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2^_haXVWc © 20009 Eritek, Inc. All rights reserved. Eritek, Inc. Visual Solutions, Inc.
Printed and bound in the USA. 319 Edwards Ferry Rd. 487 Groton Road
vcug-045-1 Leesburg, VA 20176 Westford, MA O1886

CaPST\PaZb VisSim is a trademark of Visual Solutions. VisSim/Comm is a joint
trademark of Eritek and Visual Solutions. Other products mentioned in
this manual are trademarks of their respective manufacturers.
2^_hP]SdbT The information in this document is subject to change without notice and
aTbcaXRcX^]b does not represent a commitment by either Eritek or Visual Solutions.
Eritek and Visual Solutions do not assume responsibility for errors that
may appear in this document.

No part of this manual may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any
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restrictions as set forth in FAR 52.227-19, subparagraph (c)(i)(ii) of DOD
FAR SUPP 252.227-7013, or equivalent government clause for other
agencies.

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What’s new in version 4.5................................................................................................. ix
Conventions used in this manual....................................................................................... xi
For VisSim/Comm Personal Edition users....................................................................... xii
For Plus Option users ...................................................................................................... xiii
Online VisSim/Comm documentation ............................................................................ xiii
Technical support service................................................................................................ xiii

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A typical communication system ....................................................................................... 1
Data source .......................................................................................................... 2
Data encoder ........................................................................................................ 2
Modulator............................................................................................................. 2
Channel ................................................................................................................ 2
Demodulator ........................................................................................................ 3
Data decoder ........................................................................................................ 3
Signal sink............................................................................................................ 3
Lowpass equivalent systems .............................................................................................. 3
Communication blocks....................................................................................................... 4

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Starting VisSim/Comm ...................................................................................................... 7
The VisSim/Comm environment........................................................................................ 8
Inserting blocks.................................................................................................... 8
Connecting blocks................................................................................................ 8
Block connectors.................................................................................................. 8
Optional connectors ............................................................................... 9
Unconnected connectors........................................................................ 9
Connector labels .................................................................................... 9
Diagram timing .................................................................................................... 9
Random numbers ............................................................................................... 10
Setting up block parameters ............................................................................... 10
Global Variables .................................................................................. 10
Range checking.................................................................................... 11
Choosing an integration method ........................................................................ 11

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.................................................................................... 38 Integrate & Dump (Real) ............. 15 Filter Viewer............. 14 Phase scatter plots.............................................. 27 Multipath................................................................... 36 FM Demodulator.............................................................................. 36 DQPSK..... 18 Varying the SNR for each run.................................................................................. 35 Complex to Real/Imag ................................................................................ 31 TWTA...................... 39 PSK Detector ............................................................................ 19 Sample communication simulation ........ 17 Enabling multiple consecutive runs ......................... 29 Rice/Rayleigh Fading..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 35 Mag/Phase to Complex .............................................................................................................................................................. 25 AWGN (Real) ............................................................................... 12 BER curves ........................................................................................................................ 32 Complex Math category ...... 25 Binary Symmetric Channel..................................... 35 Square Root............................................ 18 Calculating BER measurement ...................................................... 21 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc !$ Channels category ............ 12 Eye plots ...................... 34 Multiplication................................................................... 26 Jakes Mobile .................................2^]cT]cb Output plots.......................................... 34 Division............................................................................................................................................................................................... 15 Generating BER curves......................................................................................................... 38 PPM Demodulator ......................... 36 Real/Imag to Complex ............................................. 34 Inverse................................................................................ 25 AWGN (Complex)................................................................................................................................................................................ 36 Demodulators category ................................................................. Pi/4-DQPSK Detector ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 13 Frequency domain plots..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 33 Conjugate ................................................................ 28 Propagation Loss................................ 39 Xe ...................................................................................................... 37 Integrate & Dump (Complex) ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 34 Power ............................................................... 33 Addition ............................................................................................................ 35 Complex to Mag/Phase ................................................... 30 Rummler Multipath..........................

..................... 73 Modulators categories – Complex and Real................ 63 File FIR .................................................. 55 Average Power (Complex)............... 61 Variance ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 56 BER Curve Control........................................................ 61 Weighted Mean....................................................................................................... 63 Adaptive Equalizer (Real)................................................................................................................................. 51 Viterbi Decoder (Hard) ................................................................... 69 Sampling FIR......... 47 Block Interleaver....................................................................... 63 Adaptive Equalizer (Complex) ............................................................................................................................................................................. 42 Divide by N............................ 67 Sampling File FIR........... 53 Viterbi Decoder (Soft) .... 42 D Flip Flop............................................................................................................................................. 2^]cT]cb QAM/PAM Detector............... 43 Mux/Demux ........................................................................................ 56 Average Power (Real)..................................................................................................................... 59 Bit/Symbol Error Rate ............... 45 Serial to Parallel............................................................................................................................................................................... 47 Convolutional Encoder ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 65 FIR Filter.......................................................... 49 Gray Decoder ....................................... 41 Bits to Symbol........................................ 46 Symbol to Bits ................................................................................................................................. 70 MagPhase........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 48 Convolutional Interleaver ............................................. 66 IIR ....................................................... 75 e . 58 Delay Estimator ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 59 Event Time........................................................................................................................................... 43 JK Flip Flop .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 47 Encode / Decode category.................... 44 Parallel to Serial.................................. 62 Filters category................................................................................................................................................................................... 60 Mean .............................................................................................................. 41 Binary Counter.................................. 60 Median .. 40 Digital category............................................................................................................................................................................. 57 Correlation ........................... 45 Queue .......................................................................................................................... 51 Trellis Encoder................... 50 Trellis Decoder ..................................................................................................................................................... 50 Gray Encoder .................................... 54 Estimators category .........................................................................................................

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AM..................................................................................................................... 75
DQPSK,Pi/4-DQPSK......................................................................................... 75
FM...................................................................................................................... 76
FSK .................................................................................................................... 77
MSK................................................................................................................... 78
PM...................................................................................................................... 79
PPM ................................................................................................................... 80
PSK .................................................................................................................... 81
BPSK ................................................................................................... 83
QPSK................................................................................................... 84
8-PSK .................................................................................................. 84
16-PSK ................................................................................................ 85
QAM/PAM ........................................................................................................ 85
16-QAM .............................................................................................. 88
32-QAM .............................................................................................. 88
64-QAM .............................................................................................. 89
256-QAM ............................................................................................ 90
4-PAM ................................................................................................. 90
8-PAM ................................................................................................. 90
SQPSK Modulator ............................................................................................. 91
Operators category ........................................................................................................... 92
A/D Converter.................................................................................................... 93
Compander......................................................................................................... 94
Complex Exponential......................................................................................... 95
Complex FFT/IFFT............................................................................................ 95
Conversions ....................................................................................................... 97
Decibels to Power ................................................................................ 97
Decibels to Real................................................................................... 97
Degrees to Radians .............................................................................. 97
Hertz to Rad/sec................................................................................... 97
Mag/Phase to Real/Im.......................................................................... 98
Power to Decibels ................................................................................ 98
Radians to Degrees .............................................................................. 98
Rad/sec to Hertz................................................................................... 98
Real to dB ............................................................................................ 99
Real/Im to Mag/Phase.......................................................................... 99
Decimation......................................................................................................... 99
Delay (Complex).............................................................................................. 100
Delay (Real) ..................................................................................................... 100
Gain (dB) ......................................................................................................... 101
IQ Mapper........................................................................................................ 101
Max Index ........................................................................................................ 102
Modulo............................................................................................................. 102
Phase Rotate..................................................................................................... 103

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Phase Unwrap .................................................................................................. 103
Polynomial ....................................................................................................... 104
Spectrum Analyzer........................................................................................... 104
PLL category.................................................................................................................. 106
Charge Pump.................................................................................................... 106
Loop Filter (2nd Order PLL) ........................................................................... 108
Loop Filter (3rd Order PLL) ............................................................................ 109
Type-2 Phase Detector ..................................................................................... 110
Type-3 Phase Detector ..................................................................................... 110
Type-4 Phase Detector ..................................................................................... 111
VCO (Complex)............................................................................................... 111
VCO (Real) ...................................................................................................... 111
RF category .................................................................................................................... 112
Amplifier.......................................................................................................... 113
Attenuator ........................................................................................................ 114
Coupler............................................................................................................. 114
Double Balanced Mixer ................................................................................... 115
Splitter/Combiner............................................................................................. 116
Switch .............................................................................................................. 118
Variable Attenuator.......................................................................................... 119
Signal Sources category ................................................................................................. 119
Complex Tone.................................................................................................. 119
File Data........................................................................................................... 120
Frequency Sweep ............................................................................................. 121
Impulse............................................................................................................. 122
Impulse Train ................................................................................................... 122
Noise ................................................................................................................ 122
PN Sequence .................................................................................................... 123
Random Seed ................................................................................................... 125
Random Symbols ............................................................................................. 125
Rectangular Pulses ........................................................................................... 126
Sinusoid ........................................................................................................... 126
Walsh Sequence ............................................................................................... 127
Waveform Generator ....................................................................................... 128

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Compound blocks........................................................................................................... 131
COSTAS_C.VSM............................................................................................ 131
COSTAS_R.VSM............................................................................................ 132
GMSK.VSM .................................................................................................... 132
PLL1CPLX.VSM............................................................................................. 132
PLL1REAL.VSM ............................................................................................ 132

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PLL2CPLX.VSM............................................................................................. 133
PLL2REAL.VSM ............................................................................................ 133
TWTA_TBL.VSM........................................................................................... 134
V32DIFDE.VSM ............................................................................................. 134
V32DIFEN.VSM ............................................................................................. 134
VCPG.VSM ..................................................................................................... 135
Data files ........................................................................................................................ 135
AMAM.DAT ................................................................................................... 135
AMPM.DAT .................................................................................................... 135
DATA_IN.DAT ............................................................................................... 135
PSK_GRAY.DAT............................................................................................ 135
QAM_GRAY.DAT.......................................................................................... 136
TABLFILT.DAT ............................................................................................. 136
V32QAM.DAT ................................................................................................ 136
V32TRELS.DAT ............................................................................................. 136
VTB3SOFT.DAT............................................................................................. 136

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Computer requirements .................................................................................................. 141
Installing VisSim/Comm................................................................................................ 141
Readme files..................................................................................................... 141

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5. ?aTUPRT Welcome to version 4. VisSim/Comm provides the ideal solution for designing and simulating analog and digital end-to-end communication links. Xg . the VisSim/Comm DLL functions are compatible with the calling convention of the new VisSim/C-Code option. phase locked loops. This manual describes how to use VisSim/Comm.0. VisSim/Comm now fully supports the use of global variables as block parameters in simulation diagrams. The new release also adds many communication blocks that were requested by current users. Since all VisSim/Comm blocks are compiled as a Windows DLL. which can provide additional reductions in execution time. the simulation execution speed of such blocks exceeds that of a functionally equivalent VisSim compound block. channel models. This topic is discussed in detail in Chapter 2. demodulation. error correcting codes. Please consult the VisSim User’s Guide for more details on such topics. Using VisSim/Comm.” It is assumed in this manual that you are familiar with the use and operation of the VisSim simulation environment. making them more powerful and flexible. Furthermore. communication engineers can significantly reduce the computing load required to support most communication analysis problems. In addition. VisSim/Comm enables the use of complex envelope simulations.5 of VisSim/Comm. be sure to read “)RU9LV6LP&RPP3HUVRQDO (GLWLRQXVHUV. Through its support of complex math. The VisSim/Comm library supports digital and analog modulation. FWPc´b]TfX]eTabX^]#$ With the release of version 4. If you’ve purchased VisSim/Comm Personal Edition. many existing blocks include expanded features. The tables on the following page list the major additions and modifications since version 3. By using lowpass equivalent models. and bit error rate analysis to mention a few.

QWHUOHDYHU 6DPSOLQJ).5 Filters 6DPSOLQJ)LOH).5 Filters 'HOD\ &RPSOH[.?aTUPRT New Blocks Block Category 0XOWLSDWK Channels 3URSDJDWLRQ/RVV Channels )0'HPRGXODWRU Demodulators &RQYROXWLRQDO Encoders/Decoders .

g . ).PSXOVH7UDLQ Signal Sources :DYHIRUP*HQHUDWRU Signal Sources Modified Blocks Block Modification . and frequency. support internal decimation of filter sampling rate. Estimators 0HGLDQ Estimators :HLJKWHG0HDQ Estimators .5)LOWHU Save FIR filter coefficients to a file in a format compatible with the File FIR filter block. )LOH). The vector output has three elements: magnitude.5)LOWHU Addition of elliptic filter type. view filter response.5 Support internal decimation of filter sampling rate. phase. view filter response. )LOWHU 0DJ3KDVH Provide a vector output representing the internal magnitude and )LOWHU phase response of the implemented filter.. addition of Hilbert filter type.40DSSHU Operators 3KDVH8QZUDSSHU Operators 6SHFWUXP$QDO\]HU Operators &KDUJH3XPS PLL 7\SH3KDVH'HWHFWRU PLL 7\SHDQG3KDVH)UHT PLL 'HWHFWRU :DOVK6HTXHQFH Signal Sources .

and describe block parameter units. ?aTUPRT Block Modification 36. SMALL CAPS To indicate the names of keys on the keyboard. or section.0RGXODWRU Specify gain and phase imbalance 4$00RGXODWRU Specify gain and phase imbalance &RPSOH[))7 Unwrap the phase response and remove linear phase. The following visual conventions are used to make this manual easier to read: Visual convention Where it’s used Italics To reference a book. support of augmented sequences. gX . 2^]eT]cX^]bdbTSX]cWXb\P]dP[ This manual assumes that you are already familiar with the VisSim graphical user interface. selecting a block. If you need to review the interface. when you read press the OK button. you can use the mouse or you can press a sequence of keyboard keys. chapter. • Unless specifically stated otherwise. Average multiple FFTs. 5DQGRP6HHG Control whether the random seed is reset during runs which use the Auto Restart setting 'LYLGHE\1 Output either rectangular pulses or impulses.. Only the mouse operations are documented. $PSOLILHU Addition of the IP4 specification 316HTXHQFH Specify the generator coefficients and the initial state of the internal shift register. The following conventions are used in this manual: • Block descriptions are arranged alphabetically within each category. or activating a dialog box parameter.. For example. Also used to emphasize certain keywords. • To choose a menu command. consult your VisSim User’s Guide. scale the frequency units of the FFT output. you are to position the pointer over the specified object and click the left mouse button. use the left mouse button whenever you are choosing a command. Block categories are presented in alphabetical order. Please refer to the Comm Online Help file for a complete listing and description of Comm blocks..

 . command names. filenames.?aTUPRT Visual convention Where it’s used Shortcut key combinations Shortcut key combinations are joined with the plus sign (+). ALL CAPS To indicate directory names. 3URSDJDWLRQ/RVV. and acronyms.36. and dialog box options. Initial Caps To indicate menu names. your software will have the following limitations: • Block diagrams cannot exceed 100 blocks • The XVHU)XQFWLRQ block and HPEHG block are unavailable for use • The following communication blocks are not available in the Comm menu: Channels: -DNHV0RELOH. For example. 5^aEXbBX\2^\\?Tab^]P[4SXcX^]dbTab If you’ve purchased VisSim/Comm Personal Edition. π'436. the command CTRL+C means to hold down the CTRL key while you press the C key.. 7:7$ Complex Math: 3RZHU Demodulators: '436.

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• Online release notes. the following online information is available: • Online help. CTRW]XRP[bd__^acbTaeXRT When you need assistance with a Visual Solutions product. contact the Visual Solutions sales dept. These diagrams. For your convenience. If you would like to purchase the Plus Option. VisSim/Comm and Windows that you’re using • The type of hardware that you’re using • All screen messages • What you were doing when the problem happened • How you tried to solve the problem gXXX . Extensive online information is provided for the VisSim simulation environment from the Help menu. and consult the online Help program. This file contains last minute information on changes that were made after this manual went to print. You may also find it helpful to browse through the sample block diagrams included with VisSim/Comm.WRI) is installed in your VisSim directory. The phone number is 978-392-0100. you can use up to 150 blocks per diagram. “Sample Block Diagrams. which are listed in Appendix B. use the VisSim/Comm Help command under the Comm menu.. Online help for a particular block can also be accessed by clicking on the Help button in the Setup dialog box for the block. >][X]TEXbBX\2^\\S^Rd\T]cPcX^] To help you get the most out of VisSim/Comm. review the readme file. you should read this file immediately and print a copy of it to keep with this manual. When you call in.” demonstrate how VisSim/Comm can be applied to a variety of communication system problems. contact the Technical Support group via toll call between 9:00 am and 6:00 pm EST. please have the following information at hand: • The version of VisSim. Monday through Friday. ?aTUPRT 5^a?[db>_cX^]dbTab If you’re using VisSim/Comm Personal Edition and purchased the Plus Option. If you cannot find the answer. first look in the manual. For online information on VisSim/Comm. A VisSim/Comm readme file (COMMREAD. excluding holidays.

com Documentation errors and suggestions sales@vissol.com Bug report doc@vissol.vissim.?aTUPRT Visual Solutions can also be reached online at www. pricing.com Sales.com or via the following fax and e-mail addresses: Address/Number What it’s for (978) 692-3102 Fax number bugs@vissol.com Technical support gXe . and general information tech@vissol.

at a minimum. Transmitter Data Source Encoder Modulator Channel Signal Sink Decoder Demodulator Receiver . three key elements: a transmitter. The ability to simulate all three of these elements is required to successfully model any end-to-end communication system. and a receiver. a communication medium or channel. 2WP_cTa 8]ca^SdRcX^] This chapter provides information on: • Key elements of a communication system • Lowpass equivalent systems • Summary of communication blocks 0ch_XRP[R^\\d]XRPcX^]bhbcT\ A typical communication link includes.

it is often desirable to digitally encode the signal prior to transmission by undergoing a quantization process. in a way that provides an error correction capability at the receiver. Many different channel models have been developed to mathematically represent such distortions. For example. 2WP]]T[ Once the signal is modulated. or a digital signal such as a binary data sequence. In this channel. different modulation techniques are employed. a modulator. an optional data encoder. and a signal sink. block coding. the resulting digital signal is often far less susceptible to the effects of noise in the transmission channel. a demodulator. To properly distinguish between the two bit rates. or the atmosphere in the case of a radio transmission. to reach the intended receiver. 3PcPb^daRT The data source generates the information signal that is intended to be sent to a particular receiver. A commonly used channel model is the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel. an optional data decoder. Among the most popular FEC schemes are convolutional coding. the information is represented by amplitude variations of the carrier signal. the transmitter’s input rate is referred to as the information data rate. and trellis coding. This step converts the analog signal into a digital signal. This overall process is referred to as forward error correction (FEC). An encoder can also be used to add redundancy to a digital data stream. Modulation refers to the specific technique used to represent the information signal as it is physically transmitted to the receiver. while the transmitter output rate is referred to as the channel data rate. This signal can be either an analog signal such as speech. To some extent.2WP_cTa 8]ca^SdRcX^] The transmitter and receiver elements can in turn be subdivided into further sub- systems. in the form of additional data bits. This signal is typically a baseband signal represented by a voltage level. coax cable. noise with uniform power spectral density (hence the term ! . 3PcPT]R^STa For analog signals. While some information is lost in this process. <^Sd[Pc^a Depending on the type of information signal and the particular transmission medium. in amplitude modulation (AM). it is sent through a transmission medium. all channels introduce some form of distortion to the original signal. as shown in the preceding figure. also known as a channel. These include a data source (analog or digital). This may be a copper wire. It is important to note that usually the output bit rate of an encoder is not equal to the input bit rate.

When a data signal is modulated. A brief description follows. Demodulation also includes all steps associated with signal synchronization. a sampling rate of at least eight samples per carrier cycle is usually selected in order for the simulation to accurately represent the carrier signal. and the simulation sampling interval is then based on the sampling requirements of the data signal. is the received bit error rate (BER). such as the use of phase-locked loops in achieving phase coherence between the incoming signal and the receiver’s local oscillator. BXV]P[bX]Z Finally. This means that the simulation step size is dictated by the carrier frequency and not the data rate. which may be several orders of magnitude lower. eye patterns. This step is the opposite of modulation and refers to the process required to extract the original information signal from the modulated signal. Efficient decoding schemes. 2WP_cTa 8]ca^SdRcX^] white) is assumed to be added to the information signal. The result is a reduction in execution time without loss of simulation accuracy. an estimate of the original signal is produced at the output of the receiver. Other valuable performance indicators include the received signal to noise ratio (SNR). however. have been developed over the years—one example is the Viterbi decoding algorithm. As a communications engineer. its carrier frequency is mathematically translated to 0. The signal decoding process is usually more complicated than the encoding process and can be very computationally intensive. . 3PcPSTR^STa When data encoding is included at the transmitter. Other types of channels include fading channels and multipath channels. it undergoes a demodulation process.^f_PbbT`dXeP[T]cbhbcT\b The sampling requirements of a given simulation can be reduced through the use of complex envelope notation. which is used to decode convolutionally encoded data. in the case of digital signals. you are usually interested in knowing how well the source information was recreated at the receiver’s output. When a simulation is transformed to a lowpass (or baseband) equivalent. The receiver’s output port is sometimes referred to as the signal sink. " . The most common metric. Several metrics can be used to evaluate the success of the data transmission. a data decoding step must be performed prior to recovering the original data signal. 3T\^Sd[Pc^a When the transmitted signal reaches the intended receiver. and phase scatter plots.

and can be represented as s (t ) = a (t ) cos[ω c t + φ (t )] (2. After expanding. 1989). that is B<<ωc.2) s (t ) = x(t ) cos ω c t − y (t ) sin ω c t x(t ) = a (t ) cos φ (t ) y (t ) = a (t ) sin φ (t ) where x(t) and y(t) are respectively the inphase and quadrature components of s(t). VisSim/Comm provides a vast selection of communication elements. For more information on lowpass equivalent signals. the above equation becomes s (t ) = a (t ) cos φ (t ) cos ω c t − a (t ) sin φ (t ) sin ω c t (2.1) as s (t ) = Re[a(t )e j (ωct +φ (t )) ] = Re[a(t )e jφ (t ) e jωct ] and s (t ) = Re[u (t )e jωct ] (2.1) where a(t) represents the amplitude and φ(t) the phase of s(t).3) u (t ) = a (t )e jφ (t ) = x(t ) + jy (t ) The signal u(t) above is defined as the complex envelope of s(t). Using complex exponentials. then the signal s(t) may be equivalently represented by u(t). 2^\\d]XRPcX^]Q[^RZb To allow you to easily simulate a communication link. McGraw-Hill. When simulating linear systems.2WP_cTa 8]ca^SdRcX^] A modulated bandpass signal s(t) usually occupies a narrow band of frequencies near the carrier ωc. it can be shown that as long as the bandwidth B of the complex envelope signal is much smaller than the carrier frequency. Channels $:*1 &RPSOH[. Proakis. The primary advantage of using u(t) is that a much lower simulation sampling rate can be used. The growing list of Comm blocks applies to most disciplines within communications. Below is a brief summary of the available blocks within each category. Note that u(t) and s(t) are directly related by a simple frequency translation. see Digital Communications (J. These blocks free you from the task of building such elements using the standard block set and allows you to concentrate on modeling systems at a higher hierarchical level. you can also write (2. called Comm blocks.

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)LOH'DWD. )UHTXHQF\6ZHHS. . 31 6HTXHQFH. 6LQXVRLG. 1RLVH. :DOVK 6HTXHQFH.2WP_cTa 8]ca^SdRcX^] Signal Sources &RPSOH[7RQH. In addition. “VisSim/Comm Library. 5DQGRP6LJQDOV.” are typically read-only.PSXOVH 7UDLQ. eye diagrams. Note: Some elements described in this manual are pre-configured compound blocks that perform more complex communication functions. spectral plots. . % . 5DQGRP6HHG. which are described in Appendix A. you can view simulation results through BER curves. and phase scatter plots. they can be copied to a new diagram and then modified as desired. 5HFWDQJXODU3XOVHV. Although these compound blocks.PSXOVH. and :DYHIRUP *HQHUDWRU. using the SORW block (Blocks/Signal Consumer menu).

2. 2WP_cTa! DbX]VEXbBX\2^\\ This chapter provides information on: • Starting VisSim/Comm • Learning your way around the VisSim/Comm simulation environment • Generating BER curves • Creating a sample communication system BcPacX]VEXbBX\2^\\ a To start VisSim/Comm from the desktop 1. Click on the Start button and choose Programs. VisSim/Comm starts up and displays the following window: & . then choose VisSimComm. Choose VisSimComm.

