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Food Science and Technology ISSN 0101-2061


Physicochemical properties, modifications and applications of starches
from different botanical sources
Sylvia Carolina ALCÁZAR-ALAY1, Maria Angela Almeida MEIRELES1*

Present trends towards technologies and processes that increase the use of residues make starchy vegetal biomass an important
alternative material in various applications due to starch’s versatility, low cost and ease of use when its physicochemical properties
are altered. Starch is increasingly used in many industrial applications and as a renewable energy resource. Starch can be modified
to enhance its positive attributes and eliminate deficiencies in its native characteristics. In this article, the state of knowledge on
conventional and unconventional starches and their properties, characteristics, modifications and applications are reviewed.
Keywords: starch modification; starch granules; paste properties; conventional starch; unconventional starch; starch biomass;
Practical Application: Use of unconventional starches and vegetal residues containing starch in industry.

1 Starch
Starch is the most abundant carbohydrate reserve in plants of α-glucans chains of different sizes and the grouping of branch
and is found in leaves, flowers, fruits, seeds, different types of points in the amylopectin molecule allow the formation of double
stems and roots. Starch is used by plants as source of carbon helical chains. Amylose and amylopectin can be arranged in a
and energy (Smith, 2001). The biochemical chain responsible for semicrystalline structure forming a matrix of starch granules with
starch synthesis involves glucose molecules produced in plant alternating amorphous (amylose) and crystalline (amylopectin)
cells by photosynthesis. Starch is formed in the chloroplasts material, which is known as the growth rings in superior plant
of green leaves and amyloplasts, organelles responsible for the starch (Jenkins et al., 1993).
starch reserve synthesis of cereals and tubers (Smith, 2001;
Tester et al., 2004). Starch production in the chloroplast is Several types of starches are known as “waxy” starches due to
diurnal and performed rapidly by the plant. Conversely, starch the waxy appearance of the endosperm tissue from which they are
reserves produced by amyloplasts are deposited over several derived; these tissues contain a minimal amount of amylose in their
days, or even weeks. Starch is stored and cyclically mobilized granule composition (<15%). Waxy starch requires high energy
during seed germination, fruit maturation and the sprouting of for gelatinization due to its high crystallinity (Hung et al., 2007).
tubers (Ellis et al., 1998). The main location of starch synthesis Dther starches have a high content of amylose (>30%); these
and storage in cereals is the endosperm. Major starch sources starches can also contain other polysaccharide molecules and
are cereals (40 to 90%), roots (30 to 70%), tubers (65 to 85%), exhibit a slight deformation in granule appearance.
legumes (25 to 50%) and some immature fruits like bananas Cereal starches contain lipid molecules in their structures in
or mangos, which contain approximately 70% of starch by dry the form of phospholipids and free fatty acids; they are associated
weight (Santana & Meireles, 2014). The accumulation pattern with the amylose fraction (Ellis et al., 1998; Tester et al., 2004).
of starch granules in each plant tissue, shape, size, structure and The presence of lipid complexes in starch granules is observed as
composition is unique to each botanical species (Smith, 2001). a hydrophobic nucleus situated within helices formed by amylose
Starch synthesized by plant cells is formed by two types of chains. The lipid complexes vary between 0.15 to 0.55% of the
polymers: amylopectin and amylose. Amylopectin consists of amylose fraction in cereal starches (Tester et al., 2004). Lipids
linear chains of glucose units linked by α-1,4 glycosidic bonds in starch granules, despite representing a small fraction, can
and is highly branched at the α-1,6 positions by small glucose significantly reduce the swelling capacity of the starch paste
chains at intervals of 10 nm along the molecule’s axis; it constitutes (Morrison & Azudin, 1987). Starch contains approximately
between 70 to 85% of common starch (Durrani & Donald, 1995). 0.6% of protein associated with the molecule. The origins of
Amylose is essentially a linear chain of α-1,4 glucans with limited protein and lipids on starch are situated on the granule surface.
branching points at the α-1,6 positions and constitutes between Lipids and proteins in starch granules can raise its functionality.
