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Mechanical Engineering Laboratory Report

Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger

Name: MUHAMMAD NADEEM ATTA

Student ID: SUKD1400458

Group ID: N

Course Code: EGE3431

Course Name: Laboratory Investigation 4

Submission Date: 20-10-2017

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ABSTRACT:
A heat exchange is a piece of process in which heat exchange takes place between two fluids that
enters and exit at different temperatures. In parallel flow the hot and cold fluids flow in the same
direction and in counter flow the two fluids flow in the opposite direction. In parallel flow heat
exchanger enter and exit on the same side and in counter flow it’s enter and exits in opposite
directions. A test was performed to accumulate data by calculating temperature values at inlet and
outlets of the shell and tube as the mass flow rate for one flow was kept various while of the other
was kept constant. Heat losses, heat transfer coefficient and LMTD values were used to calculate
the measured values. At the end, it was concluded that there comes no obvious change in the
amount of heat absorbed by changing the flow arrangement.

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CONTENT TABLE
i. Abstract
ii. Objective
iii. Introduction & Theory
iv. Apparatus
v. Procedure
vi. Results
vii. Calculations
viii. Graphs
ix. Discussion
x. Conclusion
xi. References

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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING & BUILT ENVIRONMENT

SUBJECT: EME 3431 LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS 4

EXPERIMENT 5: SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGERS

Objective:

To collect the data and calculate the heat losses, heat transfer coefficient and LMTD values. And
also determine the effect flow configurations of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger.

Introduction and Theory:

 Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger

Most chemical processes involve heat transfer to and from the process fluids. The most commonly
used heat-transfer equipment is the shell and tube heat exchanger. If the fluids both flow in the
same direction, as shown in Figure 1a, it is referred to as a parallel-flow type; if they flow in the
opposite directions, a counter flow type.

Figure 1a: Temperature profile for a parallel-flow heat exchanger.

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Figure 1b: Temperature profile for a counter flow heat exchanger.

Figure 1c: Temperature profile for a 1:2 heat exchanger.

 Heat Balance

For a parallel-flow shell and tube heat exchanger with one tube pass and one shell pass shown in
Figure 2a, the heat balance is given as:
mtCpt (t2 - t1) = msCps(T1 - T2) = q (1)

Similarly, for the counter flow shell and tube heat exchanger with one tube pass and one shell pass
shown in Figure 2b, the heat balance is given as:

mtCpt (t2 - t1) = msCps(T1 - T2) = q (2)

Where,

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mt = mass flow rate of cold fluid in the tube (kgs-1)
ms = mass flow rate of hot fluid in the shell (kgs-1)
Cpt = specific heat of cold fluid in the tube (kJkg-1°C-1)
Cps = specific heat of hot fluid in the shell (kJkg-1°C-1)
t1, t2 = temperature of cold fluid entering/leaving the tube (°C)
T1, T2 = temperature of hot fluid entering/leaving the shell (°C)
Q = heat exchange rate between fluid (kW)

 Heat Transfer
The general equation for heat transfer across the tube surface in a shell and tube heat exchanger
is given by:

q =UoAoTm = UiAiTm (3)

Where,

Ao = outside area of the tube (m2)


Ai = inside area of the tube (m2)
Tm = mean temperature difference (°C)
Uo = overall heat transfer coefficient based on the outside area of the tube (kWm-2°C-1)
Ui = overall heat transfer coefficient based on the inside area of the tube (kWm-2°C-1)

The coefficients Uo and Ui are given by:

Ui = Qavg ÷ (Ai∆Tm)
Uo = Qavg ÷ (Ao∆Tm)

And Ai and Ao are given as:

Where,

Ai = nπDiL

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Ao = nπDoL

N = number of tube
do = tube outside diameter (m)
di = tube inside diameter (m)

The mean temperature difference for both parallel and counter-flow shell and tube heat exchanger
with single shell pass and single tube pass is normally expressed in terms of log-mean temperature
difference,

T1  T2
Tlm  (6)
T
ln 1 

 T2

Where, T1 and, T2are as shown in Fig. 1a and Fig. 1b.