As the mouse passes over a block. 8]bTacX]VQ[^RZb All communication blocks are accessed via the Comm menu located on the menu bar. Vector connectors are colored green in Normal view mode and appear with a thicker connector stub in Presentation mode. Just point to a block’s connector tab and hold down the mouse button. which is summarized in Chapter 1. 1[^RZR^]]TRc^ab There are two types of block connectors: scalar and vector. All other blocks are listed under the Blocks menu. 2^]]TRcX]VQ[^RZb Connecting blocks is very easy. either in the menu or diagram. Individual block parameters were selected to provide sufficient flexibility to meet most modeling situations. Vector connectors are used by many Comm blocks to identify complex signals. The pointer changes into an upward pointing arrow. a brief description of it is presented in the status bar at the bottom of the window. Click on the Comm or Blocks menu and select a particular block category. Position the pointer where you want the block to appear in the diagram and click the mouse. ' . “The Basics. 2.2WP_cTa!DbX]VEXbBX\2^\\ CWTEXbBX\2^\\T]eXa^]\T]c The VisSim/Comm environment provides a user-friendly interface for creating and simulating communication system models. features such as complex envelope representation were incorporated to allow the use of lowpass equivalent models and the associated savings in diagram execution speed. In addition. VisSim/Comm will only allow a connection between connectors of the same type. The Comm block set. Then drag the pointer to the destination block’s connector tab and then release the mouse button. Click on the desired block.” was developed using efficient algorithms and coding techniques to provide a fast simulation capability. Its intent is to allow you to rapidly prototype system designs and carry out performance trade-offs. a To insert a block into a diagram 1. 3.

the “Z” label indicates a complex value. a clock signal should be high for a single simulation step. with the exception of connectors identified as optional in the block descriptions. connector labels are displayed for most Comm blocks. In such cases. When such blocks are configured for the internal clock setting. while a 1 is considered high. To disable the warning message. Connector labels may be activated or de-activated using the View menu’s Connector Labels command. For proper block operation. de-activate the Check Connections options in the Preferences property sheet for the Simulate menu’s Simulation Properties command. the internal threshold is usually set to 0. Connector Labels has been activated. you may be required to match the clock signal and other delays in order to achieve proper timing within the simulation. VisSim/Comm will issue a warning when it detects unconnected block inputs. 2^]]TRc^a[PQT[b To more easily identify each connector. these optional connectors may be added or deleted using the Add Connector and Remove Connector commands in the Edit menu or toolbar. In VisSim/Comm. To accommodate floating-point values. the input clock connector label will appear in brackets “[ck]. Z Complex Output QPSK Ph Modulator Phase [Optional] Some Comm blocks may operate using an internal clock or an externally provided clock. In the following example. the label will appear without brackets “ck. many blocks with a clock input can also operate with an internal clock. The 'HOD\(VWLPDWRU block can be useful in determining unknown signal delays.5 is considered high. In simulations that include filters or other sources of delay. For example. ( . a clock signal is represented as a pulse train.” when configured for an external clock. 2WP_cTa!DbX]VEXbBX\2^\\ >_cX^]P[R^]]TRc^ab The connector count of all Comm blocks is usually fixed. D]R^]]TRcTSR^]]TRc^ab It is not uncommon for several connectors to remain unused within a simulation.5—any clock input greater than 0.” 3XPVaP\cX\X]V Many Comm blocks use an input or output clock to control bit or symbol timing. A value of 0 is considered low.

and string variables. The changes you make in the dialog box do not take effect until you close the dialog box by pressing the OK button. or user specified formulas including standard arithmetic operators. Whenever a particular field is restricted to numeric entry only. BTccX]Vd_Q[^RZ_PaP\TcTab To view and modify block parameters. an indication to this effect is provided in the Setup dialog box. you access the block’s Setup dialog box by clicking the right mouse button over the block. 6[^QP[EPaXPQ[Tb Most block parameters fields can accept numeric input. Alternatively. string variables (global or local). indicating that they are unavailable for use given the particular block configuration. rather than follow a pseudo random sequence based on the specified seed. and click the left mouse button. If this block is not present in a diagram.2WP_cTa!DbX]VEXbBX\2^\\ AP]S^\]d\QTab All Comm blocks that generate random values – for example the 5DQGRP6\PEROV or 1RLVH block – use a separate seed for controlling the random process than that used by core VisSim blocks. numerals. An example of a parameter field entry using string global variables is shown below: offset + 2*pi*freq where offset and freq are user-defined global variables and pi is a VisSim constant  . The value of the seed is controlled by adding a 5DQGRP 6HHG block (located under Comm > Signal Sources) to the diagram. An example of a Setup dialog box is shown below. you can also choose the Block Properties command from the Edit menu. then random numbers generated by Comm blocks will differ from run to run. Some parameters in the dialog box may at times be grayed out. point to the block.

Range checking is performed either upon pressing the OK button to close the Setup dialog box. When a range error is detected. its current setting. Global variable values may be themselves the result of an operation involving other constants. The next preferred method is Runge Kutta 2nd Order. a warning message is issued to the user. Changes to any global variables that are referenced by a block have no effect on the block’s behavior beyond the initial time step. the name of the offending block is also specified. a warning message is displayed similar to the one shown below. When the error is detected at simulation start time. 2WP_cTa!DbX]VEXbBX\2^\\ Parameter field entries are evaluated once at the start of the simulation during the very first time step. A range error message describes the parameter in error. Note: The VisSim WUDQVIHU)XQFWLRQ block and Comm Filter blocks are not affected by the integration method you choose. AP]VTRWTRZX]V Range checking is performed on the majority of Comm block parameters to reduce the incidence of domain type errors (such as divide by zero). and its instance in the simulation diagram is turned red. If blocks which were not designed to operate under the current integration method are detected in the active diagram. followed by Trapezoidal. All Comm blocks are fully compatible with the Euler integration method. and its allowed range. or at simulation start (the latter usually being the case when global variables are present). 2W^^bX]VP]X]cTVaPcX^]\TcW^S It is recommended that VisSim/Comm be used with the Euler integration method because it provides the fastest diagram execution. .

to achieve a specified bit error rate at the receiver.2WP_cTa!DbX]VEXbBX\2^\\ >dc_dc_[^cb The SORW block can be used in a variety of ways to view simulation signals. For detailed information on the SORW block. They display the required SNR. • Activate External Trigger. you can generate many of the plots used in communications. or press ENTER. In its basic mode. This will allow viewing of the BER curve as it is being generated point by point. 14ARdaeTb BER curves are often the final indicator of performance in communication systems. a To configure a plot block for a BER curve 1. 2. 3. • Activate Log Y mode. Select Over Plot. ! . usually expressed in Eb/No. however. Click on the Options tab and do the following: • Activate the XY Plot option. You must press Clear Overplot to later clear the plot. An example is shown below. • Indicate which input is the x-axis (Eb/No). By making use of its many display options. • Optionally. refer to the VisSim User’s Guide. it displays up to eight time domain signals. Click the right mouse button over the SORW block to invoke its Plot Properties dialog box. Click on the OK button.

and the third the x-axis (Eb/No). enter the desired interval. 2. " . the second the y-axis (Error Rate). • In the Start and End boxes. 3. a To configure a plot block as an eye diagram 1. Connect the three outputs from D%(5&XUYH&RQWURO block to the SORW block. The first output is the data trigger. enter the desired start and end times. • In the Interval box. Click the right mouse button over the SORW block to invoke its Plot Properties dialog box. The topic of generating BER curves is discussed in detail later in this chapter. Its applications include estimating SNR. Click on the OK button. or press ENTER. An eye plot span of two symbol periods is shown. 2WP_cTa!DbX]VEXbBX\2^\\ 4. 4hT_[^cb The eye plot simulates the use of an oscilloscope and is particularly useful for analyzing digital data waveforms. The following example illustrates an I-channel eye plot of a 16-QAM modulated signal. detecting amplitude compression and observing the effects of inter-symbol interference (ISI). Click on the Axis tab and do the following: • Activate the Retrace Enabled option.

4. which can calculate complex frequency spectra during a run. Click the right mouse button over the SORW block to invoke its Plot Properties dialog box. The following figure illustrates a lowpass equivalent power spectrum of a QPSK modulated signal. All SORW blocks have the basic ability to show a frequency domain representation (FFT) of a time domain signal after a simulation run has been completed. For additional information on the use of the &RPSOH[))7.))7 block and a 6SHFWUXPDQDO\]HU block are provided. • Indicate which input is the frequency axis. • Activate External Trigger. 3.))7 (or 6SHFWUXP$QDO\]HU) trigger output to the trigger on the plot block. see Chapter 3. They can also be used to view the magnitude and phase response (transfer function) of a filter or system.” # . Connect the &RPSOH[))7. 2.))7 block or the 6SHFWUXP$QDO\]HU block.2WP_cTa!DbX]VEXbBX\2^\\ 5aT`dT]RhS^\PX]_[^cb Frequency domain plots are generally used to view the power spectrum associated with a time domain signal. a To configure a plot block for displaying the output from a Complex FFT/IFFT block or Spectrum Analyzer block 1. and connect the remaining outputs (magnitude or phase) to any of the remaining plot block inputs. Click on the Options tab and do the following: • Activate the XY Plot option. There are two ways to view frequency domain plots. or press ENTER. In addition. the frequency output to the input specified as the x- axis. “Comm Block Set. Click on the OK button. a &RPSOH[))7.

• Under Line Type. or press ENTER. 2. Click the right mouse button over the SORW block to invoke its Plot Properties dialog box. Q) space and observe the impacts of channel noise and/or distortions. • Activate External Trigger. and the Q signal to any of the remaining inputs.. Below is an example of a QPSK constellation phase scatter plot. 5X[cTaEXTfTa A filter response viewer is available from within the ). Once the desired filter parameters have been selected. the I signal to the input specified as the x-axis. 4. The Marker Count value should exceed the expected number of data points. • Indicate which input is the x-axis. Click on the Options tab and do the following: • Activate the XY Plot option. select Point.5 filter blocks to aid the User in the filter design process.5 and . 3. The effects of noise are evident in the cloud observed at each of the four constellation point locations. the viewer can be accessed by pressing the “View Response” button in the $ . 2WP_cTa!DbX]VEXbBX\2^\\ ?WPbTbRPccTa_[^cb Phase scatter plots are used to view a received signal constellation in (I. • Activate the Geometric Markers option. Connect the data clock to the trigger input. a To configure a plot block as an IQ phase scatter plot 1. Click on the OK button.

% . A specific plot range can be specified along with the number of desired tickmarks by clicking the “Set Bounds” button. To zoom within the plot. click the right mouse button over the graph. To zoom back out. The FFT size parameter controls the resolution of the displayed result (default FFT size is 1024).2WP_cTa!DbX]VEXbBX\2^\\ filter properties dialog as shown below. The following filter response details are available within the viewer: • Impulse Response • Gain Response (either plain or in dB) • Phase Response • Group Delay Response The appropriate selection is made by pressing the desired radio button within the viewer. click and drag the left mouse button over the desired graph region.

& . 2WP_cTa!DbX]VEXbBX\2^\\ The “Copy to Clipboard” button can be used to export the filter response plot to other Windows applications. To view the entire filter response should the plot be clipped. The block’s three outputs drive a SORW block configured for XY mode and external trigger. A BER curve is generated and displayed at the end of the simulation. The %(5&XUYH&RQWURO block is located in the Estimators category under the Comm menu. 6T]TaPcX]V14ARdaeTb As discussed earlier in this chapter. Parameters for this block include the overall number of runs and the duration of each run in seconds. The filter response can also be sent directly to the printer by pressing the “Print” button. simply click the right mouse button over the graph. BER curves be easily generated using the %(5 &XUYH&RQWURO block. the viewer defaults to a range of [0. as described earlier in this chapter in the BER curves discussion of the Output Plots section. The %(5&XUYH&RQWURO block has two inputs: one for an error rate signal and the other for an SNR signal. When selecting the Gain (dB) mode.-60] dB to avoid large negative values due to potential deep nulls in the filter response. This block makes it possible to execute up to ten consecutive runs of the same simulation. each with a different SNR and simulation duration.

Its SNR output is connected to the bottom input of the %(5&XUYH&RQWURO block. ' . the longest duration specified in the %(5&XUYH&RQWURO block Setup dialog box. the $:*1 Setup dialog box allows for the specification of up to ten individual SNRs. you must activate the Auto Restart parameter in the Simulation Properties dialog box. corresponding to ten separate runs. The value of the Number of Runs parameter must match that specified in the %(5&XUYH&RQWURO block. As shown below.2WP_cTa!DbX]VEXbBX\2^\\ 4]PQ[X]V\d[cX_[TR^]bTRdcXeTad]b To enable multiple consecutive runs. choose the Simulate menu’s Simulation Properties command and click on the Range tab. EPahX]VcWTB=AU^aTPRWad] Varying the SNR for each run is done using the $:*1 block. or exceeds. You must also enter a value to the Range End parameter that is equal to. To access this parameter.

Note that the %(5&XUYH&RQWURO block’s input clock signal is offset by ½ a symbol to sample at the data symbol’s midpoint. 2WP_cTa!DbX]VEXbBX\2^\\ 2P[Rd[PcX]V14A\TPbdaT\T]c The actual BER measurement for each run is calculated by using a %LW6\PERO (UURU5DWH block. It is very important that the original sequence be appropriately time shifted to compensate for any delays introduced by filters or an integrate and dump operation. ( . as is the current signal to noise ratio (EsNo) obtained from the $:*1 block. These are in turn passed to a detector.VSM diagram in the COMM_EX subdirectory. Two binary pseudo-random data sequences are combined to form a two-bit symbol. the carrier frequency has been set to 0 Hz. The error rate output of the %LW6\PERO(UURU5DWH block is connected to the top input of the %(5&XUYH&RQWURO block. located in the Estimators category under the Comm menu. an integrate and dump operation is performed to obtain the received I and Q values. The following example illustrates the generation of a BER curve in a simplified end- to-end QPSK communication link. which is then modulated using QPSK. At the end of the simulation. The additional 1 symbol delay in the source data stream is required for synchronization with the received output data. the symbol rate has been arbitrarily set at 10 symbol/sec (20 bps). This final output is then compared in the %(5&XUYH&RQWURO block to the value originally sent. To run this model. EsNo BER Curve BER CURVE Random Seed Control RESULT error rate 8191 PN QPSK Complex Sequence AWGN Detect QPSK Integ&Dump 2->Sym EsNo 16383 PN Sequence 1/ Z^5 BER error rate Data Rate= 10 sps Delay matches the number of sim steps for one symbol 10 Hz sample clock 1/2 symbol delay In the above model. After adding noise. an additional signal delay would have been necessary. Had any filtering been included in the simulation. which determines the closest constellation point. the %(5&XUYH&RQWURO block creates a message box summarizing the results of all runs and outputs the BER curve result. The %LW6\PERO(UURU5DWH block’s output is connected to the %(5&XUYH &RQWURO block. and because this is a lowpass equivalent simulation. open the BERCURVE. This block compares an original data sequence to a received data stream.

Error Rate Source $runCount + -1 + Case Es/No #1 0 BER Control 1 Es/No #2 2 Es/No #3 ! . Note that the %(5&XUYH&RQWURO block reads the input signals (error rate and SNR) only on the very last step of each individual run. as shown in the following illustration. then a custom solution may be created using the $runCount variable along with a FDVH block.2WP_cTa!DbX]VEXbBX\2^\\ If you are not using an $:*1 block to specify an SNR.

VSM. In this model.VSM illustrates the use of a Costas Loop to acquire and track a binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulated signal. the results of a given simulation can be repeated. The complex modulated signal is then corrupted by the $:*1 channel block. The simulation step size is 10 msec. This block diagram. The tracking loop phase error and the received phase scatter plot are shown. such as the $:*1 block. is located in the COMM_EX subdirectory. a pseudo-random sequence of length 63 is used as the binary data source signal at 4. The specified Eb/No is 10 dB. The input sequence is passed to a 36. The 5DQGRP6HHG block is used to specify a seed for all Comm blocks that generate random values. so the carrier frequency is set at 0 Hz. If the 5DQGRP6HHG block is omitted.block to be BPSK modulated.8 kbps. By specifying a seed. 2WP_cTa!DbX]VEXbBX\2^\\ BP\_[TR^\\d]XRPcX^]bX\d[PcX^] An example of a communication system simulation is shown below. BPSKTRAC. ! . then different results will be obtained from run to run. This model implements a complex envelope (lowpass equivalent) simulation. BPSKTRAC.

The tracked complex signal from the Costas Loop may be viewed by entering the Pre-Detector Outputs Plot compound block. A comparison of the original data against the received data is shown within the Received Data Plot compound block. Details of the Costas Loop hierarchical block are shown in the following illustration. The BPSK Phase Detector produces an error signal proportional to the phase offset between the incoming signal and the VCO output. which implements an integrate and dump operation. Re/Im 4th Order 4 kHz to Cplx Butterworth Lowpass Tracked Signal (Complex) Cplx Cplx to Loop Filter 4th Order 4 kHz * Mult Re/Im 2nd Order PLL Butterworth Lowpass BPSK Phase Detector Cplx Conj VCO VCO Phase VCO Output (Complex) The purpose of the Costas Loop is to perform carrier recovery of the signal. The error signal is then passed to the Loop Filter.2WP_cTa!DbX]VEXbBX\2^\\ The receiver is implemented using two compound blocks: Costas Loop and Detector Circuit. This is a simplified example and does not contain a data transition synchronizing circuit. and the resulting complex signal is filtered using a pair of 4 kHz Butterworth lowpass filters. The above implementation uses a second order phase-locked loop (PLL). The output of this stage is used to generate the phase scatter plot. Details of the detector are shown below. In this particular example. Data Output BPSK Detect Complex Integ&Dump Complex Input Cplx to I & Q Phase Scatter Ouputs Re/Im !! . The input signal is complex multiplied with the VCO output (also at 0 Hz). which then drives the VCO. This signal is also passed to the Detector Circuit. and then performs data detection. the VCO gain is set to 10 Hz/V and the phase detector gain is 1 rad/V (a 1 rad phase error produces approximately a 1 V input to the loop filter).

Note that if too large an offset is introduced. 2WP_cTa!DbX]VEXbBX\2^\\ The acquisition and tracking process is illustrated by plotting the phase error signal obtained by comparing the modulator and VCO phase. An initial phase offset of 80o was set in the %36. the PLL may lock 180 o out of phase.block. You may experiment with different phase offset and frequency offset values. !" .

.

Filters. These items are block categories. Operators. please refer to “For VisSim/Comm Personal Edition users” for the list of communication blocks not supported in this version of the software. Demodulators. most of the items that appear have a filled triangle (s) next to them. Encode / Decode. Digital. 2WP_cTa" 2^\\1[^RZBTc The Comm menu lists the communication blocks provided with VisSim/Comm. Estimators. Complex Math. they are listed after the block description. Click on a block category and a cascading menu appears listing the additional blocks. RF. When you click on the Comm menu. The categories are: Channels. To make it easier to find blocks in this chapter. Modulators – Complex. Modulators – Real. they are presented in alphabetical order by category. 2WP]]T[bRPcTV^ah Blocks in the Channel category include $:*1 &RPSOH[. and Signal Sources. If a block has parameters. If you are using the personal edition of VisSim/Comm. PLL.

. $:*1 5HDO.

0F6=2^\_[Tg  0F6=ATP[ These blocks implement an AWGN channel in which Gaussian noise is added to the input signal. 0XOWLSDWK. 5LFH5D\OHLJK)DGLQJ. 3URSDJDWLRQ/RVV. 5XPPOHU0XOWLSDWK. Two versions of this block exist: one block is complex and the other is !$ .. -DNHV0RELOH. and 7:7$. %LQDU\ 6\PPHWULF&KDQQHO.

Im] for complex) y1 = Output signal ([Re. and periodically flips the output bits according to the specified error probability. Any input value larger than 0. The SNR is specified as Es/No. The information signal’s power is specified as a parameter. Run x Es/No Specifies the symbol SNR in decibels for each run. Im] for complex) y2 = Current run’s Es/No value Number of Runs Specifies the number of simulation iterations. This value is used internally to determine the energy per symbol as a fraction of the total specified signal power. and reference signal power. The block supports multiple run simulations by allowing up to ten different SNR values to be specified. The simulation step size is also taken into account in computing the noise variance.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc real.5 is considered a 1. It expects a binary data stream {0. symbol rate. The units for this parameter are specified by the Ref. Real Average Complex Signal Power Real Average Signal Power Specifies the complex or average power of the information bearing signal and is used in calculating the appropriate noise variance. Power Units selection. Eb can be easily converted to Es by knowing the number of bits/symbol. 1}. Ref. !% . The appropriate noise variance is automatically computed based on the desired SNR. simulation sampling frequency. You can specify power as either watts into 1 Ohm or dBm into 50 Ohms. In the case of the complex version of the block. the two noise samples (real and imaginary) are independent. as is the single-sided noise bandwidth. 1X]PahBh\\TcaXR2WP]]T[ This block implements a binary symmetric channel (BSC). Symbol Rate Specifies the symbol rate R in hertz. The $:*1 blocks can also be used as a source of Gaussian noise by simply leaving the inputs disconnected or using a 0 input. The maximum is ten. Power Units dBm in 50 Ohms Watts in 1 Ohm Indicates that the average power reference is specified as either dBm into 50 Ohms impedance or watts into 1 Ohm impedance. The $:*1 blocks can be used in conjunction with the %(5&XUYH&RQWURO block. x = Input signal ([Re. as opposed to Eb/No.

Block parameters include the maximum Doppler frequency and the desired number of additional terms (N0) to be used. The -DNHV0RELOH block accepts a complex signal as input and outputs a complex signal. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc The %LQDU\6\PPHWULF&KDQQHO block accepts a real signal as input and outputs a real signal. Im] ⋅ [xc + jx s ] 1 y (t ) = N = 2(2 N 0 + 1) 2N 0 + 1 N0 xc (t ) = 2 ∑ cosφ k =1 k cos ω k t + 2 cos φ m t ω k = ω m cos(2πk / N ) N0 x s (t ) = 2 ∑ sin φ k =1 k cos ω k t + 2 sin φ m cos ω m t φ k = πk /( N 0 + 1). which is commonly used in the mobile communications industry. Im] y = Complex output Signal [Re.1x10-8. x = Complex input signal [Re. Indicates the probability of a bit flip p. as indicated below. 9PZTb<^QX[T This block implements the Jakes fading channel model.5) y = Output signal (0. x1 = Input signal (binary) x2 = Input data clock (> 0. 1) 1-p 0 0 p p 1 1 1-p Channel Error Prob. The range for this value is from 0.9999 to 3. φ m = 0 !& . This model approximates a Rayleigh fading process via summation of multiple complex sinusoids.

This block takes a complex signal as its input. Initial Condition (Real) Specifies the Real component initial condition for the internal shift register used by the model. this term is usually based on the speed of the mobile. Block parameters include the number of total paths. and the individual path’s delay. in which multiple time and phase shifted versions of a signal are modeled as arriving simultaneously at a receiver. <d[cX_PcW This block implements a multipath channel. Seconds Indicates the path delays are specified in seconds. Multipath channels are commonly used to model the interaction between a direct signal and multiple reflected path signals. Im] y = Complex output signal [Re. Im] N −1 y (t ) = ∑α k =0 k x(t − τ k )e jφk where τ k = delay of path k α k = relative weight for path k φ k = phase rotation for path k N = number of paths Number of Paths Specifies the number of paths in the model. x = Complex input signal [Re. and outputs a complex signal. Usually. The reflected signals affect both the amplitude and phase of the received signal. and phase rotation. relative gain. !' . Doppler Frequency Indicates the maximum Doppler frequency (ωm) for the channel.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Number of Terms Indicates the number of terms N0 to be used in the Jakes approximation in addition to the primary Doppler frequency term. This value is specified in hertz. Delay Mode Sim Steps Indicates the path delays are specified in simulation steps. Initial Condition (Imag) Specifies the Imaginary component initial condition for the internal shift register used by the model. Up to four paths may be specified.

Frequency Indicates the frequency f in MHz to be used in computing the path loss. This parameter is only used when in Internal Distance Mode. Units are either kilometers or miles. The formula used by this block can result in a gain (rather than a loss) when the distance value is very small. or to accept an externally provided value.^bb This block implements free space path attenuation assuming isotropic antennas. the block will not allow the gain to exceed unity. To avoid this problem. Internal Indicates the path distance is specified externally via the x2 connector. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Path Delay Specifies the delay in seconds or simulation steps associated with each path in the channel model. Distance Units kilometers Indicates that the path distance is specified in kilometers. The 3URSDJDWLRQ/RVV block also outputs the instantaneous attenuation value being applied in dB. Distance Mode External Indicates the path distance is specified via the Path Distance parameter. Weight Specifies a relative weight for each of the model paths. depending on the selected mode. The loss is related to both the path distance and the specified signal frequency. The block can be configured for a fixed propagation path. !( . This value is not in dB. ?a^_PVPcX^]. x1 = Input signal x2 = Path distance (in External mode) y1 = Attenuated output signal y2 = Attenuation in dB c y (t ) = x(t ) ⋅ where c = speed of light 4π f d Path Distance Indicates the path distance d to be used in computing the path loss. Phase Rotation Specifies the phase rotation in degrees associated with each path.

Note that in this case the Doppler spread (spectral broadening) is due to the time domain amplitude fluctuations of the signal and not to any relative motion between the transmitter and receiver. Im] [ y (t ) = Ax(t ) ⋅ α + β (t )e − jΦ (t ) ] β (t ) is Rayleigh distributed β (t ) = u1 (t ) 2 + u 2 (t ) 2 and u1 (t ). the model becomes Rayleigh (pure scattering). the RMS Doppler Spread Bandwidth. Block parameters include the Rice Factor.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc miles Indicates that the path distance is specified in miles. a direct signal path. " . The inverse of this value denotes the approximate coherence time of the fading process. x = Complex input signal [Re. π ) − LdB α2 α 2 + 2σ 2 = 1 r= A = (10) 20 2σ 2 Rice Factor (r) Determines the proportion of direct to scattered signal power in the channel. or a fixed reflector in the medium. u 2 (t ) are N (0. when all spectral components within the signal bandwidth are affected equally by the channel. The fading process is spectrally shaped using a two-pole Butterworth lowpass filter of cutoff frequency equal to the specified rms Doppler spread. and the RMS Fading Loss. The fading process is considered frequency-nonselective when the signal bandwidth is much smaller than the coherence bandwidth of the channel. Im] y = Complex output signal [Re. In the Rayleigh channel. the input signal is multiplied by a single complex random variable having a Rayleigh amplitude distribution and uniform phase. When r = 0. In the 5LFH5D\OHLJK)DGLQJ block. that is. AXRTAPh[TXVW5PSX]V This block implements a frequency-nonselective (flat) Rice or Rayleigh fading channel. which is commonly used to model tropospheric or ionospheric scattering in a communications link. is also present. σ 2 ) Φ (t ) is uniform over (−π . In the Rice channel. The 5LFH5D\OHLJK)DGLQJ block accepts a complex signal as its input and outputs a complex signal. the received signal consists solely of uncorrelated scattered components.

Fade Null Frequency Indicates the frequency of the fade null. Block parameters include the reflected path delay. RMS Fade Loss (LdB) Specifies the rms fading loss of the channel. This value is specified in decibels. The 5XPPOHU0XOWLSDWK block accepts a complex signal as input and outputs a complex signal. This value was experimentally found to be about 6. reflected path relative gain. x = Complex input signal [Re. The default is 0 dB. The reflected signal affects both the amplitude and phase of the received signal. also referred to as the shape parameter β. Im] y (t ) = αx(t ) − αβe j 2πf0τ x(t − τ ) where τ = reflected path delay α = overall path attenuation β = reflected path relative gain f 0 = fade null frequency Reflected Path Delay Indicates the delay. which is commonly used to model digital microwave links.3 ns in the original Rummler model. Positive values indicate a loss. This delay value is rounded to the closest number of simulation steps within the block. in seconds. The Rummler multipath channel models the interaction between a direct path signal and a reflected path signal. " . This value is specified in hertz. overall path attenuation. Im] y = Complex output Signal [Re. Overall Gain Term Indicates the amplitude gain α of the direct path. Ad\\[Ta<d[cX_PcW This block implements the Rummler multipath fading channel. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc RMS Doppler Spread (Bd) Indicates the rms Doppler spread associated with the Rayleigh or Rice fading channel. of the reflected path relative to the direct path. The inverse of this value denotes the approximate coherence time of the fading process. This value is not in decibels. Shape Parameter Indicates the amplitude gain of the reflected path relative to the direct path. which yields a normalized unity gain channel. This value is specified in hertz. and the frequency of the fade null. This value is not in decibels.