15-30% of common starch. Starch’s structural units, amylose and In wheat for example, the associated protein in the starch
amylopectin, are shown in Figure 1. The polymodal distribution granules receives a lot attention due to its association with grain

Received 22 May, 2015
Accepted 25 May, 2015
Faculdade de Engenharia de Alimentos – FEA, Universidade Estadual de Campinas – UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil
*Corresponding author:

Food Sci. Technol, Campinas, 35(2): 215-236, Abr.-Jun. 2015 215

Properties of starches from different sources

Figure 1. Basic structural design of (a) glucose units, (b) amylose and (c) amylopectin, along with the labeling of the atoms and torsion angles.
Extension of the basic units to macromolecular structures was adapted from Pérez & Bertoft (2010).

hardness. Starch also contains a relatively small quantity (<0.4%) Granule morphology typically contains a central line known as
of minerals (calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and the hilum or “Maltese cross”. Each starch granule may contain
sodium). Among these, phosphorus is of primary importance one or more Maltese crosses, and this characteristic reduces the
and is present in starch in three main forms: monophosphate birefringence ability of the starch granule (Jiang et al., 2010).
esters, phospholipids and inorganic phosphate.
The amount of amylose present in the granule significantly
The physical and chemical aspects of starch synthesis and the affects the physicochemical and functional properties of starch.
composition of amylose and amylopectin have been discussed The amylose content can vary within the same botanical
in detail in other reviews by Smith (2001), Tester et al. (2004), variety because of differences in geographic origin and culture
Pérez & Bertoft (2010) and Conde-Petit et al. (2001). conditions (Gao et al., 2014). Researchers have highlighted the
role of amylose in the initial resistance of granules to swelling
2 Physicochemical properties of starch and solubility, as swelling proceeds rapidly after leaching of
amylose molecules. The capacity of amylose molecules of form
The length of the α-glucan chains, amylose-amylopectin lipid complexes prevents their leaching and consequently the
ratio and branching degree of amylopectin define the size, swelling capacity (Singh et al., 2003). Amylose is anhydrous and
structure and particular utility of starch granules in each plant can form excellent films, which are important characteristics
species. Dther characteristics associated with the granule such for industrial applications. Films formed by amylose are very
as form, surface type and phosphate groups influence the starch’s strong, colorless, odorless and tasteless (Campos et al., 2011).
properties and uses (Smith, 2001).
Phosphorus is one of the non-carbohydrate components
present in the starch granule and significantly affects its functional
2.1 Characteristics of starch granules: morphology, size,
characteristics. Phosphorus is present as monoester phosphates
composition and crystallinity
or phospholipids in various types of starches. Monoester
Starch granules have microscopic sizes with diameters ranging phosphates are associated with the amylopectin fraction by
from 0.1 to 200 µm, and its morphology varies between different covalent bonds, increasing the clarity and viscosity of the
shapes, such as oval, ellipsoidal, spherical, smooth, angular and paste, whereas the presence of phospholipids results in opaque
lenticular, depending on the botanical source (Buléon et al., 1998; and low viscosity pastes (Craig et al., 1989). The phospholipid
Hoover, 2001; Singh et al., 2003). Size distribution can be uni-, content in starch granules is proportionally related to amylose.
bi-, or polymodal. In amyloplasts, starch granules are present Phospholipids tend to form complexes with amylose and long
individually or in groups (Jane et al., 1994; Pérez & Bertoft, 2010). branches of amylopectin, resulting in starch granules with limited
Common cereals such as wheat, barley and rye contain two types solubility (Morrison et al., 1993; Singh et al., 2003). The nature
of starch granules: (i) A-type, lenticular shape and large size and of the phosphorus in starch granules has an important influence
(ii) B-type, spherical shape and small size (Tester et al., 2006; on the transmittance of the paste. Starches such as wheat and
Vamadevan & Bertoft, 2015). The physicochemical properties rice with high phospholipid contents produce pastes with low
of certain native starches are listed in Table 1. Starch granules transmittance power compared to potato or corn starch pastes
are typically isolated before microscopic observation, and the because the latter starches contain less phospholipids. Potato
isolation method is important because it can potentially affect starch demonstrates high transmittance due to its phosphate
the starch’s original size (Gao et al., 2014; Lawal et al., 2011). monoester content (Singh et al., 2003).

