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Farming of mussels and oysters

Sitoy, Hermenegildo S.
Date published: 1988

To cite this document : Sitoy, H. S. (1988). Farming of mussels and oysters. In J. V. Juario & L. V.
Benitez (Eds.), Perspectives in Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia and Japan:
Contributions of the SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department. Proceedings of the Seminar on
Aquaculture Development in Southeast Asia, 8-12 September 1987, Iloilo City, Philippines. (pp.
231-248). Tigbauan, Iloilo, Philippines: SEAFDEC, Aquaculture Department.

Keywords : Seed (aquaculture), Food organisms, Fish handling, Red tides, Heavy metals, Mollusc
culture, Seed collection, Induced breeding, Mussel culture, Spawning, Seed production,
Microbial contamination, Oyster culture, Self purification, Bioaccumulation, Aquaculture
techniques, Perna viridis, Crassostrea iredalei, Philippines, Panay I., Iloilo

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Com- pared to crustacean culture. Results of the work on artificial seed production. and scallops.0 × 10 4 to 5. FARMING OF MUSSELS AND OYSTERS H ermenegildo S. 2018 at 11:41 PM CST Tigbauan. Sitoy Aquaculture Department Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center Downloaded by [Anonymous] from http://repository. Iloilo. Iloilo. bacterial depuration. clams. INTRODUCTION In Asia and the Pacific. Interest in bivalve culture in Southeast Asia has grown conside- rably. bivalves represent a high quality food resource. mussels.seafdec. cockles. molluscs accounted for approximately 3 5 % of the total production of coastal aquaculture in 1984 in terms of gross weight (Shang 1986). uptake and elimination of heavy metals by green mussel. however.0 × 10 4 kg mussels (Utting 1987). Innovative techniques developed in increasing collection of natural seeds and in improving farming techniques are presented. has declined significantly in recent years primarily due to the decreasing production in Malaysia and Thailand arising from the rapid depletion of natural breeding stocks of cockle and mussel (Table 1).org. Philippines ABSTRACT This paper reviews the works on mussel and oyster culture con- ducted from 1975 to 1985 by the Southeast Asian Fisheries Develop- ment Center Aquaculture Department at Tigbauan. and 3.0 × 10 4 kg to 2. either harvested from the wild or cultivated in farms. and microbiology of spoilage are discussed.5 × 10 4 kg oysters. Mollusc production. Nevertheless. Philippines. investigations on red tides.5 × 10 4 clams (depending on market size). . annual production of bivalves per ha is higher at 1. The most important species are on March 11. 1.

1 2.9 897.2 347. Downloaded by [Anonymous] from http://repository.6 on March 11.2 53.9 — 43.8 3.0 53. Production of molluscs from coastal aquaculture by country.5 121.9 891.3 49.9 44. 2018 at 11:41 PM CST 232 Table 1.seafdec.1 -5.0 29.0 30.0 Total 634.3 3.8 25.4 309.0 -11.3 Malaysia 53.3 121.0 302.4 0.1 AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTHEAST ASIA Thailand 23.2 9.9 India 0.1 347.1 372.1 1.0 335.1 1.1 822.7 46.7 23.7 59.8 29.9 301.5 Indonesia — — — — — — — Japan 278.8 4.0 390.6 343.9 Philippines — 12.2 8.3 29.0 4.8 34.6 5.4 49.0 Taiwan PC 30.6 .4 837. 1975-84 (Csavas 1985) Average annual Unit: 1000 MT growth rate Country 1975 1981 1982 1983 1984 1975-84 1981-85 % % PR China 248.8 1.