For a more complex heat exchanger, such as 1:2 heat exchanger (Fig. 1c), an estimate of the
true temperature difference is given by,

Tm= FtTlm (7)

Where Ft is the temperature correction factor as a function of two dimensionless temperature ratios
R and S:

(T1  T2 ) (t  t )
R And, S  2 1 (8)
( t 2  t1 ) (T1  t1 )

Having calculated R and S, then Ft is determined from the standard correction factor figures.

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Apparatus:

 Shell & Tube Heat Exchanger


Tube O.D. (do) 9.53mm
Tube I.D. (di) 7.75mm
Tube Length (L) 500mm
Tube Count (Nt) 10 (single pass)
Tube Pitch (pt) 18mm
Tube arrangement Triangle
Shell O.D. 100mm
Shell I.D. (Ds) 85mm
Baffle Count 8
Baffle Cut (Bc) 20 %
Baffle Distance (lB) 50 mm
Material of Construction 316L Stainless Steel/Borosilicate Glass

 Cold Water Circuit


Tank 50 liter
Material Stainless Steel
Circulation Pump Centrifugal type
Operating Flow rate 10 LPM (dry-run protected by level switch)

 Hot Water Circuit


Tank 50 liter
Material Stainless Steel
Circulation Pump Centrifugal type
Operating Flow rate 20 LPM (dry-run protected by level switch)
Heating System 11.5 kW immersion type heater protected by
temperature controller and level switch

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Procedure:
General Start-up Procedures
i. A quick inspection was conducted to ensure that all equipment was in pristine
condition.
ii. It was made sure that all valves were closed, except V2 and V12.
iii. The hot water tank via a water supply hose was connected to valve V27. Once the tank
is full, valve was closed.
iv. Cold-water tank was filled by opening valve V 28 and left the valve opened for
continues water supply.
v. Drain hose was connected to the cold water drain point.
vi. Main power was switched on. Heater for the hot was switched on water tank and
temperature controller was set to 50 °C.
vii. The water temperature was allowed into the hot water tank to reach the set-point.
viii. The equipment was now ready to be run.
ix. Valves were arranged to counter current shell and tube heat exchanger.
x. Pumps P1 and P2 were switched on.
xi. Valve V3 and V14 were opened and adjusted to obtain the desire flow rates for hot and
cold water streams.
xii. System was allowed to reach the steady state for 10 minutes.
xiii. FT1, FT2, TT1, TT2, TT3 and TT4 were recorded.
xiv. Step 3 and 5 for different combinations of FT1 and FT2 were repeated as shown in
results.

General Shut-down Procedures

i. The heater was switched off. Wait until the hot water temperature drops below 50°C.
ii. Pump P1 and pump P2 was switched off.
iii. Switch off main power.
iv. All water was drained into the process lines. Retain water in the hot and cold water tanks for
next laboratory session.
v. All valves were closed.

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Process Instruments

It is important that the user read and fully understand all the instructions and precautions stated in
the manufacturer's manuals supplied with the unit prior to operating. The following procedures
serve as a quick reference for operating the unit.

 Temperature Controller

i. The first line displays the liquid temperature in the tank while the second line displays
the set value. Set value were adjusted as follows.
ii. ENT button was pressed, and then press UP or DOWN arrow key continuously until
almost near the desired set value.
iii. Press UP or DOWN arrow key one by one until desired set value is reached. Notice
that the least digit point is flashing.
iv. For registering the data ENT was pressed. Notice that the least digit point goes off.