216 Food Sci. Technol, Campinas, 35(2): 215-236, Abr.-Jun. 2015

. 2003) (Dhital et al. 1994) 1998) 1984) 1994) 42.. 1996) (Singh et al. 2015) Corn Wild type Angular 11...7/A lenticular (Singh et al..6-1. 1998) (Morrison et al..5 0.4 0.8 2...2 0.2-0..3 23..6±1.6-67.. Patindol et al.5 19..2-24.5 polygonal.7±2. Nuwamanya et al.... 1984) Waxy 0. 2010) 2010) 0.5 30... 1998) (Morrison et al..-Jun. 2008) Rice Wild type Angular..0 27. Alcázar-Alay.3-0. (Patindol et al..3 0. 2011) (Dhital et al.. 2007) (Hung et al.. 2008) (Lawal et al. (Lim et al.1-8.08-0... 2015 217 .7 18.5/C (Zhang et al. 2007) (Singh et al. (Ellis et al.. 1998) B-type :2-3 1984) 38. (Lim et al.4 0. (Ellis et al.35 28..1 (Ellis et al. 1984) 1984) High amylose Polygonal and 0. 2013) Taylor..3-0.3 (Ellis et al. Abr.53 2011) 2007) 2013) (Morrison et al..4-2.15 1. 2015) 2-8 1996) 1994) (Hoover et al. 2015) Waxy 0-2 (Patindol et al. 1996.5 normal sorghum 2008) (Sang et al.. 2003) (López et al..8 0.... 2008) Heterowaxy 14 (Sang et al.... Meireles Table 1.. 23. (Sang et al.. 1998) (Morrison et al. 1998) (Šubarić et al.8-32..1 21-25 (Hoover et al. (Morrison et al...type: 5 1984) 1998) 2.2-0.7-1.5±1.5 (Morrison et al. (Dhital et al. 2013) (Zhang et al. 1984) Sorghum Wild type Polygonal..7-27.3-30.3 3. (Ellis et al. 2007) 2013) Barley Wild type A-type: Disc-shape A-type:10-25 0.. 1998) (Morrison et al.01-0. 1998) (Morrison et al..40 25. 0.7 (Morrison et al. Technol.4-44. 1998) B-type: lenticular B..8-3.. dented 8-14...1 0. 1984) Lipid.1 (Ellis et al.4/A (Singh et al. polygonal < 20 0... Campinas. 2007) (Hung et al..5± 0..4 19-22.8 (Morrison et al.1 (Ellis et al.1 (Ellis et al..02 70 Angular (Ellis et al.05 1.2 ±1. (López et al. Food Sci.. Taylor. 1998) (Morrison et al.0 9. (Hung et al. (Ellis et al. 1998) B.67 0.0±0. 2013) 2009) 2009) 1989) 1989) Waxy Larger than 5-25 (Sang et al. (Wankhede et al.. Morphology and composition of native starch granules from various sources.86 ± 0.31-0.0-1. 1994) Waxy 0 1.. (Ellis et al.66 1984) (López et al. 1984) High amylose A-type: 15-32 1...12 0. 35(2): 215-236. (Wankhede et al....4±2.. 1984) Waxy A-type:10-25 0. 2003) (Buléon et al. 2015) High amylose > 25 (Patindol et al....0±2. protein and phosphorus contents are shown as % of total dry weight. 2011) 2008) 0 (Sang et al. 2003) 22-36 2012) 2007) A-type: Spherical or (Jane et al. (Morrison et al. 1998) (Ellis et al.6-0. 2010) 25. < 0.3 0... 1998) (Ellis et al..1/A ellipsoidal A-type: >10 (Morrison et al.6 26-30/A and round 8-10 round (Emmambux & (Emmambux & (Boudries et al.6 (Ellis et al. (Boudries et al... (Lim et al.type: 5 1984) 1998) 25. (Hung et al.. 2007) (Hung et al..06-0. Degree of Variety/ Diameter Lipid Protein Phosphorus Amylose Species Granule Shape crystallinity/ Designation (µm) (%w/w) (%w/w) (%w/w) (%w/w) Crystalline type Wheat Wild type Spherical and < 30 0. 2007) (Zhang et al. (Sang et al. 1984) B-type: Disc-shape 2013) High amylose and lenticular B-type: < 10 37. 2011) (Hoover et al. (Sang et al.38-0. (Hung et al.