This is the location relative to saturation (0 dB) where the average input power lies. "! . The 7:7$ block accepts a complex signal as input and outputs a complex signal. Im] y (t ) = AG (r )e jΦ ( r ) x(t ) αar G (r ) = G (r ) = am / am function 1+ βar 2 where (r) = am / pm function αφ r 2 Φ (r ) = 1 + βφ r 2 2 x1 r= A = scaling factor Pav Operating Point Indicates the operating point of the TWTA in decibels. 1981. The AM/AM and AM/PM equations are shown below and were obtained from “Frequency-Independent and Frequency-Dependent Nonlinear Models of TWT Amplifiers. AM/AM conversion maps signal envelope power fluctuations into gain variations. Average Input Power Indicates the average input complex power in watts.” Adel A. M.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc CFC0 This block provides an analytical model of a traveling wave tube amplifier (TWTA) channel. Block parameters include the tube operating point and the average input signal power. This value is specified in decibels. IEEE transactions on Communications. This parameter is only available when you select Internal Average Power Mode. Saturation Gain Indicates the signal gain of the tube at the saturation point. Saleh. pp. x1 = Complex input signal [Re. which is frequently used to simulate satellite links. The value of G(r) is appropriately scaled so that G(1) equals the desired gain. The 7:7$ block simulates a nonlinear amplifier and exhibits both AM/AM conversion and AM/PM conversion. while AM/PM conversion maps signal envelope power fluctuations into carrier phase rotation. Im] x2 = Reference average power level y = Complex output signal [Re. 1715- 1720.

1587 1. 6TXDUH5RRW.1517 4. Alpha_phi Indicates the phase rotation coefficient.5293 2. Im] y = Complex output [Re. Beta_phi Indicates the phase rotation coefficient.QYHUVH. Im] x2 = Complex signal #2 [Re.9638 0. See equation above.PDJWR &RPSOH[. &RPSOH[WR5HDO.9945 2. and 5HDO. &RPSOH[WR0DJ3KDVH. Im] y = x1 + x2 "" . Case αa βa αφ βφ Example #1 1. 3RZHU. . See equation above. Alpha_a Indicates the amplitude gain coefficient.PDJ.0552 0. The values were obtained by fitting the above equations to experimental TWT data. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Average Power Mode External Internal Indicates that the average power reference is provided either externally or internally.0033 9. Some example values from the above referenced paper by Saleh are shown below.6623 0. &RQMXJDWH. x1 = Complex signal #1 [Re. See equation above.1533 0.8168 Example #2 1. See equation above.3456 Example #3 2. Beta_a Indicates the amplitude gain coefficient. 0XOWLSOLFDWLRQ. 0SSXcX^] This block performs complex addition. 'LYLVLRQ. 0DJ3KDVHWR&RPSOH[.1040 2^\_[Tg<PcWRPcTV^ah Blocks in the Complex Math category include $GGLWLRQ.

x1 = Complex signal #1 [Re. x = Complex input [Re. Im] y = x1 ⋅ x 2 "# . Im] y = x* 3XeXbX^] This block performs complex division. Im] y = Complex output [Re. Im] y = Complex output [Re. Im] x2 = Complex signal #2 [Re. x = Complex input [Re. x1 = Complex signal #1 [Re. Im] x2 = Complex signal #2 [Re. Im] y = Complex output [Re. Im] y = x1 ÷ x 2 8]eTabT This block outputs the inverse of the complex input.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc 2^]YdVPcT This block outputs the complex conjugate of the input. Im] y = Complex output [Re. Im] 1 y= x <d[cX_[XRPcX^] This block performs complex multiplication.

and then mapping back to complex. If both the real and imaginary parts of the input are 0. and then mapping back to complex. For exponent values less than 1. zero phase is returned. x = Complex input [Re. A four quadrant arctangent function is used. Im] y= x 2^\_[Tgc^<PV?WPbT This block converts a complex vector input into magnitude and phase components. B`dPaTA^^c This block produces the square root of the complex input. Re( x )) 2^\_[Tgc^ATP[8\PV This block splits a complex vector input into its real and imaginary parts. the output value is one of many possible solutions. Im] y = Complex output [Re. The exponent can be any real value. Im] y = Complex output [Re. Im] y = xα Exponent Specifies the exponent α to which the input complex value is raised. π]. The output value is one of many possible solutions. Im] y1 = Real part "$ . The result is obtained by converting the input value to magnitude and phase. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc ?^fTa This block raises the complex input to the specified power. The result is obtained by converting the input value to magnitude and phase. raising to the power. x = Complex vector input [Re. x = Complex vector input [Re. x = Complex input [Re. Im] y1 = Complex magnitude y2 = Complex Phase y1 = Re( x) 2 + Im( x) 2 y 2 = atan(Im(x). taking the square root. which returns values in the range [-π.

. Im] y = [x1 .2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc y2 = Imaginary part y1 = Re( x) y 2 = lm( x) <PV?WPbTc^2^\_[Tg This block converts magnitude and phase inputs into a complex vector output. x1 = Real part x2 = Imaginary part y = Complex vector output [Re.'HWHFWRU. Im] y = [x1 cos( x 2 ).3L'436. x1 sin( x 2 )] ATP[8\PVc^2^\_[Tg This block combines real and imaginary inputs into a complex vector output.QWHJUDWH 'XPS &RPSOH[. x1 = Complex magnitude x2 = Complex phase y = Complex vector output [Re. x2 ] 3T\^Sd[Pc^abRPcTV^ah Blocks in the Demodulators category include '436.

, )0'HPRGXODWRU, ,QWHJUDWH 'XPS
5HDO

, 330'HPRGXODWRU, 36.'HWHFWRU, and 4$03$0'HWHFWRU.

3@?B:?X#3@?B:3TcTRc^a
This block is used to map a baseband DQPSK or π/4-DQPSK constellation point
back to a symbol number. This block accepts a complex value, representing a point
in the (I, Q) plane, and determines the closest DQPSK or π/4-DQPSK constellation
point. It then determines the phase change since the previous detection and outputs
the corresponding symbol number. Its input is typically the output of an ,QWHJUDWH
'XPS block.
x1 = Complex input signal [Re, Im]
x2 = Dump clock

y = Output symbol number

"%

2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc

Phase Transition Map
DQPSK π/4-DQPSK Output Symbol
0° 45° 0
90° 135° 1
-90° -45° 2
180° -135° 3

Mode
DQPSK
PI/4-DQPSK
Selects either DQPSK and π/4-DQPSK.
Initial Phase
Specifies the initial carrier phase in degrees.

5<3T\^Sd[Pc^a
This block demodulates a Frequency Modulated (FM) signal. The block operates by
estimating the derivative of the input signal, as shown by the formula below. The FM
Demodulator assumes a baseband complex input, but will work at IF frequency as
well. For IF operation, a bias is introduced in the output, but this can be compensated
using the Offset parameter.
To demodulate a Real FM signal, a Hilbert transform (),5 block) can be used to
create a complex version of the signal (Note: The delay through an FIR filter block is
(N-1)/2, where N is the number of taps).
d d
Re( x) ⋅ Im( x) − Im( x) ⋅ Re( x)
1 dt dt
y=
2πβ Re( x) 2 + Im( x) 2

x = Complex FM modulated signal
y = Demodulated signal

FM Deviation Index
Specifies the FM deviation index β used by the transmitter in units of hertz/volt.
This value controls the extent of carrier frequency deviation as a function of
modulator input drive level.
Offset
Specifies the offset to be added to the output in volts. Default is zero.
Overflow Value
Specifies the value to be output when an internal overflow (divide by zero) is
detected. A divide by zero can occur since the output signal is normalized by the
complex magnitude of the input signal. Default value is zero.

"&

Im] for complex) x2 = Optional external clock (0. Held Indicates that the output is held constant between dump clock pulses.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc 8]cTVaPcT3d\_2^\_[Tg 8]cTVaPcT3d\_ATP[  These blocks implement integrate and dump operations on the input signal. The input signal is continuously integrated and the integral output is periodically dumped and reset to a specified value. it should be followed by the appropriate detector block for the modulation used. This parameter is also used as the integrator initial condition at simulation start. Dump Rate Specifies the block’s dump rate in hertz. Initial Delay Specifies the initial delay in seconds to the first dump event. These blocks accept and output either a real signal or a complex signal depending on the selected version of the block. This option is only available when internal dump timing mode is selected. x1 = Input signal ( [Re. This parameter is only available when internal dump timing mode is selected. External Indicates that an outside dump clock is supplied at the clock input port (x2). "' . The dump rate can be specified internally or through an external clock. When one of these blocks is used to demodulate a baseband phase modulated signal. Im] for complex) y2 = Output clock (optional) Reset Value Indicates the value to which the integral resets when dumped. Scale Factor Indicates the output scaling factor. This parameter is usually set to the inverse of the data rate so as to cancel out the integrator ∆t scaling. Output Mode Continuous Indicates that the output is the instantaneous integrator output. Dump Timing Internal Indicates that the Dump Rate and Initial Delay (prior to the first dump) are specified internally. 1) y1 = Integrator output ( [Re.

Available choices are BPSK.. 1. see the description of the 330 block. QPSK. Its input is typically the output of an . It then outputs the corresponding symbol number from the specified PSK constellation map file. and determines the closest PSK constellation point given the modulation type. For more details. N-1) N = number of levels Number of Levels Indicates the number N of possible symbol values. This block accepts a complex value representing a point in the (I. Pulse Width Indicates the width of the rectangular pulse in seconds. . and 16-PSK. The values of the block’s parameters should match the associated 330 block values where applicable. 8-PSK. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Integration Method Euler Specifies the Euler integration method (forward difference). or pulse. x = Complex input signal [Re. Q) plane. Im] y = Output symbol number PSK Type Indicates the PSK modulation type. ?B:3TcTRc^a This block is used to map a baseband PSK constellation point back to its corresponding symbol number..QWHJUDWH 'XPS block. select QPSK and delay the I channel input by ½ symbol duration.. ??<3T\^Sd[Pc^a This block demodulates a pulse position modulated (PPM) signal. Trapezoidal Specifies the trapezoidal integration method. Backward Diff. Symbol Rate Indicates the symbol. Frame Start Delay Indicates the initial start delay of the symbol frame in seconds. "( . x = Baseband modulated signal y = Output symbol value (0. rate in symbols/second. Specifies the backwards difference integration method. The 330 'HPRGXODWRU block accepts a baseband real signal as input and outputs a symbol number. For SQPSK data. later in this chapter.

It is only available when you activate the Internal Amplitude Reference parameter. 64-QAM. The 4$03$0'HWHFWRU block accepts a complex value. Browse File Opens the selected PSK constellation map file using Notepad. Channel Rotation Indicates the amount of phase rotation. 256-QAM. Select File Opens the Select File dialog box for selecting a PSK constellation map file. and 8-PAM. and determines the closest QAM or PAM constellation point given the modulation type.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Constellation Rotation Indicates the amount of modulator constellation rotation from the constellation default. This value is specified in volts. representing a point in the (I. This entry should indicate the same file used with the associated PSK modulator. @0<?0<3TcTRc^a This block is used to map a baseband QAM or PAM constellation point back to its corresponding symbol number. in radians. in degrees. It then outputs the corresponding symbol number from the specified QAM constellation map file. PSK File Path Specifies the DOS path to the desired PSK constellation map file. from the constellation default.QWHJUDWH 'XPS block. 4-PAM. This value is specified in degrees. Channel Rotation Indicates the amount of phase rotation introduced by the communication channel. Available choices are 16-QAM. Refer to the description of the 36. # . Its input is typically the output of an . block for an explanation of the map file format. Im] x2 = Optional external constellation spacing reference y = Output symbol number QAM Type Indicates the QAM or PAM modulation type. Q) plane. Constellation Rotation Indicates the amount of modulator constellation rotation. 32-QAM. Constellation Spacing Indicates the amplitude spacing between adjacent constellation points. x1 = Complex input signal [Re. introduced by the communication channel. This value is specified in radians.

Block parameters include the number of bits for the counter. the next clock edge resets the counter to 0 and produces a pulse on the carry flag output.6HULDOWR3DUDOOHO. -. and 6\PEROWR%LWV. 'LYLGHE\1. Valid range is 1 to 8. Threshold Specifies the voltage threshold above which the input is considered high. This value is specified in volts. Select File Opens the Select File dialog box for selecting a QAM constellation map file. 4XHXH. the clock edge mode. This value is specified in volts. 3XVXcP[RPcTV^ah Blocks in the Digital category include %LQDU\&RXQWHU. This entry should indicate the same file used with the associated QAM modulator. External Indicates that the constellation spacing reference is provided externally through the x3 input connection. The internal counter increments when a rising (or falling) edge is detected. Browse File Opens the selected QAM constellation map file using Notepad. ' )OLS)ORS. 1X]Pah2^d]cTa This block implements an edge-triggered binary counter. Counter Initial Value Specifies the initial value of the counter at simulation start. 0X['HPX[.)OLS)ORS. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Amplitude Reference Internal Indicates that the constellation spacing reference is provided internally. # . Refer to the description of the 4$03$0'HWHFWRU block for an explanation of the map file format. QAM File Path Specifies the DOS path to the desired QAM constellation map file. the counter initial value. and edge threshold voltage. x1 = Input clock x2 = Reset y1 = Counter value y2 = Carry flag Number of Bits Specifies the number of bits for the counter. %LWVWR6\PERO. 3DUDOOHOWR 6HULDO. Upon reaching the internal “all ones” state.

Any value x > 0. clock edge mode. . 2n-1) Bit Order LSB First Indicates that x1 is considered the least significant bit (LSB).. Rounding is performed on the input data.. Valid range is 2 to 16. . and edge threshold voltage.. x1 = D input x2 = Clock y1 = Flip flop output y2 = Complemented output Edge Mode Rising Edge Specifies that the flip flop will clock upon detecting a rising clock edge.5 is considered a 1. The mapping is simply the decimal equivalent of the binary number formed by combining the input bit streams.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Edge Mode Rising Edge Specifies that the counter will increment upon detecting a rising pulse. Number of Input Bits Indicates the number n of incoming binary data streams. 1Xcbc^Bh\Q^[ This block accepts inputs from n parallel binary bit streams and outputs the corresponding symbol number. #! . xn = Input bit stream #n y = Output symbol number (0. MSB First Indicates that x1 is considered the most significant bit (MSB). You can specify the number of input data streams.. 1. Falling Edge Specifies that the counter will increment upon detecting a falling pulse. Block parameters include the initial flip flop state. otherwise it is considered a 0. x1 = Input bit stream #1 . Falling Edge Specifies that the flip flop will clock upon detecting a falling clock edge.. 35[X_5[^_ This block implements an edge-triggered D type flip flop.

Block parameters include the initial flip flop state. and edge threshold voltage. 3XeXSTQh= This block implements a digital divide by N function. x = Input clock y = Divided output clock Divide by Specifies the divide down ratio N. Threshold Specifies the voltage threshold above which the inputs are considered high. x1 = J input x2 = K input x3 = Clock y1 = Flip flop output y2 = Complemented output Edge Mode Rising Edge Specifies that the flip flop will clock upon detecting a rising clock edge. initial delay. Block parameters include the divide ratio. Output Mode Rectangular Pulses The block outputs a rectangular pulsed waveform. This parameter obtains a desired level of block synchronization. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Initial State Specifies the initial state of the flip flop. and clock threshold voltage. #" . An internal counter is used to produce an output clock transition for every N detected input clock transitions. 9:5[X_5[^_ This block implements an edge-triggered JK type flip flop. This value must be a positive integer. Threshold Specifies the voltage threshold above which the input clock is considered high. Falling Edge Specifies that the flip flop will clock upon detecting a falling clock edge. clock edge mode. Initial Delay Specifies an initial time delay in seconds prior to commencing the divide down process. Impulse Output The block outputs an impulse train.

The selected input (output) will be the active connection until the first clock pulse. Typically the block’s clock rate (switch rate) should equal the number of inputs (outputs) multiplied by the individual line rate. Threshold Specifies the voltage threshold above which the inputs are considered high. ## .2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Initial State Specifies the initial state of the flip flop. Internal Specifies internal timing control. See the Switch Rate and Start Time parameters. This is the rate at which the block changes from one input (output) to the next. the current active input (output) of the multiplexer (demultiplexer) is advanced by 1 in round robin fashion. Specify this value in hertz. Switch Rate Specifies the block’s switch rate when in internal timing mode. The 0X['HPX[ block can be controlled by an internal or external clock. Timing External Specifies that the block is controlled by an external clock. A demultiplexer reverses the operation. A multiplexer combines several low speed data streams into a single high speed stream. <dg3T\dg This block implements a digital multiplexer or demultiplexer. Multiplexer mode Demultiplexer mode x1 = External clock x1 = External clock x2 = Input #1 x2 = Multiplexed input xn+1 = Input # y1 = Clock output (switch rate) y1 = Clock output (switch rate) y2 = Output #1 y2 = Multiplexed output yn+1 = Output #n Number of Lines Specifies the number of inputs when in multiplexer mode and the number of outputs when in demultiplexer mode. Initial Position Specifies the initial state of multiplexer or demultiplexer. At each clock pulse. Demultiplexer Specifies that the block operates as a demultiplexer. Mode Multiplexer Specifies that the block operates as a multiplexer.

once all output bits have been shifted out. If the bit rate is insufficient to output all the bits prior to the next symbol input pulse. Proper timing is your responsibility. The output bits are obtained by decomposing the binary representation of the input symbol number. 2n-1) n = number of bits x2 = Input symbol clock y1 = Output serial bit stream y2 = Output bit clock Bit Order LSB First Indicates that y1 is considered the LSB. 1. Valid range is 2 to 16. the last bit value is held and clock pulses cease until the next input symbol is processed.. Output clock pulses are provided for each consecutive output bit. any remaining bits are discarded. MSB First Indicates that y1 is considered the MSB. @dTdT This block implements a digital queue. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Start Time Specifies the start time for the internal clock in seconds. Input values are stored in the queue according to an input clock and are read out according to an output clock. Besides the data output. x1 = Input symbol number (0. ?PaP[[T[c^BTaXP[ This block accepts parallel data represented by symbol numbers and outputs a serial binary stream.. This block can be used to simulate buffers used in communication systems. then the current input is immediately provided at the output. The bits can be output either LSB first or MSB first. You must specify the number of bits in the parallel input data word and the output bit rate. . On the other hand. Bits per Symbol Indicates the number of bits n per parallel symbol. Output Bit Rate Indicates the bit rate to be used for outputting the serial data. The queue service can be specified as either first in first out (FIFO) or last in first out (LIFO). Input symbols are read in when the x2 clock input goes high. the 4XHXH block also provides the current number of values stored in the queue and an overflow indicator flag. It is recommended that each output bit be represented by an integer number of simulation steps. If the input and output clocks occur simultaneously and the queue is empty. #$ . This is the time of the first clock pulse.

2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc x1 = Data in x2 = Input clock x3 = Output clock y1 = Data out y2 = Queue count y3 = Overflow flag (see below) Queue Size Specifies the size of the queue buffer. . Valid range is 1 to 32. It is recommended that input bits be represented by an integer number of simulation steps. The bits can be provided either LSB first or MSB first. Empty Output Specifies the value to output when the queue is empty. the output symbol value is output upon occurrence of the next input clock pulse. Input bits are read in each time the x2 clock input goes high.. Output clock pulses are provided for each output symbol. LIFO Specifies that the queue operates as a LIFO queue. 2n-1) y2 = Output data clock #% . Once n serial bits have been read in.. The overflow flag output behaves as follows: Flag = 0: Normal condition Flag = 1: An overflow has occurred during the simulation Flag = 2: Overflow in progress BTaXP[c^?PaP[[T[ This block accepts a serial binary stream and outputs parallel data as symbol numbers. 1. Queue Type FIFO Specifies that the queue operates as a FIFO queue. The symbol value is obtained by combining sets of n input bits at a time. Proper timing is your responsibility. where n is specified by you.766. x1 = Input serial bit n = number of bits x2 = Input bit clock y1 = Output symbol number (0.

. 1. Valid range is 2 to 16.QWHUOHDYHU.. Valid range is 2 to 16. 7UHOOLV'HFRGHU. You can specify the number of output data streams. yn = Output bit stream #n Bit Order LSB First Indicates that y1 is considered the LSB. x = Input symbol number (0. . Bh\Q^[c^1Xcb This block accepts a symbol number and outputs n parallel binary bit streams. 7UHOOLV(QFRGHU. Bits per Symbol Indicates the number of bits n per parallel symbol. *UD\(QFRGHU. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Bit Order LSB First Indicates that the first out of n input bits is considered the LSB. . &RQYROXWLRQDO(QFRGHU. *UD\'HFRGHU. 9LWHUEL'HFRGHU +DUG. Number of Output Bits Indicates the number n of output binary data streams. &RQYROXWLRQDO. 2n-1) y1 = Output bit stream #1 . MSB First Indicates that y1 is considered the MSB.. MSB First Indicates that the first out of n input bits is considered the MSB..QWHUOHDYHU. The mapping is obtained by decomposing the binary representation of the symbol number. 4]R^ST3TR^STRPcTV^ah Blocks in the Encode / Decode category include %ORFN..

. and 9LWHUEL'HFRGHU 6RIW.

9LWHUEL'HFRGHU +DUG. 1[^RZ8]cTa[TPeTa This block implements block interleaving or de-interleaving. It is particularly useful when used in conjunction with a &RQYROXWLRQDO (QFRGHU. It is normally used to scramble encoded channel bits in order to spread out the effects of burst type channel errors..

or 9LWHUEL'HFRGHU 6RIW..

When interleave mode is set. there is #& . 1]. block. starting at location [1. the input data is written in rows and read out by columns. Since an entire block of data must be received before the output can start. The opposite occurs when deinterleave mode is set.

x1 = Input data stream x2 = Input data clock (0. 11 … Output: 0.QWHUOHDYHU. 10. Rows Specifies the number of rows used in the block.767. 7. Block parameters include the numbers of input bits (k) and coded bits (n). The &RQYROXWLRQDO(QFRGHU block requires that the simulation step divides evenly into both the input and output (coded) bit duration. 9. 1. 2. Generator coefficients should be computed appropriately. 4. 4. 3. 2. The first output bit comes from generator coefficient #1. The %ORFN. 5. 5. Deinterleave Indicates that data is read-in by column and output by row. 1. 2^]e^[dcX^]P[4]R^STa This block implements a convolutional encoder. 9. The data is read in when the input clock goes high. and the generator coefficients. The internal buffer size (rows x columns) has an upper limit of 32. the encoder constraint length (L). 10. 3. 8.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc an initial delay equal to the number of cells in the block. 11 … Mode Interleave Indicates that data is read-in by row and output by column. 1) y1 = Output data stream y2 = Output data clock (0. Columns Specifies the number of columns used in the block. 7. 6. 6. The &RQYROXWLRQDO(QFRGHU block implements a single shift register of kL length internally. x1 = Input data bit stream x2 = Input data clock y1 = Coded output bit stream #' . The output clock starts after the appropriate delay amount. 1) Example: Assuming a 4 x 3 %ORFN . the following input sequence (read left to right) results in the output shown Input: 0. 8.QWHUOHDYHU block accepts a real value and outputs a real value. the input bit rate.

9LWHUEL 'HFRGHU +DUG. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc y2 = Output data clock No. Valid range is from 1 to 7. Coded Bits Specifies the number of coded output bits n. Valid range is from 1 to 8. It is normally used to scramble encoded channel bits in order to spread out the effects of burst type channel errors. No. Input Bit Rate Specifies the bit rate of the incoming data in hertz. and represents the size of the internal buffer in words of size k. Generator Coefficients Specifies the value of each generator coefficient in octal format. 2^]e^[dcX^]P[8]cTa[TPeTa This block implements convolutional interleaving or de-interleaving. It is particularly useful when used in conjunction with a &RQYROXWLRQDO (QFRGHU. The memory size m of the encoder is simply L-1. The maximum allowed value of kL is 15. Constraint Length This parameter specifies the constraint length L of the encoder. Information Bits Specifies the number of input bits k.

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When interleave mode is set. the size of the row decreases from row to row. with the last row being a straight through path. block. The depth of the interleaver (number of rows) and the row increment can both be set by the user. The opposite occurs when deinterleave mode is set. 1) Interleaver Deinterleaver #( . x1 = Input data stream x2 = Input data clock (0. In convolutional interleaving data is written into rows of increasing buffer size. the input data is written in rows of increasing length.QWHUOHDYHU block accepts a real value and outputs a real value. 1) y1 = Output data stream y2 = Output data clock (0. starting with a no delay path. The CRQYROXWLRQDO. An external input clock controls reading of the data.e. i.

9 … Mode Interleave Indicates that rows increase in length from one row to the next. 5. 0. 1. 14. 0. 6. The input is first rounded to the closest integer and then decoded.QWHUOHDYHU (Depth= 3. For example. 0. 11. 9. 6. the values: 0. 0. 3. 0. 7 are mapped to: 0. 2. For example. 5. 2. 4. 10. 3. 2. 7. 2. 4 x = Gray encoded value y = Output value 6aPh4]R^STa This block performs Gray encoding on the input signal. 8. 11. the values: 0. 2. 13. 7. 4. 5. Gray encoding is used to map neighboring integer input values into encoded symbols which differ by only one bit. 6. 1. the following input sequence (read left to right) results in the output shown Input: 1. 1. 5. 3. 7. 4. 16. Deinterleave Indicates that rows decrease in length from one row to the next. 3.2] &RQYROXWLRQDO. Row Increment Specifies the cell increment from row to row. 19 … Output: 1. 6aPh3TR^STa This block performs Gray decoding of the input signal. 0. 15. 6. 16. 19. 6. 2. 4. 12. 8. 7. 18. 5. 17. 13. Gray encoding is used to map neighboring integer input values into encoded symbols which differ by only one bit. 6. 10. 1. 3.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Example: Assuming a [3. 14. 4 x = Input value y = Gray encoded integer $ . 7 are mapped to: 0. Rows Specifies the number of rows used in the block. 5. The input is first rounded to the closest integer and then encoded. Increment= 2). 3.

and the number of states in the trellis. the encoding process and modulation scheme are designed together. The CCITT V. The specific trellis state transition mapping and corresponding constellation output points are provided via an external file. Q) channel outputs. Block parameters include the numbers of input data bits (k) and encoded output bits (n). Valid range is from 1 to 7. Trellis Truncation Length Specifies the truncation length of the decoded trellis. and the trellis truncation length. Trellis File Path Specifies the DOS path to the desired trellis state transition map file. Q) pair as its input and outputs a decoded symbol number data stream. $ . This value must be a power of 2. refer to the 7UHOOLV(QFRGHU block description. Valid range is from 1 to 8. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc CaT[[Xb3TR^STa This block decodes trellis-coded modulated signals. The 7UHOOLV'HFRGHU block accepts a baseband (I. Number of Output Bits Specifies the number of coded bits n. For a description of the file format.32 modem communication standard is an example of trellis-coded modulation. The file provides both the state transition mapping and the associated (I. x1 = I channel input x2 = Q channel input x3= Data clock y1 = Output symbol value y2 = Output data clock y3 = Best metric value Number of Input Bits Specifies the number of input bits k. CaT[[Xb4]R^STa This block implements trellis-coded modulation. In trellis-coded modulation. the number of states in the trellis. There is a delay through this block equivalent to the specified truncation length. Block parameters include the number of data bits (k). coded bits (n). The maximum value is 100. The mapping of the output constellation points is selected to maximize the minimum Euclidean distance between coded signal pairs. Number of States Specifies the number of states in the trellis.

