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Small Ruminant Research 101 (2011) 196–204

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Bioactive components of ovine and caprine cheese whey夽
Blanca Hernández-Ledesma, Mercedes Ramos, José Ángel Gómez-Ruiz ∗
Institute of Food Science Research (CIAL, CSIC-UAM), Nicolás Cabrera 9, Campus de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid, Spain

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Cheese whey, also known as sweet whey, is a by-product of cheese-making that con-
Available online 22 October 2011 tains many valuable constituents. Among them, whey proteins stand out for their high
nutritional value in terms of biological value and composition in essential amino acids. In
Keywords: recent years, the increasing demand for caprine and ovine cheeses has produced impor-
Cheese whey
tant amounts of whey from these species, boosting research on the biological activities
Sheep and goat whey proteins
of its constituent proteins. Different bioactivities have been associated to these proteins,
Bioactive peptides
among them antihypertensive, antimicrobial, opioid, antioxidant and immunomodulant
Health activity being the most studied. Although biological activities are present in the intact
proteins, in many cases whey proteins act as precursors of bioactive peptides that are
released from the hydrolysis of these proteins with different enzymes. This review presents
an overview of the different biological activities described for caprine and ovine cheese
whey proteins as well as for other whey components such as lactose, oligosaccharides or
© 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction their reducing properties of chronic diseases risk (Correia
and Cruz, 2006).
Goat and sheep milk have traditionally been a vital The average protein content in sheep milk (5.8%, w/w)
part of the cultural heritage and national economy of is higher than in goat (4.6%, w/w) or cow milk (3.3%, w/w).
Mediterranean countries, particularly France, Italy, Spain Whey is the soluble fraction of milk, rich in proteins, min-
and Greece. Rearing goats and sheep is gaining importance erals and lactose that are separated from casein during the
worldwide, and the production of derived dairy prod- manufacture of cheese or casein. Rennet-driven coagula-
ucts has experienced an important increase, making them tion releases the sweet whey or cheese whey, while that
of particular economic value in these countries (Pandya obtained from the mineral or lactic acid coagulated casein is
and Ghodke, 2007; Raynal-Ljutovaca et al., 2008). Excel- called acid whey. Whey from ovine and caprine species has
lent cheeses are made with goat and sheep milk. Some a unique protein composition that depends on factors, such
of the best known are Roquefort, Peccorino Romano, Feta, as the type of whey (acid or sweet), the time of the year,
Manchego, Bryndza and the French goat milk cheeses. Spe- the type of feed, the stage of lactation and the quality of
cific texture and taste of sheep and goat milk, as well processing. Distribution of individual proteins in sheep and
as their nutritional and functional properties, have made goat milk whey and its comparison with cow milk is shown
them a valuable and healthier alternative to cow milk. Even, in Table 1. The major whey proteins are ␤-lactoglobulin
many authors have called them “functional foods” because (␤-Lg) and ␣-lactalbumin (␣-La). Immunoglobulins (Igs),
of their modulating activity of physiological functions and serum albumin and proteose-peptones are present in
smaller concentrations. Another soluble protein found in
small amounts is lactoferrin (LF) and, in the case of cheese
夽 This paper is part of the special issue entitled Products from Small whey, caseino-macropeptide (CMP) is also present. Other
Ruminants, Guest Edited by A. Govaris and G. Moatsou. components including lactose, oligosaccharides or miner-
∗ Corresponding author. Tel.: +34 91 5622900; fax: +34 91 5644853.
als are also important in the whey.
E-mail address: (J.Á. Gómez-Ruiz).