2003).. 2006) (Braga et al.2 45. Glass transition occurs similar to a thermodynamic associated with large branches of amylopectin molecules comprise second order transition. When starch molecules are crystallinity is a combination of the A.... the induction temperature of the progressive transition from a higher proportion of amylopectin in starch granules results an amorphous state to a rubbery state as the material is heated...-Jun. 1991). which a polymerization degree between 15 and 25. groups exposed on the amylose and amylopectin molecules. 2008) (Paes et al..9±0. The extent of this interaction is influenced that is proportional to their crystalline structure. of amylopectin molecules with non-reduced ends (Cheetham and water molecules associate by hydrogen bonding to hydroxyl & Tao.3±0. 2002). 2007) (Yuan et al. the (Singh et al. Degree of Variety/ Diameter Lipid Protein Phosphorus Amylose Species Granule Shape crystallinity/ Designation (µm) (%w/w) (%w/w) (%w/w) (%w/w) Crystalline type Potato Smooth-surfaced.... Loss of content because the amylose acts as a diluent and inhibitor of 218 Food Sci. protein and phosphorus contents are shown as % of total dry weight. 2006) 2006) Ginger Polygonal 5-40 0. moisture.. Because starches. Amylose of polymers. B1 chains have amylopectin-amylose phase separation and crystallinity loss. Starch granules have very complex structures. 2005).. The complexity birefringence in starch granules is associated with deformation is built around variations in their composition (α-glucans.7±0..2 48. Properties of starches from different sources Table 1. Ratnayake et al.. (Yuan et al.and B-types and consists heated in water excess. 2008) Turmeric Polygonal 5-70 0.. 2000). 2007) (Singh et al.. 35(2): 215-236.6±0. 1994) (Tan et al. 2007) Akingbala. There are three generally in the presence of a solvent or plasticizer when types of crystalline structures: A-type characteristics from cereal referring to polysaccharides (Tester & Debon. 2015 . 2003). 1999). B-type and consequent swelling of the starch granule contribute to chains are subdivided into B1. (Braga et al. where the specific volume and enthalpy the amorphous region of granules. 2007) Lipid..01 23. 2011) (Dhital et al. 2010) Hoover.6 bonds.35 Potato (Jane et al. 2006) (Braga et al. length amylopectin molecules.. 2003) 2011) 2011) Sweet Polygonal 5-25 28. In A-type structures.. 2007) (Yuan et al. Campinas. therefore.2 0. in greater crystallinity (Cheetham & Tao.2/A irregular (Falade & (Jane et al. the semi-crystalline structure is broken.3±0... 1994) (Jane et al. molecular weight and molecular reduced ends in the direction of the hilum or starch granule center. 2009). (Braga et al.. lipids. Abr... (Dhital et al. The swelling capacity and solubility of starch illustrate the interactions of the polymeric chains Birefringence is the ability to doubly refract polarized light. 2007) (Yuan et al. 2001). B2. 2007) (Yuan et al. Crystalline structures are based on the double exact Tg is detected with difficultly. conformation (Hoover.01 34±2 and Angular (Braga et al.2 Birefringence and glass transition temperature (Tg) solubility (Singh et al.1 0. Tg describes with short branches comprise the crystalline region.6/B oval and irregular (Singh et al.1 0.. (Lim et al.53±0. the amylopectin branches are short (polymerization degree of 2.. 2006) Cassava Flake-shape and 5-25 0.3/C (Yuan et al. and amylopectin molecules are functions of temperature (Biliaderis et al. In B-type.. The swelling Weak birefringence patterns are indicative of disorganization capacity of starch is directly associated with the amylopectin of the crystalline region (BeMiller & Whistler.5±0.1 48±3 and Angular (Braga et al. B3 and B4 are the highest. 2001.. B-type found in tubers and C-type present in legumes starch consists of an amorphous and a crystalline region. and their chains form 90° angles with the and grade of chain branching.9±0. the glucose chains are starch is that it passes through several different stages from more polymerized and can act as bases where the branches water absorption to granule disintegration. C-type space (Conde-Petit et al. and B2 chains are in turn promotes the leaching of amylose to the inter-granular typically between 40 and 50. 