Number of States Specifies the number of states in the trellis. This value must be a power of 2.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Unlike the &RQYROXWLRQDO(QFRGHU block. Trellis File Path Specifies the DOS path to the desired trellis state transition map file. where N= 2k ⋅ #states Table entries may be separated by blank spaces. Valid range is from 1 to 7. The input value entries may be entered in random order. The file provides both the state transition mapping and the associated (I.. Q) space is output. The coded output symbol value (n bits) is then determined internally and the corresponding constellation point in (I. or commas. There is no delay through this block. Q) pair corresponding to the output constellation point. Q) channel outputs. The current state values must be entered in increasing order. tabs. Valid range is from 1 to 8. this block accepts k input bits simultaneously as a symbol value. $! . Number of Output Bits Specifies the number of coded output bits n. The table should contain a total of N entries. The specific trellis state transition mapping and corresponding constellation output points are provided via an external file.40DSSHU block. This block is typically followed by an . The 7UHOOLV(QFRGHU block accepts a symbol number and outputs a baseband (I. x1 = Input symbol number x2 = Input data clock y1 = I channel output y2 = Q channel output y3 = Output data clock Number of Input Bits Specifies the number of input data bits k. The file format is explained below: File header K n #states Column header line current state input value new state I output Q output .. An example of a trellis map file is shown below.

... ...... .. This particular trellis has eight states (0 . ... the output bit rate... Block parameters include the numbers of input bits (k) and coded bits (n).. there are four input bits indicating an input symbol range of 0 to 15.. the encoder constraint length (L). The 9LWHUEL'HFRGHU +DUG. 0 15 2 -2 1 1 0 2 -4 1 . the trellis truncation length M. EXcTaQX3TR^STa7PaS This block implements a hard decision Viterbi decoder to decode convolutionally encoded data. 7 15 7 -1 4 In this example. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc V. . which specifies one of 32 different constellation points. .. . . and the generator coefficients.32 Trellis Map File 1st header line 4 5 8 state input new state I out Q out 2nd header line 0 0 0 -4 1 0 1 0 0 -3 ..7).... The number of coded output bits is five. .

Hamming distance is used as the internal metric. Valid range is from 1 to 8. block requires the simulation step size to divide evenly into both the input (coded) and output bit duration. The maximum allowed value of kL is 15. No. Constraint Length Specifies the constraint length L of the associated encoder. 1) y2 = Decoded data clock y3 = Best path metric (Hamming distance) No. Information Bits Specifies the number of information bits k. $" . Assuming that no uncorrected channel errors have occurred. Valid range is from 1 to 7. 1) x2 = Input coded data clock y1 = Decoded bit stream (0. the best metric output (y2) is an indication of the number of channel bit errors. x1 = Input coded bit stream (0. This block takes as input a binary stream and outputs a binary stream. The memory size m of the encoder is simply L-1. Coded Output Bits Specifies the number of coded bits n.

The 9LWHUEL'HFRGHU 6RIW. the output bit rate. EXcTaQX3TR^STaB^Uc This block implements a soft decision Viterbi decoder to decode convolutionally encoded data. Generator Coefficients Specifies the value of the associated encoder generator coefficients in octal format. the trellis truncation length (M). the number of quantization bits. and the generator coefficients.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Trellis Truncation Length Specifies the trellis truncation length M in words of size k. the encoder constraint length (L). Block parameters include the numbers of input bits (k) and coded bits (n). An external metric file must also be specified. Output Bit Rate Specifies the bit rate of the output decoded data in hertz. The maximum allowed value of kM is 96.

x1 = Input coded data stream x2 = Input coded data clock y1 = Decoded bit stream (0. No. Coded Output Bits Specifies the number of coded bits n. Trellis Truncation Length Specifies the trellis truncation length M. Constraint Length Specifies the constraint length L of the associated encoder. Quantization Bits Specifies the number of quantization bits used in the decoding process. The maximum allowed value of kM is 96. Valid range is from 1 to 8. $# . This block accepts a real value and outputs a binary stream. block requires the simulation step size to divide evenly into both the input and output (coded) bit duration. The memory size m of the encoder is simply L-1. Valid range is from 1 to 7. in words of size k. Information Bits Specifies the number of information bits k. The maximum allowed value of kL is 15. 1) y2 = Decoded data clock y3 = Best path metric No.

.0 1. Q = 3 3.0.5 -1. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Output Bit Rate Specifies the bit rate of the output decoded data in hertz. 5. 0.. given a “1” was sent Note: File entries can be separated by a comma.0 4bcX\Pc^abRPcTV^ah Blocks in the Estimators category include $YHUDJH3RZHU &RPSOH[.5. 1. 4.0..0. 3..0. 0. Metric File Path Specifies the path and filename of the metric file to be used in decoding.0 For example: -1.0.0 and the metric for a “1” bit is “5.0.5. 4.. . 3. 7. tab.5 Viterbi Decoder Metric File. Example Metric File A B C D E F G H -1.0 -0.0 for an input 0.5 1. 2. 5.0. 6.0 1.0. 7. or whitespace.5. 2.5.0 1. Metric File Format Header line (can be anything) Q = # quantization bits Q m(A/0) m(A/1) TAB = threshold value between TAB m(B/0) m(B/1) regions “A” and “B” TBC m(C/0) m(C/1) m(C/1) = metric for region “C” . 0. 6. .0 the metric for a “0” bit is “2.0.0”. 1.0. Generator Coefficients Specifies the value of the associated encoder generator coefficients in octal format. 0.0”.0 -1.0.. A metric value of 0 is considered best.5 0 0.5 ≤ x < 1. -0.

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This parameter is available only when sliding mode is activated. Mode Sliding Specifies that the average power estimate is computed over a sliding window. This parameter is available only when sliding mode is activated.i = simulation step indeces Load 1 Ohm Specifies a load resistance of 1 Ohm. 50 Ohms Specifies a load resistance of 50 Ohms.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc 0eTaPVT?^fTa2^\_[Tg  0eTaPVT?^fTaATP[ These blocks estimate the average (or complex) power of the input (or complex) signal. Two versions of this block exist: one for complex signals and one for real signals. The reset signal is optional. Two power estimation modes are available: running and sliding window. $% . Initial Value Specifies the initial value stored in the sliding window buffer at simulation start. Im] for complex) x2 = Reset signal (resets when x2 > 1) y = Power estimate k 2 ∑ 1 y[k ] = ⋅ x1[i ] N = window size or # of samples since reset N i = k − N −1 k. Shift Reg. Window Size Specifies the size of the sliding window averaging buffer in simulation steps. Output Units dBm Watts dBW Specifies the average power in dBm. or dBW. watts. Running Specifies that the average power estimate is computed using all simulation samples since the last reset pulse or simulation start. x1 = Input signal ([Re. The two modes are described in more detail below.

a longer duration is usually necessary to obtain a reliable error rate estimate. and provides a written BER summary notification message. as illustrated in the figure below. The %(5&XUYH &RQWURO block accepts the current run Es/No value (from an $:*1 block or other custom source) and an output error rate from a %LW6\PERO(UURU5DWH block. Symbol Error Rate Forces the use of the Es/No label in the results summary. $& . 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc 14A2daeT2^]ca^[ This block is used to automatically vary the simulation’s running time during multiple runs and to generate a BER curve. The %(5&XUYH&RQWURO block allows up to ten consecutive iterations of the simulation. as shown in the figure below. it is necessary to activate the Auto Restart parameter in the dialog box for the Simulate menu’s Simulation Properties command. Duration Specifies each run’s duration in seconds. The valid range is from one to 10 Mode Bit Error Rate Forces the use of the Eb/No label in the results summary. The %(5&XUYH&RQWURO outputs the BER curve result at the end of the final run. Show Results Displays the last set of results obtained using the %(5&XUYH&RQWURO block. each with its own time duration expressed in seconds. The same message is also displayed automatically at the end of the simulation. x1 = Run Es/No x2 = Error rate estimate ((Pe) from BER Curve Control block) y1 = Trigger for BER plot y2 = Error rate results for BER plot (y-axis signal . Use this setting when providing a reference Es/No input to the block. Use this setting when providing a reference Eb/No input to the block. Care should be taken to match the number of runs in this block with those specified in the $:*1 block (if used). and log Y scaling. XY plotting.y) plot drive outputs should be connected to a SORW block configured for external trigger. As the SNR is made larger. In order for this block to function properly.use log scale) y3 = SNR data for BER plot (x-axis signal) Number of Runs Specifies the number of simulation iterations. The (x. The %(5&XUYH&RQWURO block outputs a triggered XY plot drive signal. The Es/No value and input error rate estimate are recorded on the last iteration of each run.

In standard correlation mode. The latter mode can be used to implement a matched filter or convolution by sliding in a desired waveform and then locking the control gate. k = simulation step indeces j0 = gate high step# Mode Gated Control Indicates gated correlation mode. In gated mode. The correlation is performed over a variable window size. In standard correlation. x1 = Recovered signal x2 = Reference signal x3 = External gate control (0. the two signals are continuously shifted through the correlation window.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc 2^aaT[PcX^] This block performs a correlation between two real signals. When the gate voltage becomes high. but the reference signal is only shifted when the external gate signal is low. along with the recovered signal. Two modes are available: standard correlation and gated. j. Standard Indicates standard correlation mode. referred to as the recovered signal and reference signal. the recovered signal is still continuously shifted. $' . the two signals are simply shifted into the correlation buffer and continuously correlated. the shifting of the reference signal (x2) is controlled by the external gate control. In gated correlation. The gate control input has no effect. the reference signal is shifted into the correlation buffer. the reference signal is no longer shifted and a sliding correlation with the incoming recovered signal is performed. 1) y = Correlation output N −1 k − i ∑ (x [ sliding mode y[k ] = 1 k −i ] ⋅ x 2[ j ] ) j= N = window size i =0  j0 − 1 − i gated mode i. When the gate voltage is low.

Sampling at approximately the half symbol point is recommended. In order for this block to operate properly. The delay estimate output is 0 at simulation start. reference signal). Delay Specifies the upper end of the delay search range. for example. Max. 1) Window Size Specifies the size of the correlation window used in simulation steps. The total simulation time should be greater than the sum of the correlation start time. x1 = Simulation output signal x2 = Reference signal y1 = Delay estimate y2 = Result flag (0. This allows. The search range starts with 0 delay. The maximum delay parameter is specified in seconds. The size of the correlation window is specified as a parameter. a tracking loop to complete its acquisition process before the delay estimate is made. An output flag is provided that indicates when the entire delay range was successfully searched. x1 = Recovered data stream x2 = Reference data stream $( . the reference data stream must be delayed by the same amount as the recovered data stream. and the maximum delay. 3T[Ph4bcX\Pc^a This block estimates the propagation time delay from input to output in a simulation. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Window Size Specifies the size of the correlation buffer in simulation steps. the correlation window size (expressed in seconds). The delay is estimated by performing a sliding correlation between the desired output signal and an undelayed version of the input signal (or. Start Time Specifies the starting time of the correlation process in seconds. The result flag is 0 during computation and toggles to 1 upon completion. 1XcBh\Q^[4aa^aAPcT This block accepts either bits or symbols as input and can output either a BER or symbol error rate (SER) by comparing a recovered data stream to a reference data stream. An external sampling clock must be provided to the %LW6\PERO(UURU5DWH block. The output signal can be a distorted version of the input signal.

1) y1 = Error rate (symbol or bit) y2 = Error count ((symbols or bits) (optional)) y3 = Total count ((symbol or bits) (optional)) Count Start Delay Specifies the initial delay in symbol counts before starting the error counting process. Output Mode Bit Error Rate Specifies the output error rate as a BER. x = Input signal y = Time of occurrence Event Mode Specifies the logical comparison to be tested on the input signal relative to the threshold value parameter. <=. Symbol Error Rate Specifies the output error rate as an SER. This parameter is only available when bit error rate mode is selected. Available choices include: =. regardless of how many bits within a symbol are in error. <TP] This block estimates the mean of the input signal. 4eT]cCX\T This block provides the simulation time at which the input signal value first meets the specified condition. Threshold Value Specifies the threshold value against which the input signal is compared. x1 = Input signal x2 = Reset signal (resets when x2 > 1) y = Mean estimate % . a single symbol error is recorded. In this mode. In this mode. and <. Two modes are available: running and sliding window. A symbol count occurs each time the sampling clock goes high. The total count output shows the total number of symbols processed times the number of bits/symbol. >=.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc x3 = External Clock (0. the total number of bits that are in error within a symbol is counted. >. Bits per Symbol Specifies the number of bits per symbol.

i = simulation step indeces Mode Sliding Window Indicates that the mean estimate is computed over a sliding window. This parameter is available only when sliding mode is activated. <TSXP] This block computes the moving median of the input signal. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc k ∑ x[ ] 1 y[k ] = ⋅ i N = window size or number of samples since reset N i = k − N −1 k. the returned value is the average of the two center data points. Initial Value Specifies the initial value stored in the sliding window buffer at simulation start. When the size of the sliding window N is Even. Shift Register Initial Value Specifies the initialization value for the internal shift register contents. Running Indicates that the mean estimate is based on all simulation samples after the last reset pulse or simulation start. x = Input data y = Median output Window Size Specifies the size N of the sliding window. Default value is zero. EPaXP]RT This block estimates the variance and mean of the input signal. The median is defined as the value where half the data points are larger and half are smaller. since it is computed in the process of obtaining the variance. x1 = Input signal x2 = Reset signal (resets when x2 > 1) y1 = Variance estimate % . The block operates by sorting the input data points in ascending order and returning the value closest to the middle (Odd N case). The mean is also provided as an optional connector. Window Size Specifies the size of the sliding window buffer in simulation steps. Shift Reg. This parameter is available only when sliding mode is activated. The reset signal is optional. Two modes are available: running and sliding window.

y[k ] = 0 otherwise ∑w i = k − N −1 [i ] i = k − N −1 N = window size or number of samples since reset %! . This parameter is available only when sliding window mode is activated. Initial Value Specifies the initial value stored in the sliding window buffer at simulation start. Two modes are available: running and sliding window.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc y2 = Mean estimate (optional) 2 k 1 k  ∑ − ⋅ ∑ x[i ]  1 y[k ] = ⋅ x[2i ] N N  i = k − N −1  i = k − N −1  k ∑ x[ ] 1 y 2[k ] = ⋅ i N = window size or number of samples since reset N i = k − N −1 k. Running Indicates that the mean and variance estimates are based on all simulation samples since the last reset pulse or simulation start. x1 = Input signal x1 = Input weight (w in formula below) x3 = Reset signal (resets when x3 > 1) y = Weighted mean k ∑ x[ ] ⋅ w i [i ] k y [k ] = i = k − N −1 k ∑w [i ] ≠ 0 . The reset signal is optional. FTXVWcTS<TP] This block computes the weighted mean of the input signal.i = simulation step indeces Mode Sliding Window Indicates that the mean and variance estimates are computed over a sliding window. The weighted mean can also be reset during the course of the simulation (running mode only). Window Size Specifies the size of the sliding window buffer in simulation steps. This parameter is available only when sliding window mode is activated.

2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc k. This parameter is available only when sliding mode is activated. Window Size Specifies the size N of the sliding window buffer in simulation steps.i = simulation step indeces Mode Sliding Window Indicates that the weighted mean is computed over a sliding window. Running Indicates that the weighted mean is based on all simulation samples after the last reset pulse or simulation start. The reset signal is optional. 5X[cTabRPcTV^ah Blocks in the Filters category include $GDSWLYH(TXDOL]HU &RPSOH[.

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Two versions of this block exist, one complex and the other real. This block
implements a fractionally-spaced adaptive equalizer. Block parameters include the
number of taps, tap spacing, initial conditions, and the convergence coefficient.
An LMS convergence algorithm is used to adapt the tap values so as to minimize the
error signal. You are responsible for providing a suitable error input to the block.
The tap values can be locked by:
• Not providing an update clock in external timing mode
• Setting high the Lock input in internal timing mode
A reset of the taps can also be performed by pulsing the Clock/Lock input with a
value of -1. The taps can be initialized either internally or by using the external
vector input. There is a one simulation step delay across this block.
x1 = Input signal (Real or complex depending on type of block)
x2= Error signal (Real or complex depending on type of block)

x3= Clock / Lock input [high > 0.5], Reset [≤ -1]

x4= Tap initialization vector (size = number of taps)

y1 = Output signal
y2 = Clock output

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2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc

y3 = Tap output vector (size = number of taps)

Number of Taps
Specifies the number of equalizer taps. Valid range is 1 to 32,767.
Taps per Symbol
Specifies the number of taps per symbol period.
Mu
Specifies the feedback coefficient applied to the error signal in the adaptation
process. A value in the range of 0.005 is typically specified.
Symbol Rate
Specifies the input data symbol rate in hertz.
Input Time Delay
Specifies the time delay in seconds until the start of a symbol period at the
equalizer input. This value is used to synchronize the equalizer with the
incoming data signal when internal timing mode is specified.
Initialized Tap Value
Specifies the value to be used in initializing the equalizer’s center tap (or other
tap if an offset is used). This parameter is only applicable when internal tap
initialization mode is specified. All other taps are initialized to 0.
Initialized Tap Offset
Specifies an offset from center as to which tap is to be initialized using the value
specified above. A value of 0 causes the center tap to be initialized. This
parameter is applicable only when you activate the Internal parameter under Tap
Initialization, described below. Positive values correspond to a taps past the
center.
Show Taps
Displays the current values of the equalizer internal taps.
Timing
External
Specifies that an external clock is provided to the equalizer. The clock should go
high at the center of the symbol period.
Internal
Specifies that the equalizer sampling clock is to be generated internally.
Tap Initialization
External
Specifies that tap initial values are provided via the x4 vector input.
Internal
Internal taps are initialized based on the specified Initialized Tap Value and
Initialized Tap Offset parameters, described above.

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. The )LOH). Multiple tap values can be specified on a given line. The effective sampling frequency of the filter can be specified to obtain a consistent filter response regardless of the simulation sampling rate. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc 5X[T58A This block implements a finite impulse response (FIR) filter based on user-supplied tap values provided in a file. Because the input file represents the impulse response of the user-specified filter. %$ . Taps are provided in increasing order and correspond to increasing delays. Browse File Opens the selected FIR filter tap file using Notepad. Up to 32. This value must divide exactly into the simulation sampling frequency.767 taps can be specified. Valid data delimiters are commas. this block can also be viewed as performing a convolution of the input signal with the truncated waveform specified by the input file. Tap Spacing Frequency Specifies the time spacing of the filter’s internal taps as a frequency in hertz. tabs. blank spaces.5 block accepts a real signal and outputs a real signal. and carriage returns. The maximum allowed line length is 100 characters. Taps File Path Specifies the DOS path to the desired FIR filter taps file.. When the filter sampling frequency is a fraction of the simulation sampling rate. The format of the FIR filter tap file is described below: File header (anything) number of taps tap value #1 tap value #2. x = Input signal y = Filtered output signal Select File Opens the Select File dialog box for selecting the desired FIR filter tap file. tap value #3 . additional delay elements are introduced in the internal shift register between the filter’s active tap locations.

they are down 6 dB (3 dB for root raised cosine). Cutoff Freq 1 Specifies either: • The desired cutoff frequency when you select the lowpass. It employs the windowing method for filter design and allows you to implement lowpass. this cutoff frequency corresponds to the half amplitude point. that is. the number of taps must be odd. root raised cosine. except for the root raised cosine filter type (3 dB). Valid range is from 1 to 32. x = Input signal y = Filtered output signal Number of Taps Indicates the desired number of filter taps to be used in realizing the filter. highpass. Window Type Lists the available window functions that can be used to realize the filter. bandpass.5)LOWHU block will have unity gain in the passband. additional delay elements are introduced in the internal shift register between the filter’s active tap locations. which corresponds to 6 dB attenuation. Hilbert. Beta Specifies the shape parameter associated with the Kaiser window. This block accepts a real signal and outputs a real signal. The cutoff frequencies for all filter types except root raised cosine correspond to the half amplitude point. • The desired lower cutoff frequency when you select the bandpass or bandstop filter type.767. raised cosine. root raised cosine. When you select Kaiser. Hilbert and Gaussian filters with your choice of window function.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc 58A5X[cTa This block implements a finite impulse response (FIR) filter. bandstop. %% . The effective sampling frequency of the filter can be specified to obtain a consistent filter response regardless of the simulation sampling rate. Cutoff Freq 2 Specifies the upper cutoff frequency (6 dB) when you select either the bandpass or bandstop filter type. Note that for highpass and bandstop types. When the filter sampling frequency is a fraction of the simulation sampling rate. Most filters designed with the ). you must also enter a value in the Beta box. Due to the design method. You should check the impulse response of the filter to ensure it meets your design criteria. Gaussian or highpass filter type. raised cosine.

View Response Invokes the VisSim/Comm filter viewer. Valid range is from 0 to 1. Filter Type Indicates the desired filter type. Hilbert and Gaussian. phase response. Rolloff Factor Specifies the rolloff factor (alpha) associated with the raised cosine or root raised cosine filter type. Taps are shown in order of increasing delay. highpass. the values are saved in a format compatible with the )LOH). If you activate the Use FIR File Format option. Radians/Sec Indicates that cutoff frequency values are in radians/second. %& . It is usually only necessary when the number of taps is relatively low and the cutoff frequency is a small fraction of the sampling frequency. gain response. You can choose from several well-known analog filter prototypes. bandstop. raised cosine.5 block. please refer to the Output Plots section in Chapter 2. This setting only applies when the lowpass. root raised cosine. For more details on using the filter viewer. This value must divide exactly into the simulation sampling frequency. Show Taps Displays the current FIR Filter tap values in the VisSim/Comm Filter Result dialog box. 88A This block implements infinite impulse response (IIR) filtering. Tap Spacing Frequency Specifies the time spacing of the filter’s internal taps as a frequency in hertz. raised cosine. and group delay response. When you select either the Raised Cosine or Root Raised Cosine parameter. including Butterworth and Chebyshev designs. you must supply a Rolloff Factor value. which allows you to review the filter’s impulse response. Normalize LPF to 0 dB at dc Specifies that the filter impulse response is to be normalized so that the dc gain is unity (0 dB). Available types are lowpass. Once the taps are displayed. bandpass. the values can be saved to a user-specified file by clicking on the Save to File button. The desired filter is implemented using bilinear transformation to map the s-domain analog design to the digital z-domain. Hilbert or Gaussian filter type is selected. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Units Hertz Indicates that cutoff frequency values are in hertz. Click on the DOWN ARROW to select from a list of filter types. root raised cosine.

The .5 block accepts a real signal and outputs a real signal.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc The . Chebyshev Type I. and Bessel. A value of 1 for Epsilon. especially when specifying a very narrowband filter (<1% Fs) of high order. Radians/Sec Indicates that cutoff frequency values are in radians/second. Cutoff Freq 1 Specifies either: • The desired cutoff frequency when you select the lowpass or highpass filter type.5. Passband Specification Epsilon Indicates that the filter response at the cutoff frequency is determined from the value of Epsilon. Ripple is a positive value.. This parameter only applies to Chebyshev Type II filters. Units Hertz Indicates that cutoff frequency values are in hertz. You should verify that a stable impulse response is obtained. Cutoff Freq 2 Specifies the upper cutoff frequency for bandpass and bandstop types. and corresponds to the desired attenuation at the cutoff frequency. Its value must exceed the Ripple value. expressed in decibels. Specifies the stopband attenuation for the desired filter in decibels. %' . Ripple Indicates that the filter response at the cutoff frequency is determined from the value of Ripple. Chebyshev II (Inverse Chebyshev). x = Input signal y = Filtered output signal Filter Method Indicates the filter design method to be used.. corresponds to an attenuation of 0.5 block differs from a discrete-time WUDQVIHU)XQFWLRQ block (listed under the Linear Systems category in the Blocks menu) in that the simulation time step is updated automatically prior to each run. You can choose from Butterworth. • The desired lower cutoff frequency when you select the bandpass or bandstop filter type. Stopband Atten.

phase response. View Response Invokes the VisSim/Comm filter viewer. highpass. This value must divide exactly into the simulation sampling frequency. Filter Type Indicates the desired filter type. The 6DPSOLQJ)LOH). If you select either the bandpass and bandstop filter type. bandpass. Up to 32. depending on the selected Delay Mode. %( . BP\_[X]V5X[T58A This block implements a sampling finite impulse response (FIR) filter based on user- supplied tap values provided in a file.5 block accepts a real signal and outputs a real signal. the filter order must be even. and bandstop. x = Input signal y1 = Filtered output signal y2 = Filter sampling clock Select File Opens the Select File dialog box for selecting the desired FIR filter tap file. Sampling Frequency Specifies the filter’s sampling frequency in hertz. The block will sample the input signal at the specified rate and propagate these values through its internal shift register. Browse File Opens the selected FIR filter tap file using Notepad. The 6DPSOLQJ)LOH).5 output signal can be either held or interpolated when the filter sampling rate is below the simulation rate. Show Coeff. Initial Delay Specifies the initial sampling delay of the filter in simulation steps or seconds. Valid range is 1 to 20. gain response. A filter delay adjustment is provided to allow fine tuning of the sampling instant. please refer to the Output Plots section in Chapter 2. and group delay response. which allows you to review the filter’s impulse response.767 taps can be specified. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Filter Order Indicates the desired filter order. Displays the polynomial coefficients of the IIR filter’s numerator and denominator in powers of z-1. For more details on using the filter viewer. You can choose from lowpass.

2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc

Delay Mode
Sim Steps
Indicates the initial delay is specified in simulation steps.
Seconds
Indicates the initial delay is specified in seconds.
Output Mode
This setting only applies when the filter sampling frequency is a fraction of the
simulation sampling rate
Interpolated
Specifies the filter output to be linearly interpolated between computed output
points. An additional delay of one filter sampling period is introduced by this
selection.
Held
Specifies the filter output to be held constant between computed output points.
Taps File Path
Specifies the DOS path to the desired FIR filter taps file. Taps are provided in
increasing order and correspond to increasing delays. The format of the FIR
filter tap file is described below:

File header (anything)
number of taps
tap value #1
tap value #2, tap value #3
...

Multiple tap values can be specified on a given line. Valid data delimiters are
commas, blank spaces, tabs, and carriage returns. The maximum allowed line
length is 100 characters.

