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BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY PHYSICS - DEFINITIONS (KEY WORDS

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BIOLOGY
Nutrition Taking in of nutrients which are organic substances and mineral ions, containing
raw materials or energy for growth and tissue repair, absorbing and assimilating
them

Excretion Removal from organisms of toxic materials, the waste products of metabolism
(chemical reactions in cells including respiration) and substances in excess of
requirements

Respiration The chemical reactions that break down nutrient molecules in living cells to
release energy

Sensitivity The ability to detect or sense changes in the environment (stimuli) and to make
responses

Reproduction The processes that make more of the same kind of organism

Growth A permanent increase in size and dry mass by an increase in cell number or cell
size or both

Movement An action by an organism or part of an organism causing a change of position or
place.

Cell The smallest, basic structural, functional and biological unit of all known living
organisms.

Diffusion The net movement of molecules from a region of their higher concentration to a
region of their lower concentration down a concentration gradient, as a result of
their random movement.

Osmosis The diffusion of water molecules from a region of their higher concentration
(dilute solution) to a region of their lower concentration (concentrated solution),
through a partially permeable membrane.

Enzymes Proteins that function as biological catalysts.

Photosynthesis The fundamental process by which plants manufacture carbohydrates from raw
materials using energy from light.

Balanced Diet It is a diet which contains all the nutrients in correct amount and proportions
related to the age, sex and activities of an individual.

Ingestion Taking substances (e.g. food, drink) into the body through the mouth.

Egestion Passing out of food that has not been digested, as faeces, through the anus.

BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY PHYSICS - DEFINITIONS (KEY WORDS)

Digestion The breakdown of large, insoluble food molecules into small, water soluble
molecules using mechanical and chemical processes.

Absorption Movement of digested food molecules through the wall of the intestine into the
blood.

Transpiration Evaporation of water at the surfaces of the mesophyll cells followed by loss of
water vapour from plant leaves, through the stomata.

Translocation The movement of sucrose and amino acids in phloem; from regions of production
to regions of storage or to regions of utilisation in respiration or growth.

Circulatory A system of tubes with a pump and valves to ensure one-way flow of blood.
System

Double It is a low-pressure circulation to the lungs and a high-pressure circulation to the
Circulation body tissues.

Aerobic The release of a relatively large amount of energy in cells by the breakdown of
respiration food substances in the presence of oxygen.

Anaerobic The release of a relatively small amount of energy by the breakdown of food
respiration substances in the absence of oxygen.

Human nervous It is the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord as areas of coordination)
system and the peripheral nervous system which together serve to coordinate and regulate
body functions.

Reflex action It is a means of automatically and rapidly integrating and coordinating stimuli
with responses.

Hormone A chemical substance, produced by a gland, carried by the blood, which alters the
activity of one or more specific target organs and is then destroyed by the liver.

Geotropism A response in which a plant grows towards or away from gravity

Phototropism A response in which a plant grows towards or away from the direction from
which light is coming

Homeostasis The maintenance of a constant internal environment.

Asexual The process resulting in the production of genetically identical offspring from one
reproduction parent.

T or G) Recessive An allele that is only expressed when there is no dominant allele of the gene present (e.g.g. Haploid​ ​nucleus A nucleus containing a single set of unpaired chromosomes (e. tall plant or green seed) Homozygous Having two identical alleles of a particular gene (e.DEFINITIONS (KEY WORDS) Sexual The process involving the fusion of haploid nuclei to form a diploid zygote and reproduction the production of genetically dissimilar offspring.g. not pure-breeding Dominant An allele that is expressed if it is present (e. made up of a string of genes Gene A length of DNA that is the unit of heredity and codes for a specific protein. t or g). TT or gg).g.g. a gene may be copied and passed on to the next generation Allele Any of two or more alternative forms of a gene. Two identical homozygous individuals that breed together will be pure-breeding Heterozygous Having two different alleles of a particular gene (e. sperm and egg) Diploid​ ​nucleus A nucleus containing two sets of chromosomes (e. Mitosis Nuclear division giving rise to genetically identical cells in which the chromosome number is maintained by the exact duplication of chromosomes Meiosis Reduction division in which the chromosome number is halved from diploid to haploid Genotype The genetic makeup of an organism in terms of the alleles present (e. Tt or Gg). in body cells). Tt or GG) Phenotype The physical or other features of an organism due to both its genotype and its environment (e. Natural The greater chance of passing on of genes by the best-adapted organisms. Pollination The transfer of pollen grains from the male part of the plant (anther or stamen) to the female part of the plant (stigma).g. Chromosome A thread of DNA. .g.g. Inheritance The transmission of genetic information from generation to generation. selection Mutation A change in a gene or chromosome. BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY PHYSICS .

g. BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY PHYSICS .DEFINITIONS (KEY WORDS) Producer An organism that makes its own organic nutrients. usually using energy from sunlight. . e.g. decomposing log or a lake Trophic Level The position of an organism in a food chain or food web. in a given area. interacting together. mahogany tree → caterpillar → song bird → hawk) Food​ ​web A network of interconnected food chains showing the energy flow through part of an ecosystem Herbivore An animal that gets its energy by eating plants Carnivore An animal that gets its energy by eating other animals Decomposer An organism that gets its energy from dead or waste organic matter Ecosystem A unit containing all of the organisms and their environment. through photosynthesis Consumer An organism that gets its energy by feeding on other organisms Food​ ​chain The flow of energy (food) from one organism to the next beginning with a producer (e.

BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY PHYSICS . Filtration The separation of a solid from a liquid using filter paper. Compound A pure substance made of two. Molecule It is the smallest part of a compound which has an independent existence. Contact Process An industrial process for making sulfuric acid . Paper The separation of a mixture of soluble colored substances using paper and a Chromatography solvent. Element A substance that consists only one type of atom and cannot be chemically broken down into simpler substances. Crystallisation The formation of crystals when a saturated solution is left to cool. Mixture It contains at least two substances or particles. Distillation The separation of a liquid from a mixture using differences in boiling point. solid.e. Condensation The change of state from gas to liquid. liquid and gas with no new substance formed. or more. elements chemically combined together in a fixed ratio. (Visa Versa) Physical Change The change in three states of matter i. Boiling The change of state from liquid to gas at the boiling point of the liquid. Sublimation The change of state directly from solid to gas. Distillation Titration A method of finding the amount of a substance in a solution Melting The change of state from solid to liquid. not chemically bonded. Atom The smallest part of an element that can take part in a chemical change.DEFINITIONS (KEY WORDS) CHEMISTRY Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space. Fractional The separation of a mixture of liquids using differences in boiling point. Evaporation The change of state from liquid to gas below the boiling point. Freezing The change of state from liquid to solid at the melting point.

Ions It is a charged particle made from an atom by loss or gain of electrons. Volatile The tendency of a substance to vaporize. Electron It had a negative charge with having hardly any mass. Number Electron The organization of electrons in their different energy levels (shells). Atomic (Proton) The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element. Neutron It has no electrical charge with a mass of almost 1 unit.02 X 10​23​) Molar Gas Volume The volume occupied by one mole of any gas is 24 dm​3 ​at room temperature and pressure. Number Mass (Nucleon) The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. Relative Atomic The average mass of a naturally occurring atom of an atom on a scale where Mass (A​r​) one carbon-12 atom exactly weighs 12 grams. arrangement Isotope Atoms of the same element with a different number of neutrons in their nuclei.DEFINITIONS (KEY WORDS) Chemical Change It is a change that results in the formation of new chemical substances with energy being absorbed or released. (6. Mass (M​r​) . Lattice structure It is a regular arrangement of alternating positive and negative ions of an ionic compound. Proton It has a positive charge with a mass of 1 unit. Displacement A reaction in which a more reactive element displaces a less reactive element from a solution of a salt. BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY PHYSICS . Ionic Bonding A bond created between metals and nonmetals by losing and gaining electrons. Relative Molecular The sum of the relative atomic masses of all the atoms or ions in a compound. Covalent Bonding A bond created between two nonmetals by sharing a pair of electrons. Mole A specific number of particles called Avogadro’s constant.