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Results And Calculations:
 Counter flow:
1. Heat Loss – (Constant cold water flow rate for counter flow)

Mass Mass T1(℃) T2(℃) t2(℃) t1(℃) Qh Qc Qavg Heat


flow flow (kW) (kW) (kW) loss,
rate of rate of Qh – Qc
hot cold (kW)
water, water,
FT1 FT2
(LPM) (LPM)
2 10 49.9 42.4 31.9 30.7 1.57 0.83 1.2 0.74
4 10 49.9 43.6 32.8 30.6 1.74 1.52 1.63 0.22
6 10 50.1 44.6 33.5 30.7 2.28 1.94 2.11 0.34
8 10 50.2 45.0 34.2 30.7 2.89 2.42 2.66 0.47
10 10 50.4 45.6 34.6 30.7 3.32 2.70 3.01 0.62

2. Heat Loss - (Constant hot water flow rate for counter flow)

Mass Mass T1(℃) T2(℃) t2(℃) t1(℃) Qh Qc Qavg Heat


flow flow (kW) (kW) (kW) loss,
rate of rate of Qh – Qc
hot cold (kW)
water, water,
FT1 FT2
(LPM) (LPM)
10 2 50.1 47.2 39.8 30.7 2.01 1.26 1.64 0.75
10 4 49.8 46.2 37.2 30.9 2.49 1.74 2.12 0.75
10 6 49.7 45.7 36.3 30.9 2.77 2.24 2.51 0.53
10 8 49.6 45.4 35.3 30.8 2.91 2.49 2.70 0.42
10 10 50.3 45.5 34.7 30.7 3.32 2.77 3.05 0.55

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 Parallel flow:
3. Heat Loss – (Constant cold water flow rate for parallel flow)

Mass Mass T1(℃) T2(℃) t1(℃) t2(℃) Qh Qc Qavg Heat


flow flow (kW) (kW) (kW) loss,
rate of rate of Qh – Qc
hot cold (kW)
water, water,
FT1 FT2
(LPM) (LPM)
2 10 49.9 41.3 30.6 32.3 1.19 1.18 1.19 0.01
4 10 49.7 43.5 30.5 32.8 1.72 1.59 1.66 0.13
6 10 50.0 44.5 30.6 33.5 2.28 2.01 2.15 0.27
8 10 49.8 44.9 30.6 34.1 2.71 2.42 2.57 0.29
10 10 49.9 45.4 30.6 34.6 3.11 2.77 2.94 0.34

4. Heat Loss – (Constant hot water flow rate for parallel flow)

Mass Mass T1(℃) T2(℃) t1(℃) t2(℃) Qh Qc Qavg Heat


flow flow (kW) (kW) (kW) loss,
rate of rate of Qh – Qc
hot cold (kW)
water, water,
FT1 FT2
(LPM) (LPM)
10 2 50.2 47.2 30.5 37.8 2.08 1.01 1.55 1.07
10 4 49.9 46.5 30.6 37.8 2.35 1.99 2.17 0.36
10 6 49.6 45.9 30.8 36.7 2.56 2.45 2.51 0.11
10 8 50.4 46.1 30.8 35.5 2.98 2.60 2.79 0.38
10 10 50.6 46.0 30.7 34.9 3.18 2.91 3.05 0.27

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Long Mean Temperature Difference:
 Counter flow:
1. Long mean & true temperature difference (constant cold water)

Mass Mass T1(℃) T2(℃) t2(℃) t1(℃) R P F ΔTlm ΔTm


flow flow (oC) (oC)
rate of rate of
hot cold
water, water,
FT1 FT2
(LPM) (LPM)
2 10 49.9 42.4 31.9 30.7 6.25 0.06 1.00 14.62 14.62
4 10 49.9 43.6 32.8 30.6 2.86 0.11 0.99 14.96 14.81
6 10 50.1 44.6 33.5 30.7 1.96 0.14 0.99 15.21 15.06
8 10 50.2 45.0 34.2 30.7 1.49 0.18 0.98 15.13 14.80
10 10 50.4 45.6 34.6 30.7 1.23 0.20 0.99 15.35 15.20

2. Long mean & true temperature difference (constant hot water)

Mass Mass T1(℃) T2(℃) t2(℃) t1(℃) R P F ΔTlm ΔTm


flow flow (oC) (oC)
rate of rate of
hot cold
water, water,
FT1 FT2
(LPM) (LPM)
10 2 50.1 47.2 39.8 30.7 0.32 0.47 0.95 13.16 12.50
10 4 49.8 46.2 37.2 30.9 0.53 0.36 0.97 13.64 13.23
10 6 49.7 45.7 36.3 30.9 0.74 0.29 0.96 14.10 13.54
10 8 49.6 45.4 35.3 30.8 0.93 0.24 0.96 14.45 13.87
10 10 50.3 45.5 34.7 30.7 1.20 0.20 0.98 15.20 14.90

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 Parallel flow:

3. Long mean & true temperature difference (constant cold water)

Mass Mass T1(℃) T2(℃) t1(℃) t2(℃) R P F ΔTlm ΔTm


flow flow (oC) (oC)
rate of rate of
hot cold
water, water,
FT1 FT2
(LPM) (LPM)

2 10 49.9 41.3 30.6 32.3 5.06 0.09 0.98 13.50 13.23


4 10 49.7 43.5 30.5 32.8 2.70 0.12 0.98 14.54 14.25
6 10 50.0 44.5 30.6 33.5 1.90 0.15 0.99 14.80 14.65
8 10 49.8 44.9 30.6 34.1 1.40 0.18 0.96 14.60 14.07
10 10 49.9 45.4 30.6 34.6 1.12 0.21 0.98 14.64 14.35

4. Long mean & true temperature difference (constant hot water)

Mass Mass T1(℃) T2(℃) t1(℃) t2(℃) R P F ΔTlm ΔTm


flow flow (oC) (oC)
rate of rate of
hot cold
water, water,
FT1 FT2
(LPM) (LPM)
10 2 50.2 47.2 30.5 37.8 0.41 0.37 0.96 13.92 13.36
10 4 49.9 46.5 30.6 37.8 0.47 0.37 0.95 13.30 12.66
10 6 49.6 45.9 30.8 36.7 0.63 0.31 0.97 13.43 13.03
10 8 50.4 46.1 30.8 35.5 0.91 0.24 0.98 14.64 14.35
10 10 50.6 46.0 30.7 34.9 1.1 0.21 0.98 15.07 14.77

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Overall heat transfer coefficient:
 Counter flow:
1. Overall heat transfer coefficient (constant cold water flow)

Mass Mass Total T1 T2 t2 t1 Ai Qavg ΔTm Ui


flow flow mass (℃) (℃) (℃) (℃) (m2) (kW) (oC) (kW
rate, rate, flow /m2o
𝑚̇h 𝑚̇c rate, 𝑚̇ C)
(kg/s) (LPM) (kg/s)

0.0331 0.1655 0.1986 49.9 42.4 31.9 30.7 0.12 1.2 14.62 0.68
0.0662 0.1655 0.2317 49.9 43.6 32.8 30.6 0.12 1.63 14.81 0.92
0.0993 0.1655 0.2648 50.1 44.6 33.5 30.7 0.12 2.11 15.06 1.17
0.1324 0.1655 0.2979 50.2 45.0 34.2 30.7 0.12 2.66 14.80 1.50
0.1655 0.1655 0.331 50.4 45.6 34.6 30.7 0.12 3.01 15.20 1.65

2. Overall heat transfer coefficient (constant hot water flow)

Mass Mass Total T1 T2 t2 t1 Ai Qavg ΔTm Ui


2
flow flow mass (℃) (℃) (℃) (℃) (m ) (kW) (oC) (kW
rate, rate, flow /m2o
𝑚̇h 𝑚̇c rate, 𝑚̇ C)
(kg/s) (LPM) (kg/s)