BP\_[X]V58A
This block implements a sampling finite impulse response (FIR) filter. The block
will sample the input signal at the specified rate and propagate these values through
its internal shift register. The 6DPSOLQJ),5 output signal can be either held or
interpolated when the filter sampling rate is below the simulation rate. A filter delay
adjustment is provided to allow fine tuning of the sampling instant. The 6DPSOLQJ
),5 block employs the windowing method for filter design and allows you to
implement lowpass, highpass, bandpass, bandstop, raised cosine, root raised cosine,
Hilbert and Gaussian filters with your choice of window function.
Most filters designed with the ),5)LOWHU block will have unity gain in the
passband. The cutoff frequencies for all filter types except root raised cosine
correspond to the half amplitude point; that is, they are down 6 dB (3 dB for root

&

2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc

raised cosine). You should check the impulse response of the filter to ensure it meets
your design criteria. The effective sampling frequency of the filter can be specified
so as to obtain a consistent filter response regardless of the simulation sampling rate.
When the filter sampling frequency is a fraction of the simulation sampling rate,
additional delay elements are introduced in the internal shift register between the
filter’s active tap locations.
This block accepts a real signal and outputs a real signal.
x = Input signal
y1 = Filtered output signal
y2 = Filter sampling clock

Number of Taps
Indicates the desired number of filter taps to be used in realizing the filter. Valid
range is from 1 to 32,767. Note that for highpass and bandstop types, the
number of taps must be odd.
Cutoff Freq 1
Specifies either:
• The desired cutoff frequency when you select the lowpass, raised
cosine, root raised cosine, Hilbert, Gaussian or highpass filter type.
• The desired lower cutoff frequency when you select the bandpass or
bandstop filter type.
Due to the design method, this cutoff frequency corresponds to the half
amplitude point, which corresponds to 6 dB attenuation, except for the root
raised cosine filter type (3 dB).
Cutoff Freq 2
Specifies the upper cutoff frequency (6 dB) when you select either the bandpass
or bandstop filter type.
Window Type
Lists the available window functions that can be used to realize the filter. When
you select Kaiser, you must also enter a value in the Beta box.
Beta
Specifies the shape parameter associated with the Kaiser window.
Units
Hertz
Indicates that cutoff frequency values are in hertz.
Radians/Sec
Indicates that cutoff frequency values are in radians/second.

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2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc

Rolloff Factor
Specifies the rolloff factor (alpha) associated with the raised cosine or root
raised cosine filter type. Valid range is from 0 to 1.
Filter Type
Indicates the desired filter type. Click on the DOWN ARROW to select from a list
of filter types. Available types are lowpass, highpass, bandpass, bandstop, raised
cosine, root raised cosine, Hilbert and Gaussian. When you select either the
Raised Cosine or Root Raised Cosine parameter, you must supply a Rolloff
Factor value.
Normalize LPF to 0 dB at dc
Specifies that the filter impulse response is to be normalized so that the dc gain
is unity (0 dB). This setting only applies when the lowpass, raised cosine, root
raised cosine, Hilbert or Gaussian filter type is selected. It is usually only
necessary when the number of taps is relatively low and the cutoff frequency is a
small fraction of the sampling frequency.
Sampling Frequency
Specifies the filter’s sampling frequency in hertz. This value must divide exactly
into the simulation sampling frequency.
Initial Delay
Specifies the initial sampling delay of the filter in simulation steps or seconds,
depending on the selected Delay Mode.
Delay Mode
Sim Steps
Indicates the initial delay is specified in simulation steps.
Seconds
Indicates the initial delay is specified in seconds.
Output Mode
This setting only applies when the filter sampling frequency is a fraction of the
simulation sampling rate
Interpolated
Specifies the filter output to be linearly interpolated between computed output
points. An additional delay of one filter sampling period is introduced by this
selection.
Held
Specifies the filter output to be held between computed output points.
Show Taps
Displays the current FIR Filter tap values in the VisSim/Comm Filter Result
dialog box. Taps are shown in order of increasing delay. Once the taps are
displayed, the values can be saved to a user-specified file by clicking on the
Save to File button. If you activate the Use FIR File Format option, the values
are saved in a format compatible with the )LOH),5 block.

&!

freq] Equivalent FIR Filter Tap Length Specifies the length of the filter’s impulse response. Group Delay Indicates that the file phase response is specified as a group delay response in seconds. Filter File Data [0. x = Complex input signal [Re. phase. radians. &" . the routine internally creates a mirror image of the response (with opposite sign phase response) for the negative portion of the spectrum. When a single-sided response is provided (real case). +fs/2] (real filter). but the frequency spacing need not be uniform. or as a group delay. values outside the specified range are linearly extrapolated based on the closest two specified frequency points. In the event that the frequency range specified by the input file does not include the entire - fs/2 to +fs/2 range. It also outputs the internal interpolated response used by the FFT routine. A delay equal to the equivalent FIR filter length plus one (in simulation steps) is experienced when using this block. Im] y1 = Filtered complex output signal [Re. This is provided by the second output connector in vector form [3x1]. while the phase response may be provided in either degrees. Phase Units Degrees Indicates that the file phase response is specified in units of degrees. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc <PV?WPbT This block implements an arbitrary complex FIR filter based on user-specified magnitude and phase responses supplied via an external file. multiplied by the specified frequency response. This value must be a power of two as it determines the size of the internal FFT computations. Linear interpolation is used to compute intermediate points as required. This block accepts a complex signal and outputs a complex signal. Radians Indicates that the file phase response is specified in units of radians. The size of the FFT is twice that of the equivalent complex FIR filter tap length. The input signal is mapped to the frequency domain via FFT. Im] y2 = Interpolated response used by FFT routine [mag. fs/2] Used when the input file only includes data over the range of [0. and then mapped back to the time domain via IFFT. and may be used to drive a SORW block configured in XY mode. The input file should include points from -fs/2 to +fs/2 (0 to +fs/2 for a real filter) in increasing order. The magnitude response is specified in decibels. The filter is realized using the overlap-save method.

Select File Opens the Select File dialog box for selecting a filter frequency response file.. +fs/2] Used when the input file includes data over the range of [-fs/2. Browse File Opens the selected filter frequency response file using Notepad. The format of the file is described below: File header (anything) number of entries (n) frequency point #1. Filter File Path Specifies the DOS path to the desired filter frequency response file. blank space. This setting only applies when the Group Delay specification method is chosen. Add Linear Phase Automatically adds linear phase to the input phase specification. Since the filter’s delay is typically equal to ½ the specified FIR filter impulse response length. magnitude. Normalize Phase Automatically normalizes the internal phase response (derived from the group delay data) so that the phase response is zero at the zero frequency point. degrees or radians for phase. magnitude. phase Entries are to be provided in increasing frequency order and should cover the range from -fs/2 to +fs/2 or 0 to +fs/2. phase frequency point #2. This option is useful when the input file phase specification represents the filter’s deviation from linear phase. Alternatively the Add Linear Phase box may be checked. or tabs. and seconds for group delay. decibels for magnitude. The amount of linear phase added corresponds to a delay of ½ the FIR filter’s impulse response duration. +fs/2] (complex filter). Care should be taken to ensure that the correct amount of linear phase is built into the phase specification. Entries may be separated by commas..2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc [-fs/2. The expected units are hertz for frequency. The maximum allowed line length is 100 characters. the required amount of linear phase can be obtained as follows: FIRlength delay = sec phase( f ) = −360 ⋅ f ⋅ delay 2⋅ fs &# . frequency point #n. magnitude. phase .

It controls the extent of carrier amplitude deviation according to the equation shown above. Two versions of this block are provided: one producing a complex output and the other producing a real output. This value is specified in volts.. In AM..3L'436. There are two versions of this block: one producing a complex output and the other producing a real output. It may be set to 0 when working in complex envelope representation. 3@?B:?X#3@?B: This block performs either differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) or π/4-DQPSK modulation of the input signal based on the selected modulation parameters. '436. 06. 4$03$0. x = Input signal y1 = Modulated signal ([Re. 30. the information is transmitted by varying the carrier signal amplitude according to the input signal level. The $0 block belongs to the family of analog modulators. 330. This block accepts an analog signal as its input.. )0. &$ . Modulation Factor Specifies the AM factor m. and 6436. )6. 0< This block performs double-sideband amplitude modulation (DSB-AM) of the input signal based on the selected modulation parameters. Im] for complex) y2 = Unmodulated carrier phase (rad) [optional] πθ y1 (t ) = ( A + mx)e j ( 2πf ct +φ ) φ= 180 y 2 (t ) = 2πf c t + φ Translation Frequency Specifies the output carrier frequency fc in hertz. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc <^Sd[Pc^abRPcTV^aXTb¯2^\_[TgP]SATP[ Blocks in the Modulators – Complex and Modulators – Real categories include $0.. The carrier frequency remains constant. Initial Phase Specifies the initial carrier phase θ in degrees.. Note that the 330 block is available only as a real output block. Amplitude Specifies the carrier single-sided peak amplitude A when the input is 0. 36.

Carrier Frequency Indicates the output carrier frequency fc in hertz. Amplitude Specifies the carrier single-sided peak amplitude A in volts. Initial Phase Specifies the initial carrier phase θ in degrees. &% . x1 = Input data signal (symbol number) x2= Input data clock y1 = Modulated signal ([Re. block belongs to the family of digital modulators. Two versions of this block are provided: one producing a complex output and the other producing a real output. A real-to- integer conversion (rounding) is performed on the input. the digital information is transmitted by increasing or decreasing the carrier phase depending on the input data values.3L'436. block accepts a symbol number as its input and maps it to a phase transition amount. It may be set to 0 when working in complex envelope representation.3L'436. The '436. 5< This block performs frequency modulation (FM) of the input signal based on the selected block settings. The carrier amplitude remains constant. Im] for complex) y2 = Unmodulated carrier phase (rad) (optional) n j ( 2πf c +φ + ∑θ d [ k ] ) πθ y1 (t ) = Ae k =0 φ= 180 y 2 (t ) = 2πf c t + φ θ d [k ] (x) = kth phase transition The phase transition θd is obtained from the input as follows: Input Symbol DQPSK π/4-DQPSK 0 0° 45° 1 90° 135° 2 -90° -45° 3 180° -135° Mode DQPSK PI/4-DQPSK Selects either DQPSK and π/4-DQPSK. In DQPSK and π/4-DQPSK modulation.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc The '436.

. Initial Phase Specifies the initial carrier phase θ in degrees. and is specified in hertz/volt. It may be set to 0 when working in complex envelope representation. In FSK modulation. Two versions of this block are provided: one producing a complex output and the other producing a real output. The )6.. 5B: This block performs frequency shift keying (FSK) modulation of the input signal based on the selected modulation parameters. The )0 block takes an analog signal as its input. Im] for complex) y2 = Phase of complex modulated signal (optional) πθ y1 (t ) = Ad j [2π ( f c + βx )t +φ ] φ= 180 y 2 (t ) = 2π ( f c + βx)t + φ Translation Frequency Specifies the output carrier frequency fc in hertz. FM Deviation Specifies the FM deviation index β. block accepts a symbol number as its input. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc The )0 block belongs to the family of analog modulators. x = Input signal y1 = Modulated signal ([Re. 1.. the information is transmitted by varying the carrier frequency between N frequency settings depending on the input signal level. N-1) y1 = Modulated signal ([Re. x = Input signal (0. It controls the extent of carrier frequency variation according to above equation. Carrier Amplitude Specifies the carrier single-sided peak amplitude A in volts. The carrier amplitude remains constant. The carrier amplitude remains constant. the information is transmitted by varying the carrier frequency according to the input signal level. The )6. . Im] for complex) y2 = Phase of complex modulated signal (optional) f out = f min + x ⋅ ∆f && . block belongs to the family of digital modulators. In FM.

The 06. This corresponds to input symbol # 0. MSK modulation results in lower sidelobe energy levels than both QPSK and SQPSK modulation.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Number of Tones Specifies the number N of available tones. Frequency Spacing Specifies the frequency spacing ∆f between adjacent FSK tones in hertz. MSK modulation can also be viewed as a form of FSK modulation with tones at R fc ± 2 where R is the symbol rate. Amplitude Specifies the carrier single-sided peak amplitude in volts. The 06. block accepts two binary signals as its input: I and Q data. x1 = I channel data stream &' . This simulates the use of a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) or NCO in generating the output signal. it is preferable to select a simulation step size that yields an even number of simulation steps per symbol period. <B: This block performs minimum shift keying (MSK) modulation of the input signals based on the selected modulation parameters. except that sinusoidal pulse shaping is applied to the data signal prior to modulation. Two versions of this block are provided: one producing a complex output and the other producing a real output. MSK modulation is similar to SQPSK modulation. Initial Phase Specifies the initial carrier phase in degrees. Discontinuous Indicates that the signal phase is not continuous across FSK tone transitions. This simulates the use of multiple free running oscillators to generate the output signal. respectively. block belongs to the family of digital modulators. Since the Q data is delayed half a symbol (within the block). Phase Mode Continuous Indicates that the signal phase is continuous across FSK tone transitions. Lowest Frequency Specifies the carrier frequency corresponding to the lowest desired output tone in hertz. This option is only available when you select continuous phase mode.

Positive values correspond to counterclockwise rotation. The default first constellation point is at π/4 radians. Two versions of this block are provided: one producing a complex output and the other producing a real output. The 30 block belongs to the family of analog modulators. x = Input signal y1 = Modulated signal ([Re. Im] for complex) y2 = Unmodulated carrier phase (rad) (optional) y1 (t ) = Ad I cos(πf s (t − τ )) cos(2πf c (t − τ )) + jAd Q sin(πf s (t − τ )) sin( 2πf c (t − τ )) πθ y 2 (t ) = 2πf c (t − τ ) + φ φ= τ = data start time 180 d I ( x1 ) ∈ {± 1} d Q ( x2 ) ∈ {±1} Translation Frequency Specifies the output carrier frequency fc in hertz. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc x2 = Q channel data stream y1 = Modulated signal ([Re. It may be set to 0 when working in complex envelope representation. ?< This block performs phase modulation (PM) of the input signal based on the selected modulation parameters. the information is transmitted by varying the carrier phase according to the input signal level. Amplitude Specifies the carrier single-sided peak amplitude A in volts. In PM. The 30 block accepts an analog signal as its input. Im] for complex) y2 = Phase of complex modulated signal (optional) j ( 2πf ct + βx +φ ) πθ y1 (t ) = Ad φ= 180 &( . Data Rate Specifies the data rate fs in symbols/second. Data Start Time Specifies the start time τ of the input data in seconds. The carrier amplitude remains constant. Constellation Rotation Specifies the constellation rotation θ in degrees from the default setting.

In PPM. and no portion of the pulse ever occurs beyond the symbol frame boundaries. The location of the pulse is proportional to the input signal level. ..2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc y 2 (t ) = 2πf c t + φ Translation Frequency Specifies the output carrier frequency fc in hertz. Amplitude Specifies the carrier single-sided peak amplitude A in volts. The input is rounded to the closest allowed symbol number. The pulse width must be less than the symbol period. The 330 block accepts a symbol number as its input. Modulation Index Specifies the PM index β. Pulse spacing is automatically calculated. The 330 block belongs to the family of digital modulators.. It may be set to 0 when working in complex envelope representation. x = Input signal (0. ' . but may greater than. and is specified in radians/volt. It controls the extent of carrier phase variation according to the above equation. All the cases shown below are valid examples of the various output pulse positions for a five-level scheme. 1. ??< This block performs PPM of the input signal based on the selected modulation parameters. N-1) y = Baseband modulated signal Number of Levels Indicates the number N of possible input symbol values. equal to. the information is transmitted by varying the occurrence of a rectangular pulse within a pre-defined symbol frame. or less than the symbol period divided by the number of pulse positions. Pulse Width Specifies the width of the rectangular pulse in seconds.. Initial Phase Specifies the initial carrier phase θ in degrees. and outputs a baseband real signal.

In PSK modulation. Pulse Amplitude Specifies the amplitude of the rectangular pulse. Two versions of this block are provided: one producing a complex output and the other producing a real output. The following constellations are available: BPSK. and 16-PSK. The carrier amplitude remains constant. A real-to-integer conversion (rounding) is performed on the input. x = Input data signal (binary or symbol number) y1 = Modulated signal ([Re. This value is specified in volts. This block belongs to the family of digital modulators. Im] for complex) y2 = Unmodulated carrier phase (rad) (optional) πθ r y1 (t ) = Ae f ( 2πf ct +θ d +φ ) φ= 180 y 2 (t ) = 2πf c t + θ θ d ( x) = data phase ' . 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Symbol Frame Symbol Rate Specifies the symbol rate (pulse rate) in symbols/second. 8-PSK. Data Frame Start Specifies the start time of the first data frame in seconds. ?B: This block performs phase shift keying (PSK) modulation of the input signal based on the selected modulation parameters. It accepts a binary signal (BPSK only) or symbol number as input and maps it to the constellation point specified in the PSK map file. QPSK. the digital information is transmitted by varying the carrier phase between known phase states.

For example. PSK File Path Specifies the DOS path to the desired PSK constellation map file. QPSK. A positive value correspond to greater power in the quadrature axis than in the in- phase axis. Gain Imbalance Specifies the gain imbalance (Q relative to I) of the modulator in units of dBs. 8-PSK.. instead of the ideal 90 degrees. where n is the constellation size. The format of the map file is described below: File header modulation keyword symbol # for 1st constellation point.. The default first constellation point is at 0 rad for BPSK. A positive value correspond to a clockwise rotation of the Q axis relative to the I axis... symbol # for last constellation point next modulation keyword [optional] symbol # . You can choose BPSK. Translation Frequency Indicates the output carrier frequency fc in hertz. Browse File Opens the selected PSK constellation map file using Notepad. and at π/n rad for all others. Phase Imbalance Specifies the phase imbalance of the modulator in degrees as a deviation from ideal. Amplitude Specifies the carrier single-sided peak amplitude A in volts.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc PSK Type Indicates the PSK modulation order. Constellation Rotation Specifies the constellation rotation θr in degrees from the default setting. 10 degrees imbalance implies an angle of 80 degrees between the I and Q axes. symbol # for 2nd constellation point . Select File Opens the Select File dialog box for selecting a PSK constellation map file. Each modulation scheme is described below in more detail. [optional] '! . or 16-PSK. Positive values correspond to counterclockwise rotation. It may be set to 0 when working in complex envelope representation.

and carriage returns.5 Q First Constellation Point 1 0 I BPSK '" . and 16psk. They must be specified in lowercase letters. 0 if x ≤ 0. block accepts a binary signal {0. 8psk. PSK Map File: Gray Coded Mapping 8psk 0 1 3. The following example assumes the default PSK map file (PSK_GRAY. the digital information is transmitted by varying the carrier phase between two states spaced by π rad. blank spaces. In BPSK modulation. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Valid modulation keywords are bpsk. 2 6 7. 1} as its input and maps it to the constellation point specified in the PSK map file. qpsk. The %36. Gray coding makes neighboring constellation points differ by only 1 bit. Below is an example of a Gray-coded 8-PSK map file. Constellation point numbering starts from the positive I axis and proceeds counterclockwise. The maximum allowed line length is 100 characters. After the modulation keyword. data can be arranged as desired starting on the next line.DAT). Each map file can contain multiple modulation mappings: one for each modulation scheme.5 θd +  π if x > 0. Valid data delimiters are commas. tabs. 5 4 1?B: This block performs BPSK modulation of the input signal based on the specified block parameters.

.5 < x ≤ 1. In QPSK modulation. '?B: This block performs eight phase shift keying (8-PSK) modulation of the input signal based on the specified block parameters. the digital information is transmitted by varying the carrier phase among four states equally spaced at π/2 rad increments.DAT).DAT). the digital information is transmitted by varying the carrier phase among eight states equally spaced at π/4 rad increments. block accepts a symbol number {0. '# . block accepts a symbol number {0. In 8-PSK modulation. .. 7} as its input and maps it to the constellation point specified in the PSK map file. 2.5  3π / 4 0.. 1.5 First Constellation Q Point 01 (1) 00 (0) I 11 (3) 10 (2) QPSK The default first constellation point is at π/4 radians. 3} as its input and maps it to the constellation point specified in the PSK map file.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc @?B: This block performs quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation of the input signal based on the specified block parameters. The 436. The 36. 1. π / 4 x ≤ 0.5 − 3π / 4 x > 2. The following example assumes the default PSK map file PSK_GRAY. The following example assumes the default PSK map file (PSK_GRAY.5 < x ≤ 2.5 θd =  − π / 4 1. 2.

block accepts a symbol number {0. The following example assumes the default PSK map file (PSK_GRAY.. Two versions of this block are provided: one producing a complex output and the other producing '$ . 1. . @0<?0< This block performs quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) or pulse amplitude modulation (PAM). . Point (5) (1) 0001 (4) (0) 0000 I 1100 (12) (8) 1000 (13) (9) . The 36.. Q (6) (2) First Constellation (7) (3) . . 15} as its input and maps it to the constellation point specified in the PSK map file.DAT). . depending on the selected modulation parameters. (15) (11) (14) (10) 16 PSK The default first constellation point is at π/16 rad. . 2. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Q First Constellation 011 (3) 001 (1) Point 010 (2) 000 (0) I 110 (6) 100 (4) 111 (7) 101 (5) 8 PSK The default first constellation point is at π/8 radians. %?B: This block performs 16 phase shift keying (16-PSK) modulation of the input signal based on the specified block parameters. .. . In 16-PSK modulation the digital information is transmitted by varying the carrier phase among 16 states equally spaced at π/8 rad increments.

4-PAM. The default first constellation point is at (α/2. A real to integer conversion (rounding) is performed on the input. 64-QAM. A positive value correspond to greater power in the quadrature axis than in the in- phase axis. Im] for complex) y2 = Unmodulated carrier phase (rad) (optional) α πθ r y1 = Ad e j ( 2πf c t +θ d +φ ) φ= 2 180 θ d ( x) = data phase y 2 (t ) = 2πf c t + φ A d ( x) = data amplitude QAM/PAM Type Indicates the selected modulation scheme. For example. The following constellations are available: 16-QAM. This block accepts a symbol number as its input and maps it to the constellation point specified in the QAM/PAM map file. Each scheme is described in more detail below. 0) for PAM signals. '% . 256-QAM. Phase Imbalance Specifies the phase imbalance of the modulator in degrees as a deviation from ideal. Q) plane for QAM signals and (α/2. 32-QAM. Positive values correspond to counterclockwise rotation. A positive value correspond to a clockwise rotation of the Q axis relative to the I axis. instead of the ideal 90 degrees. 10 degrees imbalance implies an angle of 80 degrees between the I and Q axes. 4-PAM and 8-PAM. 64-QAM. It may be set to 0 when working in complex envelope representation. α/2) in the (I. Translation Frequency Indicates the output carrier frequency fc in hertz.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc a real output. and 8-PAM. The available choices are 16-QAM. Constellation Spacing Indicates the spacing between adjacent constellation points α in volts. x = Input symbol number y1 = Modulated signal ([Re. 256-QAM. The 4$03$0 block belongs to the family of digital modulators. Constellation Rotation Indicates the constellation rotation θr in degrees from the default setting. 32-QAM. Gain Imbalance Specifies the gain imbalance (Q relative to I) of the modulator in units of dBs.

QAM File Path Specifies the DOS path to the desired QAM constellation map file. Below is an example of a map file specifying both gray-coded 8-PAM and 16-QAM constellations. data can be arranged as desired starting on the next line. and 8pam. 32qam. QAM Map File: Gray Coded Mapping 8pam 01326754 16qam 2 3 1 0 6 7 5 4 14 15 13 12 10 11 9 8 Note: The default QAM map file (QAM_GRAY..DAT) contains mappings for all QAM/PAM constellations except 32QAM. tabs and carriage returns. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Select File Opens the Select File dialog box for selecting a QAM constellation map file. 256qam. '& . Valid data delimiters are commas. [optional] Valid modulation keywords are 16qam. 64qam. 4pam.. They must be specified in lowercase letters. The maximum allowed line length is 100 characters. Constellation point numbering starts at the upper left corner and increments by row going from left to right. symbol # for last constellation point next modulation keyword [optional] symbol # . symbol # for 2nd constellation point .. The format of the map file is described below: File header (up to 100 characters) modulation keyword symbol # for 1st constellation point. Gray coding makes neighboring constellation points differ by only 1 bit.. Each map file can contain multiple modulation mappings—one for each modulation scheme. After the modulation keyword. Browse File Opens the selected QAM constellation map file using Notepad. blank space.

.. 31} as its input and maps it to the constellation point specified in the QAM map file. the digital information is transmitted by varying both the carrier amplitude and phase. '' . In 16-QAM. The resulting constellation is composed of 32 equally spaced states in the (I. Q) plane.. Q) plane.. the digital information is transmitted by varying both the carrier amplitude and phase.DAT).2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc %@0< This block performs 16-level quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) of the input signal based on the selected modulation parameters.. The 4$0 block accepts a symbol number {0. Q (2) (3) (1) (0) (6) (7) (5) (4) First Constellation Point I (14) (15) (13) (12) (10) (11) (9) (8) α 16 QAM "!@0< This block performs 32 cross quadrature amplitude modulation (32-QAM) of the input signal based on the selected modulation parameters.. The resulting constellation is composed of 16 equally spaced states in the (I. In 32-QAM.DAT). 1. 15} as its input and maps it to the constellation point specified in the QAM map file. . 2. The example shown below assumes the default QAM map file (QAM_GRAY. The 4$0 block accepts a symbol number {0.. The example shown below assumes the V. 2. which implements a Gray- coded 16-QAM constellation.32 QAM map file (V32QAM. 1.

. %#@0< This block performs 64-level quadrature amplitude modulation (64-QAM) of the input signal based on the selected modulation parameters. . The resulting constellation is composed of 64 equally spaced states in the (I. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc First Constellation Point Q (0) (9) (2) (31) (28) (19) (30) (21) (20) (3) (1) (18) (15) (8) (25) (10) I (14) (29) (12) (11) (22) (5) (7) (16) (17) (26) (23) (24) (27) (6) (13) (4) α 32 QAM Note: For true V.. The 4$0 block takes a symbol number {0. 63} as its input and maps it to the constellation point specified in the QAM map file. Q) plane. the above constellation must be rotated +45o. In 64-QAM. 2. the digital information is transmitted by varying both the carrier amplitude and phase. The example shown below assumes the default QAM map file (QAM_GRAY.DAT). which implements a Gray- coded 64-QAM constellation.. 1. First Constellation Point Q (4) (5) (7) (6) (2) (3) (1) (0) (12) (13) (15) (14) (10) (11) (9) (8) (28) (29) (31) (30) (26) (27) (25) (24) (20) (21) (23) (22) (18) (19) (17) (16) I (52) (53) (55) (54) (50) (51) (49) (48) (60) (61) (63) (62) (58) (59) (57) (56) (44) (45) (47) (46) (42) (43) (41) (40) (36) (37) (39) (38) (34) (35) (33) (32) α '( .32.