causing them to break up into simpler substances. Electroplating A process used to coat one metal with another. The rate of Reaction The rate of formation of the products of chemical reactions or the rate at which reacts are used up. Base A substance which will neutralize an acid to form a salt and water only.DEFINITIONS (KEY WORDS) Electrolysis The chemical effect of electricity on ionic compounds. Electrolyte A compound which conducts electricity when molten or in solution in water. Oxidation The addition of oxygen to an element or compound. Electrode An electrode is a conductor rod that passes an electrical current in and out of the solution. Catalyst An agent which increases rate but which remains unchanged. Oxidizing agent A substance that will add oxygen to another substance. Redox A chemical reaction between two substances in which one substance is oxidized and the other reduced. Reduction The removal of oxygen from a compound. Anode The positive electrode Cathode The negative electrode Exothermic reaction A reaction in which heat energy is given out to the surroundings Endothermic A reaction in which heat energy is taken in from the surroundings reaction Combustion The reaction of a substance with oxygen causing the release of energy. BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY PHYSICS . . Acid A substance that dissolves in water to produce hydrogen ions (H​+​) and give a solution with a pH below 7. usually from a power source to a device or material. Burning Combustion in which a flame is produced. usually elements. Reducing agent An element or compound that will remove oxygen from other substances. and is decomposed in the process.

Indicator A substance that changes color depending on whether it is an acid or alkali. Petroleum It is a viscous.14) Alkali A base that dissolves in water to produce hydroxide ions (OH​-​) and give a solution with a pH greater than 7. Salt An ionic substance produced from an acidity by neutralization with a base.DEFINITIONS (KEY WORDS) pH scale A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY PHYSICS . Sacrificial A method of rust prevention in which block of reactive metal is attached to the protection iron surface. fusible. Alloy A mixture of elements. Galvanising A method to prevent rust by coating the object with a layer of a more reactive metal. Metals A element which is typically hard. non-refined and a sticky mixture of hydrocarbons which is separated into useful fractions. Decomposition The breakdown of a compound into simpler substances. metals) designed to have properties that are useful for a particular purpose. malleable. brittle with low density and good insulation capacity. which will corrode in preference to it. thick. . Reaction Periodic Table The table in which the elements are organized in order of increasing proton number and electron arrangement. dull. zinc. shiny. Haber Process An industrial process for making ammonia Rusting A reaction of iron with oxygen and water which causes the iron to corrode. (Scale from 0 . and ductile.(usually. with good electrical and thermal conductivity Non-metals A element which is softer than metals. Groups A vertical column of elements in periodic table Periods A horizontal row of elements in periodic table Valency The number of chemical bond an atom can make. Neutralization A reaction between an acid and a base to produce a salt and water only.

Saturated A hydrocarbon that contains an only single covalent bond between the carbon hydrocarbon atoms where each carbon atom is linked to a maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms. Its general formula is C​n​H​2n+1​OH Homologous Series A family of organic compounds with similar chemical properties as they contain the same functional group. Cracking A thermal decomposition reaction in which long-chain saturated alkane is broken down to a shorter alkane. usually with the formation of an alkene.CH​4​). . Hydration reaction A chemical reaction in which a substance combines with water. Macromolecules Large complex molecules made from the small simple molecule by polymerisation method. Its general formula is C​n​H​2n+2 Alkene An unsaturated hydrocarbon that contains at least one double between two of the carbon atoms in the chain. (simplest alkene is ethene . Monomers The small molecules from which polymers are built by joining them together.DEFINITIONS (KEY WORDS) Hydrocarbon A compound that contains carbon and hydrogen only. Fossil fuel A fuel formed underground from previously living material by the action of heat and pressure over a geological period of time. Polymers A long chain molecule made by joining many monomers together. Alkane A saturated hydrocarbon that contains only single covalent bonds between the carbon atoms of the chain. (simplest alkene is ethene . or groups. Its general formula is C​n​H​2n Alcohol An alcohol is an organic compound containing OH as the functional group which is bonded to a saturated carbon atom. BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY PHYSICS .C​2​H​4​). are added across a carbon-carbon double bond in an unsaturated molecule such as an alkene. Unsaturated A hydrocarbon that contains a double covalent bond between the carbon atoms hydrocarbon where each carbon atom is linked to the lesser number of hydrogen atoms than maximum possible. Polymerisation A process by which long-chain polymer is made from its monomers. Addition Reaction A reaction in which atoms.