The sample collectors are retrieved and examined every week at a desig- nated day. a set of 5 sample on March 11. For commercial farming operations. At weekly intervals. another located seaward. it conducted a baseline study on the biology of local mussels and preliminary experiments on mussel farming (Tortell et al 1978. but a few general observations are significant: 1. and a third in-between. Downloaded by [Anonymous] from http://repository. This provided good indications for cumulative settlement of mussel spat. For mussel seed. was installed. In addition. Yap The project first undertook a survey of the mussel farming industry. The main activities of the forecasting program were: (1) monitoring of daily counts of oyster or mussel larvae in the plankton and (2) monitoring of actual setting of larvae on standardized collectors installed in oyster-mussel farm sites. 2018 at 11:41 PM CST S EED COLLECTION SEAFDEC AQD started a spatfall-forecasting program in Hima- maylan River in Negros Occidental in 1979 for oysters and another in 1981 in Batan Bay. For oysters. This spatfall period may last up to 1 month so that the best strategy for collecting oyster spat is to spread out the collection effort over the spatfall period instead of putting out all spat collectors at the same time. For analysis. a count of 200-500 spat/m of . Aklan for mussels. MUSSEL AND OYSTER FARMING 233 SEAFDEC AQD started its work on bivalve molluscs in 1975 when a Mussel Research Project was set up with the assistance of the New Zealand Government. Later. When the count of mature larvae exceeds 5 oyster larvae/100 sample and persists for at least 3 days. The preliminary reports (Young et al 1981) are not adequate as yet for formulating a spatfall forecasting scheme. Yap et al 1979). For mussels.seafdec. a good or substantial set of oyster seed should yield at least 15 spat/shell in a surface area of 4 0 m 2 . 5 new sample collectors were exposed while 5 old ones were retrieved. samples were passed through a series of sieves which grade the spat according to size and age. each consisting of 30 cm lengths of rope collectors strung across a frame hung from a floating raft. plankton tows were carried out daily during flood tide at a standard distance of 360 m. spatfall maybe expected very soon. series of collectors were set out in the sampling area: one upriver. 2.

seafdec. On the other hand. but they catch less spat unless a heavy spatfall occurs. Sitoy 1984). A number of natural and synthetic ropes have been used for spat collection. Sitoy et al 1983). rafts can be moved around to prevent siltation. 234 AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTHEAST ASIA rope or 70-85 spat/30 cm of sample rope collector indicates a good settlement for commercial production. An alternative method is the floating raft culture shown in Fig. Farming methods for oyster and mussel in the Philippines make extensive use of bamboo stakes which increase siltation rate in areas occupied by such stake-farms. plaited ropes of vegetable fibers. but they do not last long. regular thinning can be done. 1 (Anon. and no thinning or transplanting is done during the grow-out. F ARMING TECHNIQUES Countries which have successfully cultured bivalve molluscs have developed their own system of culture which depends entirely on Downloaded by [Anonymous] from http://repository. polyethylene strands used in making rice sacks. a natural coconut fiber. 2018 at 11:41 PM CST natural seed stock. The bamboo poles serve as cultch for the settling of mussel larvae. Seeds for farming are either gathered from natural seed beds or collected by using suitable materials for collecting seed from natural Natural rope fibers have been found to be attractive to mussel larvae. and other fibrous materials (Young 1984). It can easily be constructed out of durable materials . can be improved by inter-weaving more suitable cultch among the strands of the rope by wrapping fibrous materials externally around or by tying short pieces of fibrous materials into the rope. Another is to intermittently insert into the ropes short segments of sacking material or husks segments cut from a mature dried coconut (Yap et al on March 11. 1979. however. Sitoy et al 1983. The catching qualities of synthetic ropes. Coir biodegrades rapidly in sea water but the mussel larvae because of its ability to move will have attached themselves securely before the coir is destroyed. Coir. syn- thetic ropes like polyethylene or polypropylene ropes will stand up to several years. can be interwoven among the synthetic braid during the making of the rope or may be wrapped around it. Mussel farming using rafts has several advantages: mussel grow faster. Other materials that can be used are old frayed ropes.

seafdec. Downloaded by [Anonymous] from 1. Diagram of a mussel raft unit (Sitoy et al 1983) 235 .ph on March 11. 2018 at 11:41 PM CST MUSSEL AND OYSTER FARMING Fig.

Four 750 1 cylindrical tanks were stocked with mussel larvae at 5/ml and two U-shaped . The slipper oyster (C. The larvae were successfully induced to set on crushed windowpane shells spread on the b o t t o m of a floating screened PVC-frame after 17 days of rearing from hatching.0-5.0-6. T a b b u et al 1983). S EED PRODUCTION Downloaded by [Anonymous] from http://repository. But growth in the nursery was limited by insufficient food and less than 3% survived. Pediveligers average 107 mm in length and show alternate swimming and crawling move- ments. Newly developed D-veliger larvae measure 107 mm in length 83 mm high. An experiment to assess the suitability of Tahiti's low-density technique (AQUACOP 1979. A week from setting.seafdec. Young (unpublished) successfully reared oyster larvae at a density of 3-5 ind/ml and fed with a combination of Isochrysis galbana and Chaetoceros calcitrans at 3. After day 13 from spawning. the Asian moon scallop (Amusium pleuronectes) was successfully spawned and the eggs reared through metamorphoses (Young unpublished). 236 AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTHEAST ASIA lasting for several years. reaching the umbo veliger stage at 145 mm. Asian moon scallop shell is equivalve and broad. As early as 1 mm in size. 1980. 2018 at 11:41 PM CST Seed production of bivalves at AQD started in 1979. 1984) against China's high-density method (Fusui et al 1981) was Recently. A detailed description of the larval development and morphology of C. Aside from providing higher production per unit area the technique offers a convenient method of transplanting seeds to other areas without natural stocks (Aypa 1980. viridis) in the labo- ratory. Unlike Placuna. A batch of mussel larvae was also reared to metamorphosis. After 19 days. Young (1979) successfully spawned the green mussel (P. ready-to-settle larvae attached themselves to strips of knotless nylon netting suspended in the tank. placenta in Table 3. iredalei) and the windowpane shell (Placuna placenta) were also successfully reared through its larval stages to metamorphoses and on March 11.0 × 10 4 cells/ml. prediveligers attach bysally to objects and remain there until they reach an average diameter of 5 mm. Amusium juveniles already show characteristic jet-propulsion movements in pectinids. 1 9 8 2 .0 × 10 3 young oyster spats were retrieved and transferred to an upwelling-type nursery system where they were fed ad libitum. iredalei is presented in Table 2 and that of P. about 5. After a month the remaining spat reach 3-11 cm. Walter 1981.

seafdec. 2018 at 11:41 PM CST Table 2.948 41 Hinge-line length = 50 Umbonate veliger 5-22 days L = 85-275 419 rounded umbo at lengths H = 81-305 422 85-90Mm.528 110 D-shaped.708 110 metrical but equivalved D = 48 41-61 0. shell asym- veliger H = 67 56-80 0. eye-spot diameter. Main features of the larval development of Crassostrea iredalei (Temperature. salinity. knoblike D = 62-200 umbo at lengths 91-150 mm. 30-32 ppt) Ver 1986) Mean Size Range SE Stage Age (mm) (Mm) (Mm) n Remarks Straight-hinge 22 hr-4 days L = 74 64-84 0.5-30°C. range 8-15 Spat 20 days L 274 larvae attached on H 328 cultches MUSSEL AND OYSTER FARMING 237 . Downloaded by [Anonymous] from on March 26. skewed umbo at lengths greater than 150 mm Pediveliger 16-22 days L = 210-275 18 alternately creeping and H = 240-305 15 swimming vigorously D = 171-220 6 Eye-spotted 18-22 days L 217 larvae nearing metamor- pediveliger H 242 phosis.

At D:50-75 lengths beyond 150 mm umbo of left valve projects well above the shoulders as a prominent knob. hinge line commonly H:43-98 50-55 mm. 45 mm Golden yellow. Shells nearly transparent. more pointed. Right valve flat with H:80-200 undeveloped umbo. Left valve rounded. commonly obscured by opaque mass of digestive gland. . slightly curved. not increasing in D:25-52 length with on March 11. Metamorphosis at L: 220-230. Spat 10-11 days Typically Foot long. No byssus notch. Major features of larval development in Placuna placenta cultured at 27°C and 28-29 ppt salinity (Young 1980) 238 Stage Age Size range Shape/distinguishing (Mm) features Fertilized egg 0 Dia. Shells nearly transparent. Ventral AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTHEAST ASIA margin bluntly L:230 Velum absent. Pediveliger 8-10 days L: 180-220 Foot functional at L=170 mm. Shell inequivalve. Ends of nearly equal HL:4-55 length.seafdec. spherical Straight-hinge 20-30 h L:50-105 Smallest veliger 50x43 mm. Downloaded by [Anonymous] from http://repository. Umbo veliger 2-8 days L: 100-200 Shells inequivalve. 2018 at 11:41 PM CST Table 3. Dissoconch delineated by H:220 narrow dark band. well developed. Anterior end longer. digestive organs situated almost beneath umbo. Eyespots at H:180-220 L=150.