.5 + 1 x > 2.. This modulation scheme is also known as ASK.5  − 1 0. The default QAM map file (QAM_GRAY. The 3$0 block accepts as input a symbol number {0. 3} and maps it to the constellation point specified in the QAM map file. 2.5 Q (0) (1) (3) (2) 00 01 11 10 I α First Constellation 4 PAM Point '?0< This block performs eight-level pulse amplitude modulation (8-PAM) of the input signal based on the selected modulation parameters. . The modulation scheme is also known as amplitude shift keying (ASK). Q) plane. 1. The 4$0 block accepts a symbol number {0. the digital information is transmitted by varying the carrier amplitude among eight equally spaced amplitude states.5 < x ≤ 1.. the digital information is transmitted by varying the carrier amplitude among four equally spaced amplitude states. In 256-QAM. The carrier phase remains constant. 1.5 < x ≤ 2. In 8-PAM. the digital information is transmitted by varying both the carrier amplitude and phase.5 Ad =  θd + 3 1. ( . 2. −3 x ≤ 0. #?0< This block performs four-level pulse amplitude modulation (4-PAM) of the input signal based on the selected modulation parameters.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc !$%@0< This block performs 256-level quadrature amplitude modulation (256-QAM) of the input signal based on the selected modulation parameters.DAT) implements a Gray-coded 256-QAM constellation (not shown). 255} as its input and maps it to the constellation point specified in the QAM map file. The resulting constellation is composed of 256 equally spaced states in the (I.DAT). The carrier phase remains constant. The example shown below assumes the default QAM/PAM map file (QAM_GRAY. In 4-PAM.

2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc The 3$0block accepts a symbol number {0.. The 6436. block accepts two binary data streams as its input (I and Q data. A real-to-integer conversion (rounding) is performed on the inputs. it is preferable to select a simulation step size that yields an even number of simulation steps per symbol period.5 < x ≤ 6.5 < x ≤ 4. 1.5 + 1 5..5 < x ≤ 1. 1 ) x2 = Q channel data signal ( 0. The data on the Q channel input is delayed ½ symbol duration relative to the I channel data. Im] for complex) ( .. This ensures that at any given time. The carrier amplitude remains constant.5 Ad =  Ad =  θd − 1 1. Two versions of this block are provided: one producing a complex output and the other producing a real output. 7} as input and maps it to the constellation point specified in the QAM map file. The 6436.5 − 3 x > 2.DAT). the modulated signal phase never changes by more than π/2 rad. and the modulated spectrum exhibits lower sidelobes than ordinary QPSK.5   − 5 0.5 < x ≤ 5.5 +7 3.5 + 3 x > 6. the digital information is transmitted by varying the carrier phase among four states equally spaced at π/2 rad increments. block belongs to the family of digital modulators. In SQPSK modulation. respectively) and uses Gray encoding in its mapping. x1 = I channel data signal ( 0. only one of the two data channels (I or Q) may undergo a transition.5 Q (0) (1) (3) (2) (6) (7) (5) (4) 000 001 011 010 110 111 101 100 I α First Constellation 8 PAM Point B@?B:<^Sd[Pc^a This block performs staggered quadrature phase shift keying (SQPSK) modulation of the input signal based on the selected modulation parameters.5 < x ≤ 2. and is also known as offset QPSK (OQPSK). As a result. 1 ) y1 = Modulated signal ([Re. . Since the Q data is delayed ½a symbol (within the block). The example shown below assumes the default QAM/PAM map file (QAM_GRAY. −7 x ≤ 0.5 + 5 4.

5 and ~ x2 ≤ 0. x2 ) = data phase T = symbol duration π / 4 x1 ≤ 0. Constellation Rotation Specifies the constellation rotation θr in degrees from the default setting. 'HOD\ &RPSOH[.5 θd =  1 2 where ~ x 2 = x 2 (t − T / 2) − π / 4 x1 > 0.5 and ~x > 0. It may be set to 0 when working in complex envelope representation.&RPSOH[ ))7. Amplitude Specifies the carrier single-sided peak amplitude A in volts.5 and x > 0.5 − 3π / 4 ~ x ≤ 0.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc y2 = Unmodulated carrier phase (rad) (optional) πθ r y1 (t ) = Ae j ( 2πf ct +θ d +φ ) φ= 180 y 2 (t ) = 2πf c t + φ θ d ( x1 . Positive values correspond to counterclockwise rotation. &RQYHUVLRQV. >_TaPc^abRPcTV^ah Blocks in the Operators category include $'&RQYHUWHU.5 1 2 Q 01 00 I 11 10 SQPSK Translation Frequency Indicates the output carrier frequency fc in hertz. &RPSDQGHU.5  3π / 4 x ≤ 0.5 and ~ x2 ≤ 0. The default first constellation point is at π/4 rad.))7.

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0-] to level -1 (in signed output mode). The input signal is quantized according to the number of specified resolution bits n and output as an integer over the range [0.1] or [-2(n-1).1] depending on the output mode selection (either signed or unsigned). 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc 032^]eTacTa This block implements an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). (" . 0.5∆q] to level 0 (in signed output mode). the offset selection converts any positive value in the range [0. x = Input signal y = Quantized integer output Midlevel Mode (n= 3) Signed Mode Output clip region 3 7 Unsigned Mode Output max amplitude 3 7 2 6 1 5 zero volts 0 4 -1 3 -2 2 . ∆q] to level 0.max amplitude -3 1 clip region -4 0 Offset Zero Mode (n= 3) Signed Mode Output clip region 3 7 Unsigned Mode Output max amplitude 3 7 2 6 1 5 zero volts 0 4 -1 3 -2 2 -3 1 . Max Amplitude Indicates the signal amplitude in volts corresponding to the clip input level. where ∆q is a quantization level. 2n. The distinction between the two modes is illustrated below for clarity.5∆q.max amplitude -4 0 clip region -4 0 Number of Bits Specifies the number of bits n of quantizer resolution. and any negative value in the range [-∆q. 2(n-1) . Two options exist for handling conversion of the 0 reference level: the midlevel selection converts any input value in the range [- 0.

This process is employed when it is desirable to obtain a nonlinear quantization of the original signal. Since the compander expects values in the range [-1. the input signal is normalized by the Max Value parameter.1 and 2n/2 (unsigned mode).1]. Expand Indicates that the block is operating in expansion mode. 2n.56 is often used. 1]. You can specify either µ-law or A-law companding. Output Mode Unsigned Indicates that the quantized integer output will be in the range [0. x = Input signal y = Companded output x1 In the equations below x = x max ln(1 + µ x ) y = sgn( x) ⋅ x ≤1 µ − law companding ln(1 + µ )  1 + ln A x 1 sgn( x) ⋅ < x ≤1  1 + ln A A y= A − law companding  Ax 1 0≤ x ≤ sgn( x) ⋅ 1 + ln A A Compander Mode Compress Indicates that the block is operating in compression mode. while for A-law companding A=87.1].2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Zero Level Midlevel A 0 input voltage level falls at the center of the 0 quantizer level (signed mode) or the 2n/2 quantizer level (unsigned mode). A standard value used in µ-law companding is µ=255. Signed Indicates that the quantized integer output will be in the range [-2(n-1). This operation is the inverse of compression. Offset A 0 input voltage level falls at the boundary between levels 0 and 1 (signed mode) or levels (2n/2) . 2^\_P]STa This block implements signal companding and its inverse. as described below. (# . Companding refers to a process of nonlinear amplitude compression usually performed prior to A/D quantization of a signal. 2(n-1) .

fs/2]. You may select from a variety of window functions in performing the FFT. A-Law Indicates A-law companding. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Compander Type µ-Law Indicates µ-law companding. When the output is represented in dBm or dBm/Hz. Im] 2^\_[Tg55C855C This block computes either the forward fast Fourier transform (FFT) or inverse IFFT of the input complex signal. A Value Indicates the value of A for A-law companding. Results are viewed using a SORW block configured in XY mode with an external trigger. Max Value scales the output. The value of A greater than or equal to 1. A value of A equal to 1 indicates no compression. the simulation time range should extend at least 2xN simulation steps from where the external trigger is applied. FFT results are presented over the range [-fs/2. x = Phase angle (rad) y = Complex output [Re. Max Value Indicates the maximum allowed magnitude (xmax) of the input signal. x1 = Input trigger (high > 0. An output trigger line and x-axis output (either frequency or time) are provided for driving the SORW block. µ Value Indicates the value of µ for µ-law companding.5) x2 = Real part (or magnitude) of complex input x3 = Imaginary part (or phase) of complex input y1 = Output trigger (0 or 1) for plot block y2 = Real part (or magnitude) of complex output ($ . In order to view the entire result. The N point FFT/IFFT operation is single shot and is started by an external trigger. The value of µ must be greater than 0. where fs is the simulation sampling rate in hertz. 1]. When in expand mode. This value is used to normalize the input to the range [-1. 2^\_[Tg4g_^]T]cXP[ This block outputs the complex exponential (ejx) of the input signal. the output is limited to –300 dBm.

Real / Imaginary Indicates that the FFT is represented by real and imaginary components. Choices include hertz. Units (FFT only) Specifies the frequency units for the x-axis drive signal (y4). which are averaged before producing the output spectrum. and gigahertz. Remove Linear Phase Specifies that linear phase. Number of FFT Averages Specifies the number of consecutive FFTs (each of N points). FFT Window Type Selects the desired window function to be used in computing the FFT.576. Output Mode (FFT only) Standard Indicates unscaled FFT output. based on the provided delay input. corresponding to the amount of linear phase to be removed from the phase result. Unwrap Phase Specifies that the computed phase response should be unwrapped. When not selected. Output Freq. should be removed from the FFT phase response result. megahertz. kilohertz. as a level of 1 corresponds to unity gain. FFT Representation Mag / Phase Indicates that the FFT is represented by magnitude and phase components. +π]. in seconds. Valid range is 8 to 1.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc y3 = Imaginary part (or phase) of complex output y4 = X-axis drive signal: Frequency (xHz) in FFT mode or time (seconds) in IFFT mode FFT Mode Forward FFT Inverse FFT Specifies either an FFT or IFFT operation. This parameter is not applicable to the IFFT operation. (% . This mode is most practical when viewing a filter response. This setting only applies when the Remove Linear Phase option is selected. the output phase is restricted to [-π.048. Delay Specifies the delay. FFT Size Specifies the size of the FFT or IFFT operation.

2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Power Spectrum Indicates that the FFT result represents the signal’s power spectrum in dBm. A load of 50 Ohms is assumed. x = Input value in degrees y = Output value in radians xπ y= 180 7Tacic^APSbTR This block converts from hertz to radians/second. 2^]eTabX^]b This block implements many common conversions. 3TRXQT[bc^?^fTa This block converts a decibel input to a power value. x = Input value in decibels y = Power output value y = 10 ( x / 10 ) 3TRXQT[bc^ATP[ This block converts a decibel input to a real number. x = Input value in decibels y = Output real value y = 10 ( x / 20) 3TVaTTbc^APSXP]b This block converts from degrees to radians. x = Input value in hertz y = Output in radians/second (& . A load of 50 Ohms is assumed. Spectral Density Indicates that the FFT result represents the signal’s power spectral density in dBm/hertz. The desired conversion is selected by choosing the appropriate radio button in the block’s Setup dialog box. The output value represents total energy per bin.

x1 = Input complex magnitude x2 = Input complex phase y1 = Real part of complex output y2 = Imaginary part of complex output y1 = x1 cos( x 2 ) y 2 = x1 sin( x2 ) ?^fTac^3TRXQT[b This block converts a power input value to decibels. x = Input value in radians y = Output value in degrees 180 x y= π APSbTRc^7Taci This block converts from radians/second to hertz.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc y = 2πx <PV?WPbTc^ATP[8\ This block converts a complex input represented in magnitude/phase format to real/imaginary format. x = Input value in radians/second y = Output in hertz x y= 2π (' . x = Input power value y = Output in decibels y = 10 log( x) x>0 APSXP]bc^3TVaTTb This block converts from radians to degrees. The input must be greater than zero.

When set to 0. If. x1 = Real part of complex input x2 = Imaginary part of complex input y1 = Complex magnitude y2 = Complex phase y1 = ( x1 ) 2 + ( x2 ) 2 y 2 = atan ( x2 . for example. then every fifth simulation step is passed to the output port. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc ATP[c^S1 This block converts a real input to decibels. x = Input real value y = Output in decibels y = 20 log( x) x>0 ATP[8\c^<PV?WPbT This block converts a complex input represented in real/imaginary format to magnitude/phase format. A four-quadrant arctangent function is used. Offset Indicates the offset from the first simulation step for applying the decimation. The input must be greater than 0. the decimation starts with the first simulation step. If both x1 and x2 are 0. An initial offset may be specified. (( . which returns values in the range of -π to π. x1 ) 3TRX\PcX^] This block decimates the incoming signal by an integer value. Output Mode Held Output Indicates that the output signal is held constant (last decimated value) between decimated points. x = Input signal y = Decimated output Decimate by Indicates the decimation factor. zero phase is returned. it is set to 5. Pulsed Output Indicates that the output signal is 0 between decimated points.

depending on the selected Delay Mode. For these steps. 3T[PhATP[ This block implements a multiple unit delay block. depending on the selected Delay Mode.  . Initial Condition (Real) Indicates the block’s real output value for the first Delay simulation steps. the previous value is held. This block only operates on main simulation steps and will disregard the intermediate steps associated with some integration methods (for example.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc 3T[Ph2^\_[Tg This block implements a multiple unit delay block. x = Complex input signal [Re. Delay Mode Sim Steps Indicates the delay size is specified in simulation steps. Seconds Indicates the delay size is specified in seconds. Initial Condition (Imaginary) Indicates the block’s imaginary output value for the first Delay simulation steps. The internal real and imaginary shift registers are initialized to the Initial Condition parameter values. the previous value is held.767 steps. Initial Condition Indicates the block’s output value for the first Delay simulation steps. Im] y[n ] = x[n −k ] k = delay size n = simulation step index Delay Specifies the delay in simulation steps or seconds.767 steps. The internal shift register is initialized to the Initial Condition parameter value. Runge Kutta). For these steps. x = Input signal y = Delayed version of input signal y[n ] = x[n −k ] k = delay size n = simulation step index Delay Specifies the delay in simulation steps or seconds. This block only operates on main simulation steps and will disregard the intermediate steps associated with some integration methods (for example. Im] y = Delayed version of complex input signal [Re. Valid range is from 1 to 32. Valid range is from 1 to 32. Runge Kutta).

 . 6PX]S1 This block lets you specify a gain value in decibels. N-1] and outputs a pair of I and Q values as specified by the mapping file. x = Input signal y = Scaled output value y = x ⋅ 10 ( gain / 20) Gain Indicates the gain value in decibels.. Seconds Indicates the delay size is specified in seconds. x = Input symbol number (0. 8@<P__Ta This block allows the user to specify an arbitrary IQ constellation via an external file. The format of the mapping file is described below: File header Symbol number I output Q output .. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Delay Mode Sim Steps Indicates the delay size is specified in simulation steps. This block can be followed by the .4 0RGXODWRU block to achieve modulation of arbitrary user defined constellations.40DSSHU block. The block accepts a symbol value in the range of [0.1.N-1) y1 = I output value y2 = Q output value Constellation Size Specifies the size N of the constellation used by the . This value may be positive or negative. File Path Specifies the DOS path to the desired IQ Mapper constellation file. Select File Opens the Select File dialog box for selecting the IQ Mapper constellation file. Browse File Opens the selected IQ Mapper constellation file using Notepad..

. x1 = Input #1 x2 = Input #2 … xn = Input #N y = Output index value (either {0... The output represents the remainder after integer division of the input value by the specified modulo value..95 The above example illustrates a QPSK constellation having slight imbalance characteristics.. tabs. When in integer modulo mode.9 1. although it is highly recommended to do so for clarity. Should two or more inputs share the largest value.. N}) Number of Inputs Specifies the number of input connections N.g. A typical application of this block is in the creation of M- ary decision circuits (e.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc The symbol number values need not be entered in increasing order. 2.2 1 1 -0. Table entries may be separated by blank spaces. the output index will be that of the lowest input connection in the set. the input value undergoes a tolerance adjustment and is then truncated to an integer prior to the modulo operation. .1. N-1}. where N is the constellation size. and (mod val.. <^Sd[^ This block performs either real-valued or integer modulo operations. The result will fall in the range [0. Start at One Specifies the output range to be {1. or commas.. 0] when specifying a negative modulo value. Valid range is 2 to 16. N}.05 -0. N-1} or {1.. The table must contain a total of N entries. ! . detection of MFSK). Blank lines are also acceptable.1.15 3 -1. mod val) when specifying a positive modulo value. 2.1 2 -1 -1. The block can be configured to accept up to 16 inputs. An example of an IQ map file is shown below: Arbitrary IQ Constellation Map File Header line 0 1. <Pg8]STg This block returns the index of the largest input signal. Index Mode Start at Zero Specifies the output range to be {0.

The block operates by comparing the input phase value to a weighted average of the previous several points.. This value is only applicable to integer mode. after an arbitrary operation. Im] y = x1 (cos x 2 + j sin x 2 ) ?WPbTD]faP_ This block performs a phase unwrapping operation on the input signal which is assumed to be represented in the range of [-180. ?WPbTA^cPcT This block multiplies the complex input by the complex exponential ejφ. +180] degrees or [-π. This step is necessary due to possible floating-point rounding errors. and a value of 360 degrees is added to (or subtracted from) the output waveform.99999. a phase wrap is declared on the input. Modulo Mode Integer Indicates integer modulo operation. the phase variations from point to point should not be excessive (<45 degrees).. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc x = Input signal y = Remainder from modulo operation Modulo Indicates the modulo value. For example.9. Im] x2 = Rotation angle (radians) y = Complex output signal [Re. Real Indicates real modulo operation. For this block to work properly. this entry is truncated. which results in a phase rotation of φ radians. The default tolerance value is 1e-6. When a phase jump in excess of 180 degrees is detected. +π] radians. which can be a real number or an integer. an expected integer value of 5 might be represented in floating point notation as 4. x = Input phase signal " . In integer mode. Tolerance Indicates the value added to the input signal before performing the modulo operation. x1 = Complex input signal [Re.

x = Input signal y = Output signal g(x) g ( x) = ax 5 + bx 4 + cx 3 + dx 2 + ex + f x0 Coefficient Indicates the coefficient of the x0 term ( f in the above formula). Radians Indicates the input phase signal is specified in radians. and then output the FFT result all at once as a vector. # . perform an N point FFT. Results are viewed using a SORW block configured in XY mode with an external trigger. x5 Coefficient Indicates the coefficient of the x5 term ( a in the above formula). The spectrum can be continuously updated (once started by the external trigger) or produced at user defined intervals (again.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc y = Unwrapped phase signal Units Degrees Indicates the input phase signal is specified in degrees. ?^[h]^\XP[ This block computes g(x) for g( ) up to a fifth order polynomial. x1 Coefficient Indicates the coefficient of the x1 term ( e in the above formula). x4 Coefficient Indicates the coefficient of the x4 term ( b in the above formula). using the external trigger). the 6SHFWUXP$QDO\]HU block will read in N data points. x2 Coefficient Indicates the coefficient of the x2 term ( d in the above formula). the block will either immediately read in the next N data points (continuous mode) or wait until the next input trigger before repeating the above cycle. Once completed. B_TRcad\0]P[hiTa This block outputs the complex power spectrum of the input signal. If you have selected to average multiple FFTs. then an averaging step is also performed prior to outputting the result. An output trigger line and x- axis output are provided for driving the SORW block. Once triggered. x3 Coefficient Indicates the coefficient of the x3 term ( c in the above formula).

the block immediately reads in more data. Remove Linear Phase Specifies that linear phase. the output phase is restricted to [-π. Unwrap Phase Specifies that the computed phase output should be unwrapped. Real / Imaginary Indicates that the result is represented by real and imaginary components. Valid range is 8 to 16. should be removed from the phase output. the block will wait for a new trigger before reading in new data.5) x2 = Complex input y1 = Output trigger (0 or 1) for SORW block y2 = Magnitude (or Real) output y3 = Phase (or Imaginary) output y4 = Frequency (xHz) for plot’s x-axis Analyzer Mode Continuous Once a result has been output. x1 = Input trigger (high > 0. The output spectrum can be output in watts. or dBm/Hz. Delay Specifies the delay. +π]. Triggered Once a result has been output. Spectral Output Mag / Phase Indicates that the result is represented by magnitude and phase components. When in dBm or dBm/Hz mode. based on the provided delay input. This setting only applies when the Remove Linear Phase option is selected. $ . where fs is the simulation sampling rate in hertz. dBm. corresponding to the amount of linear phase to be removed from the phase result. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Spectral results are presented over the range [-fs/2. You may also select from a variety of window functions in performing the underlying FFT.384. in seconds. the output is limited to –300 dBm. When not selected. FFT Window Type Selects the desired window function to be used in computing the underlying FFT. fs/2]. FFT Size Specifies the size N of the underlying FFT computation.

Choices include hertz. 50 Ohms The spectral output is referenced to a 50 ohms load.. kilohertz. Load 1 Ohm The spectral output is referenced to a 1 ohm load. ?. Power Spectrum Units Watts The spectral output is represented in watts. Units Specifies the frequency units for the x-axis drive signal (y4). and gigahertz.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Number of FFT Averages Specifies the number of consecutive power spectra (each of N points). DBm/Hz The spectral output is represented as a power spectral density in dBm/hertz. megahertz.RPcTV^ah Blocks in the PLL category include &KDUJH3XPS. /RRS)LOWHU QG2UGHU 3//. The output values represent total energy per bin. dBm The spectral output is represented in dBm. which are averaged before producing the final result. Output Freq.

/RRS)LOWHU UG2UGHU3//..

7\SH3KDVH'HWHFWRU.7\SH 3KDVH'HWHFWRU..9&2 &RPSOH[.7\SH3KDVH'HWHFWRU.

and 9&2 5HDO..

are displayed in the dialog box based on the values of the other parameters. The UP and DOWN inputs are assumed to be binary and represent the output error signals from a type-3 or type-4 digital phase/frequency detector. In order for the PLL to operate properly. The approximate PLL noise loop bandwidth. It is important to ensure that the Phase Detector Gain and VCO Gain parameters actually match the values used in the connected blocks. The output is used to drive a 9&2 block. 2WPaVT?d\_ This block implements a first order active lag-lead loop filter for use in a second order digital PLL. as well as the computed transfer function coefficients (tau1. the simulation sampling frequency must be much larger than the PLL natural frequency. tau2). x1 = UP error signal x2 = DOWN error signal y = Output signal (VCO drive) % .

and gain parameters.7071068. The loop bandwidth parameter provides an alternative method to specifying the PLL natural frequency for describing the response time of the PLL. The default value is 0. Natural Frequency Indicates that the natural frequency is used to specify the time constant properties of the charge pump block. Specification Method Loop Bandwidth Indicates that the loop bandwidth is used to specify the time constant properties of the charge pump block.1 V represents a 0. Update This button updates the loop bandwidth (or natural frequency). The values are not permanently stored until you click on the OK button.1 rad phase error. & . the PLL response becomes underdamped. and Tau2 displays based on any changes made to the natural frequency (or loop bandwidth). Loop Bandwidth Indicates the approximate noise loop bandwidth of the PLL in hertz. Detector Gain Indicates the gain (Kd) of the connected Phase Detector in radians/volt. A phase detector gain value of 1 (default) indicates that an input error signal of 0. This represents the double sided bandwidth (3 dB) over which the PLL is able to follow frequency variations in the input signal. Tau1. VCO Gain Indicates the gain (Ko) of the connected VCO in (radians/sec)/volt. This parameter is not to be confused with the VCO center frequency. The natural frequency determines the response time of the PLL to a phase or frequency step. damping factor. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Charge Pump transfer function (Laplace format): sτ 2 + 1 F ( s) = sτ 1 Natural Frequency Indicates the natural frequency (ωn) of the PLL in radians/second. The detector gain for a Type-3 phase detector is approximately 1/π and approximately 1/2π for a Type-4 detector. As this value is decreased. Damping Factor Specifies the damping factor of the PLL. which yields a critically damped second order loop. Increasing the value creates an overdamped response.

^^_5X[cTa!]S>aSTa?.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc . A choice of active or passive loop design is provided.  This block implements a first order lag-lead loop filter for use in a second order PLL. The input is assumed to be an error signal from a phase detector. Both input and output are expressed in volts.. The output is typically used to drive a 9&2 block. The /RRS)LOWHU QG2UGHU3//.

block is used in several of VisSim/Comm’s compound blocks.” A /RRS)LOWHU QG2UGHU3//. For more information about these compound blocks. including the PLLs and Costas Loop. “VisSim/Comm Library. see Appendix A.

block is able to track a phase or frequency step. you need to use the /RRS)LOWHU UG2UGHU 3//. For this. but not Doppler rate.

Because /RRS)LOWHU QG2UGHU 3//. block. as described in the next section.

blocks are more stable than /RRS)LOWHU UG2UGHU3//.

Also. This represents the double sided bandwidth (3 dB) over which the PLL is able to follow frequency variations in the input signal. The PLL noise loop bandwidth. tau2). as well as the computed transfer function coefficients (tau1. x = Input drive signal y = Output signal (VCO drive) Loop filter transfer function (Laplace format): sτ 2 + 1 sτ 2 + 1 F ( s) = (active) F ( s) = (passive) sτ1 sτ1 + 1 Natural Frequency Indicates the natural frequency (ωn) of the PLL in radians/second. which yields a critically damped second order loop. The default value is 0. The loop bandwidth parameter provides an alternative method to specifying the PLL natural frequency for describing the response time of the PLL. In order for the PLL to operate properly. As this value is decreased. the loop gain (KoKd) should be much larger than the natural frequency (ωn). the simulation sampling frequency must be much larger than the PLL natural frequency. The natural frequency determines the response time of the PLL to a phase or frequency step. This parameter is not to be confused with the VCO center frequency.7071068. Damping Factor Specifies the damping factor of the PLL. the PLL ' . Loop Bandwidth Indicates the approximate noise loop bandwidth of the PLL in hertz. you should use a second order PLL unless Doppler rate is a factor. are displayed in the dialog box based on the values of the other parameters. It is important to ensure that the Detector Gain and VCO Gain parameters actually match the values used in the connected blocks. for good PLL operation when using the passive loop type.