DEFINITIONS (KEY WORDS) Addition A polymerisation process in which the monomers contain a carbon-carbon polymerisation double bond and polymerisation takes place by the addition reaction. . usually water. is eliminated. Condensation A polymerisation process in which the linking of monomers takes place by a polymerisation condensation reaction in which a small molecule. BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY PHYSICS .

Moment of force The turning effect of a force about a point. Equilibrium When no net force and no net movement act on a body Pressure The force acting per unit area at right angles to a surface. Newton The SI unit for force. Scalar quantity A quantity that has only magnitude. the force required to give a mass of 1 kg an acceleration of 1 m/s​2 Hook’s law The extension of an object is proportional to the load producing it. given by force X perpendicular distance from pivot to force. . Distance The actual path travelled by the object. Limit of The point beyond which the extension of an object is no longer proportionality proportional to the load producing it. Density It is the ratio of mass to volume for a substance . Velocity The speed of a moving object in a particular direction. Weight The downward force of gravity that acts on an object because of its mass. Resultant force The single force that has the same effect on a body as two or more forces.DEFINITIONS (KEY WORDS) PHYSICS Speed It is the distance travelled by an object per unit time. Vector​ ​quantity A quantity that has both magnitude and direction Mass The property of an object that causes it to have a gravitational attraction for other objects. Extension The increase in the length of a spring when a load is attached. Acceleration The rate of change of object's velocity. Displacement The difference between final position and initial position of the object which can be negative. Time The actual period that an abject takes to some distance. positive or zero. Acceleration due to It is the acceleration of an object falling freely under gravity gravity Force The action of one body on a second body that causes its velocity to change . and that causes it to resist changes in its motion. provided that the limit of proportionality is not exceeded. BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY PHYSICS .

then a. Ammeter A meter for measuring electric current Amp.DEFINITIONS (KEY WORDS) Pascal The SI unit of pressure. . Efficiency The fraction of energy that is converted into a useful form A. Energy The ability to do work.perpendicular to its surface. the energy transferred by a force when it moves Power The capacity to do work.c generator A device used to generate alternating current. Background radiation The radiation from the environment to which we are exposed all time.ampere (A) The SI unit of electric current Amplitude The greatest height of a wave above its undisturbed level Angle of incidence The angle between an incident ray and the normal to the surface at the point where it meets a surface Angle of refraction The angle between a refracted ray and the normal to the surface at the point where it passes from one martial to another Average speed Speed calculated from total distance travelled divided by total time taken Axis The line passing through the center of the lens. Barometer An instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure. Alpha decay The decay of a radioactive nucleus by emission of an a-particle. Alternating current ( Electric current that flows first one way. activity The rate at which nuclei decay in a sample of a radioactive substance. 1 Pa = 1 N/M​2 Work done The amount of energy transferred when one body exerts a force on another. Principle of The total energy of interacting objects is constant provided no net external conservation of energy force acts.c ) the other. Air resistance The frictional force on an object moving through air. in a circuit. BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY PHYSICS . Alpha particle A particle of two protons and two neutrons emitted by an atomic nucleus (a-particle) during radioactive decay. Joule The SI unit of work or energy.

(Electrostatic) Charge A property of an object that causes it to attract or repel other objects with charge. Conductor A substance that transmits heat or allows an electric current to pass through it. Becquerel (Bq) The SI unit of activity.DEFINITIONS (KEY WORDS) Battery Two or more electric cells connected together in series. caused by molecular bombardment. BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY PHYSICS .the world may may also be used to mean a single cell.c motor or generator. Conduction The transfer to heat energy or electrical energy through a material without the material itself moving. 1 Bq = one decay per second. Cell A device that provides a voltage in a circuit by means of a chemical reaction. Center of mass The point at which the mass of an object can be considered to be concentrated. Convection The transfer to heat energy through a material by movement of the material itself. Commutator A device used to allow current to flow to and flow the coil of a d. Compression A region of a sound wave where the particles are pushed close together. Converging lens A lens that causes rays of light parallel to the axis to converge at the principal focus. . Beta decay The decay of radioactive nucleus by emissions of a beta particle. Boyle's law The law that relates the pressures and volume of the fixed mass of gas (pV = constant at constant temperature) Brownian motion The motion of small particles suspended in a liquid or gas. Chemical energy Energy stored in chemical substances and which can be released in a chemical reaction Circuit breaker A safely device that automatically switches off a circuit when the current becomes too high. Beta particle A particle (an electron) emitted by an atomic nucleus during radioactive decay. Biomass fuel A material recently living used as fuel.

where one elementary charge is the charge of the proton or the negative charge of an electron.d. Critical angle The minimum angle of incidence at which total internal reflection occurs. Electromagnet A coil of wire that. Count rate The number of decaying radioactive atoms detected each second ( or minute. Current-voltage A graph showing how the current in a component depends on the p. or hour).24 x 10​18​ elementary charges. One coulomb of Charge It is equal to the quantity of charge transferred in 1 second by a steady current of 1 ampere and is equivalent to 6. BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY PHYSICS . Demagnetisation Destroying at magnetisation of a piece of a material . Current The rate at which electric charge passes a point in a circuit. Earthed When the case of an electrical appliance is connected to the earth wire (for safety). Diverging lens A lens that causes rays of light parallels to the axis to diverge from the principal focus. Crest The highest point of a wave . characteristic Across it. Direct current (d. Electric field A religion of space in which an electric charge will feel a force.c) Electric current that flows in the same direction all the time. . Diode An electrical component that allows electric current to flow in one direction only. Dispersion The separation of different wavelengths of light because they are refracted through different angles. Electrical energy Energy transferred by an electric current. Diffraction When the wave spreads out as it travels through a gap or past the edge of a object.when a current flows in it. Drag The frictional force when an object moves through a fluid (a liquid or a gas ). 1 C = 1 A s Corkscrew rule The rule used to determine the direction of the magnetic field around an electric current.DEFINITIONS (KEY WORDS) Coulomb (C) The SI unit of electric charge.becomes a management.

or number of waves per second passing a point. a cell or power supply) Fleming’s left hand A rule that gives the relationship between the directions of force. Focal length The distance from the centre of lens to its principal focus. formed from long-dead material. -1. radiation Electromagnetic The family of radiation similar to light spectrum Electron Charge The electric charge of a single electron.DEFINITIONS (KEY WORDS) Electromagnetic Energy travelling in the form of waves. Frequency The number of vibrations per second.f) example. smaller than atom Electro-motive force The voltage across the terminals of a source of electrical energy (for (e. Fleming’s right hand A rule that gives the relationship between the directions of force.e) Gravity The force that exists between any two objects with mass Half life The average time taken for half the atoms in a sample of a radioactive material to decay Hard A material that.p. once magnetised. is difficult to demagnetise Incident ray A ray of light striking a surface Image What we see when we view an object by means of reflected or refracted ray.6 x 10​-19​ C Electron A negatively charged particle. used as a fuel. field and rule current when a current flows across a magnetic field. BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY PHYSICS . Gamma ray An electromagnetic radiation emitted by an atomic nucleus during radioactive decay Geothermal energy The energy stored in hot rocks underground Gravitational Potential The energy of an object raised up against the force of gravity Energy (g. Fossil fuel A material. . field and rule current when a current is induced by moving a conductor relative to a magnetic field. Friction The force that acts when two surfaces rub over one another Fuse A device used to prevent excessive current flowing in a circuit.m.

BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY PHYSICS .e) The energy of a moving object Kinetic model of matter A model in which matter consists of molecule in molecule. Light-emitting diode A type of diode that emits light when a current flows through it (LED) Light dependent A device whose resistance decreases when light shines on it resistor (LDR) Load A force that causes the spring to extend Latent heat The energy needed to meat or boil a material Longitudinal Wave A wave in which the vibration is forward and back. for example from radioactive substances. the total kinetic and potential energies of its particles. that cause ionisation Irradiated When an object has been exposed to radiation Isotope Atoms of the same element with a different number of neutrons in their nuclei.DEFINITIONS (KEY WORDS) Impulse The product of a force and the time for which it acts ( impulse = Ft) Infrasound Sound waves whose frequency is so low that they cannot be heard. along the direction in which the wave is travelling Magnetic field The region of space around a magnet or electric current in which a magnet . Ionisation When a particle becomes electrically charged by losing or gaining electrons Ionising radiation Radiation. Induction A method of giving an object an electric charge without making contact with another charged object. Kinetic energy (k. Infrared Radiation Electromagnetic radiation whose wavelength is greater than that of visible light. Laser A device for producing a narrow beam of light of a single colour or wavelength Law of reflection The law relating the angle of incidence of light rat to the angle of reflection (​ i = r ​) Light energy Energy emitted in the form of visible radiation. sometimes known as heat radiation Insulator A substance that transmits heat very poorly or does not conduct electricity Internal energy The energy of an object.

Nuclear energy Energy stored in the nucleus of an atom Nuclear fission The process by which energy is released by the splitting of a large heavy nucleus into two or more lighter nuclei Nuclear fusion The process by which energy is released by the joining together of two small light nuclei to form a new heavier nucleus. Neutron number (​N​) The number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom Non-renewable Energy source which.d across it Potential Difference Another name for the voltage between two points (p. BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY PHYSICS .d) Penetrating power How far radiation can penetrate into different materials Period The time for one complete oscillation of a pendulum. Nucleon A particle found in the atomic nucleus. a proton or a neutron Nuclide A ‘species’ of nucleus having particular values of proton number and nucleon number Ohm The SI unit of electrical resistance Ohmic resistor Any conductor for which the current in it. once used is gone forever Normal The line drawn at right angles to a surface at the point where a ray strikes the surface.is directly proportional to the p. Negative Charge One type of electric charge Magnetism It is causing a piece of material to be magnetised.DEFINITIONS (KEY WORDS) will feel a force. a material is magnetised when it produces a magnetic field around itself. one complete vibration or the passage of one complete wave Pitch How how or low a note sounds Pivot The fixed point about which a lever turns Positive charge One type of electric charge . Neutral Having no overall positive or negative electric charge Neutron An electrically neutral particle found in the atomic nucleus.

or to find the position of cancerous tissue in the body Radiocarbon dating A technique that uses the known rate of decay of radioactive carbon-14 to find the approximate age of an object made from dead organic material. Reflected ray A ray of light that has been reflected after sticking a surface Reflection The change in direction of a ray of light when it strikes a surface without passing through it Refracted ray A ray of light that had changed direction on passing from one materials to another. Radioisotope A radioactive isotope of an element Radioactive tracing A technique that uses a radioactive substance to trace the flow of liquid or gas. Power lines Cables used to carry electricity from power stations to consumers Principal focus The point at which rays of light parallel to the axis converge after passing through a converging lens Proton A positively charged particle found in the atomic nucleus Proton charge The electric charge of a single proton. BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY PHYSICS . Rarefraction A region of a sound wave where the particles are further apart. Refraction The bending of a ray of light on passing from one material to another Refractive Index The property of a material that determines the extent to which it causes rays of light to be refracted. Relay An electromagnetically operated switch Renewable Energy source which when uses will be replenished naturally Resistance A measure of the difficulty of making an electric current flow through a device or a component in a circuit .DEFINITIONS (KEY WORDS) Potential divider A part of a circuit consisting of two resistors connected in series.6 x 10​-19​ C Proton number (​Z​) The number of protons in an atomic nucleus Radiation Energy spreading out from a source carried by particles or waves Radioactive decay The decay of a radioactive substance when its atomic nuclei emit radiation Real image A image that can be formed on the screen Radioactive substance A substance that decays by emitting radiation from its atomic nuclei. +1.

h. uniform wave on the surface of water Slip rings A device used to allow current to flow to and from the coil of an a. can easily be demagnetised Solar Cell An electrical device that transfers the energy of sunlight directly to electricity. once magnetised. or colors of light. separated out in order according to their wavelengths Speed of light The speed at which light travels (usually in a vacuum : 3.c motor or generator Snell’s law The law that reflects the angles of incidence and refraction : refractive index = (sin ​i​)​ ​/ (sin ​r​) Soft It describes a material that.c) Specific Latent heat The energy required to melt or boil 1 kg of a substance Spectrum Waves. Solenoid A coil of wire that becomes magnetised when a currents flows through it Sound energy Energy being transferred in the form of sound waves Sound wave A wave that carries sound from place to place Specific Heat capacity A measure of how much thermal (heat) energy a material can hold (s. by producing a voltage when light falls on it.0 x 10​8​ m/s) Spring constant The ratio of force to extension for a spring which obeys Hooke’s law Static electricity Electric charge held by a charged insulator Strain energy Energy on an object due to its having been stretched or compressed Temperature A measure of how hot or cold something is Terminal velocity The greatest speed reached by an object when moving through a fluid Thermal (heat) energy Energy being transferred from a hotter place to a colder place because of the temperature difference between them Trough The lowest point on a wave Thermal expansion The expansion of a material when it temperature rises Thermal equilibrium It describes the state of two objects (or a object and its surroundings) that .DEFINITIONS (KEY WORDS) Resistor A component in an electric circuit whose resistance reduces the current flowing Ripple A small. BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY PHYSICS .

d or e.m. one volt is equal to one joule per coulomb (1 V = 1 J/C) Voltage The ‘push’ of a battery or power supply in a circuit Voltmeter A meter for measuring p. Volt (V) The SI unit of voltage or p. Thermistor A resistor whose resistance changes a lot over a small temperature range Total internal reflection When a ray of light strikes the inner surface of a solid material and 100% of (TIR) the light reflects back inside it Transducer Any device that converts energy from one form to another Transformer Any device used to change the voltage of an a. steam or water.c electricity supply Transverse wave A wave in which the vibration is at right angles to the direction in which the wave is travelling Trip switch A device used to protect an electric circuit in case of an electrical fault Turbine A device that is caused to turn by moving air.f.DEFINITIONS (KEY WORDS) are at same temperature so that there is no heat flow between them.d (voltage) between two points Watt (W) The SI unit of power. Virtual image An image that cannot be formed on a screen. often used to generate electricity Ultrasound Sound waves whose frequency is so high that they cannot be heard Ultraviolet radiation Electromagnetic radiation whose frequency is higher than that of visible light Upper limit of hearing The highest frequency of sound that a person can just hear Variable resistor A resistor whose resistance can be changed. the power when 1 J of work is done in 1 s Wave speed The speed at which wave travels Wavefront A line joining adjacent point on a wave that are all in step with each other Wavelength The distance between 2 adjacent crests (or troughs) of a wave . BIOLOGY CHEMISTRY PHYSICS . formed when rays of light appear to be spreading out from a point.