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You are on page 1of 33

Lecturer: Ir Pan

Group: 2

1

Abstract:

The main aim of this lab work is to find the forces on each joint by the help of engineering

structure by using the method of pin-joint. Based on experimental results, the stress and strain

of each member was calculated. Aim was also to calculate the vertical deflection joint

labelled channel 1.

2

Table of contents Page

1. Abstract 3

2. Objective 3

4. Apparatus 4

5. Method of Experiment 5

8. Discussion 19

9. Conclusion 19

10. Reference 20

11. Appendices 21

3

Objective:

Compare the experimental results with the theoretical values of internal member forces of

each member.

To calculate stress and strain of each member based on the experimental data.

To calculate vertical deflection joint labelled channel 1 using virtual work method.

A truss that is acknowledged to include members that are joined by techniques for stick

joints, and which is maintained at the two ends by the method for pivoted joints or rollers, is

depicted as being statically determinate. Newton's Laws apply to the structure all in all, and

in addition of every node or joint. All together for any centrevertical point that may be

subject to an external load or energy to remain static in space, the going with conditions must

hold: the totals of each and every power, each vertical power, and furthermore all minutes

acting about the hub ought to be zero. Examination of these conditions at each node yields

the measure of the forces in each part from the truss. These might be compression or tension

forces.

∑ FX = 0; ∑ FY = 0; ∑ MZ = 0

4

Trusses that are upheld at more than two positions are said to be statically indeterminate, and

the utilization of Newton's Laws alone isn't adequate to decide the member forces. All

together for a truss with pin-connected members to be steady, it must be altogether made out

of triangles. In scientific terms, we have the accompanying fundamental condition for

steadiness:

M +R ≥ 2j

M = total number o f t r u s s m e m b e r s

R = number of reactions

At the point when m = 2j − 3, the truss is said to be statically determinate, in light of the fact

that the (m+3) internal member forces and bolster responses would then be able to be totally

dictated by 2j equilibrium conditions, once we know the outside load sand the geometry of

the truss. Given a specific number of joints, this is the base number of member, as in if any

part is taken out (or bombs), at that point the truss in general fails. While the connection (an)

is important, it isn't adequate for stability, which additionally relies upon the truss geometry,

bolster condition sand the load conveying limit of the members.

A few structures are worked with more than this minimum number of truss members. Those

structures may survive even when a portion of the members fall flat. They are called statically

indeterminate structures, on the grounds that their member forces rely upon the relative

firmness of the members, notwithstanding the harmony condition portrayed.

member force. If we somehow happened to attempt, we would find that there would be too

much "unknowns" and we would not have the capacity to finish the computations. Rather we

will utilize a strategy known as the flexibility technique, which utilizes a thought know as

strain energy. The numerical way to deal with the adaptability technique will be found in the

most suitable text books.

5

The above figure shows the steel truss structure, where ‘F’ represents the force. Because of

no horizontal forces the moment Ax is 0. The readings for the experiment are taken from the

gauge but for theoretical purpose and the calculations are done by using method of joint and

sections. That is by taking moment at each joint.

Apparatus:

1. Weights

2. Vernier Caliper

3. Apparatus to apply load

4. Truss apparatus

5. Ruler

6. Digital indicator meter

7. The strain force meter input

Method of Experiment:

2. Make the zero reading of the load cell and then increase the load by 10N by checking

the digital load force display. At this point, note down the reading of strain on every

joint by turning the dial in the display of load cell.

3. Again make the zero reading of load cell and then increase the load by 20N, 30N, 40N

and 50N. At this point note down the strain reading indicating the forces carefully.

4. After calculating the digital values, then we need to calculate the values by the joint

method theoretically.

6

5. Then we need to draw the strain graphs of each force. The experiment is finished at

this point.