1998)... comprising the amorphous and crystalline granule fractions All starch granules in their native form exhibit birefringence (Zhang et al.Continued.. (Yuan et al. Water absorption are A-type or form branched amylopectin molecules. This association causes swelling and increases granule size and 2. 1994) (Vasanthan & (Leelavathi et al.1 48±0. A-type is characteristic of Dne of the most important structural characteristics of amylopectin ramifications. 2006) 2006) Dioscorea 3-22 26.. 2003) (Dhital et al...3 Swelling capacity and solubility of starch granules 6-15) and linked by α-1.6 29. component structure and Tgis an important parameter affecting the physical properties variation between amorphous and crystalline regions. 2006) (Braga et al.. 1998). Technol.. 2006) (Braga et al. proteins and phosphorylation). 1992) 1987) 1994) 8-25 12-15/B (Paes et al. due to its modification (Liu et al. B3 and B4.. Birefringence by the amylose-amylopectin proportion and is characteristic of patterns in starch granules represent the radial arrangement of each molecule depending on the polymerization degree.3 0. helix formed by the amylopectin molecule. < 110 0.

Gelatinization affects the acceptance and production reliability (Šubarić et al. 2011). Gelatinization of granules is caused restrictions (Morrison et al. causing degree of crystallinity. Gelatinization progress The swelling stage of starch granules is the initial step of all other paste characteristics. 2000). Some species of starch that contain as proteins and other polysaccharides. rheological properties and viscosity of the paste.e.. starch is the temperature-time-mixture ratio and the modification ratio typically in combination with other polymeric ingredients. Gelatinization occurs initially in Some research has shown that paste components such as the amorphous region. The process then extends to the crystalline through emulsification. Similar Starch paste forms immediately after gelatinization. such during processing (Conde-Petit et al. such as other carbohydrates. The gelatinization process addition to proteins and lipids. 35(2): 215-236. Proteins form complexes with starch region. amylopectin (Xie et al. 2014). while amylopectin viscosity. Conde-Petit et al. a starch paste.. Water of the starch. especially cereals. Gelatinization classified as a form of resistant starch (RS) (Zięba et al. the presence of other ingredients. 1993). 2003). 2008). and these measures are characteristic for 2015). Food Sci. 2015 219 . and there is a characteristic with a strong tendency for retrogradation. This transitions starch from a 2. crystalline region and the leaching of amylose (Donovan. 2001). 2012). partially and mechanical energy) (Schirmer et al. the effects of the physical starch granule more accessible to enzymatic action. hydrating the linear fragments of cooling of the paste is known as retrogradation (Hoover. is directly related to gelatinization and the properties of the paste. 2001). Gelatinization is necessary for particular processes. 2004). 1993. 2001). Amylose and amylopectin form separate phases The transformation of starch during manufacturing depends on because of thermodynamic immiscibility. Abr.. solubilizing the starch (Hoover. 2014. starch exhibits lower Sarker et al. After retrogradation. 2004). Campinas. This process leads to irreversible During retrogradation. Starch functionality solvent type and starch/solvent proportions (Jiménez et al. (Singh et al. Starch retrogradation is intensified The gelatinization process starts at the hilum and quickly spreads by repeated freezing and thawing of paste (Leszczyñski.. 1979. retrogradation in starch pastes. granule swelling is reversible. gelatinization and enthalpy compared to native starch because its crystalline structure has been weakened (Sasaki et al. 2010). Amylose presence reduces the fusion point in the that retards the retrogradation process during refrigerated crystalline region and the amount of energy necessary to initiate storage (Wu et al. The gelatinization process is affected by starch granules (Ambigaipalan et al.e.