0921-4488/$ – see front matter © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

. Fox et al. sive immunity with IgG (Sutton and Alston-Mills. More. sport meals.0–9.3 explain the high consumption of this kind of products is Lactoferrin 0. One of the reasons to Serum albumin 0. body weight by providing satiety signals that affect both in last decades.26–0. could also act as source of numerous bioactive peptides.0 1. Compared to bovine proteins. 2009). Table 1 such as lactose. antioxidant. Hahn et al. Milk whey whey proteins. Since primary structures of these proteins ipate in the digestion of milk lipids during the neonatal show a great homology with those observed for bovine pro.. some of them shared with peptides derived proteins exhibit a range of biological activities that influ. marized in Table 2. 1983.5 1.3 kDa. ˇ-Lactoglobulin tance to disease. exert specific biological activities.3–0.2–1.0 ␤-Lactoglobulin 3.55–0.. from its hydrolysis. sheep and goat milk included in this review. intestinal uptake of retinol. 2000).2–4.05–0. oligosaccharides and minerals will be also Concentration of the main whey proteins in cow. Hernández-Ledesma et al. Moreover. . In addition.2 0. soluble and globular protein. ovine and caprine ␤-Lg are shown in Table 1. suggested the role of this protein as a resistant carrier 2008). such as antihypertensive. 2010). Other physiological activities of the individual products and its role upon human health.. containing 162 2008.10 0.7–5.0 2.. whey has been viewed as a by-product of tional food component to contribute to the regulation of dairy industry with little value for the consumers. ␤- mineral binding (Yalcin. Reported activities for ␤-Lg are sum- process during food production (e. bioactivity of other components of cheese whey. sheep. or bovine. are described in this review.6 0.1 protein cookies and in tablet form. Lg is a small. (Storry et al.2–2. capable to ␤-Lg is the major whey protein found in cow. and resis. termed bioactive peptides.8 powdered beverages.7–7. nutrition bars. The homology of ␤-Lg tertiary structure matic hydrolysis. 2006. whey proteins seem to have potential as a func- Traditionally. whey protein-derived bioactive peptides with the plasma retinol-binding protein as well as its high are mainly produced by the second step using different stability to proteolytic action of digestive enzymes has enzymes or by chemical synthesis (Morris and Fitzgerald. triglycerides. 2007). opioid. amino acids in a single peptide chain with a molecular tive peptides that can be released by either technological weight of 18. sheep and goat origin. high- ␣-Lactalbumin 1.8–10. Other possible functions have been described and caprine whey proteins and derived-peptides.6 0. 2. immunomodulant. metabolic responses to absorbed nutrients. period. and long-chain it is predictable that ovine and caprine whey proteins fatty acids in pre-ruminant calves (Kushibiki et al.4 3. only few reports have of retinol (a provitamin A).12 that whey protein has been reported to support net muscle mass gains with resistance exercise (Phillips et al.. 2006). Unlike casein-derived bioac. Moreover. Whey proteins Bovine Ovine Caprine Whey proteins can be consumed as ready-to-drink and Total whey proteins 5. 1). In addition. Typical concentrations of antimicrobial. Madureira et al. cheese) or by enzy. there is a growing interest focused on the short-term and long-term food intake regulation (Luhovyy nutritional properties of whey proteins and whey-derived et al. such as its role in developing pas- over. and it has been speculated that this protein may play This review will be focused on the most recent research a role in the absorption and subsequent metabolism of advances pertaining to the biological properties of ovine fatty acids. growth and development of specific organs. fatty acid binding focused on peptides released from ovine and caprine milk sites characterized on ␤-Lg allow this protein to partic- whey proteins.6–1. 2001). 1998. it has been shown that ␤-Lg enhances teins (see primary structure of ␤-Lg as an example.1.g. However. B.6 0..0 8. ence digestion. Fig. hydrolysis of these proteins can release fragments. Marked letters indicate differences between sequences. Hernández-Ledesma et al.. / Small Ruminant Research 101 (2011) 196–204 197 Fig. goat and other ruminants’ milk.8–2. Primary structure of ␤-Lg from cow. for this whey protein. Concentration (g/L) 2. 1.

Idota et al.. serum albumin’s inhibitory activity of breast cancer cells proliferation through modulation of autocrine growth reg- ulatory factors (Table 2). transports and supplies the tions of ␣-La in bovine.. HAMLET has broad antitumor activity in vitro. 2010).2.. Likewise. (1995a) Caseinomacropeptide Anti-cariogenic activity Oh et al. with its bovine counterpart. Laursen et al. its antioxidant activity has been reported ␤-Lg is widely recognized and has made this protein an to be effective on protecting lipids against phenolic induced ingredient of choice in the formulation of modern foods oxidation (Smith et al. (2001) Immunomodulatory activity Togawa et al. functional protein that binds. with values of approxi- ␣-La (Table 2). LF exerts its antimicrobial activity by two cells by a process resembling programmed cell death. 2006). (2002) Treatment of chronic stress-induced diseases Ganjam et al. (1995) ␣-Lactalbumin Lactose synthesis Markus et al. 2001). Concentra. (2010) Antiviral activity Van der Strate et al. Table 2). (1997) Anti-carcinogenic activity Hallgren et al. and its ther. (1992) Anti-carcinogenic activity Laursen et al. glioblastoma rat xenograft model. ␤-Lg is a rich source of Cys. 2002). et al. (1990) revealed and beverages (Chatterton et al.... 2010). (1995.125 mg/mL. Olakanimi et al. 1992). mately 0.. (2010) Growth and development Balan et al. an anticarcinogenic tripeptide produced by the Because of its size and structure. (1992) Transfer of passive immunity Sutton and Alston-Mills (2006) Immunomodulatory activity Wong et al. Hernández-Ledesma et al. (2000). The best known is the anti-tumoral activ. Protein Biological function Reference ␤-Lactoglobulin Carrier of retinol.. The high nutritional and functional value of 2002). (2004) Wong et al. (1998) Anti-carcinogenic activity Mcintosh et al. Moreover. (2007). different mechanisms. Mercier et al. (1998) demonstrated that this whey protein 2. (1992. The iron binding properties seem to Table 1. (2002) Anti-thrombotic activity Qian et al. (2002) Immunoglobulins Immunomodulatory activity Balan et al. (1984). in patients with skin LF also displays antiviral activity against both DNA. synthesis. Moreover. Both sheep and goat ␣-La possesses high homology vary between LF from different species (Sreedhara et al. 2008). (1994) Anti-thrombotic activity Manso et al. ity observed for the complex between human ␣-La and Traditionally it has been recognized to possess antimicro- oleic acid called HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made bial and antifungal properties (Orsi. (2005) Immunomodulatory activity Wakabayashi et al. ovine and goat milk are included in organism with iron. Kawasaki et al. 2. / Small Ruminant Research 101 (2011) 196–204 Table 2 Biological functions of whey proteins. 1993) Immunomodulatory activity Otani and Monnai (1995).198 B.4. Some in vivo stud- lysosomal membrane permeabilization. also known as lactotransferrin. This complex is able to kill tumor 2002. (2008) Serum albumin Synthesis of lipids Choi et al. a complex of bovine ␣-La and oleic blocking cellular receptors or by direct binding to the virus acid (BAMLET) killed tumor cells via a mechanism involving particles (Van der Strate et al. .and papillomas and in patients with bladder cancer (Hallgren RNA-viruses preventing their entry in the host cell either by et al. an Serum albumin is a 582 amino acids-protein that essential amino acid that appears to stimulate glutathione appears in milk after its passive leakage from blood. 1995). Serum albumin stimulates normal murine spleen cells proliferation and Igs production. 1996) Prebiotic activity Azuma et al. is a globular multi- because of its requirements in lactose synthesis. 2004.. 2010). and it is physiologically important LF. serum albumin binds free liver for protection against intestinal tumors (Mcintosh fatty acids. (2002) Anti-proliferative activity Xu et al. Lactoferrin 14 kDa that consists of a single polypeptide chain with eight cysteine residues. ˛-Lactalbumin ␣-La is a small and globular protein of approximately 2. (2002) Antioxidant activity Smith et al. participating in synthesis of lipids (Choi et al. Otani et al. showing potent ies have shown that LF exerts a protective effect against cytotoxic activity against eight different cancer cell lines colitis in rats via modulation of the immune system and (Rammer et al. Recent research has revealed that bovine LF induced apeutic effect has been confirmed in vivo in a human apoptosis of human stomach cancer cells (Xu et al. lethal to tumor cells). The levels of this protein in sheep and goat milk are Some important bioactivities have been reported for slightly higher than in cow milk..1 mg/mL and 0. respectively (Table 1).. correction of cytokine imbalance (Togawa et al. (2009) Lactoperoxidase Antimicrobial activity de Wit and van Hooydonk (1996) Antiviral activity Shin et al.3. (1990) Lactoferrin Antimicrobial activity Orsi (2004) Antifungal activity Olakanimi et al. fatty acids and triglycerides Pérez et al.