From the formula:

E = σ/ ε σ = F/A

Where; Where;

E = Young’s Modulus (Nm-2) F = Force in member (N)

ε = Displayed Strain A = cross section area of the member (m2)

σ = Stress in the member (Nm-2)

σ=Eε

F/A = E ε

F=ExεxA

Length of CH-2= 64 cm

Length of CH-3= 64 cm 64 cm

Length of CH-4= 45 cm

Length of CH-5= 45 cm

Length of CH-6= 45 cm

-Diameter = 1.9 cm

7

Table 1:-

Experimental Values:-

Load(N) Force(N)

M2-CH2 M3-CH3 M4-CH4 M5-CH5 M6-CH6

0N 77.5 69 -3.5 3.5 0

10N 84.5 76 -8 -0.5 -9.5

20N 91.5 83 -13.5 -6 -19.5

30N 98.5 90.5 -19 -12 -29.5

40N 105 97.5 -23.5 -16.5 -39

50N 112.5 104.5 -24 -16.5 -49

Using virtual work method, we can calculate the theoretical force of members and calculated

the reaction force using the equilibrium equations:

8

∑ 𝑭𝒙 = 𝟎 ;

∑ 𝑭𝒚 = 𝟎 ;

∑𝑴 = 𝟎 ;

-Load 10 N

(450 x 10) – ( 900Cy ) = 0

Cy = 5N

Ay+ 5 - 10 = 0

Ay = 5N

𝟏

5 – AD( √𝟐) = 0 -10 + BD = 0 ∑Fy = 0 (upward +ve)

AD = 7.07 N (Compression) BD = 10N (Tension) – 𝟏

15 - CD( √𝟐) = 0

CH6 CD = 7N (Compression) –

∑Fx = 0 (Right +ve) CH4

𝟏 ∑Fx = 0 (Right +ve)

AB – 7.07 ( √𝟐) = 0 BC – 5 = 0

AB = 5 N (Tension) BC= 5N (Tension) –CH3

-Load 20 N

(450 x 20) – ( 900Cy ) = 0

Cy = 10N

9

Finding the reaction forces at C

Ay+ 10 - 20 = 0

Ay = 10N

𝟏

10 – AD( √𝟐) = 0 ∑Fy = 0 (upward +ve) 𝟏

10 - CD( √𝟐) = 0

AD = 14.14N -20 + BD = 0 CD = 14.14N (Compression)

(Compression) BD = 20N (Tension)

∑Fx = 0 (Right +ve)

𝟏

AB – 14.14( √𝟐) = 0 ∑Fx = 0 (Right +ve)

AB = 10N (Tension) BC – 10 = 0

BC= 10N (Tension)

-Load 30 N

(450 x 30) – ( 900Cy ) = 0

Cy = 15N

Ay+ 15 - 30 = 0

Ay = 15N

1 1

15 – AD( √2) = 0 -30+ BD = 0 15 - CD( √2) = 0

AD = 21.21N (Compression) BD = 30N (Tension) , CD = 21.21

1 BC – 15 = 0

AB – 21.21( √2) = 0

BC= 15N (Tension)

AB = 15N (Tension)

10

-Load 40 N

(450 x 40) – ( 900Cy ) = 0

Cy = 20N

Ay+ 20 - 40 = 0

Ay = 20N

𝟏

20 – AD( √𝟐) = 0 -30 + BD = 0 ∑Fy = 0 (upward +ve)

BD = 40N (Tension) 𝟏

AD = 28.28N 20 - CD( √𝟐) = 0

(Compression) CD = 28.28N (Compression)

∑Fx = 0 (Right +ve)

∑Fx = 0 (Right +ve) BC – 20 = 0

𝟏 BC= 20N (Tension)

AB – 28.28( √𝟐) = 0

AB = 20N (Tension)

-Load 50 N

(450 x 50) – ( 900Cy ) = 0

Cy = 25N

Ay+ 25 - 50 = 0

11

Ay = 25N

𝟏 -50+ BD = 0 𝟏

25 – AD( √𝟐) = 0 25 - CD( √𝟐) = 0

AD = 35.36N (Compression) BD = 50N (Tension) CD = 35.36

𝟏 BC – 25 = 0

AB – 35.36( √𝟐) = 0 BC= 25N (Tension)

AB = 25N (Tension)

Table 2:-

Comparing the experimental and theoretical data in terms of internal forces of

all the elements:-

Load(N) Force(N)

M2 M3 M4 M5 M6

10N -7.07 -7.07 5 5 10

20N -14.14 -14.14 10 10 20

30N -21.21 -21.21 15 15 30

40N -28.28 -28.28 20 20 40

50N -35.36 -35.36 25 25 50

internal forces of each element.

For M2

12

Percentage error = Total Avg of slope theoretical – Total Avg of slope experimenta1x 100

Total Average of Slope theoretical

(492/5)

For M3

Percentage error = Total Avg of slope theoretical – Total Avg of slope experimenta1x 100

Total Average of Slope theoretical

(451.5/5)

= 76.51%

For M4

Percentage error = Total Avg of slope theoretical – Total Avg of slope experimenta1x 100

Total Average of Slope theoretical

(88/5)

= 14.77%

For M5

Percentage error = Total Avg of slope theoretical – Total Avg of slope experimenta1x 100

Total Average of Slope theoretical

(51.5/5)

For M6

Total Average of Slope theoretical

13

(146.5/5)

= 2.39%

comparing the experimental and theoretical data in terms of internal forces of each

element.

𝐹𝑂𝑅𝐶𝐸 𝑃

Stress = =

𝐴𝑅𝐸𝐴 𝐴

𝜋𝐷2 (𝜋)(19)2

Area = 𝜋𝑟 2 = = = 283.53 𝑚𝑚2 = 0.00028353 𝑚2

4 4

The unit for stress is calculated by N/m2

For 10 N loads:

84.5

For M2: α =0.00028353 = 298.028×103 N

76

For M3: α =0.00028353 = 268.049×103 N

8

For M4: α =0.00028353 = 28.215×103 N

0.5

For M5: α =0.00028353 = 1.763×103 N

9.5

For M6: α =0.00028353 = 33.506×103 N

For 20 N loads:

91.5

For M2: α= = 322.717×103 N

0.00028353

83

For M3: α= = 292.737×103 N

0.00028353

13.5

For M4: α= = 47.614×103 N

0.00028353

6

For M5: α= = 21.162×103 N

0.00028353

19.5

For M6: α= = 68.776×103 N

0.00028353

14

For 30 N loads:

98.5

For M2: α= = 347.406×103 N

0.00028353

90.5

For M3: α= = 319.19×103 N

0.00028353

19

For M4: α= = 67.012×103 N

0.00028353

12

For M5: α= = 42.324×103 N

0.00028353

29.5

For M6: α= = 104.045×103 N

0.00028353

For 40 N loads:

105

For M2: α= = 370.331×103 N

0.00028353

97.5

For M3: α= = 343.879×103 N

0.00028353

23.5

For M4: α= = 82.884×103 N

0.00028353

16.5

For M5: α= = 58.195×103 N

0.00028353

39

For M6: α= = 137.552×103 N

0.00028353

For 50 N loads:

112.5

For M2: α= = 396.783×103 N

0.00028353

15

104.5

For M3: α= = 368.568×103 N

0.00028353

24

For M4: α= = 84.647×103 N

0.00028353

16.5

For M5: α= = 58.194×103 N

0.00028353

49

For M6: α= = 172.821×103 N

0.00028353

By using the experimental values to calculate the stain:

𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠

Strain = 𝑦𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑔 𝑚𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑙𝑢𝑠

Where young modulus = E = 200×109 N/𝑚2

α

𝛿=

𝐸

𝑁𝑜 𝑢𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑠 𝑓𝑜𝑟 𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑖𝑛.

For 10 N loads:

298.028×103

For M2: 𝛿= 200×109

= 1.490×10−6

268.049×103

For M3: 𝛿= 200×109

= 1.340×10−6

28.215×103

For M4: 𝛿= 200×109

= 0.141×10−6

1.763×103

For M5: 𝛿=

200×109

= 8.815×10−9

33.506×103

For M6: 𝛿=

200×109

= 1.675×10−7

For 20 N loads:

322.717×103

For M2: 𝛿= 200×109

= 1.614×10−6

292.737×103

For M3: 𝛿= 200×109

= 1.464×10−6

47.614×103

For M4: 𝛿=

200×109

= 2.381×10−7

21.162×103

For M5: 𝛿= 200×109

= 1.058×10−7

68.776×103

For M6: 𝛿= 200×109

= 3.439×10−7

For 30 N loads:

16

347.406×103

For M2: 𝛿= 200×109

= 1.737×10−6

319.19×103

For M3: 𝛿= 200×109

= 1.596×10−6

67.012×103

For M4: 𝛿=

200×109

= 3.351×10−7

42.324×103

For M5: 𝛿= 200×109

= 2.116×10−7

104.045×103

For M6: 𝛿= 200×109

= 5.202×10−7

For 40 N loads:

370.331×103

For M2: 𝛿=

200×109

= 1.852×10−6

343.879×103

For M3: 𝛿=

200×109

= 1.719×10−6

82.884×103

For M4: 𝛿= 200×109

= 4.144×10−7

58.194×103

For M5: 𝛿=

200×109

= 2.91×10−7

137.552×103

For M6: 𝛿= 200×109

= 6.878×10−7

For 50 N loads:

396.783×103

For M2: 𝛿=

200×109

= 1.984×10−6

368.568×103

For M3: 𝛿= 200×109

= 1.843×10−6

84.647×103

For M4: 𝛿= 200×109

= 4.232×10−7

58.194×103

For M5: 𝛿=

200×109

= 2.91×10−7

172.821×103

For M6: 𝛿= 200×109

= 8.641×10−7

When 1 N of virtual load was applied to the structure, the reaction forces will be

17

CH-2 = -0.707 N (Compression) CH-5 = 0.5 N (Tension)

𝑛𝑁𝐿

Deflection, ∆ =

𝐴𝐸

-For 10 N

Channel n N L nNL(cm)

CH_2 (AB) -0.707 -7.07 64 319.903

CH_3 (CB) -0.707 -7.07 64 319.903

CH_4 (DC) 0.5 5 45 112.5

CH_5 (AD) 0.5 5 45 112.5

CH_6 (BD) 1 10 45 450

Total 1314.81 cm = 13148.1 mm

𝑛𝑁𝐿 13148.1

∆= = = 2.32 X 10−10

𝐴𝐸 283.53 𝑋 (200𝑋 109 )

-For 20 N

Channel n N L nNL(cm)

CH_2 (AB) -0.707 -14.14 64 639.807

CH_3 (CB) -0.707 -14.14 64 639.807

CH_4 (DC) 0.5 10 45 225

CH_5 (AD) 0.5 10 45 225

CH_6 (BD) 1 20 45 900

Total 2629.61 cm = 26296.1 mm

𝑛𝑁𝐿 26296.1

∆= = = 4.64 X 10−10

𝐴𝐸 283.53 𝑋 (200𝑋 109 )

-For 30 N

Channel n N L nNL(cm)

CH_2 (AB) -0.707 -21.21 64 959.71

18

CH_3 (CB) -0.707 -21.21 64 959.71

CH_4 (DC) 0.5 15 45 337.5

CH_5 (AD) 0.5 15 45 337.5

CH_6 (BD) 1 30 45 1350

Total 3944.42 cm = 39444.2 mm

𝑛𝑁𝐿 39444.2

∆= = = 6.96 X 10−10

𝐴𝐸 283.53 𝑋 (200𝑋 109 )

-For 40 N

Channel n N L nNL(cm)

CH_2 (AB) -0.707 -28.28 64 1279.61

CH_3 (CB) -0.707 -28.28 64 1279.61

CH_4 (DC) 0.5 20 45 450

CH_5 (AD) 0.5 20 45 450

CH_6 (BD) 1 40 45 1800

Total 5259.23 cm = 52592.3 mm

𝑛𝑁𝐿 52592.3

∆= = = 9.27 X 10−10

𝐴𝐸 283.53 𝑋 (200𝑋 109 )

-For 50 N

Channel n N L nNL(cm)

CH_2 (AB) -0.707 -35.36 64 1599.97

CH_3 (CB) -0.707 -35.36 64 1599.97

CH_4 (DC) 0.5 25 45 562.5

CH_5 (AD) 0.5 25 45 562.5

CH_6 (BD) 1 50 45 2250

Total 6574.94 cm = 65749.4 mm

𝑛𝑁𝐿 65749.4

∆= = = 1.16 X 10−9

𝐴𝐸 283.53 𝑋 (200𝑋 109 )

19

Discussion:

There is proportionality between the connected loads and deﬂection; hence the structure goes

about as a satisfactory model for an unbending body. However as a large portion of the

focuses don't experience the line of best-ﬁt, it recommends that the structure experiences

some plastic miss-happening. The interior part powers figured tentatively and hypothetically

are very comparable, with around 6% disparity in the two arrangements of results. This is

genuinely little considering the huge interior forces associated with the examination. These

errors could be because of the accompanying reasons:

• Actually, there is no such thing as a completely unbending body, and the individuals will

have a little level of bowing.

• The joints at which the individuals were stuck face some resistance and in this way the

members don't pivot uninhibitedly as the hypothetical model accept.