-Jun. forming different phases amylose-lipid complexes exhibit swelling capacity and solubility (Conde-Petit et al. 2011) of starch granules is associated with a loss of birefringence and and is used in industry for different purposes described in other crystalline order due to the breaking of the double helix in the sections of this review. textile All of these properties affect the stability of products... throughout the periphery. e.. by many processes or the manufacturing of products from raw materials based on starch..4 Gelatinization and retrogradation properties of starch Initially. the amylose content exercises a strong influence over the retrogradation process.g. 2. each polymer has a different the granule. is unfavorable in terms of food quality. Gelatinization occurs when water diffuses into during storage under refrigeration. Meireles swelling (Singh et al. Amylopectin and temperature interval for gelatinization corresponding to each intermediate materials influence the retrogradation process starch species. 1979. Initially. In food. 2015). making the The characteristics of the native starch.. starch granules are increasingly susceptible to disintegration by The principal consideration with solvents is their capacity to shearing because they are swollen. undergoes a transition phase known as gelatinization. chloroacetic acid and/or amylopectin and one discontinuous phase of the remaining and dimethyl sulfoxide). High transition temperatures correspond to a high containing starch. formic acid. The presence of other components in gelatinization (Sasaki et al.. 2000). enthalpies in the paste.. retrograded starch is structure to gelatinization (Tester et al. which then swells substantially due to hydration of recrystallization rate (BeMiller. Paste viscosity is essentially the principal measure of the molecules re-crystallize through association of its small chains potential application of starch in industry (Gryszkin et al.. and to water. Technol. along the granule is determined by the physicochemical properties increasing its volume up to 30% (Gryszkin et al. when heated in the presence of excess water. 2000).5 Rheological and thermal properties semi-crystalline form (relatively indigestible) to an amorphous form that is easily digestible (Tester & Debon. 1982).. In general. Evans & Haisman.. 2012). as well as foods each species... 2003). The paste obtained is a viscous form hydrogen bonds with the molecules in the starch granules mass consisting of one continuous phase of solubilized amylose (i. favored by the weak hydrogen bonds proteins influence the retrogradation properties of paste present in this area.. time hydrogen bonds responsible for granule cohesion. Alcázar-Alay. a large amount of amylose is associated Starch. Jiménez et al. temperature. 2011. Jenkins et al. Currently.. 2013). high stability and resistance of the granule syneresis of gels or hardness. order (Donovan. When starch or chemical modifications of the granules.. the medium and the botanical sources of the starch are all critical factors properties change from a simple starch granules suspension to governing the behavior and characteristics of the starch paste. Water penetrates the The molecular interaction produced after gelatinization and interior of the starch granule. the availability absorption and heating of the starch dispersion breaks the of water and process parameters applied (i. increasing the granule size several fold and the paste other glucose units to form a double helix. consumer and hydrolyzed starch industries...... 2000). the process parameters granules swell and its components are in solution. liquid ammonia. other solvents are also used to promote gelatinization. but also occurs above 100 °C. formamide. 2012). 2001). the amorphous phase causing loss of crystallinity and molecular Recrystallization of starch easily occurs at temperatures under 0 °C. significantly affects retrogradation (Fu et al.. amylose molecules associate with swelling. salts is represented by transition temperatures and gelatinization and polyphenols.