0.1655 0.0331 0.1986 50.1 47.2 39.8 30.7 0.12 1.64 12.50 1.09
0.1655 0.0662 0.2317 49.8 46.2 37.2 30.9 0.12 2.12 13.23 1.34
0.1655 0.0993 0.2648 49.7 45.7 36.3 30.9 0.12 2.51 13.54 1.54
0.1655 0.1324 0.2979 49.6 45.4 35.3 30.8 0.12 2.70 13.87 1.62
0.1655 0.1655 0.331 50.3 45.5 34.7 30.7 0.12 3.05 14.90 1.71

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 Parallel flow:

3. Overall heat transfer coefficient (constant cold water flow)

Mass Mass Total T1 T2 t1 t2 Ai Qavg ΔTm Ui


flow flow mass (℃) (℃) (℃) (℃) (m2) (kW) (oC) (kW
rate, rate, flow /m2o
𝑚̇h 𝑚̇c rate, 𝑚̇ C)
(kg/s) (LPM) (kg/s)

0.0331 0.1655 0.1986 50.2 47.2 30.5 37.8 0.12 1.19 13.23 0.75
0.0662 0.1655 0.2317 49.9 46.5 30.6 37.8 0.12 1.66 14.25 0.97
0.0993 0.1655 0.2648 49.6 45.9 30.8 36.7 0.12 2.15 14.65 1.22
0.1324 0.1655 0.2979 50.4 46.1 30.8 35.5 0.12 2.57 14.07 1.52
0.1655 0.1655 0.331 50.6 46.0 30.7 34.9 0.12 2.94 14.35 1.71

4. Overall heat transfer coefficient (constant hot water flow)

Mass Mass Total T1 T2 t1 t2 Ai Qavg ΔTm Ui


flow flow mass (℃) (℃) (℃) (℃) (m2) (kW) (oC) (kW
rate, rate, flow /m2o
𝑚̇h 𝑚̇c rate, 𝑚̇ C)
(kg/s) (LPM) (kg/s)
0.1655 0.0331 0.1986 50.2 47.2 30.5 37.8 0.12 1.55 13.36 0.97
0.1655 0.0662 0.2317 49.9 46.5 30.6 37.8 0.12 2.17 12.66 1.43
0.1655 0.0993 0.2648 49.6 45.9 30.8 36.7 0.12 2.51 13.03 1.61
0.1655 0.1324 0.2979 50.4 46.1 30.8 35.5 0.12 2.79 14.35 1.62
0.1655 0.1655 0.331 50.6 46.0 30.7 34.9 0.12 3.05 14.77 1.72

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Calculation:
Water density, ρ = 993 kg/m3
Specific heat constant, C = 4.1813kJ/kgoc
Volume flow rate,𝑉̇ = 1 LPM
1
= m3/s
60×1000
= 1.667×10-5m3/s

Mass flow rate, 𝑚̇ = ρ×Volume flow rate (𝑉̇ )


= 993 × 1.667×10-5
= 0.01655 kg/s

Heat transfer, Qc= 𝑚̇ cCc(t2-t1)


= (0.01655)(10)(4.1813)(31.9-30.7)
= 0.83kW

Heat transfer, Qh= 𝑚̇ hCh(T1-T2)


= (0.01655)(2)(4.1813)(49.9-42.4)
= 1.57kW

Average heat transfer, Qavg = (Qh + Qc)/2


= (1.57 + 0.83)/2
= 1.20 kW
Heat losses = Qh – Qc
= 1.03-0.83
= 0.77kW

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(T1  T2 )
R
 (t 2  t1 )

50.1−44.6
=
33.5−30.7

= 1.9643

(t 2  t1 )
P
 (T1  t1 )

33.5−30.7
=
50.1−30.7
= 0.1443

1
RP−1
1−( P−1 )N
 X= 1
RP−1
R −( P−1 )N

(1.9643×0.1443)−1
1−( )
0.1443−1
= (1.9643×0.1443)−1 where N = 1
1.9643− ( )
0.1443−1

= 0.14

√R2 +1 1−X
( ) ln( )
R−1 1−RX
F= 2
X −1−R+√R2 + 1
ln( 2 )
−1−R− √R2 + 1
X

√1.96432 +1 1−0.1443
( ) ln ( ) = 0.4057
1.9643−1 1−(1.9643×0.1443)
2
−1−1.9643 + √1.96432 +1
ln ( 0.1443
2 ) = 0.4103
0.1443
−1 −1.9643− √1.96432 +1

Page 18 of 30
0.4057
=
0.4103
=0.99

(for parallel flow) (for counter flow)


ΔT1 = T1– t1 ΔT1 = T1– t2
= (49.8 – 30.6) = (50.1 – 33.5)
= 19.2oC = 16.6oC
(for parallel flow) (for counter flow)
ΔT2 = T2 – t2 ΔT2 = T2 – t1
= (41.4 – 32.3) = (44.6 – 30.7)
= 9.1oC = 13.9oC

T1  T2
Long mean temperature difference, Tlm 
ln  T1 

 T2

(50.1−33.5)−(44.6−30.7)
= (50.1−33.5)
ln((44.6−30.7))

= 15.21 oC

True temperature difference, Tm= FTlm


= 0.99×15.21
= 15.06 oC
Area, Ai = n𝜋DiL = 10𝜋(0.00775)(0.5)
= 0.12 m2
Overall heat transfer coefficient, Ui = Qavg / AiΔTm
= 1.20 / (0.12×14.62)
= 0.68 kW/m2oC
Page 19 of 30
Graph:
 Counter flow:
 Counter flow when constant cold water flow

Temperature difference vs Length


60
Temperature Difference (oC)

50
40
30
20
10
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
Length (m)

Cold water Hot water

Heat transfer vs Volume flow rate


4
Heat transfer (kW)

3
2
1
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12

Volume flow rate (LPM)


Cold water Hot water

Page 20 of 30
LMTD & ETTD vs Volume flow rate
15.4
LMTD & ETTD (oC)

15.2
15
14.8
14.6
14.4
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Volume flow rate (LPM)

LMTD ETTD

Heat transfer coefficient vs Heat transfer


Heat coefficient, U (kW/m2oC)

2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
Average heat transfer (kW)

Series1

Page 21 of 30
 Counter flow when constant hot water flow

Temperature difference vs Length


60
Temperature difference (oC)

50
40
30
20
10
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
Length (m)

Cold water Hot water

Heat tranfer vs Volume flow rate


4
Heat transfer (oC)

3
2
1
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Volume flow rate (LPM)

Cold water Hot water

Page 22 of 30
LMTD & ETTD vs Volume flow rate

20
LMTD & ETTD (oC)

15
10
5
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Volume flow rate (LPM)

LMTD ETTD

Heat transfer coefficient vs Heat transfer


2
Heat coefficient, U (kW/m2oC)

1.5
1
0.5
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
Average heat transfer (oC)

Series1

Page 23 of 30
 Parallel flow:
 Parallel flow when constant cold water flow

Temperature difference vs Length


60
Temperature difference (oC)

40

20

0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
Length (m)

Cold water Hot water

Heat transfer vs Volume flow rate


3.5
3
Heat transfer (oC)

2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Volume flow rate (LPM)

Cold water Hot water

Page 24 of 30
LMTD & ETTD vs Volume flow rate
15
LMTD & ETTD (oC)

14.5

14

13.5

13
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Volume flow rate (MPL)

LMTD ETTD

Heat transfer coefficient vs Heat transfer


2
Heat coefficient, U (kW/m2oC)

1.5

0.5

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
Average heat transfer (oC)

Series1

Page 25 of 30
 Parallel flow when constant hot water flow

Temperature difference vs Length


60
Temperature difference (oC)

50
40
30
20
10
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
Length (m)

Cold water Hot water

Heat transfer vs Volume flow rate


3.5
3
Heat transfer (oC)

2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Volume flow rate (LPM)

Cold water Hot water

Page 26 of 30
LMTD & ETTD vs Volume flow rate
15.5
LMTD & ETTD (oC)

15
14.5
14
13.5
13
12.5
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Volume flow rate (LPM)

LMTD ETTD

Heat transfer coeffient vs Heat transfer


2
Heat coefficient, U (kW/m2oC)

1.5

0.5

0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
Average heat transfer (oC)

Series1

Page 27 of 30
Discussion:
Heat exchanger follows the first law of thermodynamics that says Energy can neither be created
nor be destroyed but can only change from one form to another. In this experiment heat energy
transferred from the hot water in the shell to the cold water in the tube was observed and different
temperature values were measured at inlets and outlets of shell and tube while keeping the mass
flow rate of one constant and of the other variable.

Heat transferred can easily be determined using the values of temperature and mass flow rate. This
is known as heat transfer rated q which accounts for amount of heat energy in joules transferred
per second. It is shown using Heat transfer rate against mass flow rate graph. One can easily
conclude that as the mass flow rate increases the amount of heat transferred increases.
Heat transfer coefficients were determined using Qavg and inside area of the tube. Graph between
the Temperature and length brief us about the effect of length of tube on the heat transfer. As water
in the shell and tube move either in counter or co-current flow heat transfer keeps increasing. Heat
transfer coefficient at inside and outside of the tube account for the feasibility of heat transfer.

Given all the values of log mean temperature difference that was one of the objective of this
experiment we are able to see a very minute effect caused by the flow configuration. Hence, it can
be concluded that there comes no big change in the efficiency of the experiment by using any
specific flow configuration. In practical application, the counter flow configuration is preferred for its higher
effectiveness. Additionally, the counter flow configuration is also capable of have a cold fluid exit temperature that
is higher than the hot fluid exit temperature. This experiment did not show that this configuration does in fact have a
higher effectiveness than the parallel flow configuration.

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Conclusion:
From the collected data, the common features of counter and parallel flow of heat exchanger can
be observed. The exit temperature of the cold fluid is not higher as compare to the exit temperature
of the hot fluid of the counter current and co-current heat exchanger. Theoretically, heat gain by
the cold water should be equal to the amount of heat loss from hot water. According to the
calculations, the values of log mean temperature difference for co-current flow is higher as
compare to the counter current flow and overall heat transfer coefficient for counter current flow
is higher than the co-current flow. The numerical values of temperature changes but the ratio
between the temperature differences doesn’t change. By the law of thermodynamics, the energy is
transferred hot to cold fluids with constant mass flow rate.

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References:

 Perry, R.H., Green, D.W. and Maloney, J.O. “Perry’s Chemical Engineering Handbook
(6th Edition)”, McGraw-Hill, 1984.
 H&C Heat Transfer Solutions. (2015). “Heat Exchanger Types and Selection.” H&C
Heat Transfer Solutions. (online Article).
http://www.hcheattransfer.com/selection.html.
 Thomasnet.com. (2016). “Types of Heat Exchangers”. Thomas Publishing Company.
(online article) http://www.thomasnet.com/articles/process-equipment/heat-
exchanger-types
 ]Lytron Total Thermal Solutions. (2016). “What is a heat exchanger?”. Lytron Total
Thermal Solutions.(online article) http://www.lytron.com/Tools-and-Technical-
Reference/Application-Notes/What-is-a-HeatExchanger
 ]Mahans Thermal Products. (2015). “Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers: Pros and Cons.”
Mahns Thermal Products. (online article).
https://heatexchangerswthdougleschan.wordpress.com/2014/12/28/types-of-heat-
exchangersand-their-pros-and-cons/.

 Coulson, J.M. and Richardson, J.F. “Chemical Engineering, Volume 1 (3rd Edition)”,
Pergamon Press, 1977.
 Kern, D.Q. “Process Heat Transfer (Int’l Edition)”, McGraw-Hill, 1965.

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