Recently. 1998). cytokine production. Caseinomacropeptide C-terminal region f(113–135) of lactophorin. 2004). in recent years. and it is released by chymosin (or pepsin) cleav. 2004). immunomodulatory properties. until its own immune system is developed. intestinal as ␣-lactorphin. (1996) synthesized ing protection against diseases in the ruminant neonate three peptides from ␣-La with sequences YG. the cardiovascular effects of the tetrapeptide YGLF. Its unique amino acid composition makes it adequate for special 3. 1996). 1995a). In a study carried inmunomodulating and prebiotic activity (Mikkelsen et al... Igs constitute a complex group of globular pro.. (2006) used cheese microflora to pro- demonstrated that lactoperoxidase acts regulating expres.. ovine and caprine milk in the most active fraction (Table 3). Table 2). a ␤-Lg hydrolyzate was prepared 2006).. / Small Ruminant Research 101 (2011) 196–204 199 Finally. The biological properties of the CMP whey protein-derived peptides. 2002). which makes it a useful ingredient in During last years. B. and two potent ACE-inhibitory peptides were identified. was later tested in SHR and in normoten- and plasma Ig concentrations in growing rats (Balan et al. LLF and LQKW (Hernández-Ledesma et al. co-culture of Candida parapsilosis and Lactobacillus para- soluble fraction of milk whey. Antihypertensive peptides branched-chain amino acids (valine and isoleucine) and low in methionine. ferritin. such as phagocytosis.. 2005. duce several hydrolyzates of acid caprine whey with sion of genes involved in metabolism. This peptide. lysozyme. has been obtained after protein hydrolysis of caprine ␣-La activated lymphocyte proliferation through inhibition of (Bordenave. which provides protec.6. involvement of opioid receptors in its depressor action Lactoperoxidase is an important part of the natural (Nurminen et al. combined with lactoferrin in a cell culture. CMP is rich in 3. Chobert teins. YGLF and LF. The highest activity was obtained and cell cycle of epithelial intestinal cells (Wakabayashi after whey fermentation by the microflora from 18-months et al. Lactophorin is a minor casei.. 2000). 2004). 2006). associated with peptides derived from bovine milk. it has and their ACE-inhibitory activity was studied. This lial function. has been reported to display growth inhibitory CMP is composed by the 64 C-terminal amino acids of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative ␬-casein. Angiotensin converting have received much attention in recent years (see review enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory properties have received spe- Thoma-Worringer et al. CMP also exerts tides (Recio et al. also been reported to have suppressive effects on mitogen. proteose-peptone. 2005). It has been demonstrated to have thrombin-induced platelet aggregation (Qian et al. The 2. apoptosis.. mucosa against pathogenic microorganisms. prolactin and folate-binding protein (Park et al. 2000). improving vascular relaxation in adult SHR enzyme. Despite none been demonstrated that oral administration of ovine serum of these peptides showed very strong inhibitory activity.. How- cesses (Manso and López-Fandiño. this ovine Ig fraction improving growth performance. Fractionation by RP-HPLC and amino acid analysis phosphoglycoprotein corresponding to component-3 of allowed the identification of the ␣-La fragment f(104–108) proteose-peptone found in bovine.. IFN-␥ production (Mercier et al. purified ovine LF and its pepsin hydrolyzate inhibit (Lister et al. ripened Comté cheese that was further characterized as a Proteose-peptone is defined as a heat-stable and acid.. ing heart rate in SHR and WKY with evidences for an 2009). Bioactive peptides derived from whey proteins diets. Shin et al. ␣-Lactorphin. 2007).. has in vitro (Sipola et al. Hernández-Ledesma et al. preventing the binding of different pathogens to cells on ACE-inhibitory and/or antihypertensive peptides are or the adhesion of bacteria implicated in cariogenic pro. Mullally et al. being effective on IgM pro- duction of hybridoma cells (Sugahara et al. and of yoghurts made protein).. been reported (Hernández-Ledesma et al. A recent study ever.. sheep and goat milk whey proteins has demonstrated the CMP’s protecting effect against acidic have become an important source of ACE-inhibitory pep- erosion of teeth (Setarehnejad et al. organ dose-dependently lowered blood pressure without affect- weight and gut morphology in growing rats (Balan et al. These authors 2007). sive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). Recent studies have Didelot et al. antihypertensive mechanism of this tetra-peptide showed tion against invading microorganisms and virus (de Wit that its beneficial effect was directed towards endothe- and van Hooydonk. the antihypertensive effect of these two peptides in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) has Ovine and caprine milk whey contain minor pro. Table 3). also provid. immunity.. from ovine milk using different starters. called lac- tophoricin. CMP is able to interact with cial attention due their potential beneficial effects in toxins. bacteria (Campagna et al. On the other hand.. calmodulin (calcium binding ovine ␤-Lg hydrolysed with trypsin.1. 2010). (2005) investigated the ACE-inhibitory activity of lactoperoxidase. including Igs. out in our laboratory. have focused their studies on bioactivities associated with Salam et al. 2009. known lymphocyte proliferation. A more recent study . ACE-inhibitory activity. food scientists and technologists diets for patients suffering from hepatic diseases (Abd El. a peptide also 2010). Other proteins 2002). age of ␬-casein during cheese manufacturing. 2007). 2. the treatment of hypertension.. for instance in phenylketonuria patients’ diets since no phenylalanine is present. identified in this hydrolyzate several peptides responsible teins produced by B-lymphocytes that protects the gut for this activity (Table 3). Most published reports tion. viruses and bacteria due to its carbohydrate frac. et al. Subsequently. Further studies to shed light on the host defence system in mammals.. using thermolysin. transferrin. 1996. These authors had previously reported the effect of produced by enzymatic hydrolysis with pepsin and trypsin. Additionally.. Ig modulates aspects of immunity.5. ␣-lactorphin.

found that undigested bovine. / Small Ruminant Research 101 (2011) 196–204 Table 3 Sequence of bioactive peptides derived from ovine and caprine milk whey proteins. (1995b) CMP f(106–111)a . A contracting effect of this peptide demonstrated (Prioult et al..200 B. f(92–105). 2010). Antimicrobial and immunomodulatory peptides the activity observed in the ovine LF hydrolysate could be caused by other LF fragments (Recio and Visser.4 ␮M) thermolysin et al. 2003). Lg with pepsin and trypsin. b Goat milk proteins. b MAIPPKK ACE-inhibitory Tryptic hydrolysis Manso and López-Fandiño (2003) Lactoferrin f(14–42)b PEWSKCYQW Antibacterial Hydrolysis with pepsin Recio and Visser (2000) QRRMRKLGAP SITCVRRTSA ␣-La (104–108)b WLAHK ACE-inhibitory Cheese microflora Didelot et al. 2004). corresponding to fragment f(102–105) and lated from ␤-Lg enzymatic hydrolyzates has also been called ␤-lactorphin. Likewise. b MAIPPK ACE-inhibitory Tryptic hydrolysis Manso and López-Fandiño (2003) CMP f(106–112)a . These peptides positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Wakabayashi et al. ACE-inhibitory pep. or trypsin and chymotrypsin The immunomodulating potential of peptide fractions iso. but their digestion under sim. lactoferricin (LFcin). but it increased considerably after digestion under human LF f(1–47). identified. (1995b) CMP f(163–171)a TAQVTSTEV Antithrombotic Tryptic hydrolysis Qian et al. identified in the caprine LF hydrolysate (Table 3). 2000). the antimicrobial and immunostimulatory activities of ␤-Lg hydrolysed with different gastrointesti- nal proteinases have been examined by Biziulevicius et al. Peptide fragment Sequence Biological activity Produced by References ␤-Lg f(58–61)a LQKW ACE-inhibitory Hydrolysis with Hernández-Ledesma (3. f(84–91).2. and a homologous the potent antihypertensive tri-peptide IPP (IC50 value of peptide to LFcin. Only a peptic hydrolyzate of ovine ACE-inhibitory activity. and hence. 1992).3. have been purified and identified tides MAIPPK and MAIPPKK. and f(142–148) have been reported ␤-Lactorphin also improved the impaired vascular func- to stimulate murine splenocytes proliferation through the tion in mesenteric rings of adults SHR (Sipola et al. 2001). Recently. called respectively bovine and human simulated gastrointestinal conditions. although no peptides were identi. ␤-Lg has been found to be precursor of several opioid f(25–40). yielded YLLF. 1991). corresponding to fragment f(14–42). (2004) to inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli HB101. corresponding to ␬-CN (Bellamy et al. Hydrolysis of caprine and ovine LF by pepsin ulated gastrointestinal conditions allowed the release of resulted in antibacterial hydrolyzates.. Manso dose dependent manner. modulation of cytokine secretion (Jacquot et al. (1995b) CMP f(165–171)a QVTSTEV Antithrombotic Tryptic hydrolysis Qian et al.. (2005) CMP f(112–116)a KDQDK Antithrombotic Tryptic hydrolysis Qian et al. (2002. (2006) ␣-La (104–108)b YGLF ACE-inhibitory Hydrolysis with pepsin Bordenave (2000) (733 ␮M)c Antihypertensived a Ovine milk proteins. 2009). ulated guinea pig ileum in vitro (Antila et al. 2001). Proteolytic digestion of bovine ␤-Lg by trypsin allowed the release of four peptide fragments [f(15–20). (2005) ␤-Lg f(1–8)a IIVTQTMK ACE-inhibitory Tryptic hydrolysis Chobert et al. (2002. These peptides showed a potent f(106–111) and f(106–112) respectively. on smooth muscle has been determined in coaxially stim- responding to ␤-Lg fragments f(15–20). were identified antimicrobial activity against a wide range of Gram- from CMPs via proteolysis with trypsin. showed moderate activity. caprine and ovine CMP exhibited moderate ACE-inhibitory The antibacterial domains of bovine LF f(17–41) and activity. f(55–60). f(92–100)] with bactericidal activity peptides (Pihlanto-Leppälä.. fied (Hamme et al. peptides cor. Opioid peptides (2006). 3. Bacil- ACE-inhibitory peptides have also been identified in lus subtilis Cip5262 and Staphylococcus aureus 9973 in a hydrolyzates derived from ovine and caprine CMP.. also used microorganisms isolated from raw milk cheeses antibacterial and/or immunostimulating peptides from to produce several hydrolyzates of acid caprine whey with ovine and caprine ␤-Lg... but responsible peptides were not and López-Fandiño (2003). The region corresponding to the LFcin within the sequence of ovine LF was hydrolysed by the action of pepsin.. was 5 ␮M). a few data are reported about the release of lial function and also enhanced endothelium-independent . Hernández-Ledesma et al. c Studies carried out in the bovine peptide. f(78–83). f(139–148). 2007) Antihypertensive ␤-Lg f(103–105)a LLF ACE-inhibitory Hydrolysis with Hernández-Ledesma (82. Digestion of bovine ␤- against Gram-positive bacteria (Pellegrini et al. 3. This beneficial action was directed towards endothe- However.5 ␮M) thermolysin et al. ␣-La and ␤-Lg has been demonstrated by El-Zahar et al. 2007) Antihypertensive ␤-Lg f(142–148)a ALPMHIR ACE-inhibitory Tryptic hydrolysis Chobert et al. 2002).

B...4. the whey. Cu. Mg and Cl. et al. (1991). Ca. K. was slightly higher and Cl are almost entirely soluble and fully available in the (2. f(9–14).9% total minerals or ash. By fat-soluble vitamins are incorporated to the curd during using Caco-2 cell screening. / Small Ruminant Research 101 (2011) 196–204 201 relaxation. the ovine and caprine counterparts are gaining importance tides responsible of this activity were not identified. K. have resulted in the presence of multitude of whey prod- tent of 4. The most abundant elements are Ca. respec. reverse osmosis or ion exchange among others. The amount chymotrypsin digest of ␤-Lg by Yoshikawa et al. including ultrafiltration. compared to 0. and caprine CMPs and their hydrolyzates with trypsin and now the whey is seen as a potential source of bioactive were found to be inhibitors of human platelet aggregation components that can be used in the formulation of multiple (Manso et al. Fe. 2006. etc. with the sequence WYSLAMAASDI. 2009). Furthermore. these authors identified four cheese-making while water-soluble vitamins go mainly to kinds of novel peptide sequences which inhibited choles. 2007). due to the worldwide increase in the production of dairy products based on the milk of these animals. In this work. Sheep peptides with radical scavenging and lipid peroxida. claim their properties to growth or maintenance muscle cium. anti-stress and memory-enhancing 250–300 mg/mL. A posterior study of these authors provided the first Vitamins are physiological. i. milk (Park et al. proteins are especially important in terms of biological activity. whey powders. and Cu are higher in sheep than in cow proteases. For instance. P. has around 0. whey protein concentrates. However. and metabol- evidence that ␤-Lg tryptic hydrolyzate had hypocholes.. Lactose is the major carbohydrate in milk with a con. P. a general name for N-acetylneuraminic acid 2007).9 g/100 mL in sheep ucts in the market. and is richer than cow milk for most of the vitamins (Park VYVEELKPTPEGDLEILLQK. magnesium and phosphorous. Many of these oligosaccharides contain activities (Yamauchi et al. sialic acid. These peptides are also present has a significant drawback in folic acid and vitamin B12 in caprine and ovine ␤-Lg. it has been found that this peptide also (Neu5Ac) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). In the literature is described than sheep milk terol absorption in vitro. and Mn are the trace elements. goat milk f(41–60) of bovine ␤-Lg. cow milk. GLDIQK. TAQVTSTEV f(163–171) and QVTSTEV sheep cheese whey as source and precursor of bioactive f(165–171) that completely inhibited thrombin-induced compounds. which corresponded. among other effects. 2002).3. Mg. 2007). 1992). K. bovine. having high oxygen radical scavenging activity. Mg. Hernández-Ledesma et al. 20–30 mg/mL while in caprine milk is in the range of cholesterol-lowering.2. the infant’s brain among other positive effects (Park. Most of the terolemic activity in rats (Nagaoka et al. Goat most appropriate enzyme to produce ␤-Lg hydrolyzates milk contains about 134 mg of Ca and 121 mg of P/100 g. of oligosaccharides in ovine milk is in the range of It has a variety of actions including antinociceptive. The levels idant activity of hydrolyzates of ␤-Lg by commercial of Ca. ␤-Lactotensin (HIRL) is a peptide isolated from a possess prebiotic and anti-infective properties. Sialic suppresses food intake in mice after its oral administration acid present in milk seems to promote the development of (Hou et al... Although less explored than bovine whey. and less ical scavenging activity of one of the identified peptides. However. and the utilization mass. Among the dif- 4. The rad. On the other hand. from ovine CMP showed the strongest effect. goat and sheep milk have higher tively. IIAEK. Whey proteins have been reported to exhibit a greater hypocholesterolemic effect in comparison with casein or 4. (2005) investigated the antiox. Lactose and oligosaccharides processing technology. 2007). 2009). Final considerations Qian et al. P. 2001).e. are partly retained in the curd during cheese-making. microfil- tration. b. 3. there- (2. Overall.7% in tion inhibitory activities is receiving a special attention... Ohinata et al. and P are associated in different proportions by the synthetic antioxidant butylhydroxyanisole (BHA) to the colloidal suspension of casein micelles and. Minerals peptides Many major and trace minerals play an important role in In last few years. (1995b) hydrolysed ovine CMP with trypsin and identified three peptides with the sequences This review shows the remarkable potential of goat and KDQDK f(112–116). and amount of vitamin A than cow milk. where aspartic acid (D) is replaced by asparagine (N) in the caprine and ovine sequences. but the pep.4. Other biological activities of whey protein-derived 4. and Hernández-Ledesma et al. 4. the hydrolyzate obtained functional foods. Many of these products.62 ␮mol Trolox equiv. 1991. Vitamins soybean proteins in rats (Nagaoka et al. Recently. These authors found that Corolase PP was the milk. the searching for whey-derived the physiology and metabolism of the human body. ALPMH. Na. goat milk has more Ca. Other bioactive components in cheese whey ferent components of cheese whey. f(142–146). pro- nutrient because favours the intestinal absorption of cal. Na. Zn.1.43 ␮mol Trolox equiv. Zn. Fe.. biochemical. as happens with of vitamin C. to fragments f(71–75).1 g/100 mL in goat milk and 4. Mg. the opposite appears to be the case of K and Na. The traditional view of cheese whey as a by- human platelet aggregation. ical bioactive compounds occurring in milk. 2009). fore. This disaccharide is a valuable reduced lactose whey./␮mol peptide) than that shown whey. The advances in 4.. ovine product of dairy industry with little value has disappeared. except for the longest sequence compared to cow milk (Park. milk oligosaccharides other claimed activities for whey proteins including their . Na and S contents than cow milk (Park et al. 2003a./␮mol BHA).

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