0 × 10 4 cells/ml. 2018 at 11:41 PM CST Total water renewal was done every fifth day.. 1 is made of 20 mm marine plywood coated inside with fiberglass resin. Poor growth and survival were particularly evident in larvae fed with algae at 7. The on March 11. 2). Mass mortalities caused by bacterial population reaching lethal levels in the larval tanks were encountered in the trials. 2). and loaded on the rectangular depuration Oysters are placed individually in plastic trays at 20 pieces/tray. The high density stock- ing method yielded an average of 2. 4). prefiltered with a P-5 polypropylene cartridge of the dirt/rust t y p e enters the tank at 7 l / m i n and trickles through a per- forated PVC pipe placed at the proximal end of the tank (No. The production of pseudofeces of overfed larvae promoted the proliferation of bacteria in the cultures. a prototype low-cost depuration unit suitable for local conditions was set up in the Tigbauan Main Station (Fig. Downloaded by [Anonymous] from http://repository. . (No. Of the anti-bacterials tested. 5 × 1 0 4 cells/ml. The tanks were maintained on a 24-hr basis after which about 30-50% of the b o t t o m water was siphoned and replaced by rearing water pretreated with sodium hypochlorite and filtered through a P-5 polypropylene cartridge of the dirt/rust type capable of removing particles of 5 mm and further disinfected through a UV sterilizer. Water.36 million ready-to-settle (5. In 1983. Larvae were fed with Isochrysis galbana during the first week and then a combination thereafter of Isochrysis with either Tetraselmis chuii or Chaetoceros calcitrans at 5. cumulative blooms from residual bacterial populations still prevailed. a well known pathogenic bacteria. Sulfadiazine and sulfamerazine were ineffective in depressing bacterial growth. especially virulent to bivalve larvae. This purification process ensures that bivalves are safe for consumption.seafdec. Experi- mental tank No. MUSSEL AND OYSTER FARMING 239 3-ton tanks with 15 larvae/ml. which have high bacterial concentrations can be purified by placing them in unpolluted water and allowing such water to be filtered by the bivalves. and despite total water renewals. Contaminants were traced to bacterized algal feed from 10 1 plastic carbouys used in mass production of feeds. Vibrio sp. usually concen- trated in the guts are excreted as feces and those in the gill region as pseudofeces. D EPURATION Oysters and mussels. only the mixture of penicillin and streptomycin was found effective in promoting growth and survival of larvae.3% survival) mussel larvae in 20 days. was present.

org. 2018 at 11:41 PM CST 240 AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTHEAST ASIA on March 11. Downloaded by [Anonymous] from http://repository. Experimental depuration unit (Gacutan et al 1986) . 2.

seafdec. 80 mg/ 100 g). The causa- tive dinoflagellate was Pyrodinium bahamense var. At the distal end. compressa. 2018 at 11:41 PM CST radiation may be most suitable for the region as it has no residual effect. killing times averaged 2. In July-August 1983. The shortest killing time was recorded at 1.. Brunei. Bivalves are known to accumulate heavy metals in their body tissues. and the possible pathway of mercury bio- accumulation. MUSSEL AND OYSTER FARMING 241 Water is disinfected further by passing it through a UV sterilizer. covering approximately 300 km of coastlines and lagoons.5-3. On the basis of the equivalence of 1 MU to on March 11. 13).18 mg of saxitoxin. a red-tide occurred in Western Samar and Leyte. water is drained through a Figure 3 shows the changes in the fecal coliform load in oysters during depu- ration. and is comparatively inexpensive. When undiluted extracts were injected into mice. This is significant since mussels can be utilized as indicators for presence of trace metals and organochlorines in tropical waters. UV Downloaded by [Anonymous] from http://repository. Sabah.5 min (Gacutan et al 1986). its depuration capability. the same organism that caused several red-tide outbreaks in Papua New Guinea. ozone. Aklan was found to contain mercury. is easy to use. a sample of the natural population of green mussels in Batan Bay.e. UV. polyvinylpyrroli- done-iodide-iodine and sand-filtered in a flow-through system. In 1981. Results show that the green mussel accumulates mer- cury rapidly from its surroundings but is very slow in self-cleansing (Fig. Average toxicity of red-tide contaminated green mussels was 1165 MU/l00 g (range 945 1. 4). ultra violet-treated water was found to be 99% efficient after 48 h (Gacutan et al 1986). and Palau. the toxicity was 213 mg/100 g) almost triple the threshold set by the US Food and Drug Administration for closure of shellfish beds (i. Preliminary results pointed to the possibility of using ozone and PVP-iodide-iodine to inactivate PSP toxins in green mussels (Gacu- tan et al 1984). . In terms of bacterial disinfection efficiency.5 minutes. Freshly harvested oysters were depurated by using microbiologically clean sea water sterilized by treatments with chlorine. A study was therefore conducted to determine mercury uptake by the mussel.5 cm overflow pipe located at a height level with the tank floor (No. 310 MU/100 g) (Gacutan et al 1984).

org. Downloaded by [Anonymous] from on March 11. 2018 at 11:41 PM CST 242 AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTHEAST ASIA Fig. 3. Changes in the fecal coliform (FC) load (MPN/100 g meat) in the slipper oyster Crassostrea iredalei from three areas of a 4 × 8 m wooden tank during depuration of 96 hours (Gacutan et al 1986) . on March 11. MUSSEL AND OYSTER FARMING 243 Downloaded by [Anonymous] from http://repository. A related study showed that while other forms of storage such as freezing and chilling arrest meat spoilage for several days. the most practical storage condition is by placing the meat under a blanket of ice.seafdec. Accumulation and elimination of mercury by green mussels (Rosell 1985) T RANSPORT AND HANDLING In 1976. The bacteriological flora of the slipper oyster was also examined and the results shown in Table 4 (Llobrera et al 1986). . 2018 at 11:41 PM CST Fig. the Department started conducting experiments on Postharvest handling. Oyster meat under a blanket of ice retains its wholesome quality for 14 days. thus extending its marketing possibilities. Results showed that large mussels are more hardy than small ones and that keeping them wet with sea water prolongs their survival after harvest (Yap and Orano 1980).

5 6. Downloaded by [Anonymous] from 5.6 14 68.5 24°C AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTHEAST ASIA 0 125 2.3 10.5 5.6 33.3 14.6 13.seafdec. 2018 at 11:41 PM CST 244 Table 4.1 7.1 7.5 12.4 19.8 6.9 6.5 2.5 22.0 20.4 on March 11.0 C 4 12.8 10.0 38.3 6.6 22 100.3 7.3 10.0 10.6 14.4 10.5 7.7 18.3 34°C 12 71.4 13.7 23.3 0 7.1 5.3 28.5 37.2 37.3 31.0 Under ice blanket 8 66.6 14.3 6.0 .9 13.5 12.5 Chilled 8 28.5 2.5 7.0 40.3 21.3 28.9 13.8 Room temperature 2 30.0 10.9 3.0 6.5 8.4 14.8 6.7 4. Percentage distribution of the microbial flora of oysters stored at different temperature (Llobrera et al 1986) Storage Bacillus Streptococcus Flavobacterium Coryneforms Moraxella Micrococcus Staphylococcus Pseudomonas Vibrio Aeromonas Acinetobacter/ temperature Day Enterobacteriaceae A 0 10.1 4°C 12 14.5 8 4 20.

6 41.3 48 26.8 15. Downloaded by [Anonymous] from http://repository.1 10.3 13.3 40 25.5 17.2 18.0 43.9 5.0 6.7 Frozen 24 on March 11.3 13.3 5.4 20.1 7.1 MUSSEL AND OYSTER FARMING 245 .4 14.3 26.1 18.2 36.7 26.2 18.3 36 6.3 46.3 12 8.6 4 23.2 D 20 20.6 16.2 7.1 14.5 56 31.9 29.6 32 18.5 52.6 46.7 13.3 25.3 21.7 16.8 26.7 26.2 5.0 16.3 28.seafdec.7 16 36.3 33.5 10.8 18.3 10.7 13.8 7.4 27.0 5.0 16.3 52 21.2 44 66.6 66.3 8.9 5.0 64 30.6 5.3 10.7 5.7 6.7 6.5 5.3 10.8 6.9 13.3 9.2 18.3 21.6 8 14.7 -25°C 28 25.5 21.4 17. 2018 at 11:41 PM CST 0 5.3 8.7 13.6 7.3 2.

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