Conclusion:

Pin jointed structures are profoundly fundamental to the building discipline and the

straightforward investigation completed gives a genuinely precise measure of the inside

member loads of the structure when stacked remotely. The outcomes for the member loads

stacks decided tentatively demonstrate an exceptionally positive relationship with the

outcomes ascertained hypothetically. The test likewise measures the connection between the

outside connected loads and the comparing deﬂection, and a genuinely straight relationship

was reasoned. For this lab work, it would have been more valuable to gauge the deﬂection at

a greater scope of connected loads to all the more decisively decide the connection amongst

burdens and deﬂection.

For this experiment it is critical to keep the equipment or tool at the most highest

maintenance and carefully used by the students to get the correct values.

20

References:

https://www.scribd.com/doc/27381814/Truss-Full-Report

https://www.academia.edu/25502193/TRUSS_LAB_REPORT

https://seelio.com/w/27nm/pin_jointed-truss-lab-report

- Hibbeler, R. C. Structural Analysis. 8th ed. Upper Saddler River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1999.

Print

- Hibbeler, R. C. Mechanics Of Materials. 8th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall,

1997. Print.

- Dr. Wayne. (2015). Module 7: Truss Structures. Method of Joints. Retrieved from:v

21

Appendices:

22

23

SHEAR CENTRE (lab report)

Lecturer: Ir Pan

Group: 2

24

No. Table of contents Page

1. Abstract 25

2. Objective 25

3. Introduction 25

4. Apparatus 26

5. Method of Experiment 26

6. Theory 25

8. Discussion 30

9. Conclusion 30

10. Reference 30

11. Appendices 31

25

Abstract:

The target of this test is to tentatively decide the area of the shear centre point of different

areas (C-Channel segment, Unsymmetrical I-Section and Extended C-Channel segment) and

contrast these qualities and the theoretical outcomes which can be dictated by ascertaining the

theoretical area of the shear centre of each of the segments.

Objective:

To find the location of the shear centre for the given metal beam of C-shaped cross-section by

using Dial Gages and by balancing the torque acted upon beam by the loads respectively.

Introduction:

The shear focus is where a power can be connected to make the segment twist with no

curving or torsion. In this way on symmetrical areas the shear centre is generally situated on

the focal point of bit of that segment, which matches with the centroid of the shaft as the

shear centre can be found at the convergence of the X and Y pivot of symmetry.

In any case, with regards to unsymmetrical area (i.e. equal angle, unequal angle, or channel

segment), the position of shear focus would not concur with the centroid of the segment as an

arrangement of powers must be in balance with the connected vertical force so it won't be

bent. At the point when a force is connected anytime on a segment that is symmetrical in just

a single pivot, bowing of the area will happen and in the long run prompts torsion. The shear

stream circulation in the spines and web produces resultant powers in every part. Hence, a

resultant minute will be acquired when minutes are summed about a point. This resultant

26

moment is known as a torque or couple which causes the curving of the part.

To abstain from turning of the member, the load connected should be situated in certain point

with unconventionality, e from the centroid of the segment. Generally in a more

straightforward type of clarification, shear focus is characterized as the point on the bar

segment where load is connected and no winding is delivered.

Apparatus:

1. C-beam

3. Vernier calliper

4. Weight hanger

5. Weight (20 N)

6. Meter scale

Method of Experiment:

3. The initial readings of both dial gauges, left and right gauges, were recorded.

27

Theory:

So as to decide the position of shear centre, equations can be gotten from the shear stream

hypothesis. In this way equations for area C-Channel segment, Unsymmetrical I-Section and

Extended C-Channel segment are inferred for the simplicity of estimation. The induction can

be alluded to Appendix A, Appendix B and Appendix C separately. The inferred equations

are as appeared:

-CALCULATIONS for Experimental Shear Centre:

Note: All divisions must be multiplied by 0.01 mm

Total Load = 20 N

Deflection (mm) = Without Load (mm) – With Load (mm)

position Without With load Deflection Without With load Deflection

(mm) load (mm) (mm) (mm) load (mm) (mm) (mm)

-100 0 -0.085 0.085 0 0.065 -0.065

-80 0.01 -0.085 0.095 0 0.045 -0.045

-60 -0.01 -0.035 0.025 -0.01 0.03 -0.04

-40 -0.005 -0.05 0.045 -0.015 0.02 -0.035

-20 -0.015 -0.03 0.015 -0.01 0 -0.01

0 0.015 0.01 0.005 -0.01 -0.005 -0.005

20 0 0 0 -0.01 -0.01 0

40 0 0.015 -0.015 0.01 -0.015 0.025

60 0.01 0.04 -0.03 -0.01 -0.03 0.02

80 0.01 0.06 -0.05 -0.01 -0.04 0.03

100 0.005 0.075 -0.07 -0.01 -0.05 0.04

28

-graph of deflection against load position for C-Channel section

0.12

0.1

0.095

0.085

0.08

0.06

Deflection (x0.01mm)

0.045

0.04 0.04

0.03

0.025 0.025

0.02 0.02

0.015

0.005

0 0

-0.005

-100 -80 -60 -40 -0.01

-20 0 20 40 60 80 100

-0.015

-0.02

-0.03

-0.035

-0.04 -0.04

-0.045

-0.05

-0.06

-0.065

-0.07

-0.08

Distance ( mm)

Holes

centre can be seen at a point which is at the point 7, 20 mm from distance 0 to right side.

29

-CALCULATIONS for Theoretical Shear Centre

and Error:

𝑏

F = ∫0 𝑞 𝛿𝑥 q = shear flow

𝑏 𝑉𝑄

= ∫0 𝛿𝑥 V = shear force

𝐼

𝑉 𝑏

= ∫0 𝑡 × 𝑥 × 𝛾 𝑑𝑥 Q = static moment of

𝐼

area

𝑉 ℎ 𝑏2

= 𝐼 ×2×𝑡× 2

t = thickness

𝑉𝑏 2 ℎ𝑡

= 4𝐼 I = Moment of Inertia

Because of the couple moment about the point of

b = base length

these shear forces:

h = height

M=𝐹×𝑑

𝑉𝑏 2 ℎ𝑡 e = shear centre

= ×ℎ

4𝐼

𝑉𝑏 2 ℎ2 𝑡 𝛾 = centroid

= →①

4𝐼

Assume M = V×e → ②

Substitute ② into ① :

𝑉𝑏 2 ℎ2 𝑡

V×e = 4𝐼

𝑏 2 ℎ2 𝑡

e= 4𝐼

𝑏2 ℎ2 𝑡

So, Shear Center, e =

4𝐼

The measurements of the beam are t = 2.3 mm, b = 50 mm, h = 100 mm

𝒃𝒕𝟑 𝒉 𝟐 𝒕𝒉𝟑

And Moment of inertia, I = 𝟐 ( 𝟏𝟐 + 𝒃𝒕 (𝟐) ) + ( 𝟏𝟐 )

𝑏𝑡 3

Since value of t is very small, the value of was neglected.

12

ℎ 2 𝑡ℎ3

That’s why. I becomes, I = 2 (𝑏𝑡 (2) ) + ( 12 )

100 2 𝟐.𝟑𝒙𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟑

= 2 (50𝑥2.3 ( ) )+( ) = 766666.7 mm4

2 𝟏𝟐

Finally Shear Center, e = = = 18.75 mm (from center to right)

4𝐼 4𝑋766666.7

20−18.75

Percentage of Error = x 100 % = 6.25 %

20

30

Discussion:

First of all, the relation between moment and distance is directly proportional.

Mostly, t value is rather small, so that it can be neglected.

Finally, 6.25 % of error means our experimental and theoretical values have some

differences. There are some reasons and solution for the reasons will be discussed below:

- It is hard to take the accurate values because it is still annual ways and things are

hard to get the actual value. That may cause more chance of human errors.

- The table where the C beam was located is not rigid enough since the two gauges

are very sensitive. For example, when a student leans on that table, it acts like

giving a external load or moment to the beam and it affects the gauges readings.

- And the two dial gauges should change to digital.

Conclusion:

As a conclusion, both the experimental and theoretical values are not very different so that it

can be said that the experiment was success. And it gives the clear idea that shear center is

the point where there is no twisting (torsion).

31

References:

https://www.scribd.com/doc/64631872/Ae-331-Laboratory-Report-4

https://www.academia.edu/17421200/SM_Lab_Report_1_Senior

Sharma, S.K. and profile, V. my complete (2019) Shear center of beams. Available at:

http://structuralengineering2013.blogspot.my/2013/11/shear-center-of-beams.html (Accessed:

22 November 2016).

32

Appendices:

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