)3 36.63 = s ≈ 36.71 kips 433.5 + 0.293 c 0.

000  Soderberg line: 1 sm K f sa = + N sy sn s sm = sa = repeated load 2 K f = 1.5 + 0. WQT 1100 F. su = 127 ksi.85(su 2)   = 0.5 10K c (1.66 ksi For curved beam F K Mc s= + c A I a = 1.0338su   1  1 1  =  + s 2  2(114 ) 1. Table AT 7 sy = 114 ksi.66 = 2 + πc πc 3 By trial and error: c = 0.0338(127 )  sd = 41.601 r 1.000 repetitions 0.601 Page 104 of 133 . SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Solution: (a) For AISI 4130.601 = = 3.5 K (2.28 c 0.0 1 s s2 = + N 2 sy 0. sn’ = su/2 for reversed bending At 100. r =a+c r a + c 1. 5 + c = = c c c Substitute: 2.5 + c )c 41.5 kips M = F (a + c ) π (2c )4 πc 4 I= = 64 4 Table AT 18.5169su n  c   100 .85(su 2 )   = 0. K c = 1.5 in π A= (2c )2 = πc 2 4 F = 2500 lb = 2.085  10 6   106  sn = 0.085 0.5169su 1  1 1  s = + N  2sy 1.66 = 2 + c πc πc 4 4 2.5 .5 + c ) 41.5)(1.

OQT 1100 F.5 + 0.625 )2 π (0.625 F 1. maximum.25 in = 1 1/4 in (b) Static load that produces incipient yielding. OQT 1100 F. is to be designed for a capacity of 2000 lb. K c = 1.601) 41. Figure AF 1 su = 100 ksi.5 + c )c 114 = 2 + c πc πc 4 4 F K (F )(1. 5 10(1.8 based on the modified Goodman line.66 = s ≈ 41. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 2. should be satisfactory for the radius of curvature of the inside of the hook.5)(100) = 42. sd = sy = 114 ksi F K Mc s= + c A I F K (F )(1. the engineer decided to try AISI C1040.5 ksi Kf = 1.97 kips 434.601)3 41.5 + 0. A value of a = 2 in.29 c 0. (b) If the 45o circular section is made the same diameter.601) 2 π (0.5 + c ) 114 = 2 + c πc πc 3 r 1.28)(1.66 = s = + π (0.0 Modified Goodman line: Page 105 of 133 .29(F )(1.4 . similar to that shown with a horizontal circular section of diameter 2c. A hook.625 = = 3.5 + 0.625) 114 = + ( π 0.625)3 F = 25. Let N = 1. sn’ = su/2 for reversed bending sn = SF x sn’ = 0.85(0. At the outset of design. what is its design factor (modified Goodman)? Could this section be made smaller or should it be larger? Solution: (a) For AISI C1040.64 ksi Use c =5/8 Diameter = 2c = 1. (a) Compute the diameter of the horizontal section. a load that may be applied an indefinite number of times.

639)3 33.6 x 42.6sn = 0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 1 sm K f sa = + N su sn s sm = sa = repeated load 2 K f = 1.14 = s = + π (0.639 r 2.5 sd = 33.639 2.14 = 2 + c πc πc 4 4 2.8 100 42.5 ksi = 25. K c = 1.14 = 2 + c 3 πc πc By trial and error: c = 0.6 x 100 ksi = 60 ksi sns = 0.13 .0 8K (2.0 K (2.6su = 0.224 c 0.639) 33.14 = s ≈ 33. 0 8(1.0 + c ) 33.0)(2.224)(2.0 + 0.14 ksi For curved beam F K Mc s= + c A I a = 2.639) 2 π (0.5 ksi Equivalent stress (Modified Goodman Line) s s se = m n + K f sa su s s ses = ms ns + K f sas sus Page 106 of 133 . r =a+c r a + c 2.0 kips M = F (a + c ) π (2c )4 πc 4 I= = 64 4 Table AT 18.0 1 s2 s2 = + 1.0 + c )c 33.0 + 0.0 in π A= (2c )2 = πc 2 4 F = 2000 lb = 2.639 = = 4.375 in = 1 3/8 in (b) sus = 0.08 ksi Use c = 11/16 in Diameter = 2c = 1. 0 + c = = c c c Substitute: 2.

82 ksi 2  su  2  100  s s ses = ms ns + K f sas sus ss  sns  0.91 c c 0.06 Since N > 1.82   0. Page 107 of 133 .95 ksi π (0.0)(2.0 + 0.40  42.6875)2 π (0.239)(2.239 (2.6875)3 s = 19. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 1 1  se   ses   2 2 2 =   +    N  sn   sns     s sm = sa = 2 s sms = sas = s 2 F cos 45 K c Mc F cos 45 K c F (a + c )(cos 45)c s= + = + A I πc 2 πc 4 4 F cos 45 4K c F (a + c )(cos 45) s= + πc 2 πc 3 F sin 45 F sin 45 ss = = A πc 2 11 c = in = 0.6875 in (assuming constant diameter) 16 r a + c 2.6875)(cos 45) s= + π (0.85  25.5   25.6875)2 Then s s se = m n + K f sa su ss  19.68   2 2 2 =   +   N  42.6875 = = = 3. K c = 1.8.68 ksi  2  sus 2  60   1  se   ses   2 2 =   +    N  sn   sns     1 1  13.0 + 0.40 ksi (2.5  se =  n + K f  =  + 1 = 13.6875 Table AT 18.0 )cos 45 4(1.5  ses =  + K f  =  + 1 = 0. this section could be made smaller.0 )sin 45 ss = = 0.5   N = 3.

and the maximum force is F = 17 kips. (b) Do the same. repeated a relatively few times in the life of the press. as shown. would the stress have been materially reduced? Give reasons for your conclusions. F cos 45 Mc s= ± A I  c   M = F g − r +  2 + r  cos 45   2   A = ht + at + (b − 2t )t t   b − 2t   t ht   + (b − 2t )(t ) + t  + at  b − t +  c2 =    2   2 2 ht + (b − 2t )t + at Page 108 of 133 . h = 4. radius r = 1 in.. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 435... as it could have been done. compute the maximum and minimum normal stresses. (a) Applying the straight-beam formula to the 45o section. A C-frame hand press is made of annealed cast steel (A27-58) and has a modified I- section. relatively static. b = 6. (c) By what theory would you judge this section to have been designed? If the radius r were increased several times over. t = 1 in. applying the curved-beam formula. also g = 12 in. Solution: (a) Straight-beam formula Consider only normal stresses. The dimensions of a 45o section CD are: a = 3.

08 ksi = 13.104 (b) Curved-beam formula Page 109 of 133 .54 + 22.77273 −  = 21 in 4 12  2 2 (1)[6 − 2(1)]3 [ ( )]( ) 6  I2 = + 6 − 2 1 1  − 2.7723 = 3.77273) smin = − = −13.54 in 4 12 2  2 (3)(1)3  1 I3 = + (3)(1) 3.77273 in (4 )(1) + [6 − 2(1)](1) + (3)(1) c1 = b − c 2 = 6 − 2.77273   M = 17 12 − 1 +  + 1 cos 45 = 215.22727 in I = I + Ad 2 A1 = ht A2 = (b − 2t )t A3 = at 2 ht 3  t I1 = + ht  c 2 −  12  2 2 t (b − 2t )3 b  I2 = + (b − 2t )(t ) − c2  12  2  2 at 3  t I3 = + at  c1 −  12  2 2 (4)(1)3 ( )( ) 1 I1 = + 4 1  2.564 = 49.104 in 4 Then F cos 45 Mc 2 smax = + A I F cos 45 Mc1 smin = − A I A = (4 )(1) + (3)(1) + [6 − 2(1)](1) = 11 in 2   2. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES ht 2  bt   t + (b − 2t )  + at  b −  c2 = 2   2  2  ht + (b − 2t )t + at c1 = b − c 2 (4)(1)2  (6 )(1)   1 + [6 − 2(1)]  + (3)(1) 6 −  c2 = 2  2   2 = 2.77273) smax = + = 13.104 17 cos 45 (215.564 in 4 12  2 I = 21 + 5.686 in − kips   2   17 cos 45 (215.686)(2.27 ksi in tension 11 49.08 ksi in compression 11 49.77273 = 5.686)(2.22727 −  = 22.

77273  1 + I 1 + (49.77273) − 4 log e (3.8286 c = c1  c1   3.104)  Z (r − c 2 )   2.77273 in b1 = 3 in t = 1 in b = 4 in  c  1 + Z (r + c ) I Kc =   Arc 3.77273 3log e (3.77273)  K ci = = Arc 2 (11)(3.22727 in c 4 = 3.104)  Z (r + c1 )   2.944455(3.77273 − 1.77273 − 1 = 1.22727 − 1 = 2.77273 + 2.77273 in c1 = 3.77273)(3.77273 + 3.8286)(215.77273 + 3.944455 c = −c2  c2   2. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES F cos 45 K ci Mc 2 smax = + A I F cos 45 K co Mc1 smin = − A I Using Table AT18 r Z = −1 + [b1 log e (r + c1 ) − (t − b1 )log e (r + c 4 ) + (b − t )log e (r − c3 ) − blog e (r − c 2 )] A r = 1 + 2.77273 = 3.22727 ) K co = 0.77273 in c 2 = 2.22727  1 + I 1 + (49.77273) Z = 2.77273 − 2.944455(3.18 ksi in tension 11 49.424 F cos 45 K ci Mc 2 smax = + A I F cos 45 K co Mc1 smin = − A I 17 cos 45 (0.22727 ) − (1 − 3)log e (3.77273 − 2.22727 )  K co = = Arc1 (11)(3.77273) smax = + = 11.77273) K ci = 0.22727)  Z = −1 +   11 + (4 − 1)log e (3.77273)(2.104 Page 110 of 133 .686)(2.22727 in c3 = 2.

104 Page 111 of 133 .83 ksi in compression 11 49.77273 − 1 = 1.77273 + 3.622343(4. − .77273 in c 2 = 2.22727 in c3 = 2.104 17 cos 45 (0.77273) smin = − = −2.77273 + 3.104 (c) This section must be designed based on straight beam formula.22727) K co = 0.686)(2.104) K ci =  2  =  3 622343 4 77273 2 77273  Arc 2 ( )( )( 11 4.83 ksi = 2. ( .686)(2.22727 in c 4 = 3.77273 3log e (4.622343 c = −c2  c2   2.77273)(3.07 ksi in compression 11 49. ) (49.4664 c = c1  c1   3.424)(215.22727 )  K co = = Arc1 (11)(4.77273 in c1 = 3.77273 ) K ci = 0.104)  Z (r + c ) 1   3.4664)(215.22727  1 + I 1 + (49.3221)(215.77273) − 4 log e (4.77273) smin = − = −4.77273  1 + Z (r − c ) I 1 + .07 ksi = 4.77273 = 4.77273 in b1 = 3 in t = 1 in b = 4 in  c  1 + Z (r + c ) I Kc =   Arc 4.22727 ) − (1 − 3)log e (4.22727 )  Z = −1 +   11 + (4 − 1)log e (4.77273 2.686)(2.77273) Z = 3. r = 2 + 2. Increasing the radius r.22727 − 1 = 2.77 ksi in tension 11 49. Maximum stress is higher.77273 − 1.3221 F cos 45 K ci Mc 2 smax = + A I F cos 45 K co Mc1 smin = − A I 17 cos 45 (0. Table A-18. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 17 cos 45 (0.77273) smax = + = 6.77273 + 2.77273 − 2.

640625 in r a + c1 2.5  = 2.964286t 7 c 2 = 3.009766 in 2 2  16  2 2 (t ) 4. q= 2 ¾ . 436.5t 2 = 10.035714t = 3. similar to the figure.965 c c1 0.5t + 3 t  3  + (4t − t ) t  c1 =  2   2  = 2.5t − c1 = 6t − 2.964286  = 1.75 + 0. Reason: As the radius r increased the stress factor for curved beam decreases thence the maximum stress is reduced. A27-58.890625) = 3. a =1 ¾ in. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES The stress is reduced using by increasing the radius r in Curved Beam Formula. sy = 36 ksi Moment of Inertia Page 112 of 133 .734375 in  16  Table AT 18 r = a + c1 = 1.890625 = 2. What is the safe capacity if N = 2 based on yield? Solution: F K Mc s = + ci i A I Table AT 1 2  3t  7 A = 4t   + t (4.890625 K ci = 1.035714  = 0.5t ) = 10. is made of normalized cast steel (A27-58) and has a T-section where t= 7/16 in.75 + 0.5t + t  + (4t − t ) t   2   2  7 c1 = 2.890625 in  16  c 2 = 4.035714t  3   3  2t  4..640625F For Normalized cast steel.4212 M = F (q + ci ) = F (2.640625 = = = 2. A heavy C-clamp.5t + 1.

(see figure). The same as 436.53125 in 2 2  4 3b  2b + 2b  4 43 c1 =   = b =   = 1 in 3  b + 2b  3 34 4 5 5 3 c 2 = 3b − b = b =   = 1.049 kips = 4049 lb 437.5 3  = 2. except that the section is trapezoidal with b = ¾ in.5 t  3 I=      12  2  4  12  2  4 7 I = 31.964286t − 4.167293 F = 4.5t ) + (t )(4.25b4 2r  b − a    Z = −1 + a + (r + c 2 ) × log e  r + c 2  − (b − a ) (a + b)c  c   r − c1   Page 113 of 133 .25  = 1.25 in 3 3 3 4 (3b)3 [b 2 + 4b(2b) + (2b)2 ] 3 4 I= = 3.861607  = 1.035714t − 3 t  + (t )(4.5b 2 = 4.890625) s= = = + N 2 2. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 3 (4t ) 3 t  2 2  2  + (4t ) 3 t  2.640625)(F )(0.02832 in 4 4 36(b + 2b) 4 Table AT 18 3.167293 in 4 4  16  F K ci Mc i s= + A I sy 36 F (1. Solution: F K Mc s = + ci i A I From other sources.25b = 3.4212 )(3.5t ) 3. 2 A= 1 (b + 2b)(3b ) = 4.009766 1. Ignore the effect of resounding off the corners.861607t = 31.

810 kips = 2810 lb THICK-SHELL CYLINDERS.333 ksi = 17 .5)(2.75 − 1   Z = 0. including an allowance for the weld.75)(F )(1) s= = = + N 2 2. sy = 52 ksi (a) Distortion-Energy Theory  1   2    1  − 1 in t = ri      1 − 3pi    s     sy 52 s = = = 17.5 ri = = 2.6479 Arc1 (2.25 in . as rolled.50 in c = 3b = 3(0.53125)(2. equivalent in strength to SAE 1022. N = 3 .75 in a = b = 0.75) = 2.75 + 1.75 +  (2.333 psi N 3 Page 114 of 133 . Solution: 4. as rolled.75 in b = 2b = 2(0.75) (0.75 − 1)  K ci = = = 1. (c) Compute the thickness from the thin-shell formula and from the Barlow formula.02832)  Z (r − c1 )   0.25   Z = −1 + 0.05627  c1   1  1 + I 1 + (1.53125 1.25)   2.75 + 1) = 3.50 − 0.75 + 1.25    2.50 − 0. pi = 8000 psi 2 SAE 1022.75)   1. A27-58.6479)(3.25 in 2(2.05627(2.75 + 1. The internal diameter is to be 4 ½ in.02832 F = 2.25) × log e   − (1. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES r = a + c1 = 1. (b) Using this thickness find the maximum normal and shear stresses and the corresponding safety factors.75    2.75)(1) M = F (q + c1 ) = F (2.75F For Normalized cast steel. INTERFERENCE FITS 438. Special welded steel pipe.75 + 1 = 2. is subjected to an internal pressure of 8000 psi.75) = 1. and the factor of safety is to be 3. sy = 36 ksi F K ci Mc i s= + A I sy 36 F (1. (a) Find the thickness of the pipe according to the distortion-energy theory.

0242 − 2.000 N= y = = 4.007 psi 5.024 in ( 8000 5.25) t= i i = = 1.25 + 2.014 psi 5.007 ) (c) From thin-shell formula p r (8000)(2.929 in st − pi 17.333 − 8000 439. (c) Compute the thickness from the thin-shell and Barlow formulas.024)2 (8000) τ= = 10.024 2 + 2. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES  1   2     − 1 = 2.0242 − 2. The internal working pressure is 6000 psi.33 σ ti 12.774 = 5.333     (b) Maximum normal stress ( ) p r 2 + r 2 − 2p r 2 σ ti = i o 2 i 2 o o ro − ri σ ti = ( pi ro2 + ri2 ) ro2 − ri 2 ri = 2. of a hydraulic press is 12 in.252 s 52. Find the thickness of the cylinder walls (a) from the maximum-shear-stress theory. The internal diameter of the cast-steel cylinder.333 From Barlow formula pr p (r + t ) t= i o = i i st st pr (8000)(2.252 sy 52. What do you recommend? Solution: Page 115 of 133 .0385 in st 17.25 2 σ ti = ) = 12.25) t= i i = = 1.25 in ro = 2.014 Maximum shear stress r 2 (p − p ) τ = o 2 i 2o ro − ri ro2 pi τ= ro2 − ri 2 (5. N = 2.000 N= = = 2.60 2τ 2(10. SAE 0030.5.774 in t = 2.25 1     1 − 3 × 8000    17 . (b) from the octahedral-shear theory.

SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Table AT 6. sy = 35 ksi (a) Maximum shear theory r 2 (p − p ) s τ = o 2 i 2o = y ro − ri 2N 12 ri = = 6 in 2 pi = 6.5) ro = 15.8195 in  3 (6)    1 −    14   (c) Thin shell formula p r sy st = i i = t N (6)(6) = 35 t 2.5   12       1  t = (6 ) − 1 = 5. Page 116 of 133 .8745 in t = ro − ri = 15.8745 − 6 = 9.5714 in Barlow formula pr sy st = i o = t N 6(6 + t ) 35 = t 2.5 t = 2. t = 9.5 t = 4.5 in Recommended: Maximum shear theory .000 psi = 6 ksi po = 0 ksi ro2 (6 − 0 ) 35 = ro − (6) 2 2 2(2.8745 in thick. SAE 0030 = A27-58.8745 in (b) Octahedral Sheat Theory   12     1 t = ri   − 1  3pi    1 −    s   sy 35 s= = = 14 ksi N 2.

5 t = 1. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 440. sy = 85 ksi (a) Maximum shear theory r 2 (p − p ) s τ = o 2 i 2o = y ro − ri 2N 12 ri = = 6 in 2 pi = 6. t = 1.5) ro = 7. Solution: Table AT 6.459 − 6 = 1.2857 in Recommended: Maximum shear theory . Try cast-steel SAE 0105.5   12     1 t = (6)  − 1 = 1.0588 in Barlow formula pr sy st = i o = t N 6(6 + t ) 85 = t 2.000 psi = 6 ksi po = 0 ksi ro2 (6 − 0 ) 85 = ro − (6) 2 2 2(2.459 in thick. except a higher-strength material is selected.459 in t = ro − ri = 7. The same as 439.2005 in  3 (6 )    1 −    34   (c) Thin shell formula p r sy st = i i = t N (6)(6) = 85 t 2.459 in (b) Octahedral Sheat Theory   12     1 t = ri   − 1  3pi    1 −    s   sy 85 s= = = 34 ksi N 2.5 t = 1. SAE 0105 = A148-58. Page 117 of 133 .

t = 0. The material is chromium-molybdenum alloy.2. Solution: OD 2. (a) Compute the maximum internal working pressure for this pipe from Lame’s formula.4375) − (0.374 ksi (b) Stress at external fiber. for which the permissible tangential tensile stress is 15 ksi at temperatures between 700 – 800 F.8855)2 pi = 6.8855 in 2 2 t = 0.654 ksi Octahedral shear theory   12       1  t = ri − 1  3pi    1 −    s     12       1  0.4375)2 (pi ) 15 = (1. A 2 ½ in.771 ri = = = 0.82 in.552 = (0. (b) What is the stress at an external fiber? (c) A higher design stress would be permitted for an external pressure alone. ID = 1.7477 ksi Maximum shear theory r 2 (p − p ) s τ = o 2 i 2o = ro − ri 2 (1. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 441.8855)2 − 0 ] (1.771.2. heavy-wall pipe has the following dimensions: OD = 2. Nevertheless. pi = 4. inside surface area per foot of length = 66.8855) − 1  3pi    1 −    15   pi = 5.552 in (a) Lame’s Equation ( ) p r 2 + r 2 − 2p r 2 σ ti = i o 2 i 2 o o = s ro − ri 15 = [ pi (1.8855) 2 2 2 pi = 4.4375 in 2 2 ID 1.552 in.4375)2 − (0.4375)2 + (0.43 in.875. compute the external pressure corresponding to a maximum tangential stress of 15 ksi..875 ro = = = 1. outside surface area per foot of length = 108.654 ksi σ to = ( 2pi ri 2 − po ro2 + ri2 ) ro2 − ri2 Page 118 of 133 . by the maximum-shear and octahedral-shear theories.

A cast-steel hub is to be shrunk on a 1.5)(33) pi = = = 15.5 in L = 4 in For pi: fp πD 2L T= i i 2 But πDi3 sys T= 16 Then πDi3 sys fpiπDi2L = 16 f = 0.8855)2 (c) External pressure alone.654)(0.4375)2 − (0. SAE 1035. The equivalent diameter of the hub is 2. as-rolled.8855)2 − 0 σ to = = 5.8855)2 po = 4.3 (a) Interference of metal For solid shaft. (b) What are the corresponding tangential and radial stresses in the hub? Solution: Table AT 7.1 as per Baugher’s recommendation Di sys (1. Eh = 30.6 sy = 33 ksi Es = 30.. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 2(4. Ei   Di   2 pi = 1 −    2Di   Do     Di = 1. SAE 1035.654 ksi 442.4375)2 − (0.5 in Do = 2. µh ~ 0.5 in.. (a) What must be the interference of metal if the holding power of this fit is equal to the torsional yield strength of the shaft? Use Baugher’s recommendations.46875 ksi 8 fL 8(0.4375)2 − 15 = (1.592 ksi (1. same E and µ.000 ksi.3 For hub.5-in. its length is 4 in.1)(4 ) Then Page 119 of 133 . sys = 0. sy = 55 ksi.000 ksi µs = 0. steel shaft. as rolled. ( ) p r 2 + r 2 − 2p r 2 σ ti = i o 2 i 2 o o = s ro − ri 0 − 2po (1. Cast steel.

sy = 55 ksi.6 sy = 33 ksi (a) Interference of metal For hub of cast iron and the shaft is steel. cast iron.002417 in .46875 = 1 −    2(1. as rolled. (b) Tangential and radial stresses in the hub Tangential stress Ei   Di  2  σ th = 1 +    2Di   Do    (30.87 ksi 2(1.5   Radial stress σ rh = − pi = −15. SAE 1035.5  2  σ th = 1 +    = 32. suc = 83 ksi. except that the hub is ASTM 20.000)(0.5   i = 0.5 in Do = 2. ASTM 20.000 ksi µ = 0.002417 )   1.5  2  15. sys = 0.27 For pi: fp πD 2L T= i i 2 But πDi3 sys T= 16 Page 120 of 133 .46875 ksi 443.5)   2. cast iron.answer. The same as 442.   D 2  Ei 1 −  i     Do   pi =  D   2 Di 3 + µ + (1 − µ ) i     Do   Di = 1. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Ei   Di   2 pi = 1 −    2Di   Do     (30.5)   2. Will the resulting tensile stresses be safe for cast iron? Solution: Table AT 6.5 in L = 4 in E = 30. su = 20 ksi (hub) Table AT 7.000)(i )   1.

000)(0.1 as per Baugher’s recommendation Di sys (1.000)(i )1 −  1.5)(33) pi = = = 15.5)   2.5   15.27 + (1 − 0.5)3 + 0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Then πDi3 sys fpiπDi2L = 16 f = 0.002417 )   1. and the hub length is 4 in.5   (30.5   i = 0.5     2.5   Not safe for cast iron ASTM 20. A cast-steel gear is pressed onto a 2-in.5     2.87 ksi > 20 ksi.5   σ th =   2. The equivalent hub diameter is 4 in.27 + (1 − 0.. OQT 1000 F.000)(0.5   = 32.answer.5     2.46875 ksi 444. shaft made of AISI 3140. 2(1. (a) What are the maximum tangential and radial stresses in the hub caused by a class FN 2 interference fit? Compute for the apparent maximum value of i (but recall the probability of this event).87 ksi  2  (1.1)(4 ) Then   D 2  Ei 1 −  i     Do   pi =   Di   2 Di 3 + µ + (1 − µ )        Do    2  (30.27 ) 1.004269)1 +  1.5  2  σ th = 1 +    = 32.5)3 + 0.46875 =  2  (1.46875 ksi 8 fL 8(0.27 ) 1.004269 in . Radial stress σ rh = − pi = −15. Page 121 of 133 . (b) Tangential and radial stresses in the hub Tangential stress   D 2  Ei 1 +  i     Do   σ th =  D   2 Di 3 + µ + (1 − µ ) i     Do    2  (30.

6 )(133) = 47.6(0.0000 = 0.1)(15.2 )(15.0027 – 0.188 psi 2(2)   4   (b) Axial force F in tons. sy = 133 ksi (Fig. E = 30 x 106 psi.6sy ) = 0.0027) 1 +  2  6 2   = 25. 2 in diameter.172 in − lb 2 (d) With simple torsional stress of 0. Di = 2 in.210 psi 16 16 No.6sys = 0.188)(π )(2)(4) = 38.27 or approximately 0. ss = 0.0027 )   2   2 1 −    = −15.1 as recommended by Baugher.3. OQT 1000 F. (0.6sys in the shaft? Solution: Cast steel. page 85. L = 4 in. E = 30 x 106 psi.6sys in the shaft. For Class FN 2 interference fit.188)(π )(2)2 (4) T= = 38.880 psi ssπDi3 (47 .313 psi 2(2)   4   Radial stress Ei   Di   2 σ rh = − pi = − 1 −    2Di   Do     σ rh = − ( 6 ) 30 ×10 (0.17 tons 2000 (c) Torque safely transmit.6(0.2.6sys.880)(π )(2)3 T= = = 72.2? (c) What torque may the force fit safely transmit? (d) Is the holding capacity of this fit large enough to transmit a torque that produces a simple torsional stress of 0.3 AISI 3140. µ = 0. µ = 0. Do = 4 in. fp πD 2L T= i i 2 f = 0. Maximum value of i = 0. The holding capacity of this fit is not large enough to transmit a torque that produces a simple torsional stress of 0.88 ksi = 47 .0027 in (a) For same material and same Poisson’s ratio Tangential stress Ei   Di  2  σ th = 1 +    2Di   Do    σ th = (30 ×10 )(0. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES (b) What axial force F in tons will be required to press the gear on the shaft if f1 is assumed to be 0. f p πD L F = 1 i i tons 2000 F= ( 0. Page 122 of 133 . AF 2). Table 3.

0035 – 0.0023 in Average value of i = 0.27 or approximately 0.0042 in Minimum value of i = 0.3. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 445. AF 2). µ = 0. 2 in diameter.210 psi 16 16 No.0023) = 0.6 )(133) = 47.00325)   2   2 1 −    = −18. L = 4 in.6(0.95 tons 2000 (c) Torque safely transmit. fp πD 2L T= i i 2 f = 0.281)(π )(2)2 (4) T= = 45. E = 30 x 106 psi. f p πD L F = 1 i i tons 2000 F= ( 0.6sys in the shaft. Maximum value of i = 0.6(0.88 ksi = 47 .2. Solution: Cast steel.281 psi 2(2 )   4   (b) Axial force F in tons.0042 + 0.6sy ) = 0.0012 = 0.1 as recommended by Baugher.3 AISI 3140. (0.880)(π )(2)3 T= = = 72.880 psi ssπDi3 (47 . Di = 2 in. OQT 1000 F.6sys.1)(18.281)(π )(2 )(4) = 45. Page 123 of 133 .469 psi 2(2 )   4   Radial stress Ei   Di   2 σ rh = − pi = − 1 −    2Di   Do     σ rh = − ( 6 ) 30 ×10 (0. ss = 0. The holding capacity of this fit is not large enough to transmit a torque that produces a simple torsional stress of 0.0000 = 0.6sys = 0. Table 3. For Class FN 4 interference fit. E = 30 x 106 psi.00325) 1+  2  6 2   = 30. Do = 4 in.2)(18. page 85. The same as 444. except that a class FN 4 fit is investigated and the computation is made for the average i. sy = 133 ksi (Fig.00325 in (a) For same material and same Poisson’s ratio Tangential stress Ei   Di  2  σ th = 1 +    2Di   Do    σ th = (30 ×10 )(0.945 in − lb 2 (d) With simple torsional stress of 0.5 (0. µ = 0.0042 – 0.

and the inner race is approximately 3/8 in. (b) Estimate the force required to press the bearing onto the shaft.0965   Tangential stress Ei   Di   2 σ th = 1 +    2Di   Do     σ th = ( ) 30 ×10 (0.087 )(π )(2)(4 ) = 4.59 tons 2000 447.0014 in.? Solution: (a) Maximum radial stress if Do → ∞ .. (a) Maximum radial stress in the race Ei   Di   2 σ rh = − pi = − 1 −    2Di   Do     σ rh = − ( 6 ) 30 ×10 (0.0965   (b) Force required to press the bearing onto the shaft f p πD L F = 1 i i tons .0014.0965 in.0014)   3. a width of 1..3465 in. A steel disk of diameter Do and thickness L = 4 in.0014)   3. (d) Do = 2.3465 + 2(3/8) = 4.3465)   4. What will be the maximum radial and tangential stresses in the disk if (a) Do is infinitely large. i = 0.175)(2. 217 ball bearing has a bore of 3. Ei   Di   2 σ rh = − pi = − 1 −    2Di   Do     Ei σ rh = − pi = − 2Di σ rh = − (30 ×10 )(0. thick. Solution: Di = 3. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 446.3465   1 −  2   = −2. steel shaft.005) = −37. (a) Calculate the maximum radial and tangential stresses in the race. Ei   Di  2  σ th = 1 +    2Di   Do    Page 124 of 133 . but assembled parts are selected so as to give approximately the average interference..5 in.087 psi 2(3. is to be pressed onto a 2-in.175 on the average 2000 F= (0. use f1 = 0.463 psi 2(3.1024 in. Do = 3. (b) Do = 10 in. (c) Do = 4 in. The parts are manufactured with class FN 5 fit.3465   6   1 + 2   = 10. This bearing is to be mounted on a solid shaft with i = 0. A No.3465 in.500 psi 6 2(2 ) Maximum tangential stress if Do → ∞ ..3465)   4.

500 psi 6 2(2 ) (b) Maximum radial stress if Do = 10 in . (see figure). (Suggestion: first derive an equation for the interface pressure)..005)   2   6 σ th = 2(2 ) 1 +  10   = 39.005) = 37. Ei   Di   2 σ th = 1 +    2Di   Do     ( ) 30 ×10 (0. and pi = 30.5   Maximum tangential stress if Do = 2.005)   2   2 1 −    = −36.5 in.005)   2  6 σ th = 2(2 ) 1 +  2.005)   2   1 −  2   = −13. Calculate the pressure at the interface and the tangential stresses at the inner and outer surfaces of each cylinder. Ei   Di   2 σ rh = − pi = − 1 −    2Di   Do     σ rh = − ( ) 30 ×10 6 (0.5  = 61. A steel cylinder is to have an inside diameter of 3 in. The two cylinders were shrunk together with i = 0.5 in .5 in.000 psi    (c) Maximum radial stress if Do = 2. the outer cylinder with Di = 4. Page 125 of 133 . Ei   Di   2 σ th = 1 +    2Di   Do     ( ) 30 ×10 (0. and Di = 4. Ei   Di   2 σ rh = − pi = − 1 −    2Di   Do     σ rh = − ( ) 30 ×106 (0.000 psi.003 in. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Ei σ th = 2Di σ th = (30 ×10 )(0.5 in . and Do = 6 in.500 psi    448.500 psi 2(2 )   2. the inner cylinder with D1 = 3 in.000 psi 2(2 )   10   Maximum tangential stress if Do = 10 in . (b) It was decided to make the cylinder in two parts. (a) Calculate the tangential stresses at the inner and outer surfaces if the outside diameter is 6 in.

000)[(3)2 + (1. pi = 30.25 in.5)2 ]− 0 σ ti = = 50.5)2 (b) Pressure at the interface.000 psi Do = 6 in. ro = 3 in. Di = 3 in.000 ksi (3)2 − (1. ri = 1. µh = µs σ th = ( pi ro2 + ri2 ) ro2 − ri 2 σ ts = ( 2 p1r12 − pi ri2 + r12 ) ri 2 − r12 σ µp σ µp  D i = Di  th + i − ts − i  = i (σ th − σ ts )  E E E E  E ( D p r2 +r2 p r2 +r2 ) i = i  i 2o 2i + i 2i 21 − 2 1 1 2  ( 2p r 2 ) E  ro − ri ri − r1 ri − r1  p1 = 30.000 psi.  σ + µ h pi σ ts + µ s pi  i = 2( δ h + δ s ) = Di  th −    E h E s  Eh = E s . r1 = 1.5)2 − 0 σ to = = 20.5 in Page 126 of 133 . SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Solution: (a) Tangential stresses at the inner and outer surface.000 ksi (3)2 − (1. tangential stresses at the inner and outer surface of each cylinder. ro = 3 in.5)2 σ to = ( 2pi ri 2 − po ro2 + ri2 ) ro2 − ri2 2(30. ri = 2. po = 0 ( ) p r 2 + r 2 − 2p r 2 σ ti = i o 2 i 2 o o ro − ri (30.5 in.000 )(1.

(b) the maximum tangential stress in the steel Page 127 of 133 .25)2 − (1. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES Pressure at the interface.5)2 3.000 + 48.25)2 449.25)2 + (1.5)2 − 2(11.25)2 = 38.5)(2.5)2 ] = 79.25)2 Outer surface: 2p r 2 − p r 2 + r 2 σ to = i i 2 o 2o i ( ) ro − ri σ to = [ 2(11..5 psi Tangential stresses: Inner cylinder: Inner surface: ( ) p r 2 + r 2 − 2p r 2 σ ti = 1 i 2 1 2 i i ri − r1 σ ti = [ ] 30. and a length of 2 in.25)2 − (1.25)2 − 2(0 )(3)2 = 39.5)2 = 20.5) 6 2 pi = 4.25)2 + (1.25)2 − 11.0016 in.5)2 Outer cylinder: Inner surface: ( ) p r 2 + r 2 − 2p r 2 σ ti = i o 2 i 2 o o ro − ri σ ti = [ ] 11.5)(2.018.5 (2.4 psi (2.5 (3)2 + (2.333. An ASA class FN 2 fit is to be used with selective assembly to give approximately the interference i = 0.25) (2.25)2 + (1.5 (2.018.000 (2.351.25)2 ] = 28..25)2 + (2.000)(2.25)2 − (1.003) + 2(30.3 psi (3)2 − (2.6 (3) − (2.000 (3)2 + (2. Ei 2 p1r12 + Di ri2 − r12 pi = 2 2 ro + ri r2 +r2 2 2 + i2 12 ro − ri ri − r1 (30 ×10 )(0.018.333.25)2 − 0 (3)2 + (2.5)2 Outer surface: ( 2p r 2 − p r 2 + r 2 σ to = 1 1 2 i 2i 1 ) ri − r1 σ to = [ 2(30. It is to be pressed into a cast-steel cylinder that has an outside diameter of 2 ½ in. pi.9 psi (2.018.25) − (1.351.000)(1.5) 2 2 2 2 pi = 11.8 psi (3)2 − (2. Calculate (a) pi. an OD = 1 ¼ in.018.571429 + 2. A phosphor-bronze (B139C) bushing has an ID = ¾ in.

(c) the force required to press bushing into the cylinder.27 (Table AT 6)  σ + µ h pi σ ts + µ s pi  i = 2( δ h + δ s ) = Di  th −    Eh Es  σ th = ( pi ro2 + ri2 ) ro2 − ri 2 σ ts = ( − pi ri2 + r12 ) ri2 − r12 σ µ p σ µp  i = Di  th + h i − ts − s i   Eh Eh Es Es  ( )  p r2 +r2 µ p p r2 + r2 µ p  ( i = Di  i o2 i 2 + h i + i i 2 12 − s i  ) (  E h ro − ri )Eh ( ) E s ri − r1 Es  (a) pi i Di pi = 2 2 ro + ri ri2 + r12 µ µ + + h− s (2 E h ro − ri 2 ) ( 2 E s ri − r1 ) 2 Eh Es 2. Cast steel.36 (other reference). SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES cylinder. µs = 0.125 in 2 1. Eh = 30 x 106 psi .375 in 2 Page 128 of 133 .625 in 2 0. Es = 16 x 106 psi (Table AT3).75 r1 = = 0.25 ro = = 1. Solution: Phosphor Bronze B139C. (d) the decrease of the inside diameter of the bushing. µh = 0.25 ri = = 0.

A jib crane similar to the one shown is to be designed for a capacity of F = ___ (say.375)2 + 0.625)2 ] [ 16 ×10 (0.625) − (0.125)2 + (0.375)2 ] = −14. ( p r2 + r2 σ th = i 2o 2i ) ro − ri (7. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES L = 2 in Di = 1.911 + 0.0016 pi = 1. the forces Q acting at supporting bearings. 1 to 3 tons). L ≈ 10 ft. The load F can be swung through 360o.125)2 − (0. (b) Choose an I-beam for the jib such that the maximum stress does not exceed 12 ksi.017 )(π )(1.175)(7. The moment on the jib is balanced by a couple QQ on the post.  σ + µ s pi  δ s = − ts    Es  σ ts = ( − pi ri2 + r12 ) ri2 − r12 σ ts = [ − 7. The crane will be fastened to the floor by 6 equally spaced bolts on a D1 = 30-in..9 ×10 −8 − 2.25 ×10−8 −8 pi = 7.28 ×10 pi = 6.82 tons 2000 (d) Decrease of the inside diameter of the bushing.017 )  δ s = −  = 0. c ≈ 2 ft. Subscript is “s” as in shaft.625)2 − (0.328125 ×10 −7 + 0.36 30 ×10 6 [(1.309524 ×10 + 1.625)2 + (0.5 ft. b ≈ 8.017 psi (b) Maximum tangential stress in the steel cylinder.125)2 + (0.625)2 + (0.282 psi (1. Page 129 of 133 .36(7.017 )[(1.625)2 + (0.911 psi (0.000774 in  16 ×10 6  DESIGN PROJECTS DESIGN PROJECTS 450..375)2  − 14. outside diameter of base D2 = 36 in.25 in 0.375) 6 2 ] 2 30 ×10 16 ×10 6 6 −3 1. The bushing is phosphor bronze. bolt circle. use f1 = 0.625)2 (c) F f1piπDi L F= tons .017 (0.175 on the average 2000 F= (0.125)2 − (0. (a) Choose a pipe size (handbooks) for the column such that the maximum equivalent stress does not exceed 12 ksi. (c) Compute the maximum external load on a base bolt and decide upon the size.25)(4) = 4.25 (1.27 − 0.625)2 ] σ th = = 13.

detail sketches giving full information. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES (d) Complete other details as required by the instructor. and locate and design the cylinder. by 8 in. Determine the actual distance of movement of the punch (not less than about 1 in.. Design an air-operated punch press similar to the one shown. the depth of throat to the inside edge of the frame be 25 in. Let the force at the punch be 12 tons. Page 130 of 133 .). such as: computing Q and choosing bearings (ball or roller?). the diameter and stroke of the piston about 8 in. The illustration will assist the student in settling upon the proportions of parts for which strength calculations cannot be made. the mechanical advantage of the lever about 7. and the diameter of the punch 3/16 in. Then determine the relative arrangement of the various links and make a force analysis.. Determine first the horizontal section of the frame. 451. from which the design of certain parts follows. (or other capacity as specified by the instructor). the internal construction and assembly in this vicinity.

The handle may be designed by the flexure formula. 3) tons on the screw. (b) Decide upon the diameter of the handwheel or the length of handle (if one is needed to obtain the maximum pressure). if desired. (c) Design the frame. Compute the dimensions of the vertical section. If the top of the screw is squared off for a handwheel or handle. Text. If Le/k > 40. and the height of the throat h is to be ___ (15) in. In this connection. The shape of the section of the frame will depend on the material used. since the larger r the less the stresses from a given load. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES 452. The 45o section CD of the frame should be safe as a curved beam.10. Design a screw press similar to that shown for a load of ___ (say. The equation for pivot friction. Dimensions of handwheels may be found in handbooks.) The order of procedure may be as follows: (a) Find the diameter of the screw. assuming that the maximum force to be exerted by a man is about 150 lb. a hollow box or modified I-section is suitable for cast steel. which in turn depends upon the bearing pressure used in design. The height b depends upon the number of threads in contact. See Table AT 18. The depth of the throat g is to be ___ (10) in. it will be well to make the radius r as large as practicable. (d) Design the bushing if one is used. check as a column. It is a good plan to keep t and a the same in all sections. (The instructor will assign the data. check this section for twisting. is in §18. (Say half-hard yellow brass?) Compute the outside Page 131 of 133 . A T-section is suitable for cast iron (say N = 6 on the ultimate strength).

(e) Fix the location and number of bolts to be used to fasten the frame to the base plate. select a hoist to suit the purpose. and decide upon dimensions to be used. With the details of this connection known and Page 132 of 133 . giving reasons for your choice. the hoist trolley has to match the size of I-beam used. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES bushing diameter. The maximum radius of swing is to be about ___ ft. Suggested procedure: (a) From catalogues. Of course. (b) Let the angle that the diagonal tension rod makes with the horizontal be about 20o to 25o. usually by assuming a standard beam and checking the stress. See that design stresses for the various parts bear a logical relation to one another. and decide upon the dimensions H and L. (2) the condition of maximum bending moment on the beam. Notice that the plate on the lower end of the screw must be connected in such a manner that the screw may turn while the plate does not. and noting significant dimensions. Make the force analyses (including weight of hoist as part of load) for (1) the condition of maximum column action. Design a jib crane. the diameter and thickness of the collar. Make sure that all parts can be assembled after they are made. It is likely that one will have to leave certain details unfinished from time to time. 453. it may be necessary to design the connection at G between the rod and the beam first. as suggested by the illustration. It is suggested that. in the end. (c) Find the size of I-beam such that the maximum stress for any position of the load falls within the limits of 12 and 15 ksi. all materials be tentatively decided upon. after which design stresses may be chosen. and (3) the condition for maximum force on the hinge B (to be used for the design of this hinge). (The instructor will assign data). some advantage may result from having G inside the outermost position of the load. to lift a load of W of ___ tons. As a matter of fact. (f) Decide upon all other details of design. Use a common bolt material. Note that the point G does not necessarily have to be at the extreme position of the load. It is not necessary to follow this procedure in detail. Make a separate sketch of each part of the machine showing thereon all dimensions necessary for manufacture. because these details depend on parts of the design not yet completed. first. According to the arrangement of parts. and determine their size.

including details of connections. the point of application of the force T. It is unlikely that too much detail will be shown. of each part separately. A minute distance to the left of G. that is. fully dimensioned. can be determined. the bending moment is W(x + dx) – Txe – Tydx. SECTION 6 – COMBINED STRESSES with the details of beam assumed. the location of point G. also the details of the method of attaching the hinge to the vertical surface. The bending moment of a section a minute distance to the right of G is W(x – dx). . (e) Design the connections at each end of the diagonal and the hinge at C. Where material is not specified. Show a neat large sketch. Settle upon the details including the method of attaching the hinge to the vertical surface. E n d - Page 133 of 133 . which may be wide- flange beam. the moment changes suddenly at G by the amount Txe. There should be no doubt as to your design stresses or design factor. (d) Determine the size of diagonal support. make your choice clear. (f) Design the hinge at B and the connection to the I-beam.

The pressure angle of the gear teeth φ = 20 o . (b) Considering both the tangential and the radial components. (a) Neglecting the radial component R of the tooth load W .5(85) = 42. receivers 30 hp at 300 rpm via a 12-in. compute the shaft diameters. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN 471. The gear is keyed (profile keyway) midway between the bearings. (c) Is the difference in the results of the parts (a) and (b) enough to change your choice of the shaft size? Problem 471. made of SAE 1035. A short stub shaft. as rolled s y = 55 ksi su = 85 ksi sn = 0. N = 1. spur gear. determine the shaft diameter.800 ss = sms = π d3 sas = 0 Page 1 of 76 . the power being delivered to another shaft through a flexible coupling.000hp 63. as rolled. Solution: For SAE 1035.5 ksi A = W cos φ 63.000(30 ) T= = = 6300 in − lb n 300 AD T= 2 A(12 ) 6300 = 2 A = 1050 lb A = W cos φ 1050 = W cos 20 W = 1118 lb Shear stress 16T 16(6300 ) ss = = π d3 π d3 100.5su = 0.5 based on the octahedral shear stress theory with varying stresses.

661   2 2 2 24.577 42.400 s= = = π d3 π d3 π d3 sm = 0 134.0)(134.400) = 100. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN bending stress From Table AT 2 FL M= 4 (a) Negligible R : AL (1050 )(16 ) M= = = 4200 in − lb 4 4 32 M 32(4200 ) 134.0 K fs = 1.294  π d  d3 Octahedral-shear theory 1 1  se   ses   2 2 2 =   +    N  sn   0.85 K s se = f a = (2.294 sns  1  100.800  24.569 in Page 2 of 76 .796  =   +    3 ( 1.85) π d 3 d3 s K fs sas ses = ns sms + s ys SF sns sn 42.6 SF = 0.400 sa = s = π d3 s K f sa se = n s m + sy SF For profile keyway K f = 2 .5  42.500d 3 )   d = 1.5 1 = = = s ys s y 55 1.796 ses = sms =   3  = s ys  1.661 SF ( ) (0.577 sn     1 1  100.500d   0.

compute the shaft diameter.0)(143. considering varying stresses with the maximum shear theory.500d 3 )   d = 1.180 SF (0.5  42. WL (1118)(16 ) M= = = 4472 in − lb 4 4 32 M 32(4472 ) 143. Let 2 and.796  =   +    3 ( 1. is to transmit power that varies from 200 to 100 and back to 200 hp in each revolution at a speed of 600 rpm. Problems 472 – 474 Page 3 of 76 . SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN 11 use d = 1 in 16 (b) Considering both radial and tangential component.104) = 107. The radial component R of the tooth load is to be ignored in the initial design. A cold-finished shaft. spur gear A and delivered by a 10-in. The power is received by a 20-in.597 in 11 use d = 1 in 16 (c) The difference in the results of the parts (a) and (b) is not enough to change the choice of the shaft size.104 s= = = π d3 π d3 π d3 sm = 0 143.104 sa = s = π d3 K s se = f a = (2.85)(π d 3 ) d3 1 1  se   ses   2 2 2 =   +    N  sn   0. 472.180   2 2 2 24.577 sn     1 1  107.500d   0. The tangential forces have each been converted into a force ( A and C shown) and a couple (not shown). spur gear C. AISI 1141.577 42.

000(200 ) Tmax = = 21.250 in − lb 2 2 16T ss = πd3 16(15.85 63.000 − 10.894 ses =   3  + =  1.500 ) = 5.000 sas = = π d3 π d3 s K fs sas ses = ns sms + s ys SF For profile keyway K f = 2 .750 in − lb 2 2 1 1 Ta = (Tmax − Tmin ) = (21.000(100 ) Tmin = = 10.6 sns sn 1 = = s ys s y 1.500 ) = 15.000  (1.8  π d  0.000 + 10.000) 94. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN Solution: For AISI 1141.000 in − lb 600 63. cold-finished s y = 90 ksi sn = 50 ksi sn 1 = s y 1.500 in − lb 600 1 1 Tm = (Tmax + Tmin ) = (21.6)(84.000 Page 4 of 76 .000 sms = = π d3 π d3 16(5250 ) 24.8 SF = 0. negligible radial load T = 21.8  1  252.750 ) 252.000hp T= n 63.85π d 3 d3 Bending stress.000 in − lb at 200 hp For A:  20  A  = T  2  A(10 ) = 21.0 K fs = 1.

304 sy SF 0.000 sa = s = π d3 s se = n s m + K f sa = 0+ (2.000 ) 672. D = 1680 lb Shear Diagram Maximum moment at B M = (2100)(10 ) = 21.000) = 503. B = 4620 lb . C = 4200 lb .85π d 3 d3 Page 5 of 76 .0)(672.000 s= = = π d3 π d3 π d3 sm = 0 672. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN A = 2100 lb at 200 hp For C:  10  C  = T 2 C (5) = 21.000 in − lb 32 M 32(21.000 C = 4200 lb at 200 hp [∑ M ] = 0 A(10 ) + D(25) = C (15) B at 200 hp (2100)(10) + D(25) = (4200)(15) D = 1680 lb [∑ F V =0 ] A+C = B + D at 200 hp 2100 + 4200 = B + 1680 B = 4620 lb At 200 hp: A = 2100 lb .

000hp T= n 5 in. and it varies from 10 hp to 100 hp and back to 10 hp during each revolution of S. through the 5-in.78 in 3 use d = 2 in 4 475. using only the tangential driving loads for the first design. The power is delivered by the 10-in.5 1 = = = s y s ys 93 1. gear E and 15-in. of cold-drawn AISI 1137.806 63. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN 94.5 ksi sn sns 51. E n= (2000 rpm) = 667 rpm 15 in.5su = 0.5 50.5sn     1 1  503. The design is to account for the varying stresses. cold drawn s y = 93 ksi su = 103 ksi sn = 0.000d 3 )   d = 2. gear A. gear C to gear G. is to transmit power received from shaft W.5(103) = 51. For AISI 1137.000d   0. A Page 6 of 76 .894 ses = d3 Maximum Shear Theory 1 1  se   ses   2 2 2 =   +    N  sn   0. A shaft S. Let N = 1.894  =   +    3 ( 2  50. which turns at 2000 rpm. Problem 475 – 477 Solution. with calculations based on the octahedral shear stress theory.8 and compute the shaft diameter.304   2 2 2 94.

5) = 9450 A = 1260 lb For C:  10  C  = T 2 Page 7 of 76 .5) 68.85  1  83.425 ses =   + 3  =  1.160  (1.040 sas = = π d3 π d3 s K fs sas ses = ns sms + s ys SF For profile keyway K f = 2 .6)(68. using only tangential loads For 100 hp: T = 9450 in − lb  15  A  = T 2 A(7.160 sms = = π d3 π d3 16(4252.000(100 ) Tmax = = 9450 in − lb 667 63.040) 55.0 K fs = 1.5 in − lb 2 2 1 1 Ta = (Tmax − Tmin ) = (9450 − 945) = 4252.000(10 ) Tmin = = 945 in − lb 667 1 1 Tm = (Tmax + Tmin ) = (9450 + 945) = 5197.85π d 3 d3 Bending stress.806  π d  0.5) 83. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN 63.6 SF = 0.5 in − lb 2 2 16T ss = πd3 16(5197.

500d   0.189   2 2 2 55.500d 3 3 ( )   d = 1.189 se = n s m + = = sy SF 0.920 ) 181.0 )(241.425 ses = d3 Octahedral Shear Theory 1 1  se   ses   2 2 2 =   +    N  sn   0.425  =   +    2  51.920 sa = s = π d3 s K f sa (2.85π d 3 d3 55.577 sn     1 1  181. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN C (5) = 9450 C = 1890 lb [∑ M B ] = 0 6 A + 20 D = 14C 6(1260) + 20 D = 14(1890) D = 945 lb [∑ F =0 V ] A+C = B + D 1260 + 1890 = B + 945 B = 2205 lb Shear diagram Maximum moment at B M = (1260)(6) = 7560 in − lb 32 M 32(7560 ) 241.920 s= = = π d3 π d3 π d3 sm = 0 241.997 in use d = 2 in Page 8 of 76 .577 51.

Solution: For AISI 1137. A shaft made of AISI 1137.000hp 63. decide upon the diameters of the shafts.5(103) = 51.000hp 63.5 1 = = = s y s ys 93 1. Power is supplied to the shaft by a vertical flat belt on the pulley A.000(35) TA = = = 5188 in − lb n 425 For flat-belt  2T  4(5188) FA = F1 + F2 = 2(F2 − F1 ) = 2 A  = = 692 lb  DA  30 Sprocket. The two sections of the shaft are joined by a flexible coupling at D and the various wheels are keyed (sled-runner keyway) to the shafts.000(10 ) TC = = = 1482 in − lb n 425 Page 9 of 76 . Problem 478. Choose a design factor that would include an allowance for rough loading. 2T 2(3706 ) FB = B = = 741 lb DB 10 Sheave.000(25) TB = = = 3706 in − lb n 425 For chain. At maximum operating conditions.5 ksi sn sns 51. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN 478. At B. the roller chain to the cutter exerts a force vertically upwards. 63.000hp 63. cold rolled. cold rolled s y = 93 ksi su = 103 ksi sn = 0. 63. Allowing for the varying stresses on the basis of the von Mises-Hencky theory of failure. of which 25 hp is delivered to the cutter and 10 hp to the blower.806 Pulley. and the V-belt to the blower at C exerts a force vertically upwards.5su = 0. 63. for a forage harvester is shown. the flat belt supplies 35 hp at 425 rpm.

SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN For V-belt.864 sa = s = π d3 Page 10 of 76 .5 C  = = 445 lb  DC  10 Consider shaft ABD.5(F2 − F1 ) = 1. M = (6)(692) = 4152 in − lb.  2T  3(1482 ) FC = F1 + F2 = 1. 35 hp Shaft ABD [∑ M D' =0 ] (6 + 8 + 4)FA = (8 + 4)A'+4FB 18(692) = 12 A'+4(741) A' = 791 lb [∑ F V =0 ] FA + D′ = FB + A′ 692 + D′ = 741 + 791 D′ = 840 lb Shear Diagram Maximum M at A’. 32 M 32(4152 ) 132.864 s= = = π d3 π d3 π d3 sm = 0 132.

000  14.500d 3 )   d = 1.60)(132.5 C  = = 445 lb  DC  10 Page 11 of 76 .6 K fs = 1.577 51.630  =   +    3 ( 2  51.85 s se = n s m + K f sa = 0+ (1.630 ses =   = 3   1.0 N = 2 .610   2 2 2 14.500d   0.0 von Mises-Hencky theory of failure (Octahedral shear theory) 1 1  se   ses   2 2 2 =   +    N  sn   0.806  π d  d3 Choose a design factor of 2.5(F2 − F1 ) = 1.48 in 1 use d = 1 in 2 Consider shaft D-C 63.85π d 3 d3 at A’ T = TA = 5188 in − lb 16T 16(5188) 83.  2T  3(1482 ) FC = F1 + F2 = 1. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN sn K f sa se = sm + sy SF For sled-runner keyway (Table AT 13) K f = 1 .000(10 ) TC = = = 1482 in − lb n 425 For V-belt.6 SF = 0.577 sn     1 1  79.008 ss = = = π d3 π d3 π d3 sms = ss sas = 0 s K fs sas ses = ns sms + s ys SF  1  83.864) = 79.610 sy SF 0.000hp 63.

752 s= = = π d3 π d3 π d3 sm = 0 .806  π d  d 1 1  se   ses   2 2 2 =   +    N  sn   0.60)(42.500d 3 )   Page 12 of 76 .616 sy SF 0. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN [∑ M C' =0 ] 8 D′′ = 3FC 8 D′′ = 3(445) D′′ = 167 lb [∑ F V =0 ] C ′ = D′′ + FC C ′ = 167 + 445 C ′ = 612 lb Shear Diagram M = (167 )(8) = 1336 in − lb 32 M 32(1336 ) 42.577 51.712 ss = = = π d3 π d3 π d3 sms = ss sas = 0 s K fs sas ses = ns sms + s ys SF  1  23. TC = 1482 in − lb 16T 16(1482 ) 23.500d   0.752) = 25.85π d 3 d3 at C’.712  4180 ses =   +0 = 3 3   1.577 sn     1 1  25.616   2 2 2 4180  =   +    3 ( 2  51. sa = s s se = n s m + K f sa = 0+ (1.

000(25 + 25) TA = = = 12. gear at A delivers the power horizontally to the right for punching operation. A shaft for a punch press is supported by bearings D and E (with L = 24 in.000hp 63. During punching. Determine the shaft diameters. A 1500-lb flywheel at C has a radius of gyration of 18 in. and C. 25 hp from the belt. Problems 479-480 Solution: Flat-Belt Drive (B) 63. the belt being at 45o with the vertical. Sled-runner keyways are used for A.000hp 63. use a design factor of N = 2.000(25) TB = = = 6300 in − lb n 250  2T  4(6300) FB = F1 + F2 = 2(F1 − F2 ) = 2 B  = = 573 lb  DB  44 Gear A.600 ) FA = A = = 3150 lb DA 8 Loading: Page 13 of 76 . Doubled hp 63. material is cold- drawn AISI 1137. B. from a flat-belt drive on a 44- in. The phase relations are such that a particular point in the section where the maximum moment occurs is subjected to alternating tension and compression.600 in − lb n 250 2T 2(12. An 8-in. the shaft slows and energy for punching comes from the loss of kinetic energy of the flywheel in addition to the 25 hp constantly received via the belt.) and receives 25 hp while rotating at 250 rpm.5 with the octahedral shear theory and account for the varying stresses. 25 hp from the flywheel. A reasonable assumption for design purposes would be that the power to A doubles during punching. pulley at B. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN d = 1.011 in use d = 1 in 479.

SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN Vertical: BV = FB cos 45 = 573 cos 45 = 405 lb [∑ M D =0 ] 6(1500) + 8BV = 24 EV 6(1500) + 8(405) = 24 EV EV = 510 lb [∑ F V =0 ] 1500 + EV = DV + BV 1500 + 510 = DV + 405 DV = 1605 lb Shear Diagram Page 14 of 76 .

SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN M DV = (6 )(1500 ) = 9000 in − lb M BV = (16 )(510 ) = 8160 in − lb M AV = (5)(510 ) = 2550 in − lb Horizontal: Bh = FB sin 45 = 573 sin 45 = 405 lb [∑ M D =0 ] 8 Bh + 24 Eh = 19 FA 8(405) + 24 Eh = 19(3150) Eh = 2359 lb [∑ F h =0 ] Dh + Bh + Eh = FA Dh + 405 + 2359 = 3150 Dh = 386 lb Shear Diagram Page 15 of 76 .

5 ksi For sled-runner keyway (Table AT 13) K f = 1 .795 in − lb MA = (M ) + (M ) Ah 2 AV 2 = (11.176 sa = s = π d3 sn K f sa se = sm + sy SF For AISI 1137. s y = 93 ksi su = 103 ksi sn = 0.60)(386.85π d 3 d3 Page 16 of 76 .5(103) = 51.6 SF = 0. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN M Dh = 0 in − lb M Bh = (8)(386 ) = 3088 in − lb M Ah = (5)(2359 ) = 11. cold-drawn.068 in − lb 32 M 32(12.5su = 0.386 0.068 in − lb MB = (M ) + (M ) Bh 2 BV 2 = (3088)2 + (8160)2 = 8725 in − lb M D = 9000 in − lb Therefore M max = 12.176 ) = 231.6 K fs = 1.068) 386.176 s= = = π d3 π d3 π d3 Maximum moment subjected to alternating tension and compression sm = 0 386.795)2 + (2550)2 = 12.85 se = 0 + (1.

800  50.577 sn     1 1  231. and 25 hp min. 50 hp max.85π d 3 d3 1 1  se   ses   2 2 2 =   +    N  sn   0.600 in − lb n 250 2T 2(12.000hp 63. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN At A.600 − 100 3  = 2 2 πd  π d3 sns K fs sas ses = sms + s ys SF  1  151.600 ss max = = = π d3 π d3 π d3 25 hp 63.386   2 2 2 56.300 ) FA = A = = 1575 lb DA 8 16T 16(6.200 sms = 1 (ss max + ss min ) = 1  201.000hp 63.300 in − lb n 250 2T 2(6.600 ) 201.200  (1.000(25) TA = = = 6.600 + 100 3  = 2 2 πd  π d3  .400) 56.800 ss min = = = π d3 π d3 π d3  .600 ) FA = A = = 3150 lb DA 8 16T 16(12. 50 hp 63.500d 3 )   d = 2.500d   0.14 in 3 say d = 2 in 16 THRUST LOADS Page 17 of 76 .400 sas = 1 (ss max − ss min ) = 1  201.000(25 + 25) TA = = = 12.800  151.6)(50.848  =   +    3 ( 2  51.300 ) 100.806  π d  0.848 ses =   3  + =  1.577 51.

0  1  268. Solution: For cold-drawn monel shaft.800 in − lb n 1500 16T 16(16.800  81.23 1 = = = s y s ys 75 1. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN 481.85 assume K f = K fs = 1. Compute the shaft diameter.053  π D  D3 Fvm = ηhp 33.000 F = 3040 lb 4F 4(3040 ) 12.053 63.000 vm = (30 knots )(1. Table AT 10 s y = 75 ksi sn = 42 ksi at 108 at 2 x 105 0. Let N = 2 based on the maximum shear theory with varying stress.800 ss = = = π D3 π D3 π D3 s ms = ss s as = 0 sns K fs sas ses = sms + s ys SF SF = 0.70)(400) 33.000(400 ) T= = = 16.23 ksi  2 × 10  sn sns 71.800 ) 268. and Le k < 40 .085  108  sn ≈ 42  5  = 71.255 ses =   3  + 0 =  1.000hp 63.160 s= 2 = = πD π D2 π D2 sm= s sa = 0 Page 18 of 76 .152 mph knot )(5280 ft mi )(1 hr 60 min ) = 3041 fpm F (3041) = (0. A cold-drawn monel propeller shaft for a launch is to transmit 400 hp at 1500 rpm without being subjected to a significant bending moment. The efficiency of the propeller is 70 % at 30 knots (1. Consider that the number of repetitions of the maximum power at the given speed is 2x 105.152 mph/knot).

and it delivers this power via a flexible coupling at the other end. A shaft receives 300 hp while rotating at 600 rpm. Let the material be AISI C1045. 486. The shaft is designed with the average forces ( at the midpoint of the bevel-gear face).230 D 3 )   1 1    2. which are the rectangular components of the total reaction between the teeth. the tangential driving force is F .160  3676 se =   +0 = 2 2   1. G = 580 lb .255  =   +    2 ( 2  71.5 71.66 in = 1 in 16 482.377 D 2   D 3   By trial and error 11 D = 1. Problems 482. cold drawn. L = 36 in . Q = 926 lb . through a pair of bevel gears. cold drawn s y = 85 ksi su = 100 ksi Page 19 of 76 . determine the shaft diameter. Dm = 24 in . N = 2 .053  π D  D Maximum Shear Theory 1 1  se   ses   2 2 2 =   +    N  sn   0. a = 10 in .230 D   0. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN sn K f sa se = sm + sy SF  1  12. Solution: For AISI C1045. Considering varying stresses and using the octahedral shear theory.2815   2 2 2 1 =   +   2  19. 485.5sn     1 1  3676   2 2 2 81.

112 in − lb  2   2  G = 580 lb [∑ M B =0 ] QDm − Av (36 ) + − G (10 ) = 0 2 QDm = G (10 ) + Av (36 ) 2 11.500 ) 504.7 63.500  2  F = 2625 lb Vertical: D   24  Q m  = 926  = 11.5su = 0.5(100) = 50 ksi SF = 0.000  94.000(300 ) T= = = 31. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN sn = 0.000 ss = = = π D3 π D3 π D3 s ms = ss s as = 0 s K fs sas ses = ns sms + s ys SF  1  504.7  π D  D3 D  F m  = T  2   24  F   = 31.112 = 580(10) + Av (36) Av = 148 lb Page 20 of 76 .370 ses =   3  + 0 =  1.000hp 63.500 in − lb 600 600 16T 16(31.85 sn sns 50 1 = = = s y s ys 85 1.

112 in − lb M Bv = 5328 in − lb Horizontal: [∑ M B =0 ] Ah (36) = (2625)(10) Ah = 729 lb [∑ F h =0 ] Bh = Ah + F Bh = 725 + 2625 Page 21 of 76 . SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN [∑ F =0] v Av + Bv = 580 lb 148 + Bv = 580 lb Bv = 432 lb Shear Diagram Moment Diagram M Cv = 11.

780 ) 4(926 ) 856.0 at B  1  3704   1.960 sa = π D3 s K f sa se = n s m + sy SF assume K f = 1.244 in − lb Maximum M M = MB = (M ) + (M ) Bh 2 BV 2 (26.704 smax = + = + = + π D π D2 3 π D3 π D2 π D3 π D2 4Q 32 M 3704 856.85  π D  D D3 Octahedral Shear Theory 1 1  se   ses   2 2 2 =   +    N  sn   0.244)2 + (5328)2 = 26.960 smin = − = − π D 2 π D3 π D 2 π D3 1 sm = (smax + smin ) 2 1  856.0  856.916 se =   + 2    3  = 2 +  1. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN Bh = 3354 lb Shear Diagram M Ch = 0 M Bh = (36 )(729 ) = 26.7  π D   0.960  3704 sm =  + + − = 2  π D3 π D2 π D2 π D 3  π D 2 1 sa = (smax − smin ) 2 856.577 sn     Page 22 of 76 .960  964 320.960 3704 3704 856.960 3.780 in − lb = 32 M 4Q 32(26.

The forces (in kips) on the worm are as shown. pulley receives the power from a horizontal belt in which the tight tension F1 = 2.000hp 63.2 (Soderberg criterion) by the octahedral-shear theory. The 12- in.370  2    1 2 6.000)D   2 2  50.5F2 − F2 )(6) = 2358 F2 = 262 lb F1 = 2. as rolled s y = 59 ksi su = 96 ksi sn = 0. and its pitch diameter 3 in. to the left of the centerline of the worm? (c) Select a shaft size D and check it at the pulley A. as rolled.000(65. The worm shown is to deliver 65. Problem 483.000  72 D D   D        By trial and error. (a) For N = 2.5 .42   3.577(50. The strength reduction factor for the thread roots may be taken as K f = 1. use 1 D = 2 in 2 483. compute the required minimum diameter at the root of the worm thread (a first approximation).5F2 .5su = 48 ksi sn sns 48 1 = = = s y s ys 59 1.916  2 2 1 1   2 + 3   94. shear or bending.5) T= = = 2358 in − lb 1750 1750 (F1 − F2 ) 12  = T 2 (2.5 in. It will be integral with the shaft if the shaft size needed permits. The shaft is machined from AISI 1045.5 hp steadily at 1750 rpm. (b) What should be the diameter of the shaft 2. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN 1  694 320. Solution: For AISI 1045.5F2 = 655 lb Page 23 of 76 .229 63.27   2 2 =  D D  +    =  3  + 3  + 3     0. with the axial force taken by bearing B.

5) = 13Bv 3810 + (1170)(6.5) = 13Bv Bv = 878 lb Page 24 of 76 .5) = 7852 in − lb Vertical: 3 M ′ = (2540 )  = 3810 in − lb 2 [ ∑ M E =0 ] M ′ + (1170)(6.5) = 13Eh Eh = 1208 lb [∑ F h =0 ] 917 + Eh = Bh + 1570 917 + 1208 = Bh + 1570 Bh = 555 lb Shear Diagram M Ah = 0 M Bh = (917 )(6 ) = 5502 in − lb M Ch = (1208)(6. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN FA = F1 + F2 = 655 + 262 = 917 lb Horizontal [∑ M B =0 ] (917 )(6) + (1570)(6.

SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN [∑ F =0] v Ev + Bv = 1170 Ev + 878 = 1170 Ev = 292 lb Shear Diagram Moment Diagram M Av = 0 M Bv = 0 M Cv = 5707 in − lb M= (M h )2 + (M v )2 MA = (0)2 + (0)2 = 0 MB = (5502)2 + (0)2 = 5502 in − lb MC = (7852)2 + (5707)2 = 9707 in − lb (a) Minimum diameter at the root of the warm thread. K f = K fs = 1.624 10.160 smax = 3 + 2 = + = + π Dr π Dr π Dr3 π Dr2 π Dr3 π Dr2 Page 25 of 76 .5 M = M C = 9707 in − lb F = 2540 lb 32 M 4F 32(9707 ) 4(2540 ) 310.

624  2632 174.485 se =   2   +  3  = D2 + D3  1.635   1   2 2 2 2 1  Dr Dr   3 9764   1 = +   =   +  +   2.85  π Dr  r r 16T 16(2358) 12.160 smin = − + π Dr3 π Dr2 1 sm = (smax + smin ) 2 10.2  48.24 Dr Dr3   2.2 .577 sn     1  2632 174.000)Dr3    2  18.624 sa = π Dr3 s K f sa se = n s m + sy SF  1  10.000  9764 ses =   3  +0= 3  1.5 in.485  2 2 1  2 +    3.229  Dr  Dr N = 2.5  310. Octahedral shear theory 1 1  se   ses   2 2 2 =   +    N  sn   0.577(48.000   0.160 sm = π Dr2 1 sa = (smax − smin ) 2 310.84 Dr3          By trial and error Dr = 2.000 ss = = = π Dr3 π Dr3 Dr3 sms = ss sas = 0 s K fs sas ses = ns sms + s ys SF  1  12. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN 310. to the left of the center line of worm Page 26 of 76 .160   1.624 10.229  π Dr   0.023 in 1 say Dr = 2 in 16 (b) D – shaft diameter 2.

160   1.000)D   2 2.577(48.2  48.2 d  3 2.1 d  3 2.184  2632 153.65 K fs = K ts = 1.85  π D  D2 D3 9764 ses = D3 1 1  se   ses   2 2 2 =   +    N  sn   0.023 − 2 2   16  K f = K t = 1.5) = 6950 in − lb M v = (878)(6.9432 in 15 say D = 1 in 16 Page 27 of 76 .21   1   2 2 =  D D  +    =  3  + 3  +     0.5) = 3512 in − lb M= (6950)2 + (3512)2 = 7787 in − lb 10.24 D D   2.970  2 2 1 1   2 + 3   9764  2   1 2 3.023 = = 1 .970 se =   + 2    3  = +  1.229  π D   0.023 − 2 2   16  D 2.34 at 2.5 − 2.184 sa = = = π D3 π D3 π D3 s K f sa se = n s m + sy SF  1  10.000   18.84 D 3       By trial and error D = 1.577 sn     1  2632 153.160 sm = π D2 32 M 32(7787 ) 249.65  249.5 in to the shaft M h = (917 )(6) + (362)(6. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN 3 r= in 16 Figure AF 12 3 r 16 = ≈ 0.5 − 2.

k. The remainder of the power is delivered to a propeller that is expected to convert 60% of it into work driving the boat.85  9764 ses = = 1343 psi (1.2 .6  se = 0 +  (3853) = 7253 psi  0. Let N = 2 .9375 in 16 At the pulley A.11). Is this different enough to call for another shaft size? Compute N by the maximum shear stress theory. 484. right of centerline M h = (917 )(3) = 2751 in − lb Mv = 0 M = 2751 in − lb For sled runner keyway K f = 1 . from both equations (8. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN 15 (c) Selecting D = 1 in = 1.577(48. pulley is used to drive an auxiliary.30 > 2. therefore o. at which time the boat speed is 1500 fpm. The belt pull FB is vertically upward. Page 28 of 76 . material cold-worked stainless 410. or 3 in.6 sm = 0 32 M 32(2751) sa = = = 3853 psi πD 3 π (1.6 K fs = 1. Use the octahedral shear theory with varying stresses.4) and (8. taking 25 hp.9375)3 1 1  se   ses   2 2 2 =   +    N  sn   0.000)   N = 6. (a) Determine the shaft size needed assuming no buckling. (b) Compute the equivalent column stress. A 16-in. A propeller shaft as shown is to receive 300 hp at 315 rpm from the right through a flexible coupling.9375)3 s K f sa se = n s m + sy SF  1 . The thrust is to be taken by the right-hand bearing.000   0.577 sn     1 1  7253     2 2 2 1343 =   +   N  48.

000) F = 3630 lb Vertical loading [∑ M E =0 ] (20)(1250) = 60C C = 417 lb [∑ F =0] v A + C = FB A + 417 = 1250 Page 29 of 76 .000(25) TB = = = 5000 in − lb n 315  2T  4(5000) FB = F1 + F2 = 2(F1 − F2 ) = 2 B  = = 1250 lb  DB  16 Propeller 63.000) F (1500) = (0.000(300 − 25) TP = = = 55.85 Belt drive 63.000 in − lb n 315 Thrust Fvm = ηhp(33.60)(300 − 25)(33. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN Problem 484. Solution: For stainless 410.000hp 63. cold-worked s y = 85 ksi sn = 53 ksi SF = 0.000hp 63.

6  533.520   1.000 ) 960.660 ) 533.510 ses =   2  + 0 =  1. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN A = 833 lb Shear Diagram M B = (20)(833) = 16.000 in − lb (a) Shaft size assuming no buckling M = 16.85  π D  D2 D3 16 16(60.604  π D  D3 Page 30 of 76 .6 sn sns 53 1 = = = s y s ys 85 1.604  π D   0.6 K fs = 1.120 sa = = = π D3 π D3 π D3 For sled-runner keyway K f = 1 .430 se =   + 2    = 3  +  1.660 in − lb Maximum T at B T = TB + TP = 60.000 ss = sms = 3 = = πD π D3 π D3 sas = 0 s K fs sas ses = ns sms + s ys SF  1  960.660 in − lb F = 3630 lb 4F 4(3630 ) 14.120  2882 319.520 sm = 2 = = πD π D2 π D2 32 M 32(16.000  190.604 sn K f sa se = sm + sy SF  1  14.

430  2  2 1 1   2 + 3   190.625)2 Since α > 1 .625)3 Equation (8. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN 1 1  se   ses   2 2 2 =   +    N  sn   sns     N = 2 . sns = 0.625 in 8 (b) Equivalent Column Stress 4F s= α π D2 Le = 12 + 60 + 10 = 82 in 1 1 k = D = (2.625) (2.027   6.000 )D   2 2  53.230   2 2 =  D D  +    =  3  +  +     0.625) = 0.4) Page 31 of 76 . Octahedral Shear Theory.430 se = + = + = 18.486) = 3000 psi πD 2 π (2.510 ses = = 10. it is different enough to call for another shaft size.000   18. Solving for N by maximum shear theory.486 π 2E ( π 30 ×103 ) 4F 4(3630 ) s= α= (4.533 psi (2.078 psi D 2 D 3 (2.625)3 2 190.65625 in 4 4 Le 82 = = 125 > 120 k 0.6 in 5 say D = 2 in = 2.430 2882 319.65625 Use Euler’s equation 2 L  sy  e  85(125) 2 α=  k  = 2 = 4.510  2   1 2 6.577(53.577 sn     1  2882 319.577 sn 1 1  se   ses   2 2 2 =   +    N  sn   0. 2882 319.39 D D 3   D 3       By trial and error D = 2.

Let a = 5 in and L = 15 in .000 )     N = 1.5(53. With the use of a sketch. Base calculations on the maximum shearing stress theory with variable stress.078   2 2 τ =  ss +    = (10. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN 1 1  2  s 2  2   18.8 lb . AISI C1040.5su = 40 ksi sn sns 40 1 = = = s y s ys 48 1.078  2  10.91 CHECK PROBLEMS 485. Figure AF 1 s y = 48 ksi su = 80 ksi sn = 0.533  2  2 2 2 2 =   +    =   +    N  sn   sns     53.000) N= = = 1. A 3-in. Solution: For AISI C1040. Acting on the gear are a radial force G = 1570.416 in − lb 2 2 16T 16(31. annealed.5sn 1 1 1  s   ss    18.91 τ 13.2 FDm (6283. annealed.416 ) ss = = = 5926 psi π D3 π (3)3 sms = ss sas = 0 s K fs sas ses = ns sms + s ys SF  1  ses =  (5926 ) + 0 = 4940 psi  1 .000   0.6 lb .2 )(10 ) T= = = 31.880 psi   2     2   0.5sn 0. indicate the exact point of which maximum normal stress occurs. The thrust force is taken by the right-hand bearing. Compute the indicated design factor N .533) +  2   = 13. rotating shaft somewhat as shown (482) carries a bevel gear whose mean diameter is Dm = 10 in and which is keyed (profile) to the left end. a driving force Q = 3141.11) sns = 0. material.5(53.880 Equation (8.2  Vertical Page 32 of 76 .

2 lb Shear Diagram Moment Diagram M CV = 15.708 in − lb 2 2 [ ∑ M E =0 ] QDm = 5G + 15 AV 2 15.708 in − lb M BV = 7854 in − lb Page 33 of 76 .6 )(10 ) = = 15.708 = 5(1570. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN QDm (3141.6 + BV = 1570.8 BV = 1047.6 lb [∑ F =0] v AV + BV = G 523.8) + 15 AV AV = 523.

4 + 6283.217 psi π D3 π (3)3 s K f sa se = n s m + sy SF Assume K f = 1.383) sas = = = 12.4 ) = 31.217 ) = 14.416 in − lb Maximum Moment M = M B2h + M Bv 2 = (31.0 at the bearing B  1 .85  Page 34 of 76 .0  se = 0 +  (12.373 psi  0.416)2 + (7854)2 = 32.4 lb [∑ F h =0 ] Bh = Ah + F Bh = 2094.6 lb Shear Diagram M Ch = 0 M Bh = (15)(2094. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN Horizontal [∑ M B =0 ] 15 Ah = 5(6283.2 Bh = 8377.383 in − lb Since thrust force is taken by the right-hand bearing sms = 0 32 M 32(32.2) Ah = 2094.

373   4940   2 2 2 =   +   N  40. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN Maximum shear theory sns = 0.3 Location of maximum normal stress 487. as rolled.000   0. countershaft in a machine shop transmits 52 hp at 315 rpm.5sn 1 1  se   ses   2 2 2 =   +    N  sn   0. Pulley C receives the power via a horizontal belt. A 2 7/16-in.5sn     1 1  14. 488 Solution: For AISI 1117. and pulley D delivers it vertically downward. Calculate N based on the octahedral-shear- stress theory considering varying stresses. apart. It is made of AISI 1117. as rolled s y = 44. 59-in. and supported upon bearing A and B. Problem 487.000)   N = 2 .3 ksi Page 35 of 76 . as shown.5(40.

85 63.5su = 35.845 in − lb Page 36 of 76 . SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN su = 70.000(52 ) T= = 10.400 in − lb 315 Pulley C  2T  4(10.400) FD = F1 + F2 = 2(F2 − F1 ) = 2  = = 1664 lb D  D 25 Horizontal [∑ M A =0 ] 15(2311) = 59 Bh Bh = 588 lb [∑ F h =0 ] Ah + Bh = 2311 Ah + 588 = 2311 Ah = 1723 lb Shear Diagram M Ch = (1723)(15) = 25.6 ksi sn = 0.3 1 = = = s y s ys 44.3 ksi sn sns 35.3 1.400) FC = F1 + F2 = 2(F2 − F1 ) = 2  = = 2311 lb D  C 18 Pulley D  2T  4(10.255 SF = 0.

945 in − lb sm = 0 32 M sa = π D3 7 D = 2 in = 2.808)2 = 23.4375 in 16 Page 37 of 76 . SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN M Dh = (1723)(15) − (588)(26 ) = 10.333 in − lb Maximum M at C M = M C = 26.945 in − lb M D = M D2 h + M D2 v = (10.808 in − lb M C = M C2h + M C2v = (25.845)2 + (7620 )2 = 26.557 )2 + (20.557 in − lb Vertical [∑ M B =0 ] 18(1664) = 59 Av Av = 508 lb [∑ F =0] v Av + Bv = 1664 508 + Bv = 1664 Bv = 1156 lb Shear Diagram M Cv = (508)(15) = 7620 in − lb M Dv = (1156 )(18) = 20.

577 sn     1 1  22.945) sa = = 18.255  0.300   0.0 sn K f sa se = sm + sy SF  1  (1.577 sn 1 1  se   ses   2 2 2 =   +    N  sn   0.400 ) ss = = = 3658 psi π D 3 π (2.4375)3 sms = s s = 3658 psi sas = 0 sns K fs sas ses = sms + s ys SF  1  ses =  (3658) + 0 = 2915 psi  1.4375)3 assume K f = K fs = 1.0)(18. with the forces on the shaft acting as shown.300     2 2 2 2915 =   +   N  35.25-in.952 psi π (2.300)   N = 1. gear A delivers the power. (a) If the fillet radius is 1/8 in. gear B receives 7 hp at 250 rpm. What is N here? Page 38 of 76 .85 16T 16(10. The 2.952) = 22. The 5.75-in.577(35. compute N based on the octahedral-shear-stress theory (Soderberg line). A shaft for a general-purpose gear-reduction unit supports two gears as shown.. The shaft diameter at A is 1 11/16 in. Both gears are keyed (profile) to 2 Av Bv the shaft of AISI 1141.255  Octahedral shear theory sns = 0. at bearing D. the gear teeth have a o 1 A B pressure angle of φ = 14 ( tan φ = h = h ).544 489.300 psi se =  (0 ) +  1. where the diameter is 1 3/8 in. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN 32(26. cold rolled.

8 SF = 0.000(7 ) T= = 1764 in − lb 250 16T sms = πD 3 sas = 0 Gear B:  5.85 63. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN Problem 489.5 = 159 lb Gear A:  2. cold rolled s y = 90 ksi sn = 50 ksi sn sns 50 1 = = = s y s ys 90 1.25  Av   = T = 1764 in − lb  2  Av = 1568 lb Ah = Av tan φ = 1568 tan 14.5 = 406 lb Vertical Page 39 of 76 .75  Bv   = T = 1764 in − lb  2  Bv = 614 lb Bh = Bv tan φ = 614 tan 14. 490 Solution: For AISI 1141.

SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN [∑ M D =0 ] 8Cv = 4(1568) − 3(614) Cv = 554 lb [∑ F =0] v Cv + Dv = Av + Bv 554 + Dv = 1568 + 614 Dv = 1628 lb Shear Diagram M Av = (554 )(4 ) = 2216 in − lb M Dv = (614 )(3) = 1842 in − lb Horizontal [∑ M C =0 ] 4(406) + 8Dh = 11(159) Dh = 16 lb [∑ F h =0 ] Ch + Bh = Ah + Dh Ch + 159 = 406 + 16 Ch = 263 lb Shear Diagram Page 40 of 76 .

375 K t ≈ K f = 1 .375 D 1.10 d 1.125 = ≈ 0. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN M Ah = (263)(4 ) = 1052 in − lb M Dh = (159 )(3) = 477 in − lb M A = M A2h + M A2v = (1052)2 + (2216)2 = 2453 in − lb M D = M D2 h + M D2 v = (477 )2 + (1842)2 = 1903 in − lb (a) At bearing D 1 r = in 8 3 d = 1 in 8 r 0.6 K ts ≈ K fs = 1.34 M = MD sm = 0 32 M 32(1903) sa = = = 7456 psi π d 3 π (1.85 16T 16(1764 ) sms = = = 3456 psi π D π (1.035 psi 0.25 = ≈ 1 .375 + 0.577 sn     Page 41 of 76 .8  Octahedral shear theory 1 1  se   ses   2 2 2 =   +    N  sn   0.2 d 1.375)3 s K f sa se = n s m + sy SF se = 0 + (1.6)(7456) = 14.375)3 3 sas = 0 sns K fs sas ses = sms + s ys SF  1  ses =  (3456 ) + 0 = 1920 psi  1 .

000)   N = 3. made of carburized AISI 8620.6875)3 s K f sa se = n s m + sy SF se = 0 + (2.8  Octahedral shear theory 1 1  se   ses   2 2 2 =   +    N  sn   0.235     2 2 2 1040 =   +   N  50.0 .6875)3 3 sas = 0 sns K fs sas ses = sms + s ys SF  1  ses =  (1870 ) + 0 = 1040 psi  1 . K fs = 1.85 16T 16(1764 ) sms = = = 1870 psi π D π (1.000   0.577(50.043 THRUST LOADS 491.577(50.6 11 d =1 in = 1.000)   N = 4.28 (b) At A For profile keyway K f = 2.400 in-lb. Applied to the right Page 42 of 76 .235 psi 0.6875 in 16 M = M A = 2453 in − lb sm = 0 32 M 32(2453) sa = = = 5200 psi πd 3 π (1. SOQT 450 F. is subjected to a torque of 21. The high-speed shaft of a worm-gear speed reducer.035     2 2 2 3456 =   +    N  50.000   0.0)(5200) = 12. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN 1 1  14.577 sn    1 1  12.

The root diameter..701 in. e = 2 . The pitch diameter of the worm. D4 = 3. r4 = 0.370 . 16 3 1 r2 = r3 = .3469 . and a rightward thrust of F = 6580 lb .923 in. all in inches. f = 13 . 4 16 6. D5 = 3. r1 = 0. is the effective diameter for the point of application of the forces. Calculate N based on the octahedral-shear-stress theory with varying stresses.) Problem 491 Solution: Table AT 11n For AISI 8620. 8 16 4 16 13 D1 = 3. g = 11.400 in − lb Vertical Page 43 of 76 .5 1 = = = s y s ys 120 1. c = 10 . h = 10. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN end with no bending.646 . The force on the worm has three components: a horizontal force opposing rotation of W = 6180 lb .85 T = 21.098 .098 .5su = 83. r5 = . d = 4 . (Data courtesy of Cleveland Worm and Gear Company. D2 = 4 .5 ksi sn sns 83. D3 = 4 . SOQT 450 F s y = 120 ksi su = 167 ksi sn = 0. 7 9 3 9 b = 4 . is used for stress calculations.253 . The left-hand bearing takes the thrust load.437 SF = 0. 5. The shaft has the following dimensions: a = 6 .740 . a vertical radial force S = 1940 lb .

233 in − lb M Fv = 12.2035) = −146 in − lb M Cv = −(121)(1.370)Gv Gv = 2061 lb [∑ F =0] v S + Av = Gv 1940 + Av = 2061 Av = 121 lb Shear Diagram Moment Diagram M Av = 0 M Bv = −(121)(1.5625) = 2830 in − lb M Gv = 2830 − (2061)(1.368 in − lb at right side M Ev = 21.875 + 5.875) = −736 in − lb M Dv = −(121)(1.923   6.368 − (2061)(4.2035 + 4. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN  6.923  M ′ = F  = 6580  = 22.646 + 10.646)(1940) = (11.777 + (11.4325) = 12.777 = 21.5675) = −1409 in − lb at left side M Dv = −1409 + M ′ = −1409 + 22.233 − (2061)(4.2035 + 4.777 in − lb  2   2  [ ∑ M A =0 ] 22.375) = 0 Horizontal Page 44 of 76 .

2035) = 3500 in − lb M Ch = (2911)(1.930 in − lb (left) MD = (33.944 in − lb Page 45 of 76 .900)2 + (1409)2 = 33.375) = 0 Combined M = M h2 + M v2 MA = (0)2 + (0)2 = 0 in − lb MB = (3500)2 + (146)2 = 3503 in − lb MC = (17.695 in − lb M Dh = 33.368)2 = 40.900 − (3269 )(4.2035 + 4.646)(6180) = (11.233)2 = 22. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN [∑ M A =0 ] (11.4325) = 19.410 − (3269 )(4.900)2 + (21.710 in − lb MD = (33.073 in − lb (right) ME = (19.900 in − lb M Eh = 33.695)2 + (736)2 = 17.5625) = 4495 in − lb M Fh = 4495 − (3269 )(1.410)2 + (12.370)Gh Gh = 3269 lb [∑ F h =0 ] Ah + Gv = W Ah + 3269 = 6180 Ah = 2911 lb Shear Diagram Moment Diagram M Ah = 0 M Bh = (2911)(1.410 in − lb M Fh = 19.875) = 17.646 + 10.

sC = = = 1618 psi π D23 π (4.701)3 16T 16(21.740)3 16T 16(21.740)3 32 M C 32(17.701)3 32 M E 32(22.8125)3 16T 16(21. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN MF = (2830)2 + (4495)2 = 5312 in − lb MG = (0)2 + (0)2 = 0 in − lb Bending stresses (Maximum) At A. s F = = = 1443 psi π D43 π (3.710 ) At C.400 ) ssE = = = 1703 psi π D33 π (4)3 16T 16(21.701)2 2 4F 4(6580 ) s′E = = = 524 psi π D3 2 π (4 )2 Page 46 of 76 .8125)2 2 4F 4(6580 ) s′D = = = 258 psi π Dr π (5.400 ) ssD = = = 588 psi π Dr3 π (5. s E = = = 3652 psi π D33 π (4)3 32 M F 32(5312 ) At F.073) At D. sG = 0 Shear Stresses: 16T 16(21. s D = = = 2203 psi π Dr3 π (5.944 ) At E.3469)3 Tensile stresses: F = 6580 lb 4F 4(6580 ) s′A = s′B = = = 599 psi π D1 π (3.400 ) ssC = = = 978 psi π D23 π (4. s A = 0 32 M B 32(3503) At B.400 ) ssA = ssB = = = 2083 psi π D13 π (3.740)2 2 4F 4(6580 ) sC′ = = = 362 psi π D2 π (4.3469 )3 At G.8125)3 32 M D 32(40.400 ) ssF = ssG = = = 2907 psi π D43 π (3. s B = = = 682 psi π D13 π (3.

437  Octahedral shear theory 1 1  se   ses   2 2 2 =   +    N  sn   0.3)(682 ) = 2262 psi se =  (599 ) +  1.577 sn     1 1  2262     2 2 2 1450 =   +   N  83.701 = = 1 .8125 Dr 5. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN 4F 4(6580 ) s′E = s′F = = = 748 psi π D4 π (3.8125 Figure AF 12 K f ≈ K t = 1 .098 At B: = = 0.7 r2 0.2 Page 47 of 76 .500)   N = 24.16 D2 4.577(83.3 K fs ≈ K ts = 1.5 K fs ≈ K ts = 1.3 D1 3.500   0.8125 = = 1 .7 sn K f sa se = sm + sy SF sm = s′B = 599 psi sa = s B = 682 psi  1  (2.03 D1 3.2 D2 4.85 s K fs sas ses = ns sms + s ys SF sms = ssB = 2083 psi sas = 0  1  ses =  (2083) + 0 = 1450 psi  1.740 Figure AF 12 K f ≈ K t = 2 .740 D2 4.75 At C: = = 0.437  0.3469 )2 2 r1 0.

437  Octahedral shear theory Page 48 of 76 .500   0.500)   N = 25.437  0. 483 sn K f sa se = sm + sy SF sm = 258 psi sa = 2203 psi  1  (1.85 s K fs sas ses = ns sms + s ys SF sms = s sD = 588 psi sas = 0  1  ses =  (588) + 0 = 409 psi  1.5)(1618) = 3107 psi se =  (362 ) +  1. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN sn K f sa se = sm + sy SF sm = 362 psi sa = 1618 psi  1  (1.437  0.1 At D: Assume K f = 1.577 sn     1 1  3107     2 2 2 681 =   +   N  83.5 as in Prob.5)(2203) = 4067 psi se =  (258) +  1.437  Octahedral shear theory 1 1  se   ses   2 2 2 =   +    N  sn   0.85 s K fs sas ses = ns sms + s ys SF sms = ssC = 978 psi sas = 0  1  ses =  (978) + 0 = 681 psi  1.577(83.

03 D4 3.500   0.500   0. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN 1 1  se   ses   2 2 2 =   +    N  sn   0.437  0.75 At E: = = 0.85 s K fs sas ses = ns sms + s ys SF sms = s sE = 1703 psi sas = 0  1  ses =  (1703) + 0 = 1185 psi  1.577(83.098 At F: = = 0.500)   N = 12 r4 0.577 sn    1 1  4067     2 2 2 409 =   +   N  83.701 = = 1.577(83.19 D3 4 Dr 5.45 K fs ≈ K ts = 1.45)(3652) = 6595 psi se =  (524 ) +  1.2 r3 0.500)   N = 20.577 sn     1 1  6595     2 2 2 1185 =   +   N  83.43 D3 4 Figure AF 12 K f ≈ K t = 1.25 sn K f sa se = sm + sy SF sm = s′E = 524 psi sa = s E = 3652 psi  1  (1.437  Octahedral shear theory 1 1  se   ses   2 2 2 =   +    N  sn   0.3469 Page 49 of 76 .

500   0. (Data courtesy of Twin Disc Clutch Company.3 K fs ≈ K ts = 1. made of AISI 4140.3469 Figure AF 12 K f ≈ K t = 2 .2 D4 3.577(83.7 sn K f sa se = sm + sy SF sm = s′F = 748 psi sa = s F = 1443 psi  1  (2. The force on this gear has three components: a horizontal tangential driving force Ft = 2390 lb . a vertical radial force S = 870 lb . The power is delivered to a belt at F that exerts a downward vertical force of 1620 lb.437  Octahedral shear theory 1 1  se   ses   2 2 2 =   +    N  sn   0. Use the octahedral shear theory with the Soderberg line and compute N at sections C and D. sled runner keyways.500)   N = 14.3)(1443) = 4425 psi se =  (748) +  1. The slow-speed shaft of a speed reducer shown.) Page 50 of 76 .8 3 Then N = 12 at r3 = in (E) 4 492.6 in.. and a thrust force Q = 598 lb taken by the right-hand bearing.437  0. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN D3 4 = = 1 .577 sn     1 1  4425     2 2 2 2023 =   +   N  83. transmits 100 hp at a speed of 388 rpm. gear B. It receives power through a 13.85 s K fs sas ses = ns sms + s ys SF sms = s sF = 2907 psi sas = 0  1  ses =  (2907 ) + 0 = 2023 psi  1. OQT 1200 F.

85 63. 493 Solution: For AISI 4140.482 SF = 0.000(100 ) T= = 16.237 in − lb 388 Vertical  13.4 in − lb  2   2  [ ∑ M A =0 ] Page 51 of 76 .6   13.5su = 56 ksi sn sns 56 1 = = = s y s ys 83 1. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN Problem 492. OQT 1200 F s y = 83 ksi su = 112 ksi sn = 0.6  M ′ = Q  = (598)  = 4066.

4 = 1021 in − lb at the right  3 M Cv = 1021 − (1953) 3  = −5570 in − lb  8  7  M Gv = −5570 − (1953)1  = −7950 in − lb  32  Page 52 of 76 .4  16 8   16 8 8 32 32 16 4  3 5 3 7  = 1 + 1 + 3 + 1 Gv  16 8 8 32  Gv = 3573 lb [∑ F =0] v Av + S + F = Gv Av + 870 + 1620 = 3573 Av = 1083 lb Shear Diagram Moment Diagram M Av = 0  3 M Pv = −(1083)1  = −1286 in − lb  16   5 M Bv = −1286 + (− 1083)1  = −3046 in − lb at the left  8 M Bv = −3046 + 4066. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN  3 5  3 5 3 7 11 13 3 1 + 1 (870 ) + 1 + 1 + 3 + 1 + 1 + + 2 (1620 ) + 4066.

SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN  11  M Dv = −7950 + (1620 )1  = −5773 in − lb  32   13  M Ev = −5773 + (1620 )  = −4457 in − lb  16   3 M Fv = −4457 + (1620 ) 2  = 0 in − lb  4 Horizontal [∑ M A =0 ]  13   13 19   2 (2390 ) +  2 + 4 Gh  16   16 32  Gh = 908 lb [∑ F h =0 ] Ah + Gh = Ft Ah + 908 = 2390 Ah = 1482 lb Shear Diagram M Ah = 0  3 M Ph = (1482 )1  = 1760 in − lb  16   5 M Bh = 1760 + (1482 )1  = 4168 in − lb  8 Page 53 of 76 .

9 K fs1 ≈ K ts = 1.10 d 2.8 K f 1 K f 2 = 0.750 in D = 2.8(1.750 D 2.953 = = 1.125 = = 0.6 ) = 2.4 K fs = 0.125 in 8 d = 2.6 K f = 0. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN  3 M Ch = 4168 − (908) 3  = 1104 in − lb  8  7  M Ch = 1104 − (908)1  = 0 in − lb  32  M Dh = 0 in − lb M Eh = 0 in − lb M Fh = 0 in − lb Combined M = M h2 + M v2 M A = 0 in − lb MP = (1760)2 + (1286)2 = 2180 in − lb MB = (4168)2 + (3046)2 = 5163 in − lb MC = (1104)2 + (5570)2 = 5678 in − lb MD = (0)2 + (5773)2 = 5773 in − lb ME = (0)2 + (4457 )2 = 4457 in − lb MF = (0)2 + (0)2 = 0 in − lb 1 at C: r = in = 0.3)(1.6 ) = 1.7 Page 54 of 76 .953 in r 0.8(1.3 For sled runner keyway K f 2 = 1 .05 d 2.8 K fs1 K fs 2 = 0.9 )(1.750 Figure AF 12 K f 1 ≈ K t = 1 .6 K fs 2 = 1.

750)3 sas = 0  1  ses =  (3976 ) + 0 = 2683 psi  1.375 in 8 r 0.953 in 3 D = 3 in = 3.4 K fs ≈ K ts = 1.375 = = 1.750)3  1  (2.4)(2781) = 7920 psi se =  (101) +  1. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN sn K f sa se = sm + sy SF 4Q 4(598) sm = = = 101 psi πd 2 π (2.0625 = = 0.953 Figure AF 12 K f ≈ K t = 2 .577(56.750)2 32 M C 32(5678) sa = = = 2781 psi π d3 π (2.577 sn     1 1  7920     2 2 2 2683 =   +   N  56.02 d 2.000)   N =6 1 at D: r = in = 0.85 s K fs sas ses = ns sms + s ys SF 16T 16(16.6 sn K f sa se = sm + sy SF Page 55 of 76 .000   0.0625 in 16 d = 2.14 d 2.953 D 3.482  Octahedral shear theory 1 1  se   ses   2 2 2 =   +    N  sn   0.482  0.237 ) sms = = = 3976 psi π d 3 π (2.

steel shaft shown are A = 2 kips .953)3 sas = 0  1  ses =  (3211) + 0 = 2167 psi  1.953)3  1  (2. Problems 494-496 Solution: Page 56 of 76 .85 s K fs sas ses = ns sms + s ys SF 16T 16(16.577(56.577 sn     1 1  6508     2 2 2 2167 =   +   N  56. The forces on the 2-in.237 ) sms = = = 3211 psi π d 3 π (2.3 psi πd 2 π (2. C = 4 kips .482  0.4)(2284) = 6508 psi se =  (87. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN 4Q 4(598) sm = = = 87.3) +  1.482  Octahedral shear theory 1 1  se   ses   2 2 2 =   +    N  sn   0.000)   N = 7 .000   0.953)2 32 M C 32(5773) sa = = = 2284 psi π d3 π (2.5 TRANSVERSE DEFLECTIONS 494. Determine the maximum deflection and the shaft’s slope at D.

SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN [M B = 0] 2(10) + 25D = 4(15) D = 1.6 B = 4.6 kips [Fv = 0] A+C = B + D 2 + 4 = B + 1 .4 kips Shear Diagram Moment Diagram M 64 M = EI Eπ D 4 A B C D M (in − kip ) 0 -20 16 0 M  4 4   D 10 0 -135.6 0  EI  Page 57 of 76 .8 108.

0 D 4 in in Deflection: 0.2 D 4 rad in y deflection.625 At A: y A = in D4 Page 58 of 76 . SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN Scale ss = 10 in in M 200 × 10−4 . Scale sθ = 0. Scale s y = 2. Scale sM = per in EI EI D4 Slope θ .

05625 θ= = 0. The forces on the steel shaft shown are A = 2 kips . at section C.05625 At D: θ = rad D4 Maximum deflection: 0.006 D4 D = 2.80 in 7 say D = 3 in 8 497. The forces on the steel shaft shown are A = 2 kips .006 in.04 in (2 )4 Shaft’s slope at D 0.812 in 7 say D = 2 in 8 496. Solution: (see Problem 494) 0. Page 59 of 76 .003 D4 D = 3. Solution: (see Problem 494) 0. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN 0.075 At A: θ = rad D4 0.003 in.0035 rad (2)4 495.375 At C: yC = in D4 Slope: 0.375 yC = = 0.0125 At B: θ = rad D4 0. Determine a constant shaft diameter that would limit the maximum deflection at section A to 0. Determine (a) the slopes at the bearings and (b) the maximum deflection. Determine the constant shaft diameter that corresponds to a maximum deflection of 0. A steel shaft is loaded as shown and supported in bearings at R1 and R2 .625 yA = = 0. C = 4 kips . C = 4 kips .625 y = yA = = 0.

SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN Problem 497 Solution: [∑ M R1 = 0 ] (3000 ) 7 + 1 1  − (2100) 7 + 2 1 + 1 =  7 + 2 1 + 2 + 7  R2 8 8 8 4  8 4 8 R2 = −444 lb [∑ F = 0] R1 + R2 + 2100 = 3000 R1 − 444 + 2100 = 3000 R1 = 1344 lb Loading Shear Diagram Moment Diagram Page 60 of 76 .

52 0 Scale ss = 2 in in Page 61 of 76 .60 -0.58 0. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN M A = 0 in − lb 7 M B = (1344 )  = 1176 in − lb 8 7 1 M C = (1134 ) + 1  = 2688 in − lb 8 8  1 M D = 2688 − (1656 )1  = 825 in − lb  8 M E = 825 − (1656)(1) = −831 in − lb M F = −831 + (444)(1) = −387 in − lb 7 M G = −387 + (444 )  = 0 in − lb 8 A B1 B2 C D1 D2 E F1 F2 G M (in − kips ) 0 1.39 0 D(in ) 1½ 1½ 2 2 2 1¾ 1¾ 1¾ 1½ 1½ (M EI )( ) 10 4 0 1.39 -0.28 -0.83 -0.18 2.83 -0.18 1.60 -0.83 0.69 0.50 1.35 0.14 0.

yC = 0.375 4 × 10 −4 = 1. Scale s y = 8 × 10 −4 D 4 in in (a) Slopes at the bearings ( ) at R1 .5 × 10 −4 rad at R2 .1875(8 × 10 −4 ) = 1.5 × 10 −4 in Page 62 of 76 . θ G = 0 rad (b) Maximum deflection at C. Scale sθ = 4 × 10 −4 D 4 rad in y deflection. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN M 2 × 10−4 . Scale sM = per in EI EI D4 Slope θ . θ A = 0.

M D = −6(1.424 = 1.516 Dv = 1.01 in. 505. (a) Determine the diameter of the steel shaft shown if the maximum deflection is to be 0. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN 498.592 kip Shear Diagram M C = 0 . C = 1.424) = 24 Ev Ev = 0. (b) What is the slope of the shaft at bearing D? See 479.5) = −9 in − kips M B = −9 + 8(0.5 + Ev Dv + 0.092) = −8.5 + 0.424 = 1. 506. A = 1.264 in − kips Page 63 of 76 . L = 24 in . Problems 498.516 kip [∑ F v =0 ] Dv + 0.58 kips ..5) + 8(0. Solution: Vertical [∑ M D =0 ] 6(1.5 kips .

516) = −2.588 in − kips M E = −2.516) = 0 C D B A E M (in − kips ) 0 -9 -8.264 + 11(0.6 0 Scale ss = 8 in in M 120 × 10 −4 .096 D 4 rad in Page 64 of 76 .588 0 ( M EI ) D 4 ×10 4 0 -61. Scale sθ = 0.588 + 5(0.1 -56.264 -2. Scale sM = per in EI EI D4 Slope θ .1 -17. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN M A = −8.

1095 + 0.288 y Bv = in D4 0.58 Dh + 1.58 Page 65 of 76 .384 yCv = in D4 0.768 D 4 in in Deflections.424 ) + 24 Eh = 19(1. Scale s y = 0.58) Eh = 1. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN y deflection.424 = 1.168 y Av = in D4 Slope 0.1095 kip [∑ F h =0 ] Dh + Eh + 0. 0.424 = 1.057 θ Dv = rad D4 Horizontal [∑ M D =0 ] 8(0.

Scale sM = per in EI EI D4 Slope θ .5475 in − kips M E = −5.372 + 11(− 0.53 -37.0465 kip Shear Diagram Moments MC = 0 MD = 0 M B = 8(− 0.4705) = −5.372 in − kip M A = −0.1095) = 0 C D B A E M (in − kips ) 0 0 -0. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN Dh = 0.5475 + 5(1.7 0 Scale ss = 8 in in M 4 × 10−4 .372 -5.032 D 4 rad in Page 66 of 76 . Scale sθ = 0.0465) = −0.5475 0 ( M EI ) D 4 ×10 4 0 0 -2.

072) + (0. Scale s y = 0. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN y deflection.064 yC h = in D4 0.390 4 D D4 1 yB = [(0.012 θ Dh = rad D4 Resultant deflection: 1 ( y = yh2 + yv2 ) 2 1 yC = [(0.194 4 D D4 Slope: Page 67 of 76 .072 y Bh = in D4 0.096) + (0.064) + (0.256 D 4 in in Deflections.096 y Ah = in D4 Slope 0. 0.384) ] 2 2 2 = 0.297 4 D D4 1 yA = [(0.288) ] 2 2 2 = 0.168) ] 2 2 2 = 0.

shaft are 30 in. apart. What is the critical speed if the shaft is considered as simply supported? Solution: Table AT 2 y= WL3 = (0.057) ] 2 2 2 = 0. shaft. The bearings on a 1 ½-in. weighing 0.85)(6. whose length between bearings is 6 ½ in.052634  500..5 in.85 lb.01 in D4 D = 2.05823 rad 4 D D4 (a) Diameter D.052634 in 6  π (0. What is the critical speed of the shaft? Solution: Page 68 of 76 . SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN 1 θ = (θ + θ 2 h v ) 2 2 1 θD = [(0. apart.390 Maximum deflection = yC = = 0.05823 θD = = = 0. high-speed turbine has a single disk. On the shaft are three 300-lb disks.50 in (b) slope of the shaft at bearing D 0.5)4 CRITICAL SPEED 499. symmetrically placed 7.0015 rad D4 (2.05823 0. 0.012) + (0.5) 3 = 0. mounted at the midpoint of a 0. A small.178-in.178 )  4 3EI ( 3 30 × 10  64 )    1 1 1 30  g o (∑ Wy ) 2 30  g o  2 30  386  2 nc =   = = = 818 rpm π  ∑ Wy 2  π  y  π  0.

5)(30)2 − (15)2 − (7.5)2 ] = 0.5)(7.5)(7.01556 = 0. y D = y D1 + y D2 + y D3 Page 69 of 76 .5)(15)(30)2 − (7.00990 in 6  π (1.5) 2 2 2 ] = 0.01273 + 0.5)(30 − 15)( 30) − (7.5 )  4 ( 6 30 ×10  )  (30)  64  yC3 = [ ] (300)(7.01556 + 0.03819 in Deflection of C.5)2 − (7.5)2 − (15)2 = 0.01273 in 6  π (1.00990 + 0.5)4  ( 6 30 × 106  )  (30)  64  y B3 = ( [ 300)(7.5)(30) − (7. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN Table AT 2 Deflection of B.05376 in Deflection of D. yC = yC1 + yC2 + yC3 yC1 = ( [ 300)(7.5 )  4 6(30 × 10 )  (30)   64  yC2 = [ ] (300)(15)(30 − 15)(30)2 − (15)2 − (30 − 15)2 = 0.5) − (30 − 15) ] 2 2 2 = 0. y B = y B1 + y B2 + y B3 y B1 = (300)(22.01556 in  π (1.01556 in 6  π (1.01556 in  π (1.5)([ 30)2 − (22.5 )  4 ( 6 30 × 10  ) 64  (30)   y B = 0.02264 + 0.02264 in 6  π (1.5)2 = 0.5) − (7.5)4  ( 6 30 × 106  )  (30)  64  yC = 0.5 )  4 6(30 × 10 )   (30)  64  y B2 = [ ] (300)(15)(7.01556 = 0.

03819 + 0.5)2 − (22.03819)2  501.01273 in  π (1.5)(30)2 − (7.5)4  ( 6 30 × 106  )  (30 )  64  y D = 0.5)2 ] = 0.03819)2 + (0.5)2 − (30 − 22.5)([ 30)2 − (7.5 )  4 ( 6 30 ×10  )  (30)  64  y D3 = [ ] (300)(7. from an end of the shaft which is 80 in.05376)2 + (0.5 )  4 6(30 × 10 )   (30)  64  y D2 = [ ] (300)(15)(30 − 22.03819 in 1 1 30  g o (∑ Wy ) 30  g o ( y B + yC + y D )  2 2 nc =   = π  ∑ Wy 2  π  y B2 + yC2 + y D2  1 30  386(0. y B = y B1 + y B2 + y B3 Page 70 of 76 . steel shaft.05376 + 0.5)2 = 0.5)2 = 0. (b) its critical speed. each being 22 in.01556 in 6  π (1. Determine (a) the deflection curve of the shaft considering its weight as well as the weight of the rotors.00990 in 6  π (1. rotors mounted on a 3-in.5)(22. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN y D1 = (300)(7. A fan for an air-conditioning unit has two 50-lb.00990 + 0.01556 + 0.01273 = 0.03819)  2 nc =   = 888 rpm π  (0.284 ) (3) (80 ) = 160 lb weight of shaft 4 160 w2 = = 2 lb in 80 Deflection of B. long and simply supported at the ends.5)(30)2 − (15)2 − (30 − 22. Solution: W1 = 50 lb W3 = 50 lb π  2 W2 = (0.5)(30 − 22.

003317 in 6  π (35)  4 6(30 ×10 )   (80)  64  yC3 = ( [ 50)(22 )(40)(80) − (22) − (40) 2 2 2 ] = 0.008942 in 6  π (3)  4 ( 6 30 × 10  )   64  yC = 0.006843 + 0.002844 in 6  π (35 )  4 6(30 × 10 )   (80)  64  y B3 = [ ] (50)(22)(22)(80)2 − (22)2 − (22)2 = 0.002844 + 0.011983 in (a) Deflection curve Page 71 of 76 .003317 = 0. yC = yC1 + yC2 + yC3 yC1 = ( [ 50)(22)(80 − 40)( 80) − (22) − (80 − 40) ] 2 2 2 = 0.011983 in Deflection of C.003317 + 0.003317 in 6  π (3)  4 ( 6 30 × 10  )  (80)  64  yC2 = [ ] (2)(40)(80)3 − 2(80)(40)2 − (40)3 = 0. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN y B1 = (50)(50)(22)([ 80)2 − (58)2 − (22)2 ] = 0.006843 in  π (3)4  ( 6 30 × 106  )   64  y B = 0.002296 = 0.002296 in 6  π (3)  4 ( 6 30 × 10  )  (80)  64  y B2 = [ ] (2)(22)(80)3 − 2(80)(22)2 − (22)3 = 0.008942 + 0.015576 in By symmetry y D = y B = 0.

9 ksi M = 43 in − kips T = 27 in − kips 1 16   α FD 1 + B 2   ( ) 2 2 (K sT ) +  K m M +   3 2 D = ( πτ d 1 − B 4 )   8   Reduce to 1 )[ ] 16 3 D = (K sT ) + ( K m M ) 2 2 2 ( πτ d 1 − B 4 For mild shock load. made of annealed AISI C1050.25)(27.69046 ∑Wy = (50)(0.56 ksi use τ d = 0. What should be the diameter according to the Code for a mild shock load? Solution: For AISI C1050.015576) + (50)(0.015576) + (50)(0.25 B=0 1 16 3 D = π (15. A cold-rolled transmission shaft.011983) = 3. annealed s y = 53 ksi su = 92 ksi 0.000)] 2 } 2 2 D = 2.011983) + (160)(0.75 K s = 1.053177 2 2 2 2 1 30  386(3.053177  ASME CODE 502.18su = 16.3s y = 15. is to transmit a torque of 27 in-kips with a maximum bending moment of 43 in-kips.3s y = 15.011983) = 0.98 in say D = 3 in Page 72 of 76 .69046)  2 nc = = 1563 rpm π  0.011983) + (160)(0. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN (b) Critical speed 1 30  g o (∑ Wy ) 2 nc =   π  ∑ Wy 2  ∑Wy = (50)(0.900) { [(1. rotating shafts K m = 1.9 ksi 0.000)] + [(1.75)(43.

000)D   2 2 [(1. OQT 1000 F. OQT 1000 F s y = 130 ksi su = 151 ksi 0. The shaft is subjected to a maximum bending moment of 7500 in-lb. and an axial thrust load of 15. Solution: For AISI 3150. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN 503.3s y = 39 ksi 0.18su = 27.5)3 π (1.000 lb.25 B=0 α =1 1 16   (1)(15. A machinery shaft is to transmit 82 hp at a speed of 1150 rpm with mild shock.1874 31.875D ] } 2 2 D = 1.5 in 32 M 4F 32(7500 ) 4(15.000 lb 1 16   ( α FD 1 + B 2 )  2 2 (K sT ) +  K m M +  3 2 (a) D =  ( ) πτ d 1 − B 4    8   For mild shock load K m = 1. (a) What should be the diameter when designed according to the Code? (b) Determine the corresponding conventional factor of safety (static-approach and maximum-shear theory).4668 in say D = 1.25)(4492)] + (1.5)2 Page 73 of 76 .18 ksi use τ d = 0.53 + [13.75)(7500) + 3 2 D = π (27180)   8    1 { D 3 = 0.75 K s = 1.18su = 27. The material is AISI 3150.124 ksi 3 πD πD 2 π (1.124 psi = 31.18 ksi 63000(82 ) T= = 4492 in − lb 1150 M = 7500 in − lb F = 15.125 + 1.000 ) (b) s = + = + = 31.

compute the shaft diameter. receives 30 hp at 300 rpm via a 12-in. spur gear.3s y = 16.124   6. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN 16T 16(4492 ) ss = = = 6778. (a) Neglecting the radial component of the tooth load. as rolled.7785   2 2 =   +   N  130   0.3 ksi Page 74 of 76 .5 ksi 0. as rolled s y = 55 ksi su = 85 ksi 0.7785 ksi π D 3 π (1. For SAE 1035.5s y 1  31. the power being delivered to another shaft through a flexible coupling. (b) Considering both tangential and radial components.83 504. (c) Is the difference in the foregoing results enough to change your choice of the shaft size? Solution: Figure for 471. determine the shaft diameter for a mild shock load. short stub shaft.5)3 1  s   ss   2 2 = + N  s y   s ys     Maximum shear theory s ys = 0.5 psi = 6.3 ksi use τ d = 0. made of SAE 1035. The gear is keyed midway between the bearings and its pressure angle φ = 20o .18su = 15. See the figure for 471.5(130)   N = 3.18su = 15.

a 44-in. and a flywheel C.3 in − kips 1 16 3 D = π (15. Weight of flywheel is 1500 lb. pulley B receives the power at an angle of 45o to the right of the vertical.25)(6.2)]2 2 } D = 1.75)(4.2 in − kips T = 6300 in − lb = 6.3 in − kips 1 16   ( α FD 1 + B 2 )  2 2 D3 =  ( K T )2 +  K  m M +   ( πτ d 1 − B 4   ) s  8   Reduce to 1 )[ ] 16 D3 = ( K T )2 + ( K M )2 2 ( πτ d 1 − B 4 s m For mild shock load. Two bearings D and E.3)]2 + [(1. rotating shafts K m = 1. as indicated (498). From Problem 471. gear A. pulley B. The maximum power is 25 hp at 250 rpm is delivered. SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN Data are the same as 471. 505. Apart. support a shaft for a punch press on which are an 8-in.25)(6.472 in − kips T = 6300 in − lb = 6.75 K s = 1.5461 in 9 say D = 1 in 16 (c) Not enough to change the shaft size. gear A delivers it horizontally to the right.3) { [(1.25 B=0 1 16 D3 = π (15. a distance D = 24 in .3) { [(1.472)]2 } 2 D = 1. find the diameter by the ASME Code. Solution: Page 75 of 76 .3)]2 + [(1.. with heavy shock. (a) M = 4200 in − lb = 4. For cold-finish AISI 1137.5306 in 9 say D = 1 in 16 (b) M = 4472 in − lb = 4.75)(4.

SECTION 7 – SHAFT DESIGN Data and figure is the same as in Problem 479. For AISI 1137.5 K s = 1.343 in − lb = 14.343)]2 }2 D = 2.343 in − kips T = TA = 12.end - Page 76 of 76 .600 in − lb = 12.75 B=0 1 16   ( α FD 1 + B 2 )   2 2 (K sT ) +  K m M + 2 D3 =  ( 4 πτ d 1 − B   )  8   1 )[ ] 16 D3 = ( K T )2 + ( K M )2 2 ( πτ d 1 − B 4 s m 1 16 D3 = π (18.18su = 18.54 ksi use τ d = 0.2613 in 5 say D = 2 in 16 .5)(14.9 ksi 0.18s u = 18.6 in − kips For heavy shock load K m = 2.3s y = 27.54) { [(1.54 ksi From Problem 479 M = M B = 14.6)]2 + [(2. cold-finished s y = 93 ksi su = 103 ksi 0.75)(12. Also figure is the same as in Problem 498.

Table AT 8 sy = 71 ksi sys = 0.6(1 2 )(2 ) By compression. except that the key material is AISI 2317.6sy = 0.65) L= = = 5. OQT 1000 F. use b = ½ in .6 ksi Table AT 19.8)(π )(2)3 T= = = 87.32 in For Flat key.6sy = 0. QOT 1000 F. Solution: For AISI 1137 shaft.65) L= = = 4. shaft. sc = sy. Key has lowest yield strength. Table AT 8. Key has lowest yield strength.6(93) = 55. has a pulley keyed to it. b = t = ½ in. sy = 93 ksi Yield Strength of Shaft sys = 0. 1 . ss = sys 2T 2(87. Table AT 7 sy = 66 ksi sys = 0. t = 3/8 in.6(71) = 42. cold-drawn.6(66) = 39.6(1 2 )(2 ) By compression. AISI 2317.8 ksi sysπD 3 (55. of cold-drawn AISI 1137. For square key. 4T 4(87. For square key. SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS FLAT AND SQUARE KEYS DESIGN PROBLEMS 521. C1020.65 in − kips 16 16 (a) Key Material. (c) Would you discard either of these keys? Explain. t = 3/8 in. By shear.65) L= = = 7. use b = ½ in .43 in ss bD 39. ss = sys 2T 2(87.65) L= = = 4.43 in ss bD 39. b = t = ½ in.12 in ss bD 42. Key has lowest yield strength.09 in (b) Key Material. A 2-in. 4T 4(87.32 in sc tD 66(1 2)(2) Use L = 5. sc = sy. (a) Compute the length of square key and the length of flat key such that a key made of cold-drawn C1020 has the same yield strength as the shaft does in pure torsion.6 ksi Table AT 19. By shear. ss = sys 2T 2(87.6sy = 0. sc = sy. (b) The same as (a). t = 3/8 in. By shear.65) L= = = 4.6(1 2)(2) By compression.09 in sc tD 66(3 8)(2) Use L = 7. b = ½ in .

5 For Flat key.3(1 4)(1.75 in hp = 65.6 ss = = = 26. By shear.answer 2 .94 in For Flat key. 5 4T 4(2.12 in ss bD 42. The 1045 as-rolled shaft to which it is to be keyed is 1 ¾ in.65) L= = = 4.65) L= = = 6. 522.59 in sc tD 71(3 8)(2 ) Use L = 6.4(3 8)(1. n = 1750 rpm 63.358) L= = = 0.6(66) = 39.3 ksi N 1. N = 1.6 ksi sys 39. sy = 66 ksi D = 1 ¾ in = 1.000(65.5 hp at 1750 rpm. 5 2T 2(2. b = 3/8 in.358) L= = = 0. Compute the length of flat key and of square key needed.358 in − kips n 1750 Table AT 19.549 in . A cast-iron pulley transmits 65. sc = sy.4 ksi N 1. 4T 4(87. sys = 0. b = ½ in . t = 1/4 in for D = 1 ¾ in Assume smooth load. Key has lowest yield strength.5 hp.5) T= = = 2358 in − lb = 2. t = 3/8 in. Table AT 7. cold-drawn 1020.6(1 2)(2) By compression. sy = 59 ksi For key: Cold-drawn 1020.94 in sc tD 71(1 2 )(2 ) Use L = 4. sy 59 sc = = = 39.000hp 63.272 in ss bD 26. Solution: For shaft: 1045 as-rolled. use b = 3/8 in. key material. use sy of shaft the lowest.75) Use L = 0.65) L= = = 4. ss = sys 2T 2(87. By shear.59 in (c) Either of the above is not to be discarded since they are designed based on yield strength with the same factor of safety. SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS 4T 4(87.75) By compression.6sy = 0. Pulley has the highest compressive strength (Cast iron). in diameter.549 in sc tD 39. t = 1/4 in.

shaft transmits with medium shock 85 hp at 100 rpm.25 4T 4(53.3 ksi N 1.25) By compression.25 2T 2(53.6 ksi sys 39.4(3 8)(1. use sy of sprocket the lowest. t = 3/8 in.25 in hp = 85 hp n = 100 rpm 63. sy = 55 ksi For shaft.4(3 4)(3. sy 55 sc = = = 24.000(85) T= = = 53. sys = 0. use sy of shaft the lowest. ss = sys sys = 0. SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS For Square key.272 in ss bD 26. Pulley has the highest compressive strength (Cast iron).6sy = 0.29 in ss bD 19.60 in sc tD 24.550 in − lb = 53. sy = 72 ksi D = 3 ¼ in = 3.6 ss = = = 26. sy 59 sc = = = 39.55 in − kips n 100 Table AT 19.358) L= = = 0. use b = ¾ in.358) L= = = 0. N = 2.75) Use L = 0. with a key of cold-finished B1113.366 in sc tD 39. annealed nodular iron. t = ¾ in. By shear. cold-finished B1113. What should be the length of (a) a square key? (b) a flat key? Solution: For sprocket.4 ksi N 2. 60-45-10.55) L= = = 2.3(3 8)(1. By shear.2 ss = = = 19. Table AT 6. t = 1/2 in for D = 3 ¼ in For medium shock. sy = 85 ksi For key. Power is received through a sprocket (annealed nodular iron 60-45-10) keyed to the shaft of cold-rolled AISI 1040 (10% work). 5 2T 2(2. b = ¾ in. 5 4T 4(2.55) L= = = 3. A 3 ¼-in.6(66) = 39.6sy = 0.2 ksi N 2.25 (a) Square key.25) 3 .366 in .2 ksi sys 43.75) By compression. Table AT 7. b = 3/8 in.000hp 63.answer 523. Table AT 10. cold-rolled AISI 1040 (10% work).2(3 4)(3.4 ksi N 1.6(72) = 43.

t = ¾ in. sy = 35 ksi For shaft.answer (b) Flat key. . sy = 66 ksi D = 3 in hp = 75 hp n = 210 rpm 63.25 4T 4(53.40 in.500 in − lb = 22.55) L= = = 5. shaft (AISI 1045.6sy = 0.000hp 63. sy = 59 ksi For key.2 ss = = = 19.5) L= = = 2.40 in sc tD 24. Table AT 6.02 in ss bD 9.5 in − kips n 210 Table AT 19.6sy = 0.answer 524. sys = 0. By shear.2 ksi N 2. what should be the length of (a) a square key.000(75) T= = = 22. (b) flat key? (c) Would either of these keys be satisfactory? Solution: For cast-steel gear (SAE 0030).6 ss = = = 9. A cast-steel gear (SAE 0030).9(3 4)(3) By compression. N = 4 (a) Square key.25) Use L = 5. For a design factor of 4 based on yield strength. as rolled).. as rolled. Table AT 7.60 in. cold drawn. the key is made of AISI C1020. Table AT 7. SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS Use L = 3. sy 35 sc = = = 8.2(3 4)(3. b = ¾ in. AISI 1045. use sy of sprocket the lowest.4 ksi N 2.9 ksi N 4 2T 2(22. cold-drawn. AISI C1020. is transmitting 75 hp at 210 rpm to a rock crusher.75 ksi N 4 4 . b = ¾ in.29 in ss bD 19. t = 1/2 in for D = 3 in Design factor. use sy of cast-steel gear the lowest. and is keyed to a 3-in.25) By compression. .25 2T 2(53.55) L= = = 2. use b = ¾ in. with a pitch diameter of 36 in.6 ksi sys 39.6(72) = 43. ss = sys sys = 0.6(66) = 39. sy 55 sc = = = 24.2 ksi sys 43. By shear. t = ½ in.4(1 2)(3.

The loading may be classified as mild shock.57 in sc tD 8. Keyed to this shaft is a cast-steel (SAE 080.25 sc 13.5) L= = = 4.457 ksi LbD (2)(3 8)(1.57 in.0 to 2. Determine the yield stress on the key 2T 2(2. sy = 40 ksi L = 2 in N = 2.6 ksi sys 39.716) sc = = = 13.625 in Shaft material – AISI 13B45. Solution: hp = 50 hp n = 1160 rpm D = 1 5/8 in = 1.answer 525. ss = sys sys = 0. N = = = 2. N & T) pulley whose hub is 2 in.6sy = 0. t = ½ in. OQT 1100 F.9(3 4)(3) By compression.716 in − kips n 1160 For flat key: b = 3/8 in. An electric motor delivers 50 hp at 1160 rpm to a 1 5/8 in.716 in − lb = 2.25 for mild shock From Table AT 19 for D = 1 5/8 in b = 3/8 in. long. Decide upon a key for this pulley (material). sy = 112 ksi Pulley material – SAE 080.000(50) T= = = 2. SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS 4T 4(22.000hp 63.75(3 4)(3) Use L = 4. .02 in ss bD 9. b = ¾ in. Table AT 6.86 in sc tD 8. use sy of cast-steel gear the lowest.37 ksi LtD (2 )(1 4)(1.716) ss = = = 4.99 > 2.9 ksi N 4 2T 2(22.37 Therefore safe in compression. Table AT 10. By shear. t = ¼ in 63.6(66) = 39.75(1 2)(3) Use L = 6.625) sy 40 Based on pulley material.answer (b) Flat key.75 ksi N 4 4T 4(22. N & T. .86 in.6 ss = = = 9.625) 5 . sy 35 sc = = = 8. shaft (AISI 13B45.5) L= = = 6. t = ¼ in Check for compression: 4T 4(2.5) L= = = 2. OQT 1100 F). investigating both flat and square keys.

(a) What is the factor of safety of the key? (b) The same as (a) except a flat key is used.625) N = 2. shaft material. Table AT 7.914)(2. C1144. t = 3/8 in 6 . is transmitting 40 hp at 200 rpm. D = 2 in b = ½ in.000(40) T= = = 12. Determine the yield stress on the key 2T 2(2.Minimum yield strength of key material required.37 )(2. s y = (8. s y = (13. Table AT 6. Select SAE 003.457 ) s y = 16. made of SAE 1015. Table AT 6.6 sy = Nss 0.25 s ys = 0. 3 in. Solution: Pulley.25 s ys = 0. CHECK PROBLEMS 526.25) = 20 ksi . Table AT 6.914 ksi LtD (2 )(3 8)(1. attached to a 2-in. Cast steel. For square key: b = t = 3/8 in Check for compression: 4T 4(2. sy = 35 ksi – Answer. cold drawn. cold drawn.7 ksi Min. sy = 40 ksi Key. sy = 63 ksi Shaft.25 sc 8. Select SAE 003. A cast-steel (SAE 080. long.914 Therefore safe in compression.600 in − lb = 12. C1144.000hp 63.Minimum yield strength of key material required.457 ) s y = 16.716) ss = = = 4. sy = 83 ksi hp = 40 hp N = 200 rpm D = 2 in L = 3 in 63. N = = = 4. N & T.7 ksi Min. shaft. OQT 1000 F. N & T) pulley. sy = 35 ksi – Answer.25 )(4. SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS N = 2.6 sy = (2.6 in − kips n 200 Table AT 19.25) = 30 ksi .625) sy 40 Based on pulley material.716) sc = = = 8. SAE 080.25 )(4.6 sy = Nss 0.49 > 2. and is keyed by a standard square key. SAE 1015.6 sy = (2.457 ksi LbD (2)(3 8)(1. OQT 1000 F.

6(63) N= = = = 4. N & T) pulley is keyed to a 2 1/2-in.6) sc = = = 22.21 sc 22. SAE 080. 3 ½-in.8 Answer N = 2. sy = 85 ksi N = 420 rpm L = 3 ½ in = 3. b = ½ in.4 By compression: 4T 4(12. A cast-steel (SAE 080. b = ½ in. b = t = 5/8 in N = 1. SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS a) Square key.6 ) ss = = = 8.50 < 6. The shaft is made of cold-drawn AISI 1045. sy = 40 ksi Key.21 sc 16. t = 7/16 in Square Key. made of cold-drawn SAE 1015. SAE 1015. cold drawn. long. and turns at 420 rpm. cold drawn. Table AT 7. Table AT 7.4 By compression: 4T 4(12.4 ksi LtD (3)(3 8)(2) sy (pulley ) 40 N= = = 1. AISI 1045. Table AT 6.6sy 0. sy = 63 ksi Shaft.6(63) N= = = = 4.50 < 6.21 ss ss 8. what horsepower could the assembly safely transmit (steady loading)? Solution: Pulley.78 < 6. shaft by means of a standard square key.38 b) Flat key. t = 3/8 in By shear: 2T 2(12. If the shaft is in virtually pure torsion.5 in D = 2 ½ in Table AT 19. D = 2 ½ in b = 5/8 in.4 Answer N = 1.5 for steady loading (smooth) For shaft: 7 .78 527.4 ksi LbD (3)(1 2)(2) sys 0.6 ) ss = = = 8.4 ksi LbD (3)(1 2)(2) sys 0.21 ss ss 8.6sy 0. t = ½ in By shear: 2T 2(12.38 < 6. N & T.8 ksi LtD (3)(1 2)(2) sy (pulley ) 40 N= = = 2.6) sc = = = 16. Cast steel.

6(85)(π )(2.46 in − kips = 36.46 in − kips < 104.5) T= = 36.31 in-kips 4 Use T = 36.2 )(3.6 syπD 0.5) T= = 68. sy = 40 ksi Key.5 for steady loading (smooth) For shaft: 3 s πD 3 0. Table AT 6. sy = 85 ksi N = 420 rpm L = 5 in D = 3 in Table AT 19.5)(5 8)(2. SAE 1015.2 ksi N N 1.67 ksi N 1.9 in − kips < 104. b = t = 3/4 in N = 1.6 sy πD 0. SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS 3 ssπD 3 0.5)(5 8)(2. except that the diameter is 3 in.5 (26.6 sy 0. cold drawn. Table AT 7. The same as 527.6(85)(π )(3)3 T= s = = = 180.25 in − kips 16 N(16 ) 1.5(16 ) Key: By shear: s LbD T= s 2 8 . N & T. SAE 080. Table AT 7.67 )(3.460 in − kips Tn 36.460(420) hp = = = 243 hp 63. Solution: Pulley. cold drawn. t = 1/2 in Square Key. 5 (25. and the length of the key is 5 in. D = 3 in b = 3/4 in. AISI 1045.000 528. sy = 63 ksi Shaft.000 63.31 in − kips 16 N(16) 1.31 in-kips 2 By compression: s LtD T= c 4 sy (pulley ) 40 sc = = = 26.5)3 T= = = = 104.6(63) ss = = = = 25.5(16) Key: By shear: s LbD T= s 2 sys 0. Cast steel.

75 in − kips < 180. Does either have an advantage in this respect? Solution: ND a) T = 2 2T N= D 2 fT Axial force = F = fN = D 2ND b) T = = ND 2 T N= D fT Axial force = F = fN = D Assembly (b) is stronger than assembly (a) which has an axial force half that of assembly (b).2 ksi N N 1.25 in-kips 2 By compression: s LtD T= c 4 sy (pulley ) 40 sc = = = 26.67 ksi N 1.000 in − kips Tn 75.67 )(5)(3 4)(3) T= = 75 in − kips < 180. 9 . are shown. 5 (25. with the assumed positions of the normal forces N.000(420) hp = = = 500 hp 63.000 63.25 in-kips 4 Use T = 75 in − kips = 75.6 sy ss = = = = 25. SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS sys 0. Two assemblies. Each assembly is transmitting a torque T.5 (26. one with one feather keys. Derive an equation for each case giving the axial force needed to slide the hub along the shaft (f = coefficient of friction).2)(5)(3 4)(3) T= = 141.000 MISCELLANEOUS KEYS 529.6(63) 0.

06 ksi N N 2 (23.000 63.7 )(0.79 = 1. Solution: Only shear is used.296 )1 11  T=  16  = 5.296 sq. (a) If the key is made of the same material.84 hp 63. shaft (cold-drawn SAE 1045).7 ksi < 24. A 3/16 x 1-in. D = 1 11/16 in n = 200 rpm Woodruff key = ¼ x 1 ¼ in N = 2 for mild shock Shear force for key 2T F= = ss As D s AD T= s s 2 Table 10. Table AT 7. 531.000 63. ¼ x 1 ¼ in Woodruff Key is Key No.62 in − kips = 5620 in − lb 2 Tn (5620)(200) hp = = = 17.84 = 1. sy = 75 ksi sys 0.5 ksi < 24. will it be weaker or stronger? For the purposes here.6(75) ss = = = = 22.33 or 2 keys Select (b) which is stronger. in. the weakening of the shaft by the keyway is ignored. sy = 79 ksi sys 0.5)(0. shaft rotating at 200 rpm. WQT 1100 F. As = 0.6(79) ss = = = = 23. A 1 11/16-in. carries a cast-iron gear keyed to it by a ¼ x 1 ¼-in. SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS 530. SAE 2317. Woodruff key. Woodruff key is used in a 1 3/16-in.1.6 sy 0.4 or 2 keys Number of keys for (b) = 25 / 18. cold-drawn 1118.296)1 11  T=  16  = 5. 10 .000 (b) Key.79 hp 63. (a) Key.06 ksi N N 2 (22. 810 Shear area. OQT 1000 F? (c) How many keys of each material are needed to give a capacity of 25 hp? Specify a choice. Table AT 7.000 (c) Number of keys for (a) = 25 / 17.6 sy 0. The power is transmitted with mild shock.92 in − kips = 5920 in − lb 2 Tn (5920)(200) hp = = = 18. shaft material is cold-finished SAE 1045. (a) if it is made of cold-drawn SAE 1118? (b) if it is made of SAE 2317. OQT 1000F. will it be weaker or stronger than the shaft in pure torsion? (b) If the key is made of SAE 4130. What horsepower may be safely transmitted by the key.

Table AT9.39 in − kips T= = = 2 2 2 For shaft: 3  3 3 0.178)1  ss As D 0. A 2-in.6(114)(0.. what peak torsional stress may be repeated in the shaft? Is the shaft safe from fatigue at this stress? Solution: D = 2 in d = 3/8 in n = 1800 rpm (a) For pin material .6 sy As D  16  = 7. (b) Key material = SAE 4130. 532.6(85)(0. Shear area = As = 0.5 ) = 145.178 sq. in. 3/16 x 1 in.6sy As D  16  = 5. OQT 1000 F. (a) What horsepower at 1800 rpm would be transmitted when the pin is about to be sheared off? (b) For this horsepower. SAE 1045 (Table AT 8) sy = 85 ksi s AD T= s s 2 Table 10.6(85)(π )1  ssπD 3 0.1 ksi 11 .77 in − kips T= = = 16 16 16 Therefore the key is weaker.6 syπD  16  = 16.6 syπD  16  = 16.75(193. 4150.178)1  ss As D 0. WQT 1100. radial taper pin made of 4150.77 in − kips T= = = 16 16 16 Therefore the key is weaker. (a) Key material = Shaft Material In yield: For key  3 0. 608. OQT 1000 F. su = 193.75 su = 0. SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS Solution: Woodruff key. sy = 114 ksi In yield: For key  3 0.5 ksi  πd 2   πd 2  F = ss (2 As ) = ss (2)  = ss    4   2  FD  πd 2  D  1 T= = ss    = ssπd 2D 2  2  2  4 s s = sus = 0. Table AT 7.23 in − kips T= = = 2 2 2 For shaft: 3  3 3 0.6(85)(π )1  ssπD 3 0. 3/16 x 1 in.1. shaft (cold-finished SAE 1137) is connected to a hub by a 3/8-in. D = 1 3/16 in Shaft: Cold drawn. Woodruff key is Key no.

05 in − kips = 32.96 ksi 2  2  But. sy = 90 ksi sy = 1. shaft (cold-finished SAE 1141) by a radial taper pin whose mean diameter is 0. 16T 16(32.6 sn′ = 0. Table AT 8. OQT 800 F. Table AT 10.5.5su = 0.96 ksi πD π (2)3 s 30.96 N = ns = = 1. A 20-in.050 in − lb 4 8 Tn (32.4 ksi N 2 12 . su = 176 ksi sn = 0.7 lb (b) For the pin.404 psi = 20.7 hp 63.000 63.1)(π )  (2 ) = 32.414 = F (20 ) F = 970.875)3 T= s = = 19. C1095.875 in Shaft Material. su = 103 ksi s   103  sns = 0. lever is keyed to a 1 7/8-in. 0. (c) for the combination? Solution: T = FL where F = safe lever load. OQT 800 F.414 in − lbs 16 16 T = FL 19. N = 2 on endurance strength. SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS 2 1  3 T = (145.6sy 0.414 in − kips = 19.5(176 ) = 88 ksi (a) For the shaft.6(88) ss = = = 26. SAE 1141. therefore safe from fatigue at this stress..6 sy 0.050) ss = 3 = = 20. Table AT 9.5 in. C1095.000 (b) For shaft.050 )(1800) hp = = = 915. (b) for the pin key (shear only).6(50) ss = = = 15 ksi N 2 s πD 3 15(π )(1.8 sn 90 sn = = 50 ksi 1.4 533. 0. cold-finished. The load on the lever is repeatedly reversed.6  = 30. What is the safe lever load (a) for the shaft.4 ksi < 30.52 > 1. L = 20 in D = 1 7/8 in = 1.6 u  = 0. SAE 1137. cold finished. ss 20. pin material.8 Pin Material.

Use F = 129. (a) What size pin should be used for N = 3 based on the yield strength in shear? (b) Let the hub diameter be 5 in. SAE 1035.25 in 2 From Table AT 2. as rolled. SAE 1020.4) 9. is applied to the lever 22 in. as rolled. Dh = 5 in T = FL = (200)(22) = 4400 in-lb = 4. Table AT 7. A lever is keyed to a 2 ½-in. from the center of the shaft.6(48) ss = = = 9.6 ksi N 3 2T d T 4T ss = = = 3 π 2 2 As d (d ) πd 4 4(4. As cantilever beam let 1 L = (Dh − D ) 2 1 L = (5 − 2. 13 .5)3 T= s = = 2. shaft made of SAE 1035. A load of 200 lb. wL2 FL M= = 2 2 Where F is the uniform load.592 in − kips = 2592 in − lbs 4 4 T = FL 2592 = F (20 ) F = 129.6 lb 534.6 = πd 3 d = 0. Solution: Shaft material. SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS 2T d T 4T ss = = = 3 π 2 2 As d (d ) πd 4 s πd 3 26. and assume that the part of the pin in the hub is uniformly loaded cantilever beam.875 in 8 (b) For the bending stress. sy = 55 ksi Pin material. as rolled.836 in 7 Use d = in = 0. sy = 48 ksi F = 200 lb.4 in-kips (a) For the pin: 0.5) = 1.4(π )(0. Table AT 7.6 lb (c) For the combination. made of SAE 1020. as rolled. by a radial taper pin.6 sy 0. N = 3 D = 2 ½ in. L = 22 in. Compute the bending stress and comment on the bending strength (especially if the loading varies).

select those that would give a resisting torque of about 110% of the rated value. Choose one.5 From text. Page 290.48 ksi Pin material. with a rated torque of 22 in-kips. transmitting 10 hp at 100 rpm.5 in 63.5 F = 1174 lb FL (1174)(1. (b) From the ferrous metals given in the Appendix. D = 1 7/16 in = 1. 290. Solution: D = 2 in E = 3 5/16 in = 3. E = 3 5/16 in. Breaking stress = 50. as rolled.000(10) T= = = 6300 in − lb n 100 T 6300 F= = = 1800 lb E 3.500 = πd 2 d = 0.15. 535. su = 65 ksu. compute the stress in the shear pin.5 ksi The bending stress is nearly safe as the load varies.500 psi 4F ss = 2 πd 4(1800 ) 42. sy = 48 ksi. shaft as shown in Fig. 290. (a) For this torque. What should be the minimum shear pin diameter if the computed stress is 85% of the breaking stress mentioned in the Text? Solution: hp = 10 hp.000 psi s s = 0.2322 in use ¼ in. A gear is attached to a 2-in. is attached to a 1 7/16 in.16 ksi πd π (0.3125 14 . E = 3 ½ in = 3. specifying its heat treatments or other conditions. n = 100 rpm. minimum shear-pin diameter = 3/8 in.25) M= = = 734 lb 2 2 Bending stress 32M 32(734) sb = 3 = = 11. Text.16 ) = 33. shaft somewhat as shown in Fig. SAE 1020.875)3 If the loading varies and factor of safety of 3.000 ) = 42 .160 psi = 11. p. SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS 2T 4T 4(4400) 2F = = = = 2347 lb Dm Dh + D 5 + 2. p..5 su = 0.5(65 ) = 32. Table AT 7. E = 3-1/2 in.000hp 63. A sprocket.3125 in d = 3/8 in T = 22 in-kips (a) Stress in shear-pin T 22 F= = = 6.4375 in.64 lb E 3. 10.85(50 . sn = Nsb = 3(11. 10-15. 536. Text.. sn′ = 0.

and L = 1 15/16 in. Text). The minimum shaft diameter is 1 3/16 in. sliding connection h = 0. Solution: D = 1.64) ss = = 60. SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS 4(6..0815)(1.25 in.58425 in 4 T = (1000 )(0. OQT 1000 F.2 for 10 splines. L = 1. (see Table 10.087 in. sliding connection h = 0.095D Then h = 0.2 hp .087 h= = = 0. Nt = 10 Dr = 1 3/16 in = 1..31 in. d = 1. and L = 1.9375 in.12445 in 15 .2.25 − 1.31) = 0.11875 in But D − d 1. (b) Determine the torque that would have the splines on the point of yielding if the shaft is AISI 8640. d = 1. L = 1 15/16 = 1.. Nt = 10.000 in.12 ) = 66.122 in. p.58425 )(10 ) = 476. Solution: D = 1.13 ksi From appendix.087 rm = = 0. For this fitting there are ten splines.122 in.25 in. The rear axle of an automobile has one end splined.000 in. sus = 1. n = 3600 rpm T = (1000 )(hL )(rm )(Nt ) in − lb D +d rm = 4 Table 10. sliding under load.000 )(0.25 + 1.ans 63000 63000 538.1(60.0815 in actual 2 2 1.087 in. A shaft for an automobile transmission has 10 splines with the following dimensions: D = 1.095D Then h = 0.25 ) = 0.12 ksi π (3 8)2 (b) Select material.2 in − lb .095(1.095(1. and D = 1. if one fourth of the splines are in contact. Table AT 7.2 for 10 splines. 287. select Cold drawn. d = 1.1875 in T = (1000 )(hL )(rm )(Nt ) in − lb D +d rm = 4 Table 10. (c) Determine the torsional stress in the shaft corresponding to each of these torques.31 in. d = 1.ans Tn (476..2 )(3600) hp = = = 27. Determine the safe torque capacity and horsepower at 3600 rpm of this sliding connection. (a) Determine the safe torque capacity of the splined connection. C1020 with sus = 66 ksi SPLINES 537.

SAE grade 5 (§5.1875)3 From torque at the point of yield 16T 16(58. A flange coupling has the following dimensions (Fig. Projected contact area: Ac = 0. h = 1. minimum shaft diameter is 9/16 in. Using the static 16 .094 in (actual) 2 2 1.1875)3 539. OQT 1000 F.094 )(1. 291. 1 ¼ x 1 ¼-in.76 in − kips  8  2   8 T = 58.32 in-lb 16T 16(1107. SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS But D − d 1.32 ) ss = 3 = = 3368 psi .6sy = 0.6(150) = 90 ksi  s πDL  D   (90)(π )(1.31 − 1. Dr = 9/16 in = 0.ans (b) Torque by splines required on the point of yielding with one fourth of splines in contact (Page 288).32 in − lb .2LD = 0.711 psi .760 in − lbs (c) Torsional stress in the shaft From safe torque of 1107.31  T = s   =  2  = 58. 10. shaft.ans πDr π (1. Failure in compression is not likely (Page 289) and can be checked by using the projected contact area.5625)3 L= r = = 0.8333) = 0.31)(1. number of bolts = 6.8).122 rm = = 0. cold- drawn AISI 1113.608 )(10 ) = 1107. D = 8 5/8.2136 in D 0.122 h= = = 0.19.2136 )(0. From Table AT-7. AISI 8640.31 + 1. square key. Solution: Nt = 10. bolts. Pd = 12. Materials: key.8333 Check for compression. g = 1 ½.. Text): d = 5.9375)(0.8333 in Pd 12 (b) Length of spline (same torsional strength as the shaft when one fourth the splines carry the load (Page 288). Check for compression.ans (too high) πDr π (1.9375)  1. p. D 3 (0.608 in 4 (a) Safe Torque T = (1000 )(0. H = 12 ¼. L = 7 ¼ in. (no sliding).0356 in 2 based on one-fourth of the teeth being under load.760) ss = 3 = = 178. An involute splined connection has 10 splines with a pitch Pd of 12/24 (a) Determine the dimension of this connection.5625 in (a) Dimension D N 10 D = t = = 0. (b) Compute the length of spline to have the same torsional strength as the shaft when one fourth the splines carry the load. COUPLINGS 540. cold-rolled.2(0. ss = sys = 0. AISI 1045. sy = 150 ksi.

3 nb = 630 rpm Square key = 1 ¼ in x 1 ¼ in Materials: Key: cold-drawn AISI 1113.3 F = Nb hgs c 17 . h = 1 in.55 ksi N 3.73)(12. Table AT 7.25 in g = 1 ½ in = 1. sys = 0. determine the safe horsepower that this connection may transmit at 630 rpm.000 63.5 in h = 1 in L = 7 ¼ in = 7. Bolts in shear: sys 48.625 in H = 12 ¼ in = 12. sy = 81 ksi. SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS approach with N = 3.6(72) = 43.3 on yield strengths.158 in − kips 8 T = 425.6sy = 0.6 ksi No given material for the flange. sy = 85 ksi.6(85) = 51 ksi Bolt: SAE Grade 5.2 ksi Shaft: cold-rolled.6sy = 0. sys = 0.25 in N = 3.73 ksi N 3. AISI 1045.6 ss = = = 14.25) 2 T= = 425.000 Bolts in compression: sy 81 sc = = = 24.6sy = 0. 3 πh 2 F= N b ss 4 FH πh 2 Nb ss H T= = 2 8 π (1) (6 )(14.6(81) = 48. Table AT 8.158)(630) hp = = = 4252 hp 63.158 in − lbs Tn (425. sys = 0. sy = 72 ksi. Solution: d = 5 in D = 8 5/8 in = 8.

09 )(1. Considering rough handling. Make reasonable and conservative assumptions and compute (a) the outside diameter of the jaws.180 in − lbs Tn (247.353.45) T= = = 379. choose N = 8 on ultimate strengths.82)(1.319)(630) hp = = = 13.319 in − lbs Tn (1.82 ksi N 3. The inside diameter of the jaws is 3 in.353. A cast-iron (ASTM 25) jaw clutch with 4 jaws transmits 50 hp at 60 rpm.000 63.200)(630) hp = = = 3792 hp 63.000 The safest horsepower is the lowest which is 2472 hp.180 in − kips 4 4 T = 247 .000 63. (b) the length of jaws h.200 in − kips 16 16 T = 379.319 in − kips 2 T = 1.570 in − lbs Tn (296.000 Key in compression: sy 72 sc = = = 21.2 ss = = = 13.200 in − lbs Tn (379.570)(630) hp = = = 2966 hp 63.45 ksi N 3.000 Shaft in shear: sys 51 ss = = = 15.55)(12.533 hp 63.25)(5)(7.570 in − kips 2 2 T = 296.3 s tdL (21.25) T= c = = 247.000 63. 541. 3 s bdL (13.25) T= = 1353.25)(5)(7.25) T= s = = 296.3 πd 3 ss π (5)3 (15.180 )(630) hp = = = 2472 hp 63.000 63.09 ksi N 3.000 Key in shear: sys 43. SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS FH Nb hgsc H T= = 2 2 (6)(1)(1. 18 .5)(24.

suc = 97 ksi. t = thickness = Do – Di .500 in − lbs n 60 T = 52.375 ksi N 8 Assume Dm as the average diameter.5 in − kips (a) The outside diameter of the jaws s 35 ss = us = = 4. in shear sus = 35 ksi (Table AT 6) 63.125 ksi N 8 N j h(Do − Di ) Ac = 2 F 2F 2F F sc = = = = Ac N j h(Do − Di ) 4h(Do − Di ) 2h(Do − Di ) 4T (Do + Di ) 2T sc = = ( 2h(Do − Di ) h Do − Di2 2 ) 19 .000hp 63.000(50) T= = = 52. Do = 7. s 97 sc = uc = = 12.5 in (b) The length of jaws h.5) 4. SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS Solution: For ASTM 25. 1  πD  1  π  D + Di  Do − Di  As =  m (t ) =   o    2  Nj   2  N j  2  2  1  π  D 2 − Di2  π 2 As =   o 2  4  4  32 = ( ) Do − Di2 2T 4T F= = Dm Do + Di F 4T 32 128T ss = = ⋅ = ( As Do + Di π Do − Di 2 ) 2 ( ) π (Do + Di ) Do2 − Di2 128(52.375 = ( ) π (Do + 3) Do2 − 9 By trial and error. Nj = number of jaws Shear area.466 in or D o = 7.

5)2 − (3)2] 3 h = 0. Table AT 7..4375 in D = 9/16 in = 0. the average bearing pressure should not excced 3 ksi.125 = [ h (7. OQT 1000 F. The universal joint shown is made of AISI 3150.6)(π )(0. Compute this transmitted torque. D = 9/16. SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS 2(52. (c) In order not to have excessive wear on the pin.687 in − lbs (b) Torque transmitted for shear of the pin (simply supported beam) Fa T =M= 3 (5.4375) = 13.616 kips  4  4 Fa T = 2 = Fa = (5.1833 in or h = in 16 542.563 in − lbs 20 .616)(2.5) 12. n = 400 rpm. sus = 113 ksi N=5 pb = 3 ksi a = 2 7/16 in = 2.5625)2 F = ss   = = 5. OQT 1000 F. a = 2 7/16 in.687 in − kips 2 T = 13.4375) T= = 4.6 ksi N 5 Each shear area  πD 2  (22. (a) What torque may be transmitted for shear of the pin (N = 5 on ultimate)? (b) Considering the pin as a simply supported beam of length a with the load distributed from a maximum at the outer (triangular). su = 151 ksi. compute the safe transmitted torque (Same N).616)(2.563 in − kips 3 T = 4. s 113 ss = us = = 22.5625 in n = 400 rpm (a) Torque transmitted for shear of the pin. (d) What is the safe power? Solution: For AISI 3150.

10.23)(2. The pin extensions have a diameter D = ¾ in. s 166 ss = us = = 41. su = 221 ksi. Table AT 7. n = 2400 rpm. SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS (c) Torque transmitted for shear of the pin (pb = 3 ksi) F F F pb = = = Ab D(a 2) 2Da F 3= 2(0.5)(π )(0. Let N = 4 on ultimate stresses.000 544. a = 11/16 in. sus = 0..563)(400) hp = = = 28.000 63.. A diagrammatic representation of a universal joint is shown.602 in − kips T = 12.75)2 F = ss   = = 18. Compute the safe torque for (a) shear of pins.75 in n = 2400 rpm (a) Torque transmitted for shear of the pin.5 ksi N 4 Each shear area  πD 2  (41. 10. Text.4375) F = 8.4375) T= = 6. the type being similar to Figs.5625)(2. material of all parts is 4340. assuming that the load distribution is from zero at the outside pin ends to a maximum at the inside yoke surfaces. OQT 800 F.75(221) = 166 ksi N=4 pb = 4 ksi a = 11/16 in = 0.33 kips  4  4 T = M = Fa = (18.687 in − lbs (d) Safe power Tn (4. (d) What is the corresponding horsepower capacity? Solution: For AISI 4340.23 ksi Fa T =M= 3 (8.6875 in D = 3/4 in = 0. two yoke parts.97 hp 63.6875) = 12.687 in − kips 3 T = 6. (b) the pin extensions in bending.602 in − lbs 21 . OQT 800. (c) an average bearing pressure on pins of 4 ksi.75su = 0.28 and 12.33)(0.

5)(2400) hp = = = 36.75)(0.6875) T= = 0.000 63.063 ksi 2Fa T =M= 3 2(2.401 in − kips 3 T = 8.063)(0.401 in − lbs (c) Torque transmitted for shear of the pin (pb = 4 ksi) F F pb = = Ab Da F 4= (0. End - 22 .000 .9455 in − kips 3 T = 945.02 hp 63.6875) F = 2.6875) T= = 8.33)(0. SECTION 8 – KEYS AND COUPLINGS (b) Torque transmitted for shear of the pin (simply supported beam) 2Fa T =M= 3 2(18.5 in − lbs (d) Safe power Tn (945.

173 lb (cd 2) (0.0191 W 900 (b) SAE 10W oil. compute the frictional torque.000 π Dn π (3)(400 ) vm = = = 314.76 in − lb 2 2 Fvm fhp = 33.16 fpm 12 12 fhp = Fvm = (17. n = 400 rpm .. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS LIGHTLY LOADED BEARINGS 551.2 ×10 −6 (π )(3)(3)(20π ) = 5.2 ×10 −6 reyn F= = ( ) µπ DLvips 2.1635 hp 33.173 f = = = 0.2 µreyns = 2.000 Page 1 of 63 . fhp. µπ DLvips  D  (a) T f =   (cd 2) 2 L = 3 in D = 3 in πDn π (3)(400) vips = = = 20π ips 60 60 c d D = 0. full bearing supports a load of 900 lb.0015 2) D 3 T f = F   = (5. The temperature of the SAE 40 oil is maintained at 140 oF.211 lb (cd 2) (0. µ = 2.000 33.0015 SAE 40 oil.173)  = 25. Solution. Figure A16. µ = 7. Figure A16. 140 oF.25 ×10 −6 (π )(3)(3)(20π ) = 17.0015 2) D 3 T f = F   = (17.817 in − lb 2 2 Fvm fhp = 33. (b) The same as (a) except that the oil is SAE 10W.000 F 17. and the coefficient of friction. c d D = 0.211)  = 7.25 µreyns F= = ( ) µπ DLvips 7.0015 .16) = 0. (a) A 3 x 3 – in. 140 oF. Considering the bearing lightly loaded (Petroff).173)(314.

For the selected oil determine (b) the frictional loss (ft-lb/min). L D = 1 .16 fpm 12 12 fhp = Fvm = (5. operating temperature = 150 oF. (c) the hydrodynamic oil flow through the bearing. The load on a 4-in.00579 W 900 553.8 ×10 −6 reyn = 1. (d) the amount of end leakage.00088 in . To what grade of oil does this correspond? Solution: W p= LD D = 6 in.000 F 5. Compute the coefficient of friction and the average viscosity of the oil. full bearing is 2000 lb.0011 . the frictional force is found to be 13 lb. 160 oF use SAE 10W or SAE 20W FULL BEARINGS 554. . W = pLD = (50)(6)(6 ) = 1800 lb F = 13 lb Coefficient of Friction F 13 f = = = 0. ho = 0.0072 W 1800 µπ DLvips F= (cd 2) πDn π (6)(300) vips = = = 30π ips 60 60 µπ DLvips µ (π )(6)(6)(30π ) F= = = 13 lb (cd 2) (0.003 2) µ = 1. full bearing is 50 psi.0496 hp 33. (a) Select an oil that will closely accord with the started conditions. n = 320 rpm .211 f = = = 0. L D =1 L = 6 in.003 in.211)(314.16) = 0. L D = 1 . While the average oil temperature is maintained at 160 oF with n = 300 rpm . SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS π Dn π (3)(400 ) vm = = = 314..000 33. The average pressure on a 6-in. cd = 0. cd D = 0.8 µreyns Figure AF 16. Page 2 of 63 .

333 rps 60 W 2000 p= = = 125 psi LD (4)(4) cd D = 0.003542)(2000 ) = 7.6 r f = 3. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS (e) the temperature rise as the oil passes through the bearing.0044 Table AT 20 ε = 0.9 ×10−6 reyn (b) Table AT 20.333)  1  0.22 cr r D 1 = = cr cd 0.00088 in 2h 2(0.0011D = 0.121 =   125  0.0011  µ = 3.6 cd 0.0044 in ho = 0. Solution: (a) D = 4 in L D =1 L = 4 in cd = 0.0011(4) = 0.4 ×10 −6 reyn = 3. use SAE 30 or SAE 20 W Select SAE 30. 150 oF. ε = 0. the nearest µ = 3.084 lb Page 3 of 63 .0011  f = 0. L D = 1 .0011 2 µ (5.003542 F = f W = (0.6 .22  0. L D = 1 Sommerfield Number 2 µns  D  S=   p  cd  320 ns = = 5. (f) the maximum pressure.0011  1    f = 3.00088) ε = 1− o = 1− = 0 .4 µreyns Figure AF-16.

L D = 1 .0022 )(5. determine the fhp and compare.680q = 0.333)(4 ) = 0. What could be the magnitude of the maximum impulsive load if the eccentricity ration ε becomes 0. n = 600 rpm . L D = 1 .1 (use table and chart values for 1). cd = 0..4064 in 3 sec (d) Table AT 20.680(0.084 )(335.6 ρ c∆to = 14.2(125) ∆to = = = 15. with L D = 1.6 p = 0.85 o F ρc 112 (f) Table AT 20. L D = 1 .1 fpm 12 12 Frictional loss = Fvm = (7.004 in.415 555. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS π Dn π (4)(320) vm = = = 335. is to support 5 kips with a minimum film thickness 0. Page 4 of 63 . ε = 0.0 )(0.2 p ρ c = 112 .2764 in 3 sec (e) Table AT 20.0044 cr = d = = 0.680 q qs = 0.6 qs = 0..6 q = 4. p = 125 psi 14. ε = 0. Determine (a) the needed absolute viscosity of the oil . L D = 1 .2 psi 0. (c) the frictional loss in hp. (e) This load varies.2 p 14.33 rcr ns L D r = = 2.0022 in 2 2 ns = 5. ε = 0.33(2. 360o bearing. .8? Ignore “squeeze” effect.1)2374 ft − lb min (c) Table AT 20. (d) Adjusting only ho to the optimum value for minimum friction. A 4-in.4064 ) = 0.(b) Suitable oil if the average film temperature is 160 F. ε = 0.33rcr ns L = 4.0 in 2 c 0.0008 in.333 rps L = 4 in q = 4.415 pmax 125 pmax = = 301.

121 2 2 r  µ ns µ n s  D  S =   =    cr  p p  cd  2 µ (10)  4  0.4 in W 5000 p= = = 284 psi LD (4. ε = 0. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS Solution: D = 4 in L = 1.004 in.6 S = 0.22 cr D f = 3.1D = 1.004  µ = 3. L D = 1 .2 ×10−6 reyn (c) Table AT 20.6 r f = 3. 2h 2(0.0008 in cd = 0. ε = 0.00322 F = f W = (0.0008) ε = 1− o = 1− = 0 .121 =   284  0.004 600 η= = 10 rps 60 (a) Table AT20.004  f = 0.4)(4) ho = 0.22  0.3 fpm 12 12 Page 5 of 63 .1(4) = 4.1 lb π Dn π (4)(600) vm = = = 628. 160 F Use SAE 30. L D = 1 . µ = 3.00322)(5000 lb ) = 16.22 cd  4    f = 3.4 ×10−6 reyn (b) Figure AF16.6 cd 0.

i11. Table AT 20. q .46  0. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS fhp = Fvm = (16. .5 psi W = pDL = (717.004 in.3) = 0. Table AT 20.004  f = 0.004  p = 717. Page 6 of 63 . (e) if ho remains the same. cd = 0.00246)(5000 lb ) = 12.30 optimum value for minimum friction r f = 2. (a) What load may this bearing safely carry if the minimum film thickness is not to be less than that given by Norton.0446 = (3. For an 8 x 4 – in.3)(628.46 cd  4    f = 2.5)(4)(4.0075 in. cr = 0. φ . Text? (b) Compute the corresponding frictional loss (fhp).000 (d) adjusting ho .4) = 12.1)(628.3) = 0. Compute the maximum load for an optimum (load) bearing (d) if cr remains the same.234 hp < fhp (c ) 33.0446 2 2 r  µ ns µ n s D S =   =    cr  p p  cd  0.8 . full bearing. pmax .628 lb 556. qs .000 33.14. average µ = 4 ×10 −6 reyn .2 ×10 )(10)  −6 4   2 p  0.000 (e) ε = 0.00246 F = f W = (0.3 fpm 12 12 fhp = Fvm = (12. L D = 1 S = 0.000 33. ∆to . n = 2700 rpm .3065 hp 33.46 cr D f = 2. (c) Complete calculations for the other quantities in Table AT 20. L D = 1 ho cr = 0.3 lb π Dn π (4)(600) vm = = = 628.

172 =   −6 )  0. o = 0.0075 h Table AT 20.0075  p p = 298 psi W = pDL = (298)(8)(4) = 9536 lb ho (b) Table AT 20.0093 F = f W = (0.7 lb π Dn π (8)(2700) vm = = = 5655 fpm 12 12 fhp = Fvm = (88.27 cr S = 0.000 33. L D = 1 2 . = 0.004  f = 0.0075 in r = D 2 = 4 in µ = 4 ×10 −6 reyn (a) by Norton.7 )(5655) = 15.0093)(9536 lb ) = 88.172 2  r  µns S =    cr  p 2700 ns = = 45 rps 60 2 (  4  4 × 10 (45) S = 0.002 in ho 0.27 cr 0.954  0.000 Page 7 of 63 .00025D = 0.27 cr φ = 38.2 hp 33.5o r f = 4.00025(8) = 0.002 = = 0. ho = 0.954 cd  4    f = 4. L D = 1 2 . SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS Solution: D × L = 8× 4 L D =1 2 cr = 0.954 cr D f = 4.

L D = 1 2 .824(28.214 rcr ns L q = 5.26(298) ∆t = = 54 o F 112 p = 0.388 =   −6 )  0.824 q qs = 0.3)(8)(4) = 10. o = 0.43 cr 2 r  µns S =   = 0.986 lb Page 8 of 63 .26 p 20.388  cr  p (d) cr = 0.43  S = 0.3013 h To solve for maximum load. L D = 1 2 .214rcr ns L = 5.2 in 3 sec ρ c∆t = 20.388 =  4  2 −6 (  4 × 10 (45) )  0. = 0.002 in ho = 0.27 cr φ = 38.214(4 )(0.0075  p p = 132 psi W = pDL = (132)(8)(4) = 4224 lb (e) ho = 0.002 cr = = 0.2 in 3 sec qs = 0.3 psi W = pDL = (343.3013 pmax 298 pmax = = 989 psi 0. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS ho (c) Table AT 20.5o q = 5. Table AT 20.00465 in 0.0075)(45)(4 ) = 28.00465  p p = 343.0075 in 2 (  4  4 × 10 (45) S = 0.2 ) = 23.43 cr 0.

500 p= = = 1902.00211 W 68.500 r  1  (a) f = (0.000(11) F= = 144. (a) Compute the minimum film thickness. f = 2.001r = 0.00211) = 2.45 f = = = 0.67 rps 60 W 68. Is this in the vicinity of that for an optimum bearing? (b) What is the viscosity of the oil and a proper grade for an operating temperature of 160 F? (c) For the same ho .11 cr S = 0.45 lb 2513 F 144.001 . L D = 1 .003) = 0.11 cr  0. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS 557.0008 in r (b) Table AT 20.254cr = 0. L D = 1 .001(3) = 0. f = 2.500 lb.388  cr  p 1600 ns = = 26.11 cr Near the vicinity of optimum bearing cr = 0.003 in ho = 0.0652 2  r  µns S =   = 0. Solution: L = 6 in D = 6 in L D =1 r = D 2 = 3 in cr r = 0. cr r = 0. determine the permissible load and the fhp.000 33.254(0. A 6 x 6 – in full bearing has a frictional loss of fhp = 11 when the load is 68.001  r Table AT 20. and n = 1600 rpm .8 psi LD (6)(6) Page 9 of 63 .001 n = 1600 rpm π Dn π (3)(1600) vm = = = 2513 fpm 12 12 Fvm fhp = 33. but for the maximum-load optimum.

53 . = 0.65 lb vm = 2513 fpm fhp = Fvm = (206.214 .8 µ = 4.53 ho r = 0.001  1902.0015  p p = 2343 psi W = pDL = (2343)(6)(6) = 84.000 33.0008 in.6875 in L 1. 160 F.53 0. compute the minimum film thickness for a bearing clearance of (a) 0.74 hp 33.53 cr ho 0.0005 in.65)(2513) = 15.214 =   −6 )  0. with wide-open throttle at 1000 rpm. the actual ho does not reach this computed minimum (squeeze effect). The maximum load on a 2. maximum load. L D = 1 ho optimum bearing.67 ) S = 0.0652 =    0.00245(84.25 Page 10 of 63 . SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS 2  1  (µ )(26.25 × 1. S = 0.00245 F = f W = 0.0015 in 0. f = 4.89 cr cr 2 r  µns S =    cr  p 2 (  3  4. cr = = = 0.75 D 2.6875 in.348 lb r f = 4.89 cr  3    f = 4.89  0. and (b) 0. use SAE 40.67 ) S = 0. main bearing of an automobile is 3140 lb.25 x 1.0008 ho the same. (c) Table AT 20.7 ×10 −6 reyn Figure AF 16.0015  f = 0.6875 = = 0.7 × 10 (26. If the oil is SAE 20W at 210 F. Solution: D × L = 2.348) = 206.000 558. Which clearance results in the safer operating conditions? Note: Since a load of this order exists for only 20-25o of rotation.

25)(1.125 in 2 2 µ ns  r  S=   p  cr  (a) cr = 0. S = 0.1 0.038 2 827  0.098 827  0.0008  Table AT 20.0001 in (b) cr = 0.0008 in S= (0.96 ×10 −6 reyn W = 3140 lb n = 1000 rpm W 3140 p= = = 827 psi DL (2.0446 ½ 0.13cr = 0.038 − 0. L D = 3 4 .1 0.0251  ho = 0.67 )  1.0008) = 0.6875) 1000 ns = = 16.0685 − 0. S = 0.125  −6 = 0. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS SAE 20 W at 210 oF µ = 0.96 ×10 )(16.67 )  1.125  −6 2 = 0.0313 ¾ 0.0005  Table AT 20.13 cr  0.13(0.1 0.1) + 0.2 − 0.2 0.0005 in S= (0.2 0.0251 At L D = 3 4 ho  0.0685 L D ho cr S 1 0.1 = 0.67 rps 60 D r = = 1.96 ×10 )(16.038 L D ho cr S 1 0.0923 ¾ 0.0251  = (0.2 0. L D = 3 4 .0188 ½ 0.098 Page 11 of 63 .

239(0.121 ½ 0. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS L D ho cr S 1 0.2) + 0. . n = 1800 rpm .003 in (a) Table AT 20 ρ c∆to Parameter. .0685  = (0. (d) the amount of oil to be supplied and the end leakage. ρ c = 112 p 2 r  µns S =    cr  p Page 12 of 63 . compute S and the corresponding ∆to . AF 16 on the line for SAE 20 W oil. D = 5 in. (a) Compute the average temperature t av of the oil through the bearing. If this t av and the assumed µ do not locate a point in Fig.0923 ¾ 0. then the average oil temperature t av = ti + ∆to 2 . SAE 20 W oil entering at 100 F.2 0.2 = 0.0685  ho = 0.4 0.319 ¾ 0.) Calculate (b) the minimum film thickness. .4 0.239 cr  0.0005 in .5 = = 0 .5 D 5 cr = 0.220 At L D = 3 4 ho  0.00012 in use cr = 0..00012 in 561.098 − 0.239cr = 0. ho = 0. Assume µ . (c) the fhp.0446 ½ 0.0685 L D ho cr S 1 0.5 in.5 in L 2 . L = 2. . cr = 0.220 − 0.003 in. try again.2 0.0005) = 0.2 0.4 − 0. (An iteration procedure. Solution: D = 5 in L = 2. A 360o bearing supports a load of 2500 lb.4 0.

L D = 0.0 Therefore. S = 0.00125 in (c) Table AT 20. S = 0.003 in Fig.25)(2356) = 1.5 x 10-6 (130 F) 0.08 61 130.5) = 2.354 r f = 8. ti = 100 o F ρ c∆to Trial µ ( t o F ).777 cr  2 .2 x 10 (134 F) 0.415 cr ho = 0.003) = 0.0105(2500 ) = 26. Table AT 20.354 (b) Table AT 20.5)(0.365 36.0105 F = f W = 0.7165 q Page 13 of 63 .807 rcr ns L = 4.25 lb π Dn π (5)(1800) vm = = = 2356 fpm 12 12 fhp = Fvm = (26. use t av = 132 o F .56 65 132.5 .415(0.354 35.000 33.5 .354 ho = 0. S = 0.5    f = 8.5 .003  f = 0.807 rcr ns L q = 4. AF 16.777  0.000 (d) Table AT 20. SAE 20 W.333 34.5 in 2 cr = 0.003)(30 )(2. reyns S ∆to o F t av = ti + ∆to 2 o F p 3. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS W 2500 p= = = 200 psi DL (5)(2.874 hp 33.5 -6 3.5) 1800 ns = = 30 rps 60 D r = = 2. L D = 0.71 64 132.5 .807(2.354 q = 4.5 -6 3.4 x 10 (132 F) 0. L D = 0.704 in 3 sec qs = 0. L D = 0. S = 0.

004 in. . frictional horsepower. ho 0. (d) 90o. (c) 120o. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS qs = 0.001 in r = D 2 = 1 in n = 2400 rpm ns = 40 rps µ = 3 ×10−6 reyn ho = 0.7165(2. n = 2400 rpm . L D = 1 .0004 = = 0. the amount of oil to enter. partial bearings of (b) 180o. Solution: D = L = 2 in L D =1 cr = 0.0004 in. ho cr = 0. (e) 60o. A 2 x 2-in. 4 cr 0.33 rcr ns L qs = 0. Determine the load. and ho = 0.22 cr q = 4.680 q ρ c∆to = 14.001 in .121 rf = 3.2 p p = 0. and the temperature rise of the oil as it passes through for : (a) a full bearing.4 S = 0. and for the oil.937 in 3 sec PARTIAL BEARINGS 562. µ = 3 × 10−6 reyn . the end leakage of oil.415 pmax Load W Page 14 of 63 .001 πDn π (2)(2400) vm = = = 1257 fpm 12 12 (a) Full bearing Table AT 20. bearing has a clearance cr = 0.704 ) = 1.

000 Oil flow.3464 in3 sec End leakage qs = 0.4 S = 0.2 992 ∆to = 126 o F (b) 180o Bearing Table AT 21.001  p p = 992 psi W = pDL = (992)(2)(2) = 3968 lb fhp: F = fW rf = 3.68(0.78 lb fhp = Fvm = (12.1)(0. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS 2 r  µ ns S =    cr  p 0.22 cr  1    f = 3.2356 in3 sec Temperature rise. L D = 1 .3464 ) = 0.121 =  2 (  1  3 ×10 (40 )  −6 )  0.001  f = 0. ho cr = 0. q q = 4.2 p (112)∆to = 14.00322)(3968) = 12. ∆to ρ c∆to = 14.680 q qs = 0.33 (0.4868 hp 33.22  0.000 33.00322 F = f W = (0.001)(40)(2) q = 0.33 rcr ns L q = 4.78)(1257 ) = 0.128 Page 15 of 63 .

1)(0.25 rcr ns L qs = 0.5)(2)(2) = 3750 lb fhp: F = fW rf = 2.001  p p = 937.00228)(3750) = 8.572(0.55 lb fhp = Fvm = (8.00228 F = f W = (0.4 p Load W 2 r  µ ns S =    cr  p 0.572 q ρ c∆to = 12.128 =  2 (  1  3 × 10 (40 )  −6 )  0.000 Oil flow.55)(1257) = 0.25 (0.26 in3 sec End leakage qs = 0.26 ) = 0.001)(40)(2) q = 0.28 cr  1    f = 2.000 33.1487 in3 sec Temperature rise. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS rf = 2.001  f = 0.28  0.25 rcr ns L q = 3.572 q qs = 0.5 psi W = pDL = (937.3257 hp 33. ∆to Page 16 of 63 . q q = 3.28 cr q = 3.

4 937.384 q ρ c∆to = 15 p Load W 2 r  µ ns S =    cr  p 0.4 p (112)∆to = 12.16 cr q = 2.4 lb fhp = Fvm = (6.4)(1257 ) = 0.4 S = 0. ho cr = 0.00216)(2964) = 6.162 rf = 2.001  f = 0.5 ∆to = 104 o F (c) 12o Bearing Table AT 22. L D = 1 .162 =  2 (  1  3 × 10 (40 )  −6 )  0.000 Oil flow. q Page 17 of 63 .001  p p = 741 psi W = pDL = (741)(2 )(2) = 2964 lb fhp: F = fW rf = 2.24 rcr ns L qs = 0.16  0.2438 hp 33.00216 F = f W = (0.000 33.16 cr  1    f = 2. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS ρ c∆to = 12.

2 p Load W 2 r  µ ns S =    cr  p 2 (  1  3 × 10 (40 ) 0. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS q = 2.450 rf = 3.0688 in 3 sec Temperature rise.1792 ) = 0.4 S = 0.384(0.56 rcr ns L qs = 0.450 =   −6 )  0.29 cr q = 1. ∆to ρ c∆to = 15 p (112)∆to = 15 741 ∆to = 99 o F (d) 60o Bearing L D = 1 .384 q q s = 0.24 rcr ns L q = 2.001)(40)(2) q = 0.24 (0.1)(0. ho cr = 0.1792 in3 sec End leakage qs = 0.127 q ρ c∆to = 28.001  p p = 267 psi W = pDL = (267 )(2)(2) = 1068 lb fhp: F = fW Page 18 of 63 .

2 p (112)∆to = 28. and for partial bearings of (b) 180o. Solution: L = 2 in D = 2 in W = 5000 lb cr = 0.001  f = 0.) for (a) a full bearing. A 2 x 2 in.1248 in3 sec End leakage qs = 0.00329 F = f W = (0.514)(1257) = 0.1248) = 0.001)(40)(2) q = 0. µ = 3 × 10−6 reyn . (c) 120o. . q q = 1. bearing sustains a load of W = 5000 lb. (d) 90o. n = 2400 rpm ns = 40 rps µ = 3 ×10−6 reyn r = D 2 = 1 in Page 19 of 63 .2 267 ∆to = 67 o F 563.00329)(1068) = 3.56 (0.127(0.1)(0. .127 q qs = 0. Using Figs. n = 2400 rpm .514 lb fhp = Fvm = (3. cr = 0.29  0. (e) 60o.001 in.29 cr  1    f = 3.0158 in3 sec Temperature rise.000 33.1339 hp 33.56 rcr ns L q = 1. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS rf = 3.000 Oil flow. AF 17 and AF 18.001 in. determine the minimum film thickness and the frictional loss (ft-lb/min. ∆to ρ c∆to = 28.

346(0.0  0.0020)(5000) = 10 lb Fvm = (10)(1257 ) = 12.302 cr Page 20 of 63 .001  f = 0.600 ft − lb min (b) 180o Bearing ho = 0.001  f = 0.10  cr  p  0.8  0.0028)(5000) = 14 lb Fvm = (14)(1257 ) = 17.570 ft − lb min (c) 120o Bearing ho = 0. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS W 5000 p= = = 1250 psi LD (2)(2) 2 S =   =  2 ( )  r  µns  1  3 × 10 −6 (40 ) = 0. AF 17 and AF 18 (a) Full Bearing ho = 0.344(0.0 cr ho = 0.000344 in  1    f = 2 .001) = 0.001  1250 πDn π (2)(2400) vm = = = 1257 fpm 12 12 Using Fig.0028 F = f W = (0.8 cr ho = 0.0020 F = f W = (0.346 cr r f = 2 .000346 in  1    f = 2 .001) = 0.344 cr r f = 2 .

0014)(5000) = 7 lb Fvm = (7 )(1257 ) = 8.685 ft − lb min (d) 60o Bearing ho = 0.0017 F = f W = (0.0002 in  1    f = 1 .7  0. n = 3600 rpm .800 ft − lb min 564. (d) the needed oil flow.7 cr ho = 0. .20 cr r f = 1 .4  0. (e) the end leakage.010 in.4 cr ho = 0.0017 )(5000) = 8. (f) the temperature rise of the oil as it passes through.(b) the frictional loss (ft-lb/min).010 in.302(0.001) = 0. L D = 1 .002 in. (c) the eccentricity angle. Solution: W = 4500 lb ho = 0. A 120o partial bearing is to support 4500 lb.5 lb Fvm = (8.001) = 0.001  f = 0.1) is it? (i) What maximum impulsive load would be on the bearing if the eccentricity ratio suddenly went to 0.000302 in  1    f = 1 . with ho = 0. (g) the maximum pressure. what approximate class of fit (Table 3.0014 F = f W = (0. Determine (a) the oil’s viscosity.20(0.001  f = 0. n = 3600 rpm Page 21 of 63 .8? Ignore “squeeze” effect. .002 in L D =1 D = 4 in L = 4 in r = D 2 = 2 in cd = 0. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS r f = 1 . (h) If the clearance given is the average. D = 4 in.5)(1257 ) = 10. . cd = 0.

162 =    0.010  f = 0.4 S = 0.384 q ρ c∆to = 15.65o r f = 2.30 lb Page 22 of 63 .0 p p = 0. ho cr = 0.16 cd  4    f = 2. L D = 1 .010  281.356 pmax 2 r  µns (a) S =    cr  p 2  D  µns S =    cd  p 2  4  µ (60 ) 0.162 φ = 35. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS 3600 ns = = 60 rps 60 πDn π (2)(3600) vm = = = 3770 fpm 12 12 W 4500 p= = = 281.75 ×10−6 reyn r (b) f = 2.002 ) = = = 0 .010 Table AT 22.16 cr D f = 2.0054 F = f W = 0.0054(4500) = 24.4 cr cr 0.25 µ = 4.16  0.25 psi LD (4 )(4) ho 2ho 2(0.16 cr q = 2.24 rcr ns L qs = 0.

24 rcr ns L Dcd ns L 4q = 2.0 p (112)∆to = 15.611 ft − lb min (c) φ = 35.0025 + 0.25 pmax = = 790 psi 0.00875 = 0. .1 RC 8.0.07 in3 sec ρ c∆to (f) = 15.65o q 4q (d) = = 2.24 (4)(0.162 2  D  µ ns S =    cd  p 2 (  4  3 × 10 (60 ) 0. L D = 1 S = 0.0531 =   −6 )  0.010  p p = 542 psi Page 23 of 63 . SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS Fvm = (24. average = . Hole.30)(3770) = 91.0 281.01125 ≈ 0.4 ) = 2.010 in .010)(60)(4) q = 5.356 (h) cd = 0.384(5.25 ∆to = 38 o F p (g) = 0. average = + 0.4 in3 sec qs (e) = 0.356 pmax 281.0025 Shaft.00875 cd = 0.80 Table AT 22.010 in Class of fit = RC 9 (i) ε = 0. D = 4 in Table 3.384 q qs = 0.

3 78 149 ∴ Use tav = 149 o F (b) Table AT 22. 2  D  µns S =    cd  p 3600 ns = = 60 rps 60 W 4500 p= = = 500 psi DL (3)(3) ρ c∆to . S = 0. A 120o partial bearing is to support 4500 lb.003 in.(b) the minimum film thickness. n = 3600 rpm . (c) the fhp.003 in. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS W = pDL = (542)(4)(4) = 8672 lb 565.6 x 10-6 145 0.282 17.8 88 154 2. .7 79 149. oF S ∆to tav = ti + ∆to 2 p 3. L D = 1 .312 17. (SAE 20W) p (a) Using Table AT22.4 68 144 2.35 x 10-6 150 0.5 2. SAE 20W entering at 110 F.288 Page 24 of 63 .. cd = 0. If assumed µ and tav do not locate a point in Fig. AF 16 that falls on line for SAE 20W. ρ c = 112 .42 19. (d) the quantity of oil to be supplied. then tav = ti + ∆to 2 .5 x 10-6 130 0.24 15. ti = 110o F ρ c∆to Trial µ t . D = 3 in. Calculate (a) the average temperature of the oil as it passes through. Solution: W = 4500 lb D = 3 in L = 3 in L D =1 cd = 0. L D = 1 .288 17. HINT: In (a) assume µ and determine the corresponding values of S and ∆to . .4 x 10-6 149 0.0 x 10-6 160 0.2 76 148 2. iterate.

974 cr 0.513 cr 2ho = 0.000 (d) Table At 22. (c) the frictional horsepower..002974 F = f W = (0.288 r f = 2.528 Dcd ns L 4q = 2.528 rcr ns L 4q = 2.003 f = 0.00077 in (c) Table At 22. S = 0.024 in3 sec 566. Other data remain the same. L D = 1 .513(0. L D = 1 .528 (3)(0.383 lb Fvm fhp = 33.000 33. (b) the oil’s viscosity. (d) Choose a cd D ratio either smaller or larger than that obtained in (a) and show that the friction loss is greater than that in the optimum bearing.15 hp 33.383)(2827 ) = 1. reaction on an 8 x 4 –in.003)(60)(3) q = 1. S = 0.513 cd 2ho = 0. Solution: W = 6000 lb Page 25 of 63 . The 6000-lb. For an optimum bearing with minimum friction determine (a) the clearance. ho = 0. 180o partial bearing is centrally applied.288 q = 2.002974)(4500) = 13.002 in . n = 1000 rpm .000 πDn π (3)(3600) vm = = = 2827 fpm 12 12 fhp = Fvm = (13.003) ho = 0.974 cr D 3 f = f = 2. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS ho = 0.

23 S = 0.23 r f = 2. L D = 1 2 .5 psi DL (4)(8) D r = = 4 in 2 2  4  µ (16.0087 in 0.126 =    0.002 cr = = 0.97  0.67 rps 60 L D =1 2 ho = 0.70 ×10−6 reyn (c) Table AT 21.97 cr  4    f = 2.67 ) S = 0. L D = 1 2 Optimum value (minimum friction) ho cr = 0. ho cr = 0.23 (b) Table AT 21.5 µ = 6.00646 F = f W = (0. ho cr = 0.0087  187.23 0.00646 )(6000) = 38. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS D = 8 in L = 4 in n = 1000 rpm 1000 ns = = 16. L D = 1 2 .126 2  r  µns S =    cr  p W 6000 p= = = 187.002 in (a) Table AT 21.76 lb πDn π (8)(1000) vm = = = 2094 fpm 12 12 Page 26 of 63 .0087  f = 0.

000 cd 2cr 2(0.012 Table AT 21.0020(8) = 0.008 Table AT 21.0080 in ho 0.000 33.54 hp > 2.1667 cr 0.0020 D cd = 0.0016  f = 0.0016  f = 0.00668 F = f W = (0.67  0.002 = = 0.0087 ) For (a) = = = 0.0120 in ho 0.000 cd < 0. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS fhp = Fvm = (38.0240 in cr = 0. L D = 1 2 r f = 3.67 cr  4    f = 1.46 hp 33.0030(8) = 0.0160 in cr = 0.46 hp 33.00668)(6000 ) = 40.26 cr  4    f = 3.26  0.76)(2094) = 2.08)(2094) = 2.0022 D D 8 cd > 0. L D = 1 2 r f = 1.0030 D cd = 0.000 33.08 lb πDn π (8)(1000) vm = = = 2094 fpm 12 12 fhp = Fvm = (40.0022 D cd = 0.002 = = 0.00652 Page 27 of 63 .0022 D cd = 0.25 cr 0.

00072 in Page 28 of 63 . max.5  3.46cr = 0. A 120o partial bearing supports 3500 lb. L = 5 in. Solution: D = 5 in. when n = 250 rpm .000 33.00156 in ho = 0. What are the clearance and minimum film thickness for an optimum bearing (a) for maximum load. D = 5 in. load o = 0.1.229 =    cr  140 cr = 0. L = 5 in. = 1 .48 hp > 2.5 in 2 2 ( )  2. L =1 D n = 250 rpm 250 ns = = 4.46 hp 33. . about what class fit is involved? Would this fit be on the expensive or inexpensive side? (d) Find the fhp for each optimum bearing. .12)(2094) = 2. (b) for minimum friction? (c) On the basis of the average clearance in Table 3.0 × 10−6 (4.229 2  r  µns S =    cr  p D r = = 2. µ = 3 × 10−6 reyn .00156) = 0.46(0.17 rps 60 µ = 3 ×10−6 reyn W = 3500 lb W 3500 p= = = 140 psi DL (5)(5) L h (a) Table AT 22.46 D cr S = 0. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS F = f W = (0.12 lb πDn π (8)(1000) vm = = = 2094 fpm 12 12 fhp = Fvm = (39.17 ) S = 0.000 567.00652 )(6000) = 39.

16  0.46 D cr r f = 2.17 ) S = 0. = 0.25) = 0.592 cr  2 . cd = 0. friction o = 0.5 in 2 2 ( )  2.00320 in .162 =    cr  140 cr = 0.00074 in (c) cd 1 = 2(0.25 fpm 12 12 fhp = Fvm = (5.00186  f = 0.000 33.00186) = 0. min.00161)(3500) = 5.00186) = 0.40(0.592  0.40 cr r f = 2. = 1 .67 lb πDn π (5)(250) vm = = = 327.5    f = 2.635 lb Page 29 of 63 . = 1 .00161 F = f W = (0.5  3.162 2  r  µns S =    cr  p D r = = 2. load o = 0.00162 )(3500 ) = 5.000 ho For minimum friction.00156  f = 0. expensive side L h (d) Table AT 22. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS L h (b) Table AT 22.00312 in cd 2 = 2(0.16 cr  2 .5    f = 2.00156) = 0.0 × 10−6 (4.67)(327.40 D cr S = 0. ave.00186 in ho = 0.0562 hp 33.00162 F = f W = (0.46cr = 0.00372 in Use Class RC4. max.

ho = 0. (c) Select an oil for an average temperature of 150 F.635)(327. average cd = 0. choose a fit (Table 3.01575 in (c) Table AT 21. ho cr = 0.22 in D 9.00682 in (b) Table 3. (b) Taking this clearance as the average.1.003 in .61 in 2 2 (a) For optimum bearing with minimum friction Table AT 21.44 cr cr = 0.44 S = 0.44 0.158 Page 30 of 63 .25 fpm 12 12 fhp = Fvm = (5.000 33.000 570. average cd = 0. L D = 1 . Solution: W = 17. A 180o partial bearing is to support 17. (a) Determine the clearance for an optimum bearing with minimum friction. D = 9. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS πDn π (5)(250) vm = = = 327. (d) Compute fhp.01364 in Use Class RC7.003 = 0. n = 1500 rpm . L D = 1 .22 r= = = 4. L D = 1 .000 lb. ho cr = 0.01065 in Or use Class RC8.0559 hp 33.000 200 = D2 D = L = 9.00682 ) = 0.22 in cd = 2cr = 2(0.25) = 0.44 ho cr = 0.000 lb p = 200 psi n = 1500 rpm 1500 ns = = 25 rps 60 L D =1 L=D W p= DL 17.1) that is approximately suitable. with p = 200 psi .

546 cr  4. . AF 16.0015 in For SAE 20W.09)(3621) = 7.25 D Page 31 of 63 . the oil is SAE 20W at an average operating temperature of 150 F.25.8 ×10−6 reyn Fig. and 2.003 in cr = 0. using L D = 0.44 r f = 2.09 lb fhp = Fvm = (64. (d) Table AT 21.158 =    0.000) = 64.75 ×10−6 reyn L (a) = 0. cd = 0. 150 F µ = 2. 0. 1.003 in. L D = 1 . ho cr = 0. at 150 F Use Either SAE 20W or SAE 30.00377 πDn π (9.61  µ (25) 0.546  0. The reaction on a 120o partial bearing is 2000 lb. n = 1140 rpm 1140 ns = = 19 rps 60 cd = 0. (Note: This problem may be worked as a class problem with each student being responsible for a particular L D ratio.00377 )(17.000 33. Plot curves for the minimum film thickness and the frictional loss in the bearing against the ratio L D .61    f = 2.000 571.) Solution: W = 2000 lb D = 3 in. The 3-in journal turns at 1140 rpm.22)(1500) vm = = = 3621 fpm 12 12 F = f W = (0.00682  200 µ = 2. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS 2 r  µns S =    cr  p 2  4.00682  f = 0.5.0 hp 33.

386)(895) = 0.0015  444 ho = 0.2159 cr ho = 0.25D = 0.0015) = 0.25(3) = 0. = 0.000 33.193 cr  1 .75 in W 2000 p= = = 889 psi DL (3)(0.0588 c  r p  0 .5  2.0015) = 0.1177  cr  p  0.5 in W 2000 p= = = 444 psi DL (3)(1.000125 in r f = 2. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS L = 0.75 ×10 −6 (19 ))= 0.5 in 2 2 S =   = 2  (  r  µns  1.5 D D r = = 1.25 D D r = = 1.5 D = 0.35 cr Page 32 of 63 .5  2.083 cr ho = 0.5    f = 2.0015  f = 0.000324 in r f = 2.75 × 10−6 (19 ))= 0. = 0 .002193 F = f W = (0.5) L Table AT 22.2159(0.193  0.119 hp 33.5 in 2 2 S =   =  2 (  r  µns  1.75) L Table AT 22.5(3) = 1.000 L (b) = 0 .002193)(2000) = 4.083(0.5 D L = 0.386 lb πDn π (3)(1140) vm = = = 895 fpm 12 12 fhp = Fvm = (4. 0015  889 ho = 0.

002634)(2000 ) = 5.268)(895) = 0.0015  f = 0.4658 cr ho = 0.000 33.000 L (d) =2 D L = 2 D = 2(3) = 6 in W 2000 p= = = 111 psi DL (3)(6) L Table AT 22.002634 F = f W = (0.7 lb πDn π (3)(1140) vm = = = 895 fpm 12 12 fhp = Fvm = (4.000 33.75 × 10−6 (19 ) ) = 0.0015  f = 0.634  0.000699 in r f = 2.000 L (c) =1 D L = D = 3 in W 2000 p= = = 222 psi DL (3)(3) L Table AT 22.268 lb πDn π (3)(1140) vm = = = 895 fpm 12 12 fhp = Fvm = (5.5    f = 2.634 cr  1 . SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS  1 .5  2.1275 hp 33.00235)(2000) = 4.4658(0. =2 D Page 33 of 63 . =1 D D r = = 1.2354  cr  p  0.1429 hp 33.5 in 2 2 S =   =  2 (  r  µns  1.0015  222 ho = 0.7 )(895) = 0.00235 F = f W = (0.0015) = 0.5    f = 2.35  0.

75 × 10−6 (19 ) = 0.718(0. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS D r= = 1.0015  111 ho = 0.000324 0.207 Page 34 of 63 .003812 F = f W = (0.143 2.47  cr  p  0.001080 0.000699 0.624 lb πDn π (3)(1140) vm = = = 895 fpm 12 12 fhp = Fvm = (7.5    f = 3.003812)(2000) = 7.00108 in r f = 3.5  2.8118  0.25 0.000 L ho . in fhp D 0.000125 0.0015) = 0.5 in 2 2 S =   =  2 ( )  r  µns  1.5 0.0 0.119 0.000 33.624)(895) = 0.0015  f = 0.2068 hp 33.718 cr ho = 0.8118 cr  1 .128 1.0 0.

4 cr 0.0060 n = 500 rpm 500 ns = = 8. Solution: D = 8 in.33 rps 60 Table AT 21.128 r f = 2. L = 8 in. (d) the estimated temperature of oil and bearing ( a self-contained oil-bath unit) for steady-state operation.0024 in.0024 = = 0.(e) Compute ∆to of the oil passing through the load-carrying area. ho ≈ 0.0015 . and a suitable oil.. n = 500 rpm . remark on its reasonableness.0015(4) = 0.000 lb D r = = 4 in 2 cr = 0. L D =1 W = 12. L D = 1 S = 0.0060  187.6 cr 2 r  µns (b) S =    cr  p 2  4  µ (8. Determine: (a) the eccentricity factor.28 cr ρ c∆to = 12. cr r = 0.33) S = 0.0060 in ho 0.128 =    0. The air speed about the bearing is expected to be in excess of 1000 fpm (on moving vehicle) and the effective radiating area is 20 DL .5 µ = 6. D × L = 8 × 8 in.000 p= = = 187.5 psi DL (8)(8) ho (a) ε = 1 − = 1 − 0 .4 = 0 . SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS STEADY-STATE TEMPERATURE 572. .000 lb.4 . A 180o partial bearing is subjected to a load of 12.0015r = 0. and decide upon whether some redesign is desirable. ho cr = 0. (c) the frictional loss (ft-lb/min). (b) µreyns.4 p W 12.5 ×10−6 reyn Page 35 of 63 . .

6 hc = 0.00342 F = f W = (0. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS r (c) f = 2.4 p (112)∆to = 12.000) = 41.6 hc = 0.4 0.04)(1047) = 1. 1000 fpm ∆toa ≈ (1.2)(1. − F (8)0. va ≥ 1000 fpm D 0.28 cr  4    f = 2.108 ft − lb min − sq.in.5 ∆to = 20.3)(58.000 = (0.0060  f = 0.000 33.42 F = 158.575 ft − lb min − sq.in.000 ft-lb/min (d) Q = hcr Ab ∆tb ft-lb/min Q = 43.1 F = 191.575)(1280)(∆tb ) ∆tb = 58.000 ft − lb min hcr = hc + hr hr = 0.04 lb πDn π (8)(500) vm = = = 1047 fpm 12 12 fhp = Fvm = (41.00342 )(12.017 (1000 ) = 0.2)(1.42 F tb = 100 + 91.000 Frictional loss = 43.1 F ρ c∆to (c) = 12.1 F assume 100 F ambient temperature tb = 100 + 58.4 hcr = 0.017 . − F Ab = 20 DL = 20(8)(8) = 1280 sq. − F va0.42) = 91.42 F Oil-bath.3)(∆tb ) ∆toa = (1.467 + 0.in.8 F Solve for to 2 Page 36 of 63 .302 hp 33.4 187.467 ft − lb min − sq.108 = 0.in. Q = hcr Ab ∆tb 43.28  0.

8 F to 2 − 362. and ho = 0.5 Table AT 20. (c) the average temperature of the oil for steady-state operation. Is this compatible with other temperatures found? (f) What minimum quantity of oil should the ring deliver to the bearing? Solution: L = 2 in.1925 r f = 4.0010 in ho cr = 0. and the transmittance is taken as hcr = 2 Btu hr − sq.2 + to 2 = 20.0020 in µ = 3.0010 = 0.001)(2) = 0. cr = 0.1925 Page 37 of 63 . cd D = 0. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS to1 + to 2 = 2(191. what oil do you recommend? For this oil will ho be less or greater than the specified value? (e) Compute the temperature rise of the oil as it passes through the bearing.505 cr q = 4. ft.0005 0.8 to 2 = 201. ho cr = 0.4 × 10−6 reyn . 573. Is this temperature satisfactory? (d) For the temperature found. The journal speed is 500 rpm. − F .1) = 382.2 F to1 = 382.5 F ≈ 200 F ∴ not reasonable since the oil oxidizes more rapidly above 200 F.001 . Full Bearing S = 0. Ab = 25DL .25 p (a) S = 0. L D = 1 . (b) the frictional loss.16 rcr ns L ρ c∆to = 19.2 − to 2 to 2 − to1 = 20. full bearing (ring-oiled) has a clearance ratio cd D = 0.0005 in.001 cd = (0. D = 2 in.4 ×10−6 reyn ho = 0.0005 in. µ = 3. A 2 x 2-in. Calculate (a) the total load for this condition. The ambient temperature is 100 F.5 . a redesign is desireable.

505  0. near 160 F ∴ satisfactory.5 ∆tb = 38.8) = 693.33 rps 60 2 (  1  3. − F = 0.3 × 10−6 reyn 2 r  µns S =    cr  p Page 38 of 63 .330 ) S = 0. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS 2  r  µns S =    cr  p D r = = 1 in 2 500 ns = = 8.649 lb πDn π (2)(500) vm = = = 261.53) = 77 F to = 77 + 100 = 177 F .4 × 10−6 reyn Figure AF 16 Use SAE 40 oil.in.649 )(261.8 fpm 12 12 U f = Fvm = (2.in.004505)(588) = 2.505 cr  1    f = 4.5 ft − lb min (c) Q = hcr Ab ∆tb hcr = 2 Btu hr − sq.0010  p p = 147 psi W = pDL = (147 )(2)(2) = 588 lb r (b) f = 4. − F Ab = 25DL = 25(2)(2) = 100 sq.18)(100)(∆tb ) = 693.18 ft − lb min − sq. ft. µ = 3.4 × 10 (8.001  f = 0. µ = 3. (d) to = 177 F .004505 F = f W = (0.1925 =   −6 )  0.53 F ∆toa = 2∆tb = 2(38. Q =Uf (0.

Solution: D = 8 in.3 F ∆to1 + ∆to 2 = 2(177 ) = 354 F ∆t o 2 − ∆t o1 = 25.0010  147 Table AT 20.4923(0.3 × 10 (8. cr r = 0.33)(2) q = 0.25 p (112)∆to = 19.16 (1)(0. Is additional cooling needed for a reasonable temperature? Determine (b) the temperature rise of the oil as it passes through the load-carrying area and the grade of oil to be used if it enters the bearing at 130 F.000 lb.33) −6 ) = 0. full bearing (consider L D = 1 for table and chart use only) supports 15 kips with n = 1200 rpm .0012 .187 ho cr = 0.0005 in ) ρ c∆to (e) = 19.3 ∆to 2 = 190 F < 200 F ∴ compatible. L D = 1 . W = 15. 1200 ns = = 20 rps 60 cr r = 0. (c) the quantity of oil needed. L = 9 in.187  0. An 8 x 9-in.001)(8.25 147 ∆to = 25. S = 0. q (f) = 4.4923 ho = 0. construction is medium heavy with a radiating-and-convecting area of about 18 DL .0693 in3 sec 574.0010) = 0. Decide upon a suitable minimum film thickness. air flow about the bearing of 80 fpm may be counted on (nearby) pulley.16 rcr ns L q = 4. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS S =  2 (  1  3. (a) Compute the frictional loss and the steady state temperature. n = 1200 rpm.3 F 2∆to 2 = 354 + 25.00049 in < ho (= 0. ambient temperature is 90 F.0012 Page 39 of 63 .

0012(4) = 0.96 )(2513) = 145.in.2 p r (a) f = 3.002 in ho 0.6 hc = 0.in.22 cr q = 4.in.4 S = 0.2 p Page 40 of 63 . − F D 0.103 + 0.0048 Table AT 20.6 = 0.0048 in By Norton: ho = 0.4 cr 0. Uf =Q 145.4 hcr = hc + hr = 0.121 r f = 3.in.108 ft − lb min − sq.0048  f = 0.003864 F = f W = (0.017 ft − lb min − sq.4 hc = 0.211 ft − lb min − sq.654 ft − lb min Q = hcr Ab ∆tb hr = 0. − F va0.103 ft − lb min − sq.654 = (0. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS r = D 2 = 4 in cr = 0.in.000) = 57.017 (80)0.002 = = 0 . − F (8)0.00025(8) = 0.00025 D = 0.22 cr  4    f = 3.003864)(15.96 lb πDn π (8)(1200) vm = = = 2513 fpm 12 12 U f = Fvm = (57.22  0. additional cooling is necessary. very high. ρ c∆to (b) = 14.108 = 0.211)(1296)∆tb ∆tb = 533 F . L D = 1 . − F Ab = 18DL = 18(8)(9 ) = 1296 sq. ho cr = 0.33 rcr ns L ρ c∆to = 14.

n = 300 rpm .. desired minimum ho ≈ 0.5-in.0007 in .0012)(1.2 208 ∆to = 26 F ti = 130 F to = 156 F tave = 12 (130 + 156) = 143 F 2 r  µns S =    cr  p 2  4  µ (20 ) S = 0.0048)(20)(9) q = 14. It is desired that the bearing be self-contained (oil- ring).0021 in ho ≈ 0. A 3.5 x 3.96 in3 sec 575. cr r = 0.75) = 0. L = 3. Solution: D = 3.8 µreyns .8 × 10−6 reyn and compute (a) the frictional loss (ft-lb/min). 143 F Use SAE 10W q (c) = 4.0007 in Page 41 of 63 .000 p= = = 208 psi DL (8)(9) (112)∆to = 14.5 in.8 ×10−6 reyn Figure AF 16. 360o bearing has cr r = 0.75 in.0012 r = D 2 = 1.0048  208 µ = 1. cr = (0. assume µ = 2. For the first look at the bearing. (d) Select an oil for the steady-state temperature and decide whether there will be any overheating troubles.0012 .121 =    0. air-circulation of 80 fpm is expected. (b) the average temperature of the bearing and oil as obtained for steady-state operation. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS W 15. µ = 1.5 in.33 rcr ns L q = 4. so that Ab ≈ 25DL .33 (4)(0. heavy construction. (c) ∆to as the oil passes through the load-carrying area (noting whether comparative values are reasonable).

333 S = 0.4 hcr = hc + hr = 0.5) = 306.12 p 2  r  µns (a) S =    cr  p 300 ns = = 5 rps 60 µ = 2.71 cr ρ c∆to = 12.00325 F = f W = (0.6 hc = 0.6 hc = 0.in.71 cr  1. − F va0.251)(306.in.25)∆tb Page 42 of 63 .25 sq.333 Table AT 20.75  2. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS ho cr = 0.5)(3.75    f = 2.0007 0.0021  f = 0.8 × 10 (5) S = 0.in.017 (80 ) = 0.5)(3.0954 r f = 2.0021  p p = 102 psi W = pDL = (102)(3.5)(300 ) vm = = = 275 fpm 12 12 U f = Fvm = (4. L D = 1 .71  0.in.0021 = 0. Uf =Q 1117 = (0.4 0.143 ft − lb min − sq.5)0. ho cr = 0.108 = 0. − F (3.0954 =   −6 )  0.in.017 ft − lb min − sq.0625 lb πDn π (3.143 + 0. − F D 0.251 ft − lb min − sq.5) = 1250 lb r f = 2.8 ×10−6 reyn 2 (  1.00325)(1250) = 4. − F Ab = 25DL = 25(3. 360o Bearing.108 ft − lb min − sq.0625)(275) = 1117 ft − lb min (b) Q = hcr Ab ∆tb hr = 0.

5 F to = 129 F ρ c∆to (c) = 12. what can be done (i11.5) = 29 F assume ambient temperature of 100 F tb = 114.06 ×10−6 reyn at an average oil temperature of 130 F. A 10-in. (c) the altitude angle. µ = 2. how much heat is removed? Is this total amount of heat enough to care for frictional loss? If not. the maximum pressure.00133 .8 × 10−6 reyn use SAE 10W Figure AF 16.251)(306. 576. to = 126 F ∆toa = 126 − 100 = 26 F ∆toa = 2∆tb 26 ∆tb = = 13 F 2 Q = hcr Ab ∆tb = (0.12 102 ∆to = 11 F to1 + to 2 = 2(129) = 258 F to 2 − to1 = 11 F 2to 2 = 269 F to 2 = 135 F < 140 F ∴ reasonable (d) to = 129 F .(d) At what temperature must the oil be introduced in order to have 130 F average? (e) Estimate the amount of heat lost by natural means from the bearing (considered oil bath) with air speed of 300 fpm.5 F ∆toa = 2∆tb = 2(14. and the quantity of oil that passes through the load-carrying area (gpm).25)(13) = 999 ft − lb min < U f ∴ there is an overheating problem. The oil is to have µ = 2. cr r = 0. If the amount of oil flow computed above is cooled back to the entering temperature. (b) the fhp. Compute (a) the minimum film thickness (comment on its adequacy). SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS ∆tb = 14. full journal for a steam-turbine rotor that turns 3600 rpm supports a 20-kip load with p = 200 psi .12 p (112)∆to = 12.21)? Page 43 of 63 .

8 p qs = 0. n = 3600 rpm 3600 ns = = 60 rps 60 W = 20. S = 0.06 × 10 (60 ) = 0.00430 in Page 44 of 63 .495 pmax ρ c∆to = 30. L D = 1 .433 cr q = 3.647(0.00133 cr = 0.66o r f = 7.647cr = 0.35  0.000 200 = 10 L L = 10 in L D =1 D r = = 5 in 2 cr r = 0. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS Solution: D = 10 in.00665 in µ = 2.00133(5) = 0.446 q (a) ho = 0.06 ×10−6 reyn tave = 130 F 2 r  µns S =    cr  p S =  5  2 (−6 )  2.00665) = 0.000 lb p = 200 psi W p= DL 20.35 ho cr = 0.647 φ = 65.00665  200 Table AT 20.90 rcr ns L p = 0.

in.55 hp 33.000) = 198 lb πDn π (10)(3600) vm = = = 9425 fpm 12 12 fhp = Fvm = (198)(9425) = 56.0099 F = f W = (0.8 200 ∆to = 55 F ∆t tave = ti + o 2 55 130 = ti + 2 ti = 102.207 ft − lb min − sq.in.433 cr  5    f = 7.00025D = 0.4 hcr = hc + hr = 0.in.017 ft − lb min − sq.315 ft − lb min − sq.433  0 .90(5)(0.5 F (e) Q = hcr Ab ∆tb hr = 0.495 0.000 (c) φ = 65.66o p 200 pmax = = = 404 psi 0.108 = 0.6 hc = 0.21 gpm ρ c∆to (d) = 30. 00665  f = 0.8 p (112)∆to = 30.0099)(20.00250 in < 0. − F va0.805 in3 sec q = (77.6 hc = 0.000 33.00430 in ∴ adequate r (b) f = 7. − F (3.207 + 0.4 0.495 q = 3.00665)(60)(10) = 77. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS Norton’s recommendation = 0.00025(10) = 0.017 ( 300 ) = 0. − F D 0.108 ft − lb min − sq.805 in3 sec )(1 gpm 231 in3 )(60 sec min ) = 0.90rcr ns L q = 3.5)0.in. − F Assume Page 45 of 63 .

.1 and 11.1. DESIGN PROBLEMS 578.3∆tb 30 ∆tb = = 23 F 1 .113 + 1.327.45 psi DL (3.5)(3.5 .8. n = 300 rpm .602 = 1.735 ft − lb min U f = Fvm = (198)(9425) = 1. Choose a reasonable ho .446)(77. Design for an average clearance that is decided by considering both Table 3. D = 3. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS Ab = 25DL = 25(10 )(10) = 2500 sq.113 ft − lb min Qr = ρ c(q − qs )∆to in − lb sec Qr = (112 )(1 − 0.5 in RC 5 or RC 6 Use RC 6 Average cd = 0.5-in. It is desired that the bearing operate at a reasonable steady-state temperature (perhaps ring-oiled medium construction).602 ft − lb min QT = Q + Qr = 18. without special cooling.1.345.5) Table 3. medium running fit.327.in. “squeeze” effect ignored? Solution: L D =1 D = 3. What could be the magnitude of the maximum impulsive load if the eccentricity ration ε becomes 0.150 ft − lb min > QT not enough to care for frictional loss. say one that gives ho cr ≈ 0.3 Q = (0. full bearing on an air compressor is to be designed for a load of 1500 lb. A 3. Compute all parameters that are available via the Text after you have decided on details.866. ∆toa = 130 − 100 = 30 F ∆toa = 1.315)(2500)(23) = 18. use pressure feed (i11.5 in L = 3.5 in W = 1500 lb n = 300 rpm 300 ns = = 5 rps 60 W 1500 p= = = 122. let L D = 1 .805)(55)(1 12)(60) = 1.21). Probably a medium running for would be satisfactory. Specify the oil to be used and show all calculations to support your conclusions.0052 in Page 46 of 63 .

5) = 189.4995 pmax Specifying oil: Q = hcr Ab ∆tb U f = Fvm r f = 4.in. L D = 1 .5)(3. − F Medium construction Ab = 15.505  0. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS Table 11.00708)(1500) = 10.875 sq. ho cr = 0.001375 in Table AT 20.84o r f = 4.62 )(275) = 2921 ft − lb min Q = hcr Ab ∆tb Assume hcr = 0.5(0.516)(189.0055 in cr = 0.1925 φ = 56. air-compressor General Machine Practice Average cd = 0.5 S = 0.00275  f = 0.00708 F = f W = (0.25 p p = 0.5(3. Oil-ring bearing ∆toa = 2∆tb Q =Uf (0.16 rcr ns L ρ c∆to = 19.75    f = 4.5DL = 15.516 ft − lb min − sq.1.62 lb πDn π (3.in.875)(∆tb ) = 2921 Page 47 of 63 .00275 in ho = 0.5)(300 ) vm = = = 275 fpm 12 12 U f = Fvm = (10.0055 in Using cd = 0.505 cr q = 4.505 cr  1.5cr = 0.5 ε = 0.00275) = 0.

1.0446 2 r  µns S =    cr  p 2 (  1. 150 F.5) = 6456 580. A 2500-kva generator. full bearing supports the larger load.1925 =    0. The left-hand. operates at 900 rpm.1 and 11. The weight of the rotor and shaft is 15.75  µ (5) S = 0.00275  p p = 527 psi W = pDL = (527 )(3. being sure that everything is reasonable.5 is on the safer side).6 × 10−6 reyn Use SAE 70 oil Maximum load. (a) Decide upon an average clearance considering both Table 3. R = 8920 lb . and film thickness and compute all the parameters given in the text. 5 –in.45 µ = 11.5)(3. The bearing should be above medium-heavy construction (for estimating Ab ).8 Table AT 20. driven by a water wheel. Solution: n = 900 rpm 900 ns = = 15 rps 60 D = 5 in W = R = 8920 lb Page 48 of 63 .6 ×10−6 reyn Figure AF 16.75  11. µ ≈ 11.0446 =   −6 )  0. W with ε = 0. and upon a minimum film thickness ( ho cr ≈ 0. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS ∆tb = 30 F ∆toa = 2∆tb = 2(30) = 60 F assume ambient temperature = 90 F t o = 150 F 2 r  µns S =    cr  p 2  1. (b) Investigate first the possibility of the bearing being a self-contained unit without need of special cooling.00275  122. Not much air movement about the bearing is expected.6 × 10 (5) S = 0. Then make final decisions concerning oil-clearance.100 lb. L D = 1 S = 0.

D = 5 in RC 5.25(5)(5) = 506.in.00255) = 0.5    f = 4.5  µ (15) S = 0.in.5(0.505 cr  2 .1925 r f = 4.0051 in cr = 0.8 psi DL (5)(5) Table AT 20. Assume hcr = 0.00460 F = f W = (0.505 cr q = 4.00128 in (b) Use L D = 1 L = 5 in D r = = 2.8 µ = 4.00460 )(8920) = 41.00255  f = 0.8 ×10−6 reyn r f = 4.25 p 2 r  µns S =    cr  p 2  2.00255  356.516 ft − lb min − sq. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS (a) Table 3.25DL = 20.00255 in ho = 0.032 lb πDn π (5)(900) vm = = = 1178 fpm 12 12 U f = Fvm = (41.505  0.1. − F Q =Uf Page 49 of 63 . average cd = 0.1925 =    0.16 rcr ns L ρ c∆to = 19.5 S = 0.336 ft − lb min Q = hcr Ab ∆tb Medium-Heavy Ab = 20. L D = 1 .5 in 2 W 8920 p= = = 356.5cr = 0. ho cr = 0.032 )(1178) = 48.25 sq.

006 in. SAE 30 cr = 0.00255) = 0.0 µreyns 2 r  µns S =    cr  p S =  2 (  2.00145 in PRESSURE FEED 581. µ = 4. An 8 x 8-in.336 ∆tb = 185 F .25)(∆tb ) = 48.8 ∆to = 61 F Assume ti = 100 F 61 tave = 100 + ≈ 130 F 2 Figure AF 16.04 rcr ns L ρ c∆to = 22.17o r f = 5. (a) Compute the frictional loss U f . full bearing supports 5 kips at 600 rpm of the journal.0 × 10 (15) −6 ) = 0.00255  356.516)(506.5 × 10−6 reyn . ρ c∆to = 19. cr = 0. µ = 6. . very high Therefore.569 cr φ = 61.25 356.8 µreyns . special cooling is needed.395 cr q = 4.242 SAE 30 oil at 130 F ho = 0. L D = 1 . S = 0. (b) The Page 50 of 63 .25 p (112)∆to = 19.8 Table AT 20. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS (0.569(0.4734 pmax Oil.242  0.5  6. 130 F Select SAE 30 oil.75 p p = 0.00255 in ho = 0. let the average µ = 2.

5ε in sec pi = 40 psi 3 q = 2.006  78.006) (40)  −1 2π (4)  tan [1 + 1.5 ×10 (10 ) −6 (= 0. Assuming that other factors.5(0.5 ×10−6 reyn L D =1 W 5000 p= = = 78.57)2 ]in3 sec 3(2.6  0. S = 0.006  f = 0. remain the same and that the heat loss to the surrounding is negligible. c3 p  2π r  q = 2.1422 )  0.57 cr  4    f = 3 .6 . Solution: L = 5 in D = 5 in W = 5000 lb n = 600 rpm 600 ns = = 10 rps 60 cr = 0.5 r i  tan −1 3µ  L  ( 2 3 )  1 + 1.1422 r f = 3. including U f .006 in µ = 2.940 ft − lb min (b) Longitudinal Groove.0054 F = f W = (0.125 (a) Table AT 20. L D = 1 .125 psi DL (8)(8) 2 r  µns S =    cr  p S =  2  4  2.5 (0.0054)(5000) = 27 lb πDn π (8)(600) vm = = = 1257 fpm 12 12 U f = Fvm = (27 )(1257 ) = 33.5 × 10−6 )  8  Page 51 of 63 . ε = 0. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS oil is supplied under a 40-psi gage pressure with a longitudinal groove at the point of entry. determine the average temperature rise of the circulating oil.

41 in3 sec U f = ρ cq∆to (33.0008 = = 0.44 . Compute the pressure at which oil should be pumped into the bearing if (a) all bearing surfaces are smooth. .16 cr 0.0036 F = f W = (0.44  0.16 r f = 1. A 4-in.005 in n = 600 rpm 600 ns = = 10 rps 60 ∆to = 25 F W 2500 p= = = 156.2 F 583. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS q = 5. with L D = 1 . supports 2. Solution: D = 4 in L = 4 in r = 2 in W = 2500 lb cd = 0.25 psi DL (4)(4) ho = 0.01 in. 360o bearing.41)∆to ∆to = 11.00080 in ho 0. The average temperature rise of the oil is to be about 25 F. ho cr = 0. cd = 0. ε = 0. (c) same as (a) except that there is a 360o circumferential groove dividing the bearing into 2-in. (b) there is a longitudinal groove at the oil-hole inlet. lengths.940 ft − lb min )(12 in ft )(1min 60sec ) = (12)(5. n = 600 rpm.0343 Page 52 of 63 .010 in cr = 0.0036)(2500) = 9 lb πDn π (4)(600) vm = = = 628 fpm 12 12 U f = Fvm = (9 )(628) = 5652 ft − lb min = 1130 in − lb sec S = 0.0008 in. L D = 1 . .5 kips with a minimum film of ho = 0.005 Table AT 20.005  f = 0.84 cr  2    f = 1.

35 × 10−6 )  4  pi = 12. c d = 0.25 µ = 3. supported on a 150o partial bearing.5ε 2 in3 sec ) 3 2π (2)(0.5ε in sec ) 3 2. journal.404 = (0. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS 2 r  µns S =    cr  p 2  2  µ (10 ) S = 0.404 = ( 3 3.5(0. Estimate the frictional loss in a 160o cap for this bearing.404 in3 sec (a) Smooth cr3 pi  −1 2π r  q= 3µ   tan L  ( 2 3  1 + 1.. An 8-in.5 in.5(0.5cr3 pi  −1 2π r  q= 3µ   tan L  ( 2 3  1 + 1.5ε in sec ) 0.84) in3 sec ( 3 3.84) in3 sec ] pi = 5 psi (c) Circumferential groove 2π rcr3 pi q= 3µL ( 1 + 1. bearing length = 10. is turning at 500 rpm.35 ×10−6 reyn U f = ρ cq∆to 1130 = (112)(q )(25) q = 0.84)2 ] in3 sec 3(3.35 × 10 (4 ) −6 pi = 5 psi BEARING CAPS 584.35 × 10 −6   tan ) 4   [2 1 + 1. Solution: Page 53 of 63 .005)3 ( pi ) tan −1 2π (2) [1 + 1. The average temperature of the SAE 20 oil is 170 F.0035 in ..005) ( pi )  −1 2π (2)  0.005) ( pi ) ) [ ] 2 0.5 psi (b) Longitudinal groove 2.005  156. ho = 0.5(0.0343 =    0.404 = 1 + 1.00106 in .5(0.

001 in ho = 0.741 −   = 0.00106 in c d = 0. L = 2 in .002 in .00195 in   0. cd = 0.5) = 21. and µ = 2..424 )(1047 ) = 22.00175   For SAE 20.430 ft − lb min = 1130 in − lb sec 585.3)(209.00195 πDn π (8)(500) vm = = = 1047 fpm 12 12 U f = Fvm = (21.7 cr 0. A partial 160o bearing has a 160o cap. 170 F µ = 1. ho = 0. n = 500 rpm .00106   2 hav = (0. 2 9   500  vips = π Dns = π (8)  = 209.0035 in c r = 0.7 ×10−6 reyn µAvips F= hav 1 A = θDL 2 D = 8 in L = 10..5) = 117..5 in 160 8π θ = 160o = π= 180 9 1  8π  A =  (8)(10.002 in c r = 0. For the cap only.424 lb 0.0007 in . D = 2 in ..741 −   in   cr     0.001 Page 54 of 63 .00175)1 + 0.7 × 10−6 (117.0007 in ho 0.00175 in   ho   2 hav = cr 1 + 0.0007 = = 0 . what is the frictional loss? Solution: c d = 0.5 ×10−6 reyn .in. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS ho = 0.3 sq.5 ips  60  F= ( ) 1.

(a) For the bearing and the cap.685)(261..001067 U f = Fvm = (0.6367 r f = 2.021 cr ε = 0. instead of partial.585)(52.021  0.67 rps 60 W 10.4 ×10−6 reyn .021 cr  1    f = 2. D = 8 in . calculate the frictional loss and compare.685 lb 0.5 ×10−6 )(5.7 = 0 .001  f = 0. cr r = 0.in.74(0.8)  = 52. (b) If the bearing were 360o.001 . L D = 1 . L D = 1 .3) = 0.67 ) −6 )= 0.3 ft − lb min 586.002021 Page 55 of 63 . The bearing has a 150o cap.4 × 10 (6.000 p= = = 156.74ε 2 = (0.145 r f = 2. Let n = 400 rpm and µ = 3. S = 0. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS ho ε = 1− = 1 − 0 . The central reaction on a 120o partial bearing is 10 kips. compute the total frictional loss by adding the loss in the cap to that in the bearing.25 psi DL (8)(8) S =  2 (  1  3..3 cr ( ) [ 2 ] hav = cr 1 + 0.8) = 179.25 (a) Table AT 22.001  156.145  0.36) = 0.36 ips  60  1  160  1  160  A=  πDL =  (π )(2 )(2 ) = 5.001067 in µAvips F= hav πDn π (2)(500) vm = = = 261. 2  180  2  180  F= (2.585 sq.001) 1 + 0.8 fpm 12 12  12  vips = (261. Solution: 2  r  µns S =    cr  p 400 ns = = 6.

936 ft − lb min CAP: hav = cr (1 + 0.629 ft − lb min (b) 360o Bearing.000) = 20.004) 1 + 0. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS F = f W = (0.001  f = 0.18 lb 0.145 r f = 3.6 ips  60  1  150  1  150  A=  πDL =  (π )(8)(8) = 83.001(4) = 0.00495 in 2 Page 56 of 63 .004) 1 + 0.5664) = 0.000) = 36.00365 F = f W = (0.65  0.78 sq.001r D r = = 4 in 2 cr = 0.65 cr ε = 0.00365)(10.936 + 7693 = 24.74ε 2 ) = (0.6367 ) = 0.18)(838) = 7693 ft − lb min Total Frictional Loss = U f 1 + U f 2 = 16. S = 0.in.587 ft − lb min CAP: hav = cr (1 + 0.0052 U f 2 = Fvm = (9.5)(838) = 30.4 ×10−6 (83.0052 in µAvips F= hav  12  vips = (838)  = 167.74ε 2 ) [ ] hav = cr (1 + 0.004 in ( ) [ 2 ] hav = cr 1 + 0.5664 BEARING:  1    f = 3. L D = 1 .21)(838) = 16.6) = 9.74ε 2 ) cr = 0.5 lb πDn π (8)(400) vm = = = 838 fpm 12 12 U f 1 = Fvm = (36.74(0.21 lb πDn π (8)(400) vm = = = 838 fpm 12 12 U f 1 = Fvm = (20.74ε 2 = (0.002021)(10.74(0.78)(167. 2  180  2  180  F= ( ) 3.

Text. n = 1200 rpm .001  156.4583 cr r f = 3.4 ×10 )(83. i11. Determine (c) the needed rate of flow into the bearing. How much oil is required? (h) For the oil temperature in (f). SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS µAvips F= hav F= (3. .00495 U f 2 = Fvm = (9.18 cr q = 2. (d) the side leakage qs .32 ε = 0.13.000 p= = = 156.5 ×10 )(20 ) 2 −6 S =  = 0.5417 ho = 0. D = 8 in. L D = 1 . cr r = 0. (b) Calculate the fhp for a full bearing of the same dimensions and compare. (f) What is the heat loss from the bearing if the oil temperature is 180 F? Is the natural heat loss enough to cool the bearing? (g) It is desired to pump oil through the bearing with a temperature rise of 12 F.587 + 8083 = 38.5 ×10−6 reyn . (e) the temperature rise of the oil in the bearing both by equation (o).6) = 9. (a) Compute ho and fhp for the bearing and for the cap to get the total fhp.25 psi DL (8)(8)  1  (2. L D = 1 .60 rcr ns L Page 57 of 63 .32  0. The bearing has a 160o cap.645)(838) = 8083 ft − lb min Total Frictional Loss = U f 1 + U f 2 = 30. Let µ = 2.78)(167. S = 0. The central reaction on a 120o partial bearing is a 10 kips. what is a suitable oil to use? Solution: 2  r  µns S =    cr  p 1200 ns = = 20 rps 60 W 10. and by Table AT 22.001 .25 (a) Table AT 22.670 ft − lb min 587.645 lb −6 0.

004) 1 + 0.050 = 137. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS qs = 0.18 hp 33.000 (b) Full Bearing.050 ft − lb min .74ε 2 ) = (0.963 ft − lb min Uf 137.00318 F = f W = (0. 2.76 hp Total Frictional Loss = U f 1 + U f 2 = 79.305 q ρ c∆to = 17.00487 in 2 µAvips F= hav  12  vips = (2513)  = 503 ips  60  1  160  1  160  A=  πDL =  (π )(8)(8) = 89.001(4) = 0.4583(0.001  f = 0.32 Page 58 of 63 . S = 0.834 p p = 0.36 sq.8 lb πDn π (8)(1200) vm = = = 2513 fpm 12 12 U f 1 = Fvm = (31.004 in [ ] hav = cr (1 + 0.001)(4) = 0.00318)(10.913 ft − lb min .18  0. L D = 1 .913 + 58.38434 pmax ho = 0.5 ×10−6 (89.42 hp CAP: hav = cr (1 + 0.in.00183 in BEARING: r f = 3.36)(5036) = 23.4583cr = 0.5417 ) = 0.00487 U f 2 = Fvm = (23.000) = 31.74(0.8)(2513) = 79.000 33.1)(2513) = 58.74ε 2 ) cr = 0.1 lb 0.963 fhp = = = 4. 2  180  2  180  F= ( ) 2.001r D r = = 4 in 2 cr = 0. 1.18 cr  1    f = 3.

5 ×10 )(89.305 6.00686 F = f W = (0.000) = 68.36)(503) = 25.002522 in BEARING: r f = 6.004 ) = 0.305 q qs = 0.00686)(10.000 33.6305(0.86 cr  1    f = 6.74ε 2 ) = (0.6 lb U f 1 = Fvm = (68.3695 ho = 0.6 )(2513) = 172.001  f = 0.60 rcr ns L q = 2.17 hp 33.392 ft − lb min .86 cr ε = 0.74(0.60 (4)(0.946 hp Total Frictional Loss = U f 1 + U f 2 = 172.182 = 236.392 + 64.54 lb −6 0.54 )(2513) = 64.004)(20)(8) q = 6.224 hp CAP: hav = cr (1 + 0.656 Page 59 of 63 .86  0.574 fhp = = = 7.574 ft − lb min Uf 236.656 in3 sec q (d) s = 0.3695) = 0.00440 U f 2 = Fvm = (25.00440 in 2 µAvips F= hav F= (2.182 ft − lb min . 5. 1.6305 cr r f = 6.74ε 2 ) [ ] hav = cr (1 + 0.000 (c) 120o Bearing q = 2.004) 1 + 0. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS Table AT 20 ho = 0.

516 )(1600 )(40 ) = 33.939 ft − lb min Qr = 20.988 = (112)q(12) q = 15.024 = 137.in.4 F Table 22. (g) Qr + Q = U f 1 + U f 2 Qr + 33.963 Qr = 104.62 in3 sec (h) Fig.5 ×10−6 reyn use SAE 30 oil Page 60 of 63 .834 156. ∆t ∆tb = oa 2 assume ambient = 100 F 180 − 100 ∆tb = = 40 F 2 Q = (0. 180 F.983 = (112 )(6. − F Ab = 25DL = 25(8)(8) = 1600 sq.834 p 112∆to = 17. ρ c∆to = 17.656 )∆to ∆to = 21.03 in 3 sec (e) Equation(o) U f 1 = ρ cq∆to  12  U f 1 = 79.913  in − lb sec = 15.9 F (f) Q = hcr Ab ∆tb assume hcr = 0. µ = 2.024 ft − lb min < U f 1 Therefore not enough to cool the bearing.25 ∆to = 24.in.988 in − lb sec Qr = ρ cq∆to 20.913 ft − lb min = 79.516 ft − lb min − sq. AF 16.983 in − lb sec  60  U f 1 = 15. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS qs = 2.

5)(0.5)(1140) vm = = = 149. (b) nylon (Zytel) water lubricated.25)(50. A 0.000 p(149. journal turns at 1140 rpm.75) = 6.23 fpm 12 12 pvm = 50.20 Page 61 of 63 .005)(149.5625 lb U f = Fvm = (12.16)(6.14 ~ 0.000 p = 134 psi W = pDL = (134)(0.5 x 0.23) = 2500 p = 16. with intermittent use. (c) Teflon. Solution: (a) f = 0.75) = 126 lb F = f W = (0.75) = 37.75 psi W = pDL = (16.75) = 50.25) = 12. intermittent p(149.28) = 1.75-in.000 p = 335 psi W = pDL = (335)(0.18 .23) = 20. What maximum load may be supported and what is the frictional loss if the bearing is (a) SAE Type I.25 pvm = 20. sintered bearing.75)(0.5)(0.16 pvm = 2500 .12 )(149.23) = 1875 ft − lb min (d) pvm = 15.5)(0. (d) one with carbon graphite inserts.5 psi W = pDL = (100.12 πDn π (0.005 lb U f = Fvm = (1.5625)(149.5)(0. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS IMPERFECT LUBRICATION: 588.69 lb assume f = 0.12)(126) = 15.25 lb F = f W = (0.000 . water p(149.5)(0.28 lb F = f W = (0.000 p(149.23) = 2256 ft − lb min (b) f = 0. bronze base.000 p = 100.23) = 150 ft − lb min (c) vm > 100 fpm f = 0.23) = 50.12 lb U f = Fvm = (15.23) = 15. use f = 0.

taken by a collar thrust bearing made up of five collars. Compute (a) the average bearing pressure. semi- lubricated. Solution: πDn π (1)(800) vm = = = 209. Solution: 4W 4(8000 ) (a) p = = = 283 psi πDo2 π (6)2 (b) assume f = 0.44) = 31. A 4-in.000 THRUST BEARINGS 592..306 ft − lb min 593. inside diameter. A 4-in.416 Use sintered metal. and graphite inserts.54 lb U f = Fvm = (7. Teflon. limit pvm = 50.20)(37. shaft has on it an axial load of 8000 lb. is supported on a step bearing. (a) What axial load may be supported? (b) What is the approximate work of friction? Solution: πDn vm = 12 Page 62 of 63 . The shaft turns 150 rpm. outside diameter and a 3/4 –in. shaft. A bearing to support a load of 150 lb at 800 rpm is needed. considering sintered metals.81 fpm 12 12 U f = nFvm = (5)(520 )(117. with a 4-in.81) = 306. Take the allowable average bearing pressure as 180 psi. Decide upon a material and length of bearing. Zytel. L = D = 1 in W 150 p= = = 150 psi DL (1)(1) pvm = (150)(209.44 fpm 12 12 assume. (b) the approximate work of friction.69) = 7. each with an outside diameter of 6 in. average F = f W = (0. . D = 1 in.54 )(149. turning at 175 rpm. The bearing area is annular.065 . SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS F = f W = (0.065)(8000) = 520 lb πDn π (3)(150) vm = = = 117.23) = 1125 ft − lb min 590.

81 fpm 12 12 assume f = 0.75) = 2. average 4W (a) p = ( π Do2 − Di2 ) π  2 3  2 W = (4) −    (180) = 2182 lb 4   4   (b) U f = f Wvm = (0.065)(2182 )(108.433 ft − lb min .375)(175) vm = = = 108.81) = 15.end - Page 63 of 63 .065 .375 in 2 πDn π (2. SECTION 9 – JOURNAL AND PLANE-SURFACE BEARINGS 1 D= (4 + 0.

200 lb To check: Fz 1000 = = 0.96 .2)(1500) + (1.2 % higher than 31.000 )(60 )(1500 ) 10−6 = 1350 mr F e= 0.803 lb  Br  3..700 hr 628 .000 hr.800 lb Fs = 32. Solution: Fx = 1500 lb Fy = 1000 lb ( ) B10 = (15.56(1.000 hr. Therefore use Bearing 321. smooth load.8 )(1000) = 2808 lb 1  B 3 1 Fr =  10  Fe = (1350) 3 (2808) = 31. it also carries a thrust of 1000 lb./day service.800 lb F e = 2968 lb 1  B 3 31. (b) What is the rated 90 % life of the selected bearing? (c) For b = 1. (a) Select a deep-groove ball bearing.3 use 321.556 > Q C r Fx (1.000 Table 12. shaft rotates 1500 rpm.56Cr Fx + Ct Fz F e = 0.56Cr Fx + Ct Fz C r = 1.BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS 601. Safe. compute the probability of the selected bearing surviving 15. outer ring stationary assume Ct = 1. Q = 0.800 =  10  (2968 )  1 mr  B10 = 1230 mr ( ) B10 = (HR )(60 )(1500 ) 10 −6 = 1230 HR ≈ 13.96)(1000) = 2968 lb 1  B 3 1 Fr =  10  Fe = (1350 ) 3 (2968 ) = 32.034 lb  Br  (a) Table 12. Ct = 1. say 15. The radial reaction on a bearing is 1500 lb.. outer ring stationary.2)(1500) F e= 0.800 lb.2.03125 Fs 32. Deep-Groove Ball Bearing. Fr = 31. SECTION 10 .34 .8 F e = 0.2 .2)(1500) + (1.56(1.2246 Fz 1000 = = 0. 8-hr. (b) Fr = 31.

6 Cr Fx (1. The load imposes light shock. the desired 90 % life is 10 hr. Solution: Fx = 500 lb Fz = 300 lb Assume Cr = 1 Fz 300 = = 0. What is its bore? Consider all bearings that may serve.8 F e= 0. respectively. and the 90 % life under the new load.34 ln  1350   P   =  1230   1     0. service factor ~ 1. determine the probability of the bearing surviving the specified life. (a) Select a deep-groove ball bearing. >Q Cr Fx (a) F e= 0.8875 602. SECTION 10 . (b) What is the computed rated 90 % life of the selected bearing? (c) What is the computed probability of the bearing surviving the specified life? (d) If the loads were changed to 400 and 240 lb.1 F e= (1..9  B10 = 1230 mr B = 1350 mr 1   1   1.56(1)(500) + (1./day for 5 years at n = 3000 rpm . A certain bearing is to carry a radial load of 500 lb. and a thrust of 300 lb.BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS 1   1  b  ln    B  P  (c) = B10   1    ln      P10    1   1  ln   = ln    P10   0.2.93)(300) = 820 lb For light shock.0)(500 ) Fz Table 12.56Cr Fx + Ct Fz Cr = 1 Assume Ct = 1.1)(820 ) = 902 lb 629 .9   ln P = 0.

100 =  10  (965)  1  B10 = 3119 mr ( ) B10 = (YR )(365)(10 )(60)(3000 ) 10−6 = 3119 YR = 4.900 Ct = 1. Bearing No.900 lb (b) Table 12.100 10.56(1)(500) + (1. SECTION 10 . Bearing No.614 lb  Br  B10 = (5)(365)(10)(60 )(3000)(10−6 ) = 3285 mr 1  B 3 1 Fr =  10  Fe = (3285)3 (902 ) = 13.125 B10 = 3119 mr 630 . 312 Fr = 14.99)(300 ) = 877 lb F e= (1.1)(877 ) = 965 lb 1  B 3 Fr =  10  Fe  Br  1  B 3 14. lb Bore 217 14. lb Fs .22 F e= 0.000 85 mm 312 14.3.2 Fz 300 = = 0.100 lb Fs = 10.BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS 1  B 3 1 Fr =  10  Fe = (1350 )3 (2770) = 30.56Cr Fx + Ct Fz F e= 0.409 lb  Br  Table 12.0285 Fs 10.75 years 1   1  b  ln    B  P  (c) = B10   1    ln      P10   use b = 1.900 60 mm Select.99 Q = 0.400 12. Fr .

1)(740) = 814 lb 1  B 3 Fr =  10  Fe  Br  1  B 3 14.125 ln   3285   P   =  3119   1     0.BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS B = 3285 mr 1  1  1.8943 (d) Fx = 400 lb Fz = 240 lb Cr = 1 Fz 240 = = 0.15)(240) = 740 lb F e= (1.9   ln P = 0.9   ln P = 0.125 ln   3285   P   =  5197   1     0.21 < 0.0)(400) Table 12.56(1)(400 ) + (2.939 Life: B10 = (YR )(365)(10 )(60)(3000 )(10−6 ) = 5197 YR = 8 years 631 .56Cr Fx + Ct Fz F e= 0. SECTION 10 .6 Cr Fx (1.100 =  10  (814)  1  B10 = 5197 mr 1   1  b  ln    =   B P B10   1    ln      P10   1   1   1.6 F e= 0.2 Ct = 2.15 Q = 0.

000 hr B10 = (25. determine (b) the rated 90 % life and (c) the probability of survival for the design lufe.4) = 25 mm Fz 100 (a) = = 0.000 hr 632 .000 )(60)(300 )(10−6 ) = 450 mr (a) assume Cr = 1 Fz 100 = = 0.0 )(500) = 500 lb 1  B 3 3660 =  10  (500)  1  B10 = 392 mr Rated Life: B10 = (HR )(60)(300 )(10−6 ) = 392 HR ≈ 22. fully utilized. n = 300 rpm . 100 lb. An electric motor drives through gears.22 < Q0. assume 25. lb 207 4440 3070 306 4850 3340 305 3660 2390 Select 305.BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS 603. (a) Considering deep-groove ball bearings that may serve./day.1. The smooth loading on a bearing is 500-lb radial.2. lb Fs . thrust. 0.26 F Q> z Cr Fx Fe = Cr Fx = (1. 8 hr./day fully utilized. choose one end specify its bore. For the bearing chosen.3 Bearing No.2 Cr Fx (1. Solution: Fx = 500 lb Fz = 100 lb Table 12.0 )(500) = 500 lb 1  B 3 1 Fr =  10  Fe = (450)3 (500) = 3832 lb  Br  Table 12.0)(500 ) F consider Q > z Cr Fx Fe = Cr Fx = (1. 8 hr. Fs = 2390 lb Bore (Table 12. Fr = 3660 lb .0418 Fs 2390 Table 12. Fr . SECTION 10 .

A No.3. 311 Fs = 9400 lb Fr = 12400 lb Fx = 1500 lb assume Cr = 1 Fe = Cr Fx = (1)(1500 ) = 1500 lb 1  B 3 (a) Fr =  10  Fe  Br  1  B 3 12400 =  10  (1500 )  1  B10 = 565 mr ( ) B10 = (HR )(60)(500 ) 10−6 = 565 HR ≈ 18. at a speed of 500 rpm.9   ln P = 0.BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS 1   1  b  ln    =   B P (c) B10   1    ln      P10   b = 1. 311. (a) What is the 90 % life of the bearing in hours? What is the approximate median life? What is the probability of survival if the actual life is desired to be (b) 105 hr. No.. deep-groove ball bearing is used to carry a radial load of 1500 lb.800 hr For median life = 5( 90 % life) = 5(18.125 1   1   1.884 605.800) = 94.125 ln   450   P   =  392   1     0.? Solution: Table 12.000 hr ( ) ( ) (b) B = 105 (60 )(500) 10 −6 = 3000 mr 633 . single-row. (c) 104 hr. SECTION 10 .

except that a 200 series roller bearing is to be selected. service.125 ln   300   P   =  565   1     0. 24 hr.125 1   1   1. radial.9   ln P = 0. The load on an electric-motor bearing is 350 lb. and the probable percentage of failures that would occur during the design life.9   ln P = 0.1 634 .950 606. giving its significant dimensions.BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS 1  1  b  ln    =   B P B10   1   ln      P10   b = 1. Solution: Fx = 350 lb Fe = Cr Fx outer race stationary. Then compute the selected bearing’s 90 % life. n = 1200 rpm .502 (c) 104 hr ( ) ( ) B = 10 4 (60 )(500 ) 10−6 = 300 mr 1  1  b  ln    =   B P B10   1   ln      P10   b = 1. Cr = 1 Fe = (1)(350 ) = 350 lb Table 12. What is the approximate median life of this bearing? (b) The same as (a)..125 1   1   1. SECTION 10 .125 ln   3000   P   =  565   1     0. (a) Decide upon a deep- groove ball bearing. outer race stationary. compressor drive.

lb 208 5040 3520 209 5660 4010 306 4850 3340 307 5750 4020 Use No.700 hrs 635 . 209 Fr = 5660 lb Table 12.BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS 90 % Life.916 % failures = 1 – 0.9   ln P = 0.000 )(60 )(1200 ) 10−6 = 3600 mr 1  B 3 1 (a) Fr =  10  Fe = (3600 )3 (350 ) = 5364 lb  Br  Table AT 12. 1   1  b  ln    =   B P B10   1    ln      P10   b = 1.125 1   1   1.000 hrs ( ) B = (50.740) = 293.3 earing No. Dimension Bore = 45 mm O.039 mm 90 % Life: 1  B 3 Fr =  10  Fe  Br  1  B 3 5660 =  10  (350)  1  B10 = 4229 mr ( ) B10 = (HR )(60 )(1200 ) 10−6 = 4229 HR ≈ 58.D.125 ln   3600   P   =  4229   1     0. = 85 mm Width of Races = 19 mm Max. lb Fs .4 % Median Life = 5(58.740 hr Probability. hrs = 50. SECTION 10 .084 = 8.4. Fr .916 = 0. Fillet r = 0.

) Solution: No need to use log table. SECTION 10 .650 hrs 608. choose a bearing. A deep-groove ball bearing on a missile.4 % Median Life = 5(66.2 .125 1   1   1.530 hr Probability.BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS (b) Table 12.9   ln P = 0.125 ln   3600   P   =  4790   1     0.place log table is desirable. is to have a design life of 20 hr.0 )(200 ) = 200 lb 636 . Fr = 5900 lb Bore = 35 mm O. = 72 mm Width of Races = 17 mm 90 % life: 1  B 3 Fr =  10  Fe  Br  1  B 3 5900 =  10  (350)  1  B10 = 4790 mr ( ) B10 = (HR )(60 )(1200 ) 10−6 = 4790 HR ≈ 66..D.926 % failures = 1 – 0. 1   1  b  ln    =   B P B10   1    ln      P10   b = 1.926 = 0. Using a service factor of 1. ( A 5. Fx = 200 lb assume Cr = 1 Fe = Cr Fx = (1.5 % probability of failure while n = 4000 rpm .530) = 332.074 = 7. supporting a radial load of 200 lb. Fr = 5364 lb use No. 207..3.or 6. with only a 0.

SECTION 10 .2 )(10 ) = 2 rev n 2 = (0. (a) What is the cubic mean load? (b) What ball bearings may be used? What roller bearings? Solution: 1  F13n1 + F23n2 + F33n3 + L  3 (a) Fm =    ∑n  ∑n = n + n 1 2 + n3 For 1 min.2 )(200 ) = 240 lb ( ) B10 = (20 )(60)(4000) 10 −6 = 4.8   0..5)(50 ) = 25 rev n3 = (0.9   ln B10 = 72 mr 1  B 3 1 Fr =  10  Fe = (72 )3 (240) = 998. n1 = (0.3)(100 ) = 30 rev ∑ n = 2 + 25 + 30 = 57 rev F1 = 10 kips F2 = 8 kips 637 . Fr = 1180 lb VARIABLE LOADS 610.995 1   1  b  ln    =   B P B10   1    ln      P10   b = 1.3 Select No. a load of 8 kips at a speed of 50 rpm for 50 % of the time.125 ln   4.4 lb  Br  Table 12. 201. no thrust.995   =  B10   1     0. and a load of 5 kips at 100 rpm during 30 % of the time.8 mr P = 1 − 0.BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS Fe = (1.125 1   1  1.005 = 0. A certain bearing is to carry a radial load of 10 kip at a speed of 10 rpm for 20 % of the time. with a desired life of 3000 hr.

2.900 lb 612.3. 500 rpm Fz 600 = = 0. Determine (a) the cubic mean load. Fz Fs At 30 % of the time. Solution: Bearing No. Fr = 11.400 lb (c) Table 12.250 lb Table 12.0 )(6880 ) = 6880 lb 1 min = 57 rev B10 = (3000 )(60 )(57 )(10−6 ) = 10. Fr = 14.266 Fz 600 = = 0.065 Fs 9250 Ct = 1. 55 % of the time at 800 rpm with Fx = 1000 lb and Fz = 500 lb . 215. 800 rpm Fz 500 = = 0.66 Q = 0.054 Fs 9250 Ct = 1.5 > Q Cr Fx (1)(1200 ) Fe1 = 0. SECTION 10 .BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS F3 = 5 kips 1  (10 )3 (2 ) + (8)3 (25) + (5)3 (30)  3 Fm =   = 6. (c) the average life in hours. Fr = 14.3 (Roller Bearing) Use Bearing No.88 kips  57  (b) Fx = 6. 217.88 kips = 6880 lb assume Cr = 1 Fe = (1. 215 is to operate 30 % of the time at 500 rpm with Fx = 1200 lb and Fz = 600 lb . (b) the 90 % life of this bearing in hours.26 mr 1 B  3 1 Fr =  10  Fe = (10. Ball Bearing Use Bearing No. A deep-groove ball bearing No.950 lb  Br  Table 12.56(1)(1200 ) + (1.400 lb . 213.26 )3 (6880) = 14.56Cr Fc + Ct Fz = 0.66)(600 ) = 1668 lb At 55 % of the time. and 15 % of the time at 1200 rpm with Fx = 800 lb and Fz = 400 lb .73 638 . Fs = 9.

5 > Q Cr Fx (1)(800 ) Fe1 = 0.15)(1200) = 180 rev ∑ n = 150 + 440 + 180 = 770 rev 1  (1668)3 (150 ) + (1425)3 (440) + (1184)3 (180 )  3 Fm =   = 1434 kips  770  (b) Fe = Fm = 1434 lb 1  B 3 Fr =  10  Fe  Br  1  B 3 11.5 > Q Cr Fx (1)(1000 ) Fe 2 = 0.84 Q = 0.3)(500 ) = 150 rev n 2 = (0.56Cr Fc + Ct Fz = 0.55)(800) = 440 rev n3 = (0.56Cr Fc + Ct Fz = 0.242 Fz 400 = = 0.84)(400) = 1184 lb 1  F 3n + F23n2 + F33n3 + L  3 (a) Fm =  1 1   ∑n  ∑n = n + n 1 2 + n3 F1 = 1668 lb F2 = 1425 lb F3 = 1184 lb For 1 min. 1200 rpm Fz 400 = = 0.BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS Q = 0.73)(500 ) = 1425 lb At 15 % of the time.257 Fz 500 = = 0.56(1)(800) + (1.56(1)(1000 ) + (1.043 Fs 9250 Ct = 1. n1 = (0.400 =  10  (1434 )  1  B10 = 503 mr For 1 min = 770 rev 639 . SECTION 10 .

000) = 55. with the likelihood of the same uses involving minor shock.0 for 90 % reliability 25.90856 500 K a = 1. (c) What is the probability of both bearings C and D surviving for the design life? Solution: 3 Problem 489. (b) Select roller bearings.000 Kl = 3 = 1. 8 hr/day.3572 10.BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS ( ) B10 = (HR )(60)(770) 10−6 = 503 HR ≈ 11.0 K p = 1. n = 250 rpm .000 hr assume K rel = 1. Doughtie and Vallance Fc = (K a K l )K o K p K s K t Fr at C.000 640 ./day. D = 1 in = 1.000 hr H c = 10. Assume that the unit will be fully utilized for at least 8 hr. (a) Select ball bearings for this shaft.1.000 hrs MANUFACTURER’S CATALOG NEEDED 614.0 Kr Na Ks = 3 Nc N a = 250 rpm N c = 500 rpm K r = 1. Fr = RC = 613 lb K t = 1. Text H a = 25.5 Ks = 3 (1. SECTION 10 .0 Ha Kl = 3 H c K rel Table 12.000 hr (c) Average life = 5(11.375 in 8 Ref: Design of Machine Members. 0 K o = 1. fully utilized.5)(250) = 0. A shaft for the general-purpose gear-reduction unit described in 489 has radial bearing reactions of RC = 613 lb and RD = 1629 lb .

000 K rel K rel = 0. Fc = 1540 lb at C.0 )(1629) = 2009 lb Table 9-7.58 Ha Kl = 3 H c K rel 25. SECTION 10 . Bore = 1. Fc = 880 lb Fc = 880 lb = (1)K l (1)(1)(0. Fc = 756 lb Table 9. Doughtie and Vallance Use No.0)(1. Doughtie and Vallance Use No. Fc = 2290 lb (b) at C.90856)(1)(613) K l = 1.58 = 3 10.0 )(613) = 756 lb Table 9-7.3780 in.8 % at D. 407 Bore = 1.3572)(1.90856)(1.BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS Fc = (K a K l )K o K p K s K t Fr Fc = (1. Deep-groove bearing.3780 in.547 Ha Kl = 3 H c K rel 641 .0 )(0. Fc = 880 lb At D. Two-row spherical bearing.3572)(1.000 1. Fc = 2660 lb (c) For probability: (c.0 )(1. 407. No. 207.8.0 )(1. Doughtie and Vallance.8. No. Bore = 1.3780 in.1) at C. 207. 207 Bore = 1. Two-row spherical Type.90856)(1. Doughtie and Vallance. Bearing No. Fr = RD = 1629 lb Fc = (K a K l )K o K p K s K t Fr Fc = (1. Fc = 2290 lb Fc = 2290 lb = (1)K l (1)(1)(0. Reference Probability = 95.634 Table 9-3. Bearing No. 307. Fc = 2009 lb Table 9.0 )(0.3780 in. Two-row spherical Type.0)(1.90856)(1)(1627 ) K l = 1.

765 Ha Kl = 3 H c K rel 25. 1. intermittently used.0 642 .000 K rel K rel = 0.2) at C. Fc = 2660 lb Fc = 2660 lb = (1)K l (1)(1)(0. and 307 lb.3 % (c. Reference Probability = 93. Assume that the service will not be particularly gentle.000 2. SECTION 10 . Solution: Ref: Design of Machine Members by Doughtie and Vallance Fc = (K a K l )K o K p K s K t Fr K a = 1. left to right: 803 lb.765 = 3 10. with n = 425 rpm . Fc = 1540 lb Fc = 1540 lb = (1)K l (1)(1)(0. and 1.125 in. 988 lb.90856)(1)(613) K l = 2. (b) Select roller bearings. The minimum shaft diameter at the bearings are 1.BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS 25. 1. Reference Probability = 95.000 K rel K rel = 0. Roller Bearing No.0625 in.90856 )(1)(1627 ) K l = 1.80 Ha Kl = 3 H c K rel 25.43 Table 9-3. no thrust. 407. Roller Bearing No. A shaft similar to that in 478 has the following radial loads on the bearings. 84 lb. 207.675 Table 9-3. (a) Select ball bearing for this shaft. Reference Probability = 98.8 % at D.7 % 615.000 K rel K rel = 0.250 in.000 in.000 1.118 Table 9-3.547 = 3 10.000 1.80 = 3 10.

0 )(1.0)(1. D = 1.1811 in (a.1.0 )(1.0)(84) = 91 lb 643 .0)(1.0)(1.250 in Fc = (1. SECTION 10 . H a = 10.2) 988 lb. D = 1.0)(803) = 870 lb Table 9-7.0)(1.5)(425) = 1. 207 Fc = 880 lb Bore = 1.0)(1. Two-row spherical type. D = 1. 306 Fc = 1050 lb Bore = 1.0 )(1. 0 K r = 1.1) 803 lb.0 (a) Ball Bearing (a.5 assumed Kr Na Ks = 3 Nc N a = 425 rpm N c = 500 rpm Ks = 3 (1.0)(1.0844)(1. Two-row spherical type.0 )(988) = 1071 lb Table 9-7.BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS Ha Kl = 3 H c K rel H c = 10.0)(1.125 in Fc = (1. Text.000 hr Table 12. Ref.0844)(1. 0 10. K rel = 1.000 hr (intermittent) 90 % reliability.3) 84 lb.0 )(1.000 K o = 1.3780 in (a.0 10.0844)(1.0 )(1. Ref.0 K p = 1.000 in Fc = (1.0844 500 K t = 1.000 Kl = 3 = 1.

Fc = 1540 lb (b.0)(1. Bore = 1.1811 in (b) Roller Bearing (b. Bore = 1. Deep-groove type.end - 644 .0)(307 ) = 333 lb Table 9-7. Deep-groove type. 207.1811 in use No.3780 in use No.1811 in use No. SECTION 10 . D = 1.250 in Fc = 870 lb . 206.4) 307 lb.0625 in Fc = 333 lb .1811 in (a. 206.BALL AND ROLLER BEARINGS Table 9-7.0 )(1.000 in Fc = 91 lb . D = 1. Bore = 1.0844)(1.4) 307 lb.0 )(1. 106 Fc = 544 lb Bore = 1.125 in Fc = 1071 lb . Ref. D = 1. Fc = 1320 lb (b. Ref. 106 Fc = 544 lb Bore = 1.0)(1.3) 84 lb.1) 803 lb.0625 in Fc = (1. Bore = 1.1811 in use No.2) 988 lb. D = 1. D = 1. Fc = 1320 lb . Fc = 1320 lb (b. 206.

velocity ratio desired is about 3.289 Page 1 of 57 .33) = 790 (1.000hp 33.4. intermittent service. class 20. 20o F. A pair of gears with 20o full-depth teeth are to transmit 10 hp at 1750 rpm of the 3-in.D. sn = 0. Determine the pitch. Assume Y = 0. with theload at the tip and teeth commercially cut.4 su s = 0.4 10 assume b = Pd Table AT 24.4(20 ) = 8 ksi = 8000 psi K f = 1 .8. and tooth numbers if the material is cast iron. face width. vm < 2000 fpm 600 + vm Fd = Ft 600 33. Solution: πD p n p π (3)(1750) vm = = = 1374 fpm < 2000 fpm 12 12 10 hp < 20 hp Commercially cut gears. class 20. pinion.33 Fs = Fd (8000)(10)(0. Load at tip.000(10 ) Ft = = = 240 lb vm 1374  600 + 1374  Fd =  (240 ) = 790 lb  600  sbY Fs = K f Pd For cast-iron.4)Pd2 Pd = 4. SECTION 11 – SPUR GEARS INTERMITTENT SERVICE DESIGN PROBLEMS 631. Use a strength reduction factor of about 1.89 use Pd = 5 N p = Pd D p = (5)(3) = 15 Y = 0.

5 12. 20o F.308 N g = (2. SECTION 11 – SPUR GEARS Fs = Fd (8000)(b )(0. Y = 0. class 25. Solution: Load at tip. N p = 18 teeth. intermittent service. Table AT 3).33) = 790 (1. (b) The same as (a) except that the pinion is to be made of phosphor gear bronze (SAE 65.D.45 . commercially cut teeth. Y = 0.5 in Pd 5 1 b = 2 in 2 Summary of answers: Pd = 5 1 b = 2 in 2 N p = 15 N g = 3. face width. N p = 18 . (a) Determine the pitch. Table AT 24. and tooth numbers if the material is cast iron.8(15) = 57 633. mw = 2.4)(5) b = 2.5 <b< Pd Pd use 12.5)(18) = 45 .5 b= = = 2. A pair of gears with 20o full-depth teeth are to transmit 5 hp at 1800 rpm of the pinion. K f ≈ 1.4 in 8 12.399 πD p n p vm = 12 N p 18 Dp = = Pd Pd n p = 1800 rpm π (18)(1800 ) 2700π vm = = 12 Pd Pd Commercially cut teeth Page 2 of 57 .5 .

308) = 19.786 say b = 1.1372  = 19.4523P 1 + 14.45)(7 )  7  b = 1.143 < b < 1.000 )(b )(0.4(25) = 10 ksi = 10.000(5) 550 Pd Ft = =  2700π  9π    Pd   2700π   8482.1372  d (1.000)(10)(0.4523Pd 1 +  Pd2  Pd  Pd = 7.1372  Fd = 19. class 25.308) = 19.4523Pd 1 +   Pd  sbY Fs = K f Pd 10 assume b = Pd (a) Cast iron.45)(Pd )2  Pd  21.4su = 0.241  14.4523Pd )  600  9π   600           14.5 <b< Pd Pd 1.355 in 8 12. SECTION 11 – SPUR GEARS  600 + vm  Fd =   Ft  600  33.000 psi Fs = Fd Pinion is weaker (10.3   600 +   600 +  Pd  550 Pd   Pd  Fd =    = (19. sn = 0.4523(7 )1 + 14.16 use Pd = 7 Face width b (10.1372    (1.5 in Summary of answers: Pd = 7 1 b = 1 in 2 Page 3 of 57 .

399) = 19.399) = 3990 Therefore gear is weaker (10.000 )(b )(0.5625 1 say b = 1.399) = 19.000)(0.45)(8)  8  b = 1.1372  d (1.252 in 8 12.25 in = 1 in 4 Summary of answers: Pd = 8 1 b = 1 in 4 N p = 18 N g = 45 Page 4 of 57 .000)(10)(0. (SAE 65.4523(8)1 + 14.5 <b< Pd Pd 1 < b < 1.308) = 9548 Gear. bronze sY = (31.1372    (1.45)(Pd )2  Pd  27.000)(0. SECTION 11 – SPUR GEARS N p = 18 N g = 45 (b) Phosphor gear bronze .4(80) = 32 ksi or sn = 31 ksi (Table AT 3) use sn = 31 ksi Pinion. Table AT 3) su = 80 ksi sn = 0.517  14.1372  = 19.4su = 0.4523Pd 1 +  Pd2  Pd  Pd = 8 use Pd = 8 Face width b (10.4523P 1 + 14. cast iron sY = (10.

pitch. 20o-full-depth teeth on the pinion. b in terms of Pd and arrange an equation containing s and Pd convenient for iteration.) Table AT 25.05vm (Cb + Ft ) Fd = Ft + 1 0. mw = 1.85 Pd   Pd    Pd   Fd = 466. On a production basesm carefully cut teeth should have a reasonable cost. Fd . and tooth numbers. as rolled AISI 1050. e = 0. Decisions must be made concerning the material and quality of cutting the teeth.85Pd + 1  8482.D. face width.3    10  2 0.05  1660  + 466.3    10   0.000(120 ) Ft = = = 466. Specify material. su = 102 ksi For carefully cut teeth. C = 1660 10 Try b = Pd  8482.05  + 1660  + 466.000hp 33.05vm + (Cb + Ft )2 Assume a material of steel. It is desired to transmit 120 hp at 1800 rpm of the pinion. Since the design is for strength only.001 in (min. Fig. Weak material results in a relatively large pinion with high peripheral speed.18). intermittent service. Solution: N 18 Dp = p = Pd Pd  18  π  (1800 ) πD p n p  Pd  8482. SECTION 11 – SPUR GEARS 634.5 should be conservative. AF 20. A very strong material may be unnecessarily expensive. 20o F. steel on steel.3     Pd  120 hp > 20 hp use Buckingham’s equation 0. with light shock (§13. it will be convenient to express Ft .3 vm = = = 12 12 Pd 33.85Pd vm  8482. preferably not less than 18.85Pd   Pd    Pd   Page 5 of 57 .5 . K f = 1. accuracy of cutting. vm .

N p = 18 .5   (51.000) 10 (0.522) Fs =  Pd  = 177.85Pd + 1 424  16.25 Iteration: Pd Fd Fs N sf (≥ 1.5)(18) = 27 Summary of first computation Material.480 (1.522 (Load near middle.85Pd  Pd  Pd  Fd = 466. 20o F.000 psi K f = 1 . SECTION 11 – SPUR GEARS 424  16.D.5(102) = 51 ksi = 51.85Pd  Pd  Pd  sbY Fs = K f Pd Weak pinion Table AT 24. AISI 1050. Y = 0.33 4 5342 11093 2.0 in N p = 18 N g = 27 Page 6 of 57 . N sf = 1. as rolled Accurately cut gears Pd = 5 b = 2.5)Pd Pd2 Fs = N sf Fd (§13.600   + 466.600  2 +  + 466.25) 5 5331 7099 1.5su = 0. light shock.) s = 0.08 Use Pd = 5 10 10 b= = = 2 in Pd 5 N p = 18 Ng = mw Np N g = (1.18).

SECTION 11 – SPUR GEARS

CHECK PROBLEMS

636. A pair of carefully cut, full depth, 20o involute gears, made of cast iron, ASTM
30, is transmitting 5 hp at 1150 rpm of the pinion; N p = 24 , N g = 32 , Pd = 8 ,
1
b = 1 in . For the teeth, determine (a) the endurance , (b) the dynamic load, (c)
2
the service factor (§13.18).

Solution: 5 hp < 20 hp
N p = 24 , 20o F.D.
Y = 0.337 , Load at tip
assume K f = 1.45 average

sbY
(a) Fs =
K f Pd
cast-iron, s = 0.4su = 0.4(30) = 12 ksi = 12,000 psi

Fs =
(12,000)(1.5)(0.337 ) = 523 lb
(1.45)(8)

 1200 + vm 
(b) Fd =   Ft
 1200 
For carefully cut gears
πD p n p
vm =
12
N 24
Dp = p = = 3 in
Pd 8
n p = 1150 rpm
π (3)(1150)
vm = = 903.2 fpm
12
33,000hp 33,000(5)
Ft = = = 182.7 lb
vm 903.2
 1200 + vm   1200 + 903.2