as a dynamic rheometer. in which pastes. transmittances between 42 to 96% and are considered high clarity Gel resistance is determined using a texture analyzer. for its effect on the quality of food and its sensory characteristics. Low clarity in common cereals (non-waxy) The main factors affecting the rheological properties of is due to the presence of traces of swollen starch granules starches are their source and the presence of other polymers (Craig et al. shear strength and the tendency for properties. jellies behavior of the paste. however. During the cooling period. 2012). Variations in a starch’s thermal properties maximum analysis temperature.. 1993). increased formation time and limited gelling transparency or clarity. conclusion occur in starch after gelatinization in excess water. called the “cold size and shape of the granule.. Tp is the maximum viscosity temperature. an amylograph or a viscoamylograph The presence of relatively short chains of amylose and (Schirmer et al. temperature. and (iii) a cooling a comparative measure. 220 Food Sci. In products such as sources. Methods used to describe molecules of retrograded starch and starch that has dissolved the viscoelastic parameters of the paste include equipment such or precipitated (BeMiller & Whistler. peak temperature (Tp). the measure of recovered or accumulated containing them. the loss of and fruit fillings require starch suspensions with high clarity energy in each deformation cycle that describes the viscosity (Eliasson. 2011). Rheological starch properties are studied The rheological properties of starch determine its potential through the behavior of viscosity curves. 2015). (ii) an isothermal period. 1993. Starch paste viscosity is Rheological properties describe the behavior of materials associated with lipids. 1989. disintegration in a three-dimensional network structure. and low values indicate solid-like (<1) 1996. 2009). 2003).. Determining the thermal properties of starch involves terms such “Paste properties” is the term used to describe the changes that as the onset temperature (To). 1996). Campinas. 2013). between the viscosity peak and the minimum viscosity at the Yuan et al. Kong et al.. maintaining the suspension Tc is the final temperature of the viscosity increment.... a high amount of granule modification in the amorphous and Throughout the analysis. period. 2003. Abr. 2006). 2015).. 2013. all of which can be measured using equipment like a parameter as functions of temperature and time. The level Starch paste can contain un-swollen granules. texture and quality of food products. 2006. decreasing due to amylose and/or amylopectin ways to produce several attributes influencing the stability. and increase several times in size.. liquid-like behavior. Suspensions typically exhibit a peak in viscosity that starts researchers include retrogradation among the thermal properties after gelatinization and increases as the granules swell. and enthalpy of like the Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) describe the viscosity fusion. attributed to variations in the amylose/amylopectin ratio. decreasing the temperature to approximately 50 °C. and the modulus or tangent (G’’/G’).. Berski et al.. difference between Tc and To. Wang & is dispersed in hot water below its Tg. 2011. 1997. mainly phospholipids.. A “Breakdown” is defined by a difference proportional to the presence of amylopectin (Tan et al.. Rheology is widely recognized commercial applications of starch (BeMiller & Whistler. breaking the molecules and Starch gels are composed of amylose chains and intermediate consequently leaching amylose to form a three-dimensional materials dispersed in a starch suspension after granule network and increase the paste’s viscosity (Sarker et al. When starch 95 °C is termed the “setback” (Saunders et al. 2015 . 2012) and describes paste behavior in three periods: (i) a controlled heating depend on the starch concentration (Waterschoot et al. Paste clarity is commonly determined by the behavior of the material. Several parameters describe the viscoelastic amylopectin adds opacity to starch suspensions and foods behavior of pastes: (G’). 2009. the starch granules swell Weller. and an increase in this value indicates period. Technol. Ulbrich et al. Many polymers Paredes-López. The basic feature of starch rheology is Dther effects associated with paste viscosity are decreased its viscosity. Tan et al. Products like potato starch have behavior) (BeMiller & Whistler. 2015b).. and the presence or absence of paste viscosity”. 2013). fragments and determine the viscoelastic properties. 