The PLL Noise Loop Bandwidth is displayed in the dialog box based on the values of the other parameters. also referred to as Type 3. It is important to ensure that the Phase Detector Gain and VCO Gain parameters match the values used in the connected blocks. This block implements a Wiener Optimal second order loop filter for use in a third order PLL. the simulation sampling frequency must be much larger than the PLL natural frequency. and Detector Gain parameters. . Damping Factor. In order for the PLL to operate properly.^^_5X[cTa"aS>aSTa?.. The output is typically used to drive a 9&2 block. VCO Gain Indicates the gain Ko of the connected VCO in (radians/second)/volt. Both input and output are expressed in volts. Increasing the value creates an overdamped response. Update This button updates the Noise Bandwidth. Specification Method Loop Bandwidth Indicates that the Loop Bandwidth is used to specify the time constant properties of the loop filter. Commonly used phase detectors actually output sin(θε) ~ θε for small error angles only.1 rad phase error. Tau1. VCO Gain. A phase detector gain value of 1 (default) indicates that an input error signal of 0. The values are not permanently stored until you click on the OK button. and Tau2 values based on changes made to the Natural Frequency. also referred to as Type 2. x = Input drive signal y = Output signal (VCO drive) ( .1 V represents a 0. The input is assumed to be an error signal from a phase detector. A third order PLL is able to track a frequency ramp (Doppler rate). 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc response becomes underdamped. Natural Frequency Indicates that the Natural Frequency is used to specify the time constant properties of the loop filter. Detector Gain Indicates the gain Kd of the connected phase detector in radians/volt. Passive Specifies a passive loop filter implementation. Loop Filter Type Active Specifies an active loop filter implementation. The gain value is based on assuming a small error angle.

The values are not permanently stored until you click on the OK button. The natural frequency determines the response time of the PLL to a phase. Ch_T"?WPbT3TcTRc^a This block implements an edge triggered digital phase/frequency detector based on the JK flip-flop. x1 = Reference input x2 = VCO input y = Error signal [0.  .1 V represents a 0. This parameter is not to be confused with the VCO center frequency. A phase detector gain value of 1 (default) indicates that an input error signal of 0. Detector Gain Indicates the gain Kd of the connected phase detector in radians/volt.1 rad phase error. clock edge mode. 1] Threshold Specifies the voltage level above which the input is considered high. VCO Gain Indicates the gain Ko of the connected VCO in (radians/second)/volt. and the low and high threshold voltage levels. Block parameters include the initial output state. or frequency ramp step. The gain value is based on assuming a small error angle. This block is usually followed by a &KDUJH3XPS block. This block is usually followed by a /RRS )LOWHU block if used within a PLL. which is used to internally convert the input signals to digital waveforms [0. Commonly used phase detectors actually output sin(θε) ~ θε for small error angles only. Ch_T!?WPbT3TcTRc^a This block implements an XOR based digital phase detector. Block parameters include the input threshold voltage level. Unlike a type-2 detector.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Loop filter transfer function (Laplace format): ω 33 + 2ω 32 s + 2ω 3 s 2 F ( s) = KoKd s2 Natural Frequency Indicates the natural frequency ω3 of the PLL in radians/second. 1]. the type-3 implementation is sensitive to frequency and is independent of the duty cycle ratio of the input signals. Update This button updates the Noise Bandwidth value based on any change made to the Natural Frequency parameter. frequency.

Block parameters include the low and high threshold voltage levels. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc x1 = Reference input x2 = VCO input y1 = UP error signal [0. E2>2^\_[Tg  E2>ATP[ This block implements a VCO. This block is usually followed by a &KDUJH3XPS block. at least theoretically. the type-4 implementation exhibits improved sensitivity to frequency offsets and has. an infinite pull-in range. With . 1] High Threshold Specifies the voltage level above which a rising input becomes high. Low Threshold Specifies the voltage level below which a falling input becomes low. When the input drive signal is 0. Compared to a type-3 detector. 1] y2 = DOWN error signal [0. Ch_T#?WPbT3TcTRc^a This block implements an edge triggered digital phase/frequency detector. Low Threshold Specifies the voltage level below which a falling input becomes low. 1] y2 = DOWN error signal [0. the 9&2 block outputs a tone at the specified center frequency. Two versions of this block are provided: one producing a complex output and the other producing a real output. x1 = Reference input x2 = VCO input y1 = UP error signal [0. 1] Initial State Specifies the initial state of the phase detector internal flip-flop. Falling Edge Specifies that the phase detector operates using falling clock edges. Edge Mode Rising Edge Specifies that the phase detector operates using rising clock edges. High Threshold Specifies the voltage level above which a rising input becomes high.

A5RPcTV^ah Blocks in the RF category include $PSOLILHU. This value is specified in volts. Initial Phase Indicates the starting phase of the output complex tone. and 9DULDEOH$WWHQXDWRU ! . Trapezoidal Specifies the trapezoidal integration method. The value may be set to 0 or even a negative frequency.'RXEOH%DODQFHG 0L[HU. the output frequency deviates from the center frequency depending on the magnitude of the drive signal and the specified VCO gain. x = Input drive signal y1 = Output signal ([Re. The value may be positive or negative. Amplitude Indicates the amplitude of the output tone (single-sided peak amplitude). 6ZLWFK. &RXSOHU. VCO Gain Indicates the gain of the VCO in (radians/second)/volt.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc a non-zero input. 6SOLWWHU&RPELQHU. Integration Method Euler Specifies the Euler integration method (forward difference). This value is specified in degrees. Backward Difference Specifies the backwards difference integration method. Im] for complex) y2 = Accumulated phase (rad) (optional) y1 (t ) = Ae jθ (t ) y 2 (t ) = θ (t ) t θ (t ) + ∫ (2πf 0 c + x1 (τ ) K o )dτ + φ where: fc = translation frequency A = carrier amplitude Ko = VCO gain φ = initial phase (radians) Center Frequency Indicates the VCO center frequency in hertz.

IP2. saturation is typically achieved a few dB beyond the 1 dB compression point. Noise Figure When the Add Noise option is selected. IP4. Negative Specifies that the output dc bias due to the IP2 term is negative. A 50 Ohm impedance is assumed. Block parameters include the amplifier small signal gain. as shown below. and the amplifier noise figure. 1 dB Compression Point Specifies the output power level in dBm where the amplifier output is 1 dB below the ideal gain. The polynomial coefficients are computed based on the specified gain. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc 0\_[XUXTa This block implements a nonlinear RF amplifier. IP3. IP3 Specifies the theoretical output power level in dBm where the power in the third order intermods would equal the power in the fundamental. The value of IP3 is typically 10 ~ 15 dB above the 1 dB compression point. the 1 dB compression point. specifies the equivalent input noise figure of the amplifier in decibels. The block can also be modeled as a noiseless device. IP2 Specifies the theoretical output power level in dBm where the power in the second order intermods would equal the power in the fundamental. the amplifier output remains constant. The amplifier is modeled according to a fifth order Taylor polynomial. " . The value of IP2 is typically 20 ~ 25 dB above the 1 dB compression point. x = Input signal y = Amplifier output signal y = ax + bx 2 + cx 3 + dx 4 + ex 5 + noise (until saturation) Gain Indicates the small signal gain of the amplifier in decibels. Once saturation is reached. Output Bias Positive Specifies that the output dc bias due to the IP2 term is positive. second and third order intermodulation (IM) intercept points. Depending on the specified parameters values. IP4 Specifies the theoretical output power level in dBm at which the power in the intermods due to fourth order terms equals the power in the fundamental. and the 1 dB compression point.

Block parameters include the attenuator loss in decibels and the physical temperature of the device. and noise figure of the device. white noise is added to the output according to the specified Loss and Physical Temperature parameters. Input Coupling Output Coupling x1 = Primary input signal x = Input signal x = Coupled signal y1 = Primary output 2 y = Output signal y2 = Coupled output Input Coupling y = x1 ⋅ 10 ( − directLoss / 20) + x 2 ⋅ 10 ( −coupledLoss / 20) + noise Output Coupling y1 = x ⋅ 10 ( − directLoss / 20) + noise # . 0ccT]dPc^a This block implements a passive RF attenuator. white noise is added to the output according to the specified Noise Figure and Gain. specifies the physical temperature of the attenuator in degrees Kelvin. Add Noise When this option is selected. The default value is 290 K. direct path loss.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Add Noise When this option is selected. 2^d_[Ta This block models an RF coupler. A 50 Ohm impedance is assumed. A 50 Ohm impedance is assumed. The &RXSOHU block can also be modeled as noiseless. This parameter is specified as a positive value. x = Input signal y = Attenuated output signal y = x ⋅ 10 ( −loss / 20) + noise Loss Indicates the loss of the device in decibels. coupled loss. Block parameters include the coupling sense. Physical Temperature When the Add Noise option is selected. The $WWHQXDWRU block can also be modeled as noiseless.

The amplifier coefficients are calculated from the 1 dB compression point and IP3. This parameter is specified as a positive value. LO power and harmonic level. Block parameters include the input 1 dB compression point. The 'RXEOH%DODQFHG0L[HU block can also be modeled as a noiseless device. Noise Figure When the Add Noise option is selected. 3^dQ[T1P[P]RTS<XgTa This block implements a nonlinear double balanced mixer. conversion loss. Coupled Loss Specifies the coupled path loss of the coupler in decibels. A 50 Ohm impedance is assumed. Output Coupling Configures the device as an output coupler. This is the ratio of output IF power to input RF power. $ . and the multiplier takes into account the specified LO third harmonic level. Coupling Mode Input Coupling Configures the device as an input coupler. The mixer is modeled as a nonlinear amplifier (RF input) followed by a multiplier. white noise is added to the primary output according to the specified Noise Figure. This parameter is specified as a positive value. third order IM intercept point. Add Noise When this option is selected. isolation. x1 = Mixer RF input x2 = Mixer LO input y = Mixer IF output ( )( ) y = k ⋅ x1 + ax13 + bx15 ⋅ x 2 cx 23 + noise (linear region) Conversion Loss Specified the conversion loss of the mixer in decibels. and the mixer noise figure. dc bias. specifies the equivalent input noise figure of the coupler in decibels. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc y 2 = x ⋅ 10 ( − coupledLoss / 20) Direct Path Loss Specifies the direct path loss of the coupler in decibels. This value is typically set to the same value as the Direct Path Loss.

A 50 Ohm impedance is assumed. LO Power Specifies the mixer input LO power in milli-decibels. The value of IP3 is typically 10 ~ 15 dB above the 1 dB compression point. and noise figure of the device. number of connections. dc Offset Specifies the mixer dc offset in volts. Incorrect results are generated if the true LO input is not as specified. This parameter is used internally to scale the output IF signal. Add Noise When this option is selected. The block can also be modeled as a noiseless device. where the power in the third order intermods would equal the power in the fundamental. Block parameters include the splitter mode. where the mixer conversion loss increases by 1 dB. additional path loss. This parameter controls the extent to which the input RF signal appears at the IF output port.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Noise Figure When the Add Noise option is selected. RF Isolation Specifies the RF to IF port isolation in decibels. This parameter is typically specified when the mixer is being used as a phase detector. This parameter controls the extent to which the input LO signal appears at the IF output port. LO Harmonic Specifies the power in the LO’s third harmonic in negative dBc. B_[XccTa2^\QX]Ta This block models an RF splitter or combiner. Input IP3 Specifies the theoretical input power level in milli-decibels. white noise is added to the output according to the specified Noise Figure. % . LO Isolation Specifies the LO to IF port isolation in decibels. Specifies the input power level in milli-decibels. 1 dB Comp. specifies the equivalent input noise figure of the mixer in decibels.

Add Noise When this option is selected.. Splitter Mode Split 0 Configures the device as a 0o phase power splitter... white noise is added to the output(s) according to the specified Noise Figure. Split 180 Configures the device as a 180 o phase power splitter. Combiner Configures the device as a power combiner.. This parameter is specified as a positive value. This value is forced to 2 in split 180 mode. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Splitter Mode Combiner Mode x = Input signal x = Input signal #1 1 y1 = Output #1 . & . . specifies the equivalent input noise figure of the splitter in decibels. xn = Input signal #n yn = Output #n y = Combined output Split 0 y1 = y 2 = . Valid range is 2 to 16... Noise Figure When the Add Noise option is selected. Additional Loss Specifies an additional path loss in decibels above the loss associated with the number of inputs/outputs. = y n = x 10 ⋅( −loss / 20) + noise Split 180 y1 = x 2 ⋅ 10 ( −loss / 20) + noise y 2 − y1 Combiner n y= ∑xi =1 i n ⋅ 10 ( −loss / 20) + noise Number of Outputs Number of Inputs Specifies the number of outputs (in splitter mode) or inputs (in combiner mode) for the device.

Noise Figure Specifies the equivalent input noise figure of the switch in decibels. This parameter is enabled only when Perfect Isolation is not selected. This parameter is specified as a positive value. and noise figure of the device..2.. Input Switch Output Switch x1 = Input path selector {1. Valid range is 2 to 8. The path selector input determines which input (or output) is active. y1 = Output signal #1 xn = Input signal #n . The block can also be modeled as a noiseless device and/or as having perfect isolation. Isolation Specifies the isolation between inputs or outputs for the switch in decibels. ' . Switch Loss Specifies the loss through the switch in decibels.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc BfXcRW This block models an RF switch..... Block parameters include the switch sense. This value is typically set to the same value as the Switch Loss... switch loss. Switch Mode Input Switch Indicates that there are N inputs and 1 output..n} x = Input signal #1 x2 = Input signal 2 .n} x1 = Output path selector {1. isolation.2.. This parameter is specified as a positive value. A 50 Ohm impedance is assumed. y = Output signal y = Output signal #n n Input Switch   y =  x sel +  ∑ xi ⋅ 10 ( −isolation / 20)  ⋅ 10 ( −loss / 20) + noise   i ≠ selt  Output Switch y sel = x ⋅ 10 ( −loss / 20) + noise yi = x ⋅ 10 ( −isolation / 20) i ≠ sel Number of Connections Specifies the number of inputs (input switch mode) or outputs (output switch mode) for the device.

6LQXVRLG. 5DQGRP6HHG. EPaXPQ[T0ccT]dPc^a This block implements a passive variable attenuator. Add Noise Adds white noise to the primary output according to the specified Noise Figure. . BXV]P[B^daRTbRPcTV^ah Blocks in the Signal Sources category include &RPSOH[7RQH. . 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Output Switch Indicates that there is 1 input and N outputs. 1RLVH. Add Noise Adds white noise to the output according to the specified Loss and Physical Temperature. 5DQGRP6\PEROV. Im] y2 = Generator phase (rad) [Optional] πθ y1 (t ) = Ae j ( 2πf ct +φ ) φ= 180 ( . 316HTXHQFH. 5HFWDQJXODU3XOVHV.PSXOVH. and :DYHIRUP*HQHUDWRU 2^\_[TgC^]T This block generates a rotating complex phasor according to the selected block parameters.PSXOVH7UDLQ. Temperature Specifies the physical temperature of the attenuator in degrees Kelvin when the Add Noise option is selected. and can therefore be varied during the simulation. )LOH'DWD. Noise is added to the output based on the specified physical temperature and the current loss value. :DOVK 6HTXHQFH. y1 = Complex output signal [Re. A 50 Ohm impedance is assumed. The internal generator phase (in radians) is also available as an output. The block can also be modeled as noiseless. x1 = Input signal x2 = Loss in dB (≥ 0) y = Attenuated output signal y = x ⋅ 10 ( −loss / 20) + noise Phys. Perfect Isolation Assumes perfect isolation between the switch inputs or outputs. The default value is 290 K. )UHTXHQF\6ZHHS. The attenuation is controlled via external input.

Internal Indicates internal clock timing. yn = Output value(s) yn+1 = Output clock Timing External Indicates external timing.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc y 2 (t ) = 2πf c t + φ Frequency Indicates the frequency fc. of the complex tone. in hertz. repeats the file data sequence. An external clock must be provided at the x1 input. Initial Phase Indicates the starting phase θ of the complex tone. The symbol rate and delay need to be specified. in volts.. of the complex tone. or depending on the Units setting. Valid range is 1 to 5. Repeat at EOF Upon reaching the end of file.5 is considered high. The output values are held constant between updates. Note that if the number of data points in the file is not an integer multiple of Num of Outputs. Units Volts Indicates that the signal amplitude is specified in volts. the complex power of the tone in milli-decibels (50 Ohms). This block does not expect the data to be in any particular format. the output sequence will be shifted upon restarting. as for example. dBm Indicates that the signal complex power is specified in milli-decibels (50 Ohms load). x = Optional external clock y1 . This value is specified in degrees. A clock value greater than 0. in columns. The data can be output at a fixed rate or controlled via an external clock. 5X[T3PcP This block outputs data sequentially from an external file. Amplitude / Power Indicates the amplitude A. the data sequence can be optionally repeated. Num of Outputs Specifies the number of data outputs for the block. The block can be configured to have one to five outputs. ! . Upon reaching the end of file.

This value is specified in hertz. a new sweep is started. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc File Path Specifies the DOS path to the desired data file. and the initial phase are specified.2. This value is specified in hertz. tabs and carriage returns. 5 Data Rate Specifies the data output rate in hertz. After the sweep is completed. Empty Value Specifies the output value to be used when no data is available (delayed start case or EOF condition). This setting is only available when internal timing mode is selected. The expected file format is described below.2 3.1 6 10 7. Browse File Opens the selected data file using Notepad. 5aT`dT]RhBfTT_ This block generates a frequency sweep according to the selected block parameters. for the output sequence. ! . The following is an example: Header line (up to 100 characters) 1. its duration. The maximum allowed line length is 100 characters. Valid data delimiters are commas. After a single line header. Start Time Specifies the starting time. data can be arranged as desired. This block outputs a real signal.9. in seconds.5 9. Select File Opens the Select File dialog box for selecting the desired data file. blank space. The sweep start and stop frequencies.1. 4 5 8. Stop Frequency Indicates the stop frequency of the sweep signal. This setting is only available when internal timing mode is selected. y = Sweep signal output Start Frequency Indicates the starting frequency of the sweep signal.

Initial Phase Indicates the starting phase of the sweep signal (referenced to the sine function). Amplitude Specifies. in seconds. in hertz. of the impulse train. y = Output noise signal !! . Start Time Used to specify. The simulation sampling frequency is automatically taken into account when the noise is generated. in volts. 8\_d[bT This block generates a single impulse of the specified magnitude at the specified time. 8\_d[bTCaPX] This block generates an impulse train given the specified parameters. This value is specified in degrees. in seconds. the impulse will occur at the next simulation step. This value is specified in volts. Amplitude Specifies the amplitude of the impulse in volts. y = Output signal Impulse Time Specifies the occurrence time. y = Output pulse train Pulse Frequency Specifies the frequency. the start time of the first output pulse. of the impulse. the peak amplitude of the impulse. No pulse will occur if the time specified is prior to the simulation start time. =^XbT This block generates Gaussian random noise according to the specified noise density or noise temperature parameter. If the specified impulse time is between simulation steps. which include the sequence start time.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Sweep Duration Indicates the duration of the repeating sweep signal. frequency and amplitude. The inverse of this value is the pulse repetition period. Amplitude Indicates the amplitude of the sweep signal. The block supports both 1 Ohm and 50 Ohms load impedances. This value is specified in seconds.

50 Ohms Specifies a load resistance of 50 Ohms. The sequence length is 2n – 1 (2n for augmented sequences). The default output sequence is generated by using the minimal weight primitive polynomial for each order. ?=BT`dT]RT This block generates a maximal length pseudo noise (PN) sequence. The 316HTXHQFH block can also accept an external clock. or 32. and bit rate can be specified. A clock level greater than 0. also known as a pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS).767. milli- decibels/hertz. Noise Density Noise Temperature Specifies the source’s noise density (or noise temperature) in watts/hertz. The generator shift register size. x = Optional external clock y1 = Pseudo random sequence output (binary or bilevel) y2 = Output clock (optional) Shift Register Size Specifies the order n of the PN sequence and determines its length. Valid range is from 2 to 28. initial state. generator polynomial. Watts/Hz Noise density is specified in watts/hertz. depending on the Noise Units setting. !" . Valid range is from 0 to 2n – 1. The offset value is used to advance the shift register from its known starting point state.5 is considered high. Noise Units dBm/Hz Noise density is specified in milli-decibels/hertz. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Load 1 Ohm Specifies a load resistance of 1 Ohm. Sequence Offset Determines the starting position of the PN sequence. Degrees Kelvin Noise density is specified by setting the equivalent noise temperature in degrees Kelvin. or degrees Kelvin. where n is the shift register size. The output sequence can be optionally augmented with an extra 0.

The default code for a given order n can be obtained by selecting the Use Default Generator Coefficient option. The Bit Rate and Start Time need to be specified. Output Mode Bilevel Indicates that the signal amplitudes associated with output the sequence are {-1. Note that this value is always odd. The LSB represents the initial output. An external clock must be provided at the x1 input. For example. This parameter is only available when internal timing mode is selected. Start Time Specifies a start time.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Initial State Specifies the initial state of the internal shift register in octal format. Zero Augmented Sequence Instructs the PN generator to augment the output sequence with an extra 0. in seconds. while the remaining bits represent the next n-1 outputs. The default code represents the minimal weight primitive polynomial. 1}. Internal Indicates internal clock timing. The following is an example of PN sequence: n=7 PN length= 127 Generator coefficient = 211 octal (10001001) x k = x k −3 ⊕ x k − 7 where ⊕ represents modulo 2 addition !# . The extra 0 is inserted after n-1 consecutive 0s are encountered in the output sequence. This parameter is only available when internal timing mode is selected. 56 octal is 101110. Use Default Generator Coefficient Loads the default generator coefficient for each order n. Specifies the generator code for the PN sequence in octal format. Bit Rate Specifies the PN sequence bit rate in bits per second. 1}. for the PN sequence. Binary Indicates that the signal amplitudes associated with output the sequence are {0. Timing External Indicates external timing. Generator Coeff.

random numbers generated by Comm blocks will be different between simulation runs. When absent from a diagram. for the output sequence. An external clock must be provided at the x1 input. Timing External Indicates external timing. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc AP]S^\BTTS This block sets the random number generator seed for all Comm blocks. Internal Indicates internal clock timing. This parameter is only available when internal timing mode is selected. and an initial delay can be specified. !$ . This block can also accept an external clock. where N is the number of total symbols. A clock value greater than 0. . The value of N. Reset Seed on Auto Restart Forces the VisSim/Comm random number generator to reset itself when a new run begins in Auto Restart mode.. x = Optional external clock y1 = Random symbol sequence (0. The symbol rate and delay need to be specified.. in seconds. This block has no inputs or outputs.5 is considered high. Seed Specifies the random number seed to be used by the all Comm blocks. N-1) y2 = Output symbol clock (optional) Number of Symbols Specifies the number of available output symbols N. Start Time Specifies the starting time. Symbol Rate Specifies the data sequence symbol rate in symbols/second. This parameter is only available when internal timing mode is selected. the symbol rate. This will cause the outputs of all Comm DLL random sources to repeat exactly for all iterations.. AP]S^\Bh\Q^[b This block generates uniformly distributed random symbols between 0 and N-1. The output values range between 0 and N-1.

The pulse width can be entered either as a pulse duration or by specifying a duty cycle. High Level Specifies the output level associated with the pulse (ON). The duty cycle is the ratio of the ON time to the OFF time. in seconds. specifies either the pulse duration (high level) in seconds. Start Time Used to specify. This value is specified in volts. This value is specified in hertz. The signal phase is also available in radians. Low Level Specifies the output level between pulses (OFF). the starting time of the first output pulse. or the pulse duty cycle in percent. y1 = Output pulse train y2 = Clock [optional] Pulse Frequency Specifies the frequency of the pulse train. Pulse Mode Duration Specifies the pulse ON time. The 5HFWDQJXODU 3XOVHV block can be used to generate a square wave signal by specifying a 50% duty cycle. The inverse of this value is the pulse repetition period. This value is specified in volts. Pulse Duration Duty Cycle Depending on the Pulse Mode setting. this value should be less than the pulse repetition period. Duty Cycle Specifies the pulse ON time.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc ATRcP]Vd[Pa?d[bTb This block generates a rectangular pulse train given the specified parameters. When entered as a duration. BX]db^XS This block generates a sine or cosine wave specified in hertz according to the selected block parameters. y1 = Sine or cosine output (real) y2 = Sine generator phase (rad) (optional) πθ y1 (t ) = A sin(2πf c t + φ ) or A cos(2πf c t + φ ) φ= 180 y 2 (t ) = 2πf c t + φ !% .

Initial Phase Indicates the starting phase θ of the sinusoidal output. Output Mode Cosine Indicates that the output waveform is a cosine. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Frequency Indicates the sinusoidal frequency fc in hertz.N) to be output. or depending on the Units setting. Units Volts Indicates that the signal amplitude is specified in volts. of the sinusoidal waveform. typically used in CDMA systems. Sine Indicates that the output waveform is a sine. This value is specified in degrees. Walsh sequences represent a family of orthogonal sequences. A clock value greater than 0. Sequence Offset Specifies a starting offset for the Walsh sequence. dBm Indicates that the signal power is specified in milli-decibels (50 Ohms load). x = Optional external clock y1 = Walsh sequence output y2 = Output clock (optional) 0 0 0 0   0 0  0 1 0 1 H N HN  H2 =   H4 =  H 2N =   0 1  0 0 1 1 H N HN    0 1 1 0 Matrix Output Row Specifies which row (K) of the (N x N) Hadamard matrix HN is to be used as the Walsh output sequence. in volts. Valid range is 0 to N-1. Amplitude Power Indicates the amplitude A. !& . The symbol rate and an initial delay can also be specified. The :DOVK6HTXHQFH block can accept an external clock.5 is considered high. the power of the signal in milli-decibels (50 Ohms). Valid range is 0 to N-1. where N is a power of two. You can specify the sequence length (N) and row (K) of the sequence (K . FP[bWBT`dT]RT This block generates a repeating Walsh binary sequence.

This value must be a power of two. FPeTU^a\6T]TaPc^a This block implements a generic waveform generator capable of producing the following waveform types: square wave. Start Time Specifies a start time. y1 = Output waveform y2 = Output clock (optional) Waveform Type Square Wave Outputs a square wave at the specified frequency. Sequence Length Specifies the Walsh sequence length N. This parameter is only available when internal timing mode is selected. Output Mode Bilevel Indicates the signal amplitudes associated with output the sequence are {-1. and has a valid range of 2 to 256. Waveform Frequency Specifies the waveform output rate in hertz. for the Walsh sequence. Sawtooth Wave Outputs a sawtooth wave at the specified frequency. Binary Indicates the signal amplitudes associated with output the sequence are {0.2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Timing External Indicates external timing. Bit Rate Specifies the Walsh sequence bit rate in bits/second. Internal Indicates internal clock timing. The Bit Rate and Start Time need to be specified. 1}. An external clock must be provided at the x1 input. 1}. !' . triangle wave or sawtooth wave. This parameter is only available when internal timing mode is selected. Triangle Wave Outputs a triangle wave at the specified frequency. in seconds.

Start Time Specifies the starting time. Offset Specifies an offset value in volts for the output waveform. A 1V p-p value with an offset of zero will produce a waveform in the range of [-0. +0.5. in seconds. 2WP_cTa"2^\\1[^RZBTc Peak-to-Peak Amplitude Specifies the peak-to-peak amplitude in volts of the output waveform. for the output waveform.5] volts. !( .

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which is used to track the phase of PSK modulated signals. In order for the PLL to operate properly. the IIR filter cutoff frequencies should be appropriately matched to the data rate. 2^\_^d]SQ[^RZb 2>BC0BN2EB< This compound block implements a complex Costas loop. The phase error detector provided with this compound block is tailored to BPSK. a more suited detector should be substituted. A phase detector gain value of 1 indicates that an error signal of 0. This block is based on a second order PLL design. its value must be taken into account in determining the phase detector gain.XQaPah This appendix describes the compound blocks and data files provided in the COMMLIB subdirectory. the simulation sampling frequency should be much larger than the PLL natural frequency (/RRS)LOWHU block parameter). Also. x = Input signal (complex) " . The amplitude of the input signal is assumed to be 1 — if this is not the case.1 rad phase error. the multiplier’s I and Q outputs are both used to compute the phase error term. It is important to ensure that the phase detector gain and VCO gain are properly represented in the /RRS)LOWHU block’s parameters.1 V at the /RRS)LOWHU input represents a 0. This compound block accepts a modulated complex signal and outputs I and Q channel baseband signals and a complex VCO output. 0__T]SXg0 EXbBX\2^\\. For other modulation schemes. After additional filtering.

"! .EB< This compound block is identical to the PLL1CPLX. The VCO output attempts to follow the input signal. This error signal is then passed through a JDLQ block and used as the VCO drive signal.VSM compound block.1 V represents a 0. x = Input signal (complex) y1 = VCO output signal (complex) y2 = VCO phase (radians) ?. 2?.GEB< This compound block implements a complex first order PLL. except that it accepts a modulated real signal. If a frequency offset is present. It employs a *DXVVLDQ). use a second order PLL..XQaPah y1 = Output signal (complex) y2 = VCO output signal (complex) 2>BC0BNAEB< This compound block is identical to the COSTAS_C.. The internal phase error signal is obtained by multiplying the input signal by the VCO output. A40.1 rad phase error.5 block and an )0 modulator block as its internal components. A phase detector gain value of 1 indicates that an error signal of 0. The gain factor of -2 prior to the PXOWLSO\ block is used to compensate for the factor of two loss through the phase detector due to the formation of a double frequency term in this implementation. The loop gain is computed by multiplying the phase detector gain by the VCO gain. A first order loop cannot remove a frequency offset and also achieve 0 phase error. x = Input data signal (binary) y = Output signal (complex) ?. except that it accepts a real signal input. x = Input signal (real) y1 = Output signal (complex) y2 = VCO output signal (complex) 6<B:EB< This compound block implements a GMSK modulator.0__T]SXg0EXbBX\2^\\. The internal parameters of each of these blocks need to be specified for proper operation.VSM compound block.

A phase detector gain value of 1 indicates that an error signal of 0. x = Input signal (real) y1 = VCO output signal (real) y2 = VCO phase (radians) "" ..1 V at the /RRS)LOWHU input represents a 0.VSM compound block. It is important to ensure that the phase detector gain and VCO gain are properly represented in the /RRS)LOWHU block’s parameters..GEB< This compound block implements a second order PLL. its value must be taken into account in determining the phase detector gain. except that it accepts a real signal input.EB< This compound block is identical to the PLL2CPLX. The amplitude of the input signal is assumed to be 1 — if this is not the case. then a third order PLL is recommended. The internal phase error signal is obtained by complex multiplying the input signal by the VCO output. 0__T]SXg0EXbBX\2^\\. look under their respective names earlier in this section.XQaPah x = Input signal (real) y1 = VCO output signal (real) y2 = VCO phase (radians) ?. If Doppler rate is present. The VCO output attempts to follow the input signal. the simulation sampling frequency should be much larger than the PLL natural frequency (/RRS)LOWHU block parameter). This error signal is then passed through the /RRS)LOWHU block and its output is used as the VCO drive signal.!A40. For descriptions of the 9&2 and /RRS)LOWHU blocks. In order for the PLL to operate properly.1 rad phase error. x = Input signal (complex) y1 = VCO output signal (complex) y2 = VCO phase (radians) ?. A second order PLL can remove both a phase offset and a frequency offset (assuming a high gain loop).!2?. The gain factor of -2 prior to the PXOWLSO\ block is used to compensate for the factor of two loss through the phase detector due to the formation of a double frequency term in this implementation.

x1 = Input symbol x2 = Clock y = Output symbol "# .0__T]SXg0EXbBX\2^\\. also referred to as the 0 dB backoff point. x1 = Input signal (complex) x2 = Reference power level y = Output signal (complex) y = G (r )e jΦ ( r ) x1 where : G (r ) = am/am function Φ (r ) = am/pm function r = instantaneous complex power scaled by x2 E"!38534EB< This compound block implements a V.32 differential encoder for use in simulating V. The input symbol is divided into four bit streams. and the two LSBs are differentially encoded (modulo 4).MAP file maps tube Input Power (decibels) to Output Power (decibels). An externally provided Reference Power Level (watts) is used to specify the saturation operating point. The AMAM. The bit streams are then recombined to form the output symbol. The bit streams are then recombined to form the output symbol.32 trellis decoding.MAP to simulate the desired tube characteristics.32 differential decoder for use in simulating V.MAP and AMPM. The input symbol is divided into four bit streams.32 trellis decoding. You can modify the files AMAM. The AMPM.MAP file maps tube Input Power (decibels) to Output Phase Rotation (degrees).XQaPah CFC0NC1. and the two LSBs are differentially decoded (modulo 4). x1 = Input symbol x2 = Clock y = Output symbol E"!3854=EB< This compound block implements a V.EB< This compound block provides a TWTA channel based on AM/AM and AM/PM conversion look-up tables.

“Comm Block Set. the pulse frequency will vary depending on the magnitude of the drive signal and the specified VCO gain.VSM compound block. 1) 3PcPUX[Tb 0<0<30C This data file contains a nonlinear mapping of input power (decibels) to output power (decibels) for the TWTA_TBL. The output represents a pulse train where the pulse frequency is controlled by the input signal level. modulator block in Chapter 3.” "$ . It was obtained by using the coefficient values from example #1. under the description of the 7:7$ block in Chapter 3. and the use of different data delimiters. ?B:N6A0H30C This data file specifies a Gray encoded constellation mapping for all the PSK modulation formats. the 9&3* outputs a pulse train at the specified VCO center frequency. and a OLPLW block to eliminate the negative pulse at the half cycle point.” 0<?<30C This data file contains a nonlinear mapping of input power (decibels) to output phase (degrees) for the TWTA_TBL. under the description of the 7:7$ block in Chapter 3. refer to the description of the 36. When the input drive level is 0. For a description of the file format. With a non-zero input. “Comm Block Set.XQaPah E2?6EB< This compound block implements a voltage controlled pulse generator (VCPG). a FURVV'HWHFWblock. Gray encoding ensures that neighboring constellation points only differ in one bit from one another. It illustrates the use of multiple entries per line. “Comm Block Set. 0__T]SXg0EXbBX\2^\\. It was obtained by using the coefficient values example #1.” 30C0N8=30C This file is an example of an input data file for the )LOH'DWD source block. x = Input signal y = Pulse train output (0.VSM compound block. The block comprises a 9&2 block.

” C01.58.32 standard. It corresponds to a 64 tap lowpass FIR filter with a 10 Hz cutoff.” EC1"B>5C30C This data file contains a metric table for three bit soft decision Viterbi decoding. refer to the description of the 7UHOOLV(QFRGHU block in Chapter 3. refer to the description of the 9LWHUEL'HFRGHU 6RIW. E"!@0<30C This data file contains a constellation mapping for QAM-32. “Comm Block Set. For a description of the file format.32 trellis coded modulation.B30C This data file contains the trellis mapping for V. “Comm Block Set. Gray encoding ensures that neighboring constellation points only differ in one bit from one another. The file contains magnitude and phase entries over the range of -50 to 50 Hz. For a description of the file format.C30C This data file contains a filter response specification for the complex 0DJ3KDVH filter block. refer to the description of the 4$03$0 modulator block in Chapter 3.” E"!CA4. “Comm Block Set. refer to the description of the 4$03$0 modulator block in Chapter 3. The constellation provided is that used in the V.0__T]SXg0EXbBX\2^\\. For a description of the file format.XQaPah @0<N6A0H30C This data file specifies a Gray encoded constellation mapping for all the QAM and PAM modulation formats except for QAM-32. For a description of the file format.

“Comm Block Set.” "% .block in Chapter 3.

VSM BPSK modulated signal is tracked using a Costas loop COMPAND.VSM Convolutional encoder and Viterbi hard decision decoding DELAYEST.VSM Comparison of GMSK and MSK modulation formats PAM8EQ.5.VSM Use of ))7 block to compute the freq.VSM Eye diagram FFT_TEST.VSM Rayleigh channel fading example TWO_TONE.VSM Compander use example CONV_ENC.VSM BER curve generation example BPSKTRAC. response of an FIR filter GMSK_EX. Block Diagram Description AM_MOD.VSM Adaptive equalization example using 16-QAM RAYLEIGH.VSM Two tone intermodulation example with a saturating amplifier "& .VSM Adaptive equalization example using 8-PAM QAM16_EQ.VSM Use of the 'HOD\(VWLPDWRU block EYE_PLOT.VSM AM example BERCURVE. 0__T]SXg1 BP\_[T1[^RZ3XPVaP\b This appendix describes the sample block diagrams shipped with VisSim/Comm 4.VSM Use of forward and inverse FFTs FIR_IMP.

VSM Lookup table TWTA example V32TRELS.VSM V.0__T]SXg1BP\_[T1[^RZ3XPVaP\b Block Diagram Description TWTA_EYE.32 trellis encoding and decoding example "' .

0__T]SXg2 0Ra^]h\bP]S0QQaTeXPcX^]b Term Definition 16-PSK 16-phase shift keying 16-QAM 16-level quadrature amplitude modulation 256-QAM 256-level quadrature amplitude modulation 32-QAM 32-cross quadrature amplitude modulation 64-QAM 64-level quadrature amplitude modulation 8-PSK eight-phase shift keying ADC analog-to-digital converter AM amplitude modulation ASK amplitude shift keying AWGN additive white Gaussian noise BER bit error rate BPSK binary phase shift keying BSC binary symmetric channel DOS disk operating system DQPSK differential quadrature phase shift keying DSB-AM double-sideband amplitude modulation FIFO first in first out FIR finite impulse response "( .

0__T]SXg20Ra^]h\bP]S0QQaTeXPcX^]b Term Definition FM frequency modulation FSK frequency shift keying IIR infinite impulse response IM intermodulation ISI inter-symbol inference LIFO last in first out LSB least significant bit MSB most significant bit MSK minimum shift keying OQPSK offset quadrature phase shift keying PAM pulse amplitude modulation PLL phase-locked loop PM phase modulation PN pseudo noise PPM pulse position modulation PRBS pseudo random binary sequence QAM quadrature amplitude modulation QPSK quadrature phase shift keying SER symbol error rate SNR signal to noise ratio SQPSK staggered quadrature phase shift keying TWTA traveling wave tube amplifier VCO voltage controlled oscillator VCPG voltage controlled pulse generator # .

For your convenience you should read these files immediately and print a copy of them to keep with your manuals. the IBM PC AT. and 100% compatibles.WRI. your computer must have the following components: • Windows 95 or Windows NT 4. including the IBM Personal System/2 Series. # . To use VisSim/Comm. ATPS\TUX[Tb As part of the installation procedure. follow the instruction provided on the distribution media or accompanying installation procedures documentation.51+ • 8 MB 8]bcP[[X]VEXbBX\2^\\ To install the VisSim/Comm software. 0__T]SXg3 8]bcP[[X]VEXbBX\2^\\ This appendix describes how to install VisSim/Comm. 2^\_dcTaaT`dXaT\T]cb VisSim/Comm runs on personal computers using the Intel 80386 or higher processor. These files contain information on last minute enhancements and corrections that were not available when the manuals went to print.TXT and a Comm-specific readme file named COMMREAD. two readme files are copied to your distribution media: a VisSim readme file named README.

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63 Average Power (Real) block. 85 abbreviations. 26 8-PSK block. 93 Average Power (Complex) block. 88 Adaptive Equalizer (Real) block. 59 Bits to Symbol block. 90 Binary Symmetric Channel block. 41 8-PAM block. 8]STg 1 16-PSK block. 89 Binary Counter block. 56 Adaptive Equalizer (Real). 88 BER Curve Control block. 75 Amplifier. 90 BER curves. 19 4-PAM block. 139 16-QAM. 89 AM block. 114 #" . 3 16-QAM block. 42 block diagram examples. 17 64-QAM block. 137 0 Block Interleaver block. 75 8-PAM. 88 acronyms. 56 Adaptive Equalizer (Complex). 93 16-PSK. 25 AM. 17. 63 4-PAM. 114 A/D Converter. 90 Adaptive Equalizer (Complex) block. 84 Bit/Symbol Error Rate block. 25 Addition. 33 AWGN (Real) block. 88 example simulation. 139 256-QAM. 90 Addition block. 113 8-PSK. 85 baseband equivalent system. 47 blocks A/D Converter block. 63 AWGN (Complex) block. 113 Attenuator. 90 generating. 33 64-QAM. 84 Attenuator block. 57 256-QAM block. 90 Amplifier block. 63 32-QAM. 12 32-QAM block.

97 Integrate & Dump (Complex). 98 IQ Mapper. 99 Loop Filter (3rd Order PLL). 109 Real/Im to Mag/Phase. 65 Block Interleaver. 34 IIR. 43 Radians to Degrees. 35 Gray Decoder. 38 Degrees to Radians. 102 Decibels to Power. 97 inserting. 77 Complex FFT/IFFT. 98 Convolutional Interleaver. 95 Gain (dB). 34 Delay (Complex). 98 JK Flip Flop.8]STg Average Power (Complex). 25 Division.Pi/4-DQPSK. 56 Divide by N. 98 Loop Filter (2nd Order PLL). 34 AWGN (Real). 97 Inverse. 38 Hertz to Rad/sec. 67 connector tabs. 97 MSK. 37 Compander. 97 Integrate & Dump (Real). 60 D Flip Flop. 60 Bit/Symbol Error Rate. 115 BER Curve Control. 73 Correlation. 108 Real to dB. 25 Double Balanced Mixer. 78 Decimation. 49 MagPhase. 27 Rad/sec to Hertz. 101 Complex to Mag/Phase. 100 Mux/Demux. 101 Power to Decibels. 97 Modulo. 120 Bits to Symbol. 122 dB to Real. 59 File Data. 50 Complex to Real/Imag. 50 Complex Tone. 114 Mean. 102 Coupler. 83 FM. 94 Frequency Sweep. 97 Conjugate. 119 Hertz to Rad/sec. 122 ## . 99 Multipath. 28 Degrees to Radians. 106 FM Demodulator. 122 Conversions Impulse Train. 26 Event Time. 100 Noise. 61 dB to Real. 95 FSK. 98 Jakes Mobile. 36 Convolutional Encoder. 75 Binary Counter. 8 Decibels to Power. 17. 44 Delay (Real). 8 Impulse. 47 FIR. 76 Charge Pump. 34 Mag/Phase to Real/Im. 43 AWGN (Complex). 42 File FIR. 57 DQPSK. 97 Multiplication. 66 BPSK. 48 Mag/Phase to Real/Im. 41 DQPSK. 35 Gray Encoder. 121 Complex Exponential. 36 Binary Symmetric Channel.Pi/4-DQPSK Detector. 58 Max Index. 99 Mag/Phase to Complex. 59 Average Power (Real). 42 Median. 56 Delay Estimator.

35 TWTA (analytical). 98 AWGN (Real). 25 Random Seed. 110 Division. 94 Splitter/Combiner. 29 BPSK block. 2 Queue. 103 Variance. 54 Power to Decibels. 32 Conjugate. 27 Real to dB. 36 Rice/Rayleigh Fading. 45 Channel blocks Rad/sec to Hertz. summary of. 85 2 QAM/PAM Detector. 39 Weighted Mean. 121 Sampling FIR. 119 Phase Unwrap. 126 Rummler Multipath. 111 Phase Rotate. 39 QAM/PAM. 128 PPM Demodulator. 35 Trellis Eecoder. 91 Complex Exponential block. 25 Radians to Degrees. 81 PSK Detector. 111 PN Sequence. 104 Viterbi Decoder (Hard). 70 Combiner block. 69 chirp generator. 32 Rummler Multipath. 118 Complex Math blocks Symbol to Bits. 110 parameters. 51 Complex to Mag/Phase. 62 Propagation Loss. 126 communication system. 29 Real/Imag to Complex. 106 Sampling File FIR. 26 Random Symbols. 111 Polynomial. 95 Square Root. 80 Waveform Generator. 33 Trellis Decoder. 125 Binary Symmetric Channel. 51 Complex to Real/Imag. 3 SQPSK. 8]STg Parallel to Serial. 31 Rice/Rayleigh Fading. 95 Switch. 30 TWTA (analytical). 46 Comm blocks. 61 PM. 35 Viterbi Decoder (Soft). 83 PSK. 40 QPSK. 127 PPM. 123 VCO (Real). 53 Power. 99 Multipath. 84 channel. 30 Rectangular Pulses. 35 Complex FFT/IFFT block. 47 Addition. 104 Compander block. 98 AWGN (Complex). 98 Walsh Sequence. 99 Propagation Loss. 28 Real/Im to Mag/Phase. 34 #$ . 10 Type-4 Phase Detector. 4 Sinusoid. 116 complex envelope notation. See Splitter/Combiner block Serial to Parallel. 125 Jakes Mobile. 1 Spectrum Analyzer. 34 Type-2 Phase Detector. 31 Charge Pump block. 103 Variable Attenuator. 79 VCO (Complex). 45 Type-3 Phase Detector.

Pi/4-DQPSK block. 115 DQPSK. 34 D Flip Flop block. 44 Correlation block. 43 Convolutional Encoder block. 134 FM Demodulator. 2 Square Root. 132 Divide by N block. 45 Costas loop Serial to Parallel. 36 data encoder. 36 DQPSK. 132 Delay (Real) block. 35 data files. 43 Convolutional Interleaver block. 134 DQPSK. 100 GMSK modulator. 131 decoder. 133 Demodulator blocks TWTA (table lookup). 38 voltage controlled pulse generator. 9 Digital blocks unconnected. 34 PPM Demodulator.DQPSK Detector.32 differential decoder. 39 connectors QAM/PAM Detector. 135 Complex to Mag/Phase block. 39 connecting blocks. 35 dB to Real block. 37 V. 2 Complex to Real/Imag block. 133 demodulator. 41 vectors. xi D Flip Flop. 59 second order PLL (complex). 35 data source. 114 Division block. 131 Symbol to Bits. 42 Conversions block. 45 cosine wave generator. 49 Mux/Demux. 119 Decibels to Power ibels block. 36 V. 75 optional. 38 Conjugate block. 135 Integrate & Dump (Real).DQPSK Detector block.PI/4. 99 Costas loop (complex). 3 Costas loop (real). 132 Delay Estimator block. 3 Real/Imag to Complex. 58 Parallel to Serial. 126 Queue. 97 compound blocks Decimation block. 46 complex. 35 data decoder. 134 Integrate & Dump (Complex). 42 conventions used in manual. 9 Binary Counter. 75 #% . 97 Complex Tone block. 34 3 Mag/Phase to Complex. 97 Divide by N. 43 Coupler block. 132 Delay (Complex) block. 8 Bits to Symbol. 42 Power. 47 real. 34 Double Balanced Mixer block.PI/4. 97 first order PLL (complex). 8 PSK Detector. 100 first order PLL (real). 9 differential quadrature phase shift keying. 40 labels. 36 Multiplication. 3 second order PLL (real). 48 JK Flip Flop.8]STg Inverse.32 differential encoder. 132 Degrees to Radians block.

67 Rummler Multipath block. 56 BER Curve Control. 56 FSK block. 30 Average Power (Complex). 65 inserting blocks. 63 computer requirements. 66 Convolutional Interleaver. 37 Trellis Encoder. 38 FIR. 73 Encode / Decode blocks Sampling File FIR. 27 Rice/Rayleigh Fading block. 13 7 Hertz to Rad/sec block. 51 FM block. 141 File FIR. 65 Integrate & Dump (Complex) block. 60 eye plot. 58 Delay Estimator. 63 procedure. 60 GMSK modulator compound block. 77 Average Power (Real). 97 5 fading channels 8 Jakes Mobile block. 38 #& . 54 frequency domain plot. 69 Block Interleaver. 66 Integrate & Dump (Real) block. 31 Impulse block. 60 Gaussian noise. 2 Frequency Sweep block. 132 Gray Encoder. 62 Event Time block. 50 Weighted Mean. 53 fractional part. 51 FM. 76 Viterbi Decoder (Hard). 50 Variance. 47 Sampling FIR. See Modulo Viterbi Decoder (Soft). 59 Gain (dB) block. 61 Gray Decoder block. 121 Estimator blocks frequency-nonselective fading channel. 8]STg 4 IRR. 25 Mean. 59 6 Correlation. 14 encoder. 67 MagPhase. 132 Median. 50 complex. 57 Bit/Symbol Error Rate. 101 Event Time. 70 Convolutional Encoder. 48 FIR block. 49 first order PLL Gray Decoder. 141 Adaptive Equalizer (Real). 50 real. 122 File Data block. 132 Trellis Decoder. 61 Gray Encoder block. 30 IIR block. 122 File FIR block. 8 Filter blocks Installation Adaptive Equalizer (complex). 120 Impulse Train block.

79 IQ Mapper block. 34 . 122 < > Mag/Phase to Complex block. 101 64-QAM. 102 BPSK. 101 8-PSK. 100 32-QAM. 95 modulator. 88 Delay (Real). 101 PPM. 11 MSK. 102 DQPSK. 89 Hertz to Rad/sec. 27 Modulo block. 97 Modulator blocks Decibels to Power. 28 Multiplication block. 80 PSK. 84 Mag/Phase to Real/Im. 83 Modulo. 108 Loop Filter (3rd Order PLL) block. 85 9 QPSK. 85 Decimation. 93 Max Index block. 3 Noise block. 34 PM. 75 Phase Rotate. 102 Compander. 88 Degrees to Radians. 102 JK Flip Flop block. 77 Polynomial. 98 Operator blocks MagPhase block. 78 Multipath block. 91 Jakes Mobile block. 103 FSK. 90 Gain (dB). 109 = loop filters. 36 online help. 98 AM. See PLL blocks lowpass equivalent system. 76 Phase Unwrap. 73 A/D Converter. 44 Loop Filter (2nd Order PLL) block. 95 Median block. 90 IQ Mapper. xiii Mag/Phase to Real/Im block. 61 Complex FFT/IFFT. 97 8-PAM. 100 4-PAM. 97 16-PSK. 60 Complex Exponential. 90 Delay (Complex).Pi/4-DQPSK. 2 dB to Real. 84 SQPSK. 99 16-QAM. 103 FM.8]STg integration method. 81 QAM/PAM. 75 Max Index. 43 MSK block. 97 256-QAM. 94 Mean block. 104 #' . Mux/Demux block. 78 Inverse block.

12 read me files. 14 Real/Imag to Complex block. 84 PSK Detector block. 125 VCO (Real). 10 Type-3 Phase Detector. 83 ? QPSK constellation. 81 Spectrum Analyzer. 99 pseudo noise generation. 125 VCO (Complex). 110 random numbers. 15 @ Phase Unwrap block. 84 BPSK constellation. 132 QPSK block. 98 Loop Filter (3rd Order PLL). 111 Random Seed block. 40 Costas (real). 15 Rectangular Pulses block. 135 PLL blocks A Charge Pump. 88. 99 frequency domain. 89. xiii BER curves. first order PLL (real). 84 first order PLL (complex). 104 Attenuator. 13 Real/Im to Mag/Phase block. 36 phase scatter. 132 90 second order PLL (complex). 35 Coupler. 123 Amplifier. 132 quadrature amplitude modulation. specifying a seed. 85. 98 PPM Demodulator block. 12 Real to dB block. 39 Parallel to Serial block. 131 QAM/PAM Detector block. 133 voltage controlled pulse generator. 45 pulse amplitude modulation. 8]STg Power to Decibels m. 108 Rad/sec to Hertz block. 115 #( . 104 16-PSK constellation. 106 Loop Filter (2nd Order PLL). 103 phase-locked loops QAM/PAM block. 126 PM block. 98 Double Balanced Mixer. 45 second order PLL (real). 125 Type-4 Phase Detector. 39 Radians to Degrees. 103 phase scatter plot. 85 Costas (complex). 98 PPM block. 85. 99 eye. 98 Propagation Loss block. 98 Type-2 Phase Detector. 80 Rad/sec to Hertz. 11 plots. 85 8-PSK constellation. 110 random numbers. 79 RF blocks PN Sequence block. 114 Power to Decibels block. 29 Real to dB. 113 Polynomial block. 111 range checking. 111 Random Symbols block. 123 Real/Im to Mag/Phase. 109 Radians to Degrees block. 90 phase locked loops \t. 108 Phase rotate block. 114 Power block. 99 PSK block. 133 Queue block. 10.

111 Random Seed. 116 C Switch. 131 Sinusoid. 9 Rummler Multipath block. 125 VisSim/Comm Rectangular Pulses. 7 F Switch block. 111 PN Sequence. 119 technical support. 69 Type-3 Phase Detector block. 8 Random Symbols. 70 Type-4 Phase Detector block. 119 Impulse Train. 47 Walsh Sequence block. 127 environment. 126 starting. 134 Type-2 Phase Detector block. 120 V. 118 Variable Attenuator.32 differential encoder. 121 V.8]STg Splitter/Combiner. 35 staggered quadrature phase shift keying. 91 starting VisSim/Comm. 91 voltage controlled pulse generator. 111 Serial to Parallel block. 7 Sinusoid block. 134 Frequency Sweep. 54 SQPSK block. 134 Impulse. 131 Walsh Sequence. 128 Weighted Mean block. 126 compound block library. 46 signal sink. 116 Viterbi Decoder (Soft) block. 62 what’s new. 31 Trellis Decoder block. 32 B TWTA channel (table lookup). 126 data file library. 51 TWTA block (analytical). 30 timing considerations.32 differential decoder. 125 vector connectors. 51 Trellis Eecoder block. 3 Signal Sources blocks E Complex Tone. 8 Waveform Generator. 122 Variance block. 118 Symbol to Bits block. 104 Viterbi Decoder (Hard) block. xiii Rice/Rayleigh Fading block. 122 VCO (Complex) block. 61 Noise. 123 VCO (Real) block. xii Spectrum Analyzer block. 122 Variable Attenuator block. 141 sine wave generator. 53 Splitter/Combiner block. ix $ . 128 installing. 135 Square Root block. 126 VisSim/Comm Personal Edition. 119 File Data. 110 Sampling File FIR block. 127 Waveform Generator block. 110 Sampling FIR block.