1989) and amylose-lipid complexes (Bello-Pérez & (Sarker et al. the suspension is subjected to shear crystalline regions (Jenkins et al. this opacity is not a disadvantage. increasing the temperature of the suspension from During heating.. three-dimensional network (Ulbrich et al. after gelatinization and throughout refrigerated storage can be amylose leaching forms a gel or three-dimensional network. Some forces. This paste property typically begins 20 °C lower by a decrease in viscosity due to granule disintegration and than its gelatinization temperature (T gel). 2011). Waterschoot et al. viscoelastic complexes.. Amylose-lipid complexes require high temperatures retrogradation. 2006). which are influenced by application as a thickener or gelling agent (Berski et al. which are considered amylose and hinder or reduce the granule’s swelling capacity. followed of starch. The RVA differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) (Kong et al. Tois the temperature at which the paste viscosity room temperature to a maximum that is generally determined starts to increase.. Common cereals parameters such as peak force [N] define the resistance of the generally present transmittances of 13 to 62% (Craig et al.. Instruments temperature (Tc). Waterschoot et al. dressings and energy in each deformation cycle and an indicator of the elastic puddings. (Tc-To) is at the maximum temperature for analysis. Clarity in starch suspensions is modified coexist with starch in aqueous mixtures and interact in different during storage. concentration and shear stress (Singh et al. followed by cassava starch at 51-81%. 2003). Schirmer et al.. amylose solubility. and retrogradation is polymer realignment. 2015b).-Jun. the Gel formation further increases the viscosity. All of these features play important roles in the for dissociation (Singh et al. 35(2): 215-236. 2015). Nuwamanya et al. Properties of starches from different sources Starch granules are insoluble in cold water due to the the end of the cooling period and the minimum viscosity at hydrogen bonds and crystallinity of the molecule. aggregates of swollen starch granules. 2009. partially swollen and nature of the leached material and molecular interactions granules. 2015a). percent transmittance from a dilute solution of starch (1% w/w) describing the material’s behavior (high values (›1) indicate at a wavelength of 650 nm (Bello-Pérez & Paredes-López. molecules (Jacobson et al... Dther rheological characteristics involve texture. and at 95 °C... 2015).. that complex with subjected to shearing forces and deformation.. 2004). the dissipated energy (G’’). The difference between the paste viscosity at lipids and proteins (Singh et al.

Technol. However. insoluble in water at room temperature. Abr. The effects does not require heating to form a paste (Majzoobi et al. The presence of water reduces structural attributes to increase its value for food and non-food the Tm (Conde-Petit et al. birefringence properties. (Collado & Corke. 2000). Additionally. Drying methods include drum has important industrial applications. Campinas. 2014). and physicochemical modifications increase chain 2014). Physical granule in the presence of water (Tester & Debon. 35(2): 215-236. 2000). Table 2 gives examples of different research on the interaction in the crystallinity region (Chen et al. Native starches are often modified to a double helix chain. Alcázar-Alay. Modifications of starch include physical. etherification. 2000). 2011). soups and a thermal application in the presence of a limited amount desserts. some starch modification can only occur when starch polymers transition granules are inert. 2013). such as baby food. Df the more competitive than ANN.. Starch granule combinations of temperature. hydrothermal retrogradation (Berski et al. Sweedman et al. 1986). 2007. and are therefore preferred when the product and radial movements in the crystalline and amorphous is intended for human consumption (Ashogbon & Akintayo. 2007. Physical modification of starch granules is simple. imparting different drying. Debon. highly from the amorphous region to the semicrystalline region.1 Physical modification of starch this treatment is to improve the molecular mobility. granule size. ANN Physical modifications of starch can improve its water is associated with a physical reorganization of the starch solubility and reduce the size of the starch granules. The ANN process (or subsequent) drying process. PGS is primarily used as a thickener b) Hydrothermal treatment (HMT). 1998).. occur at temperatures above the T g and below the Tgel of the Native starches show a strong tendency for decomposition and starch granules (Tester & Debon.. The objective of 3. The ANN process is associated with partial gelatinization of starch Tester & Debon (2000) state that the ANN term can only be used when the temperature of the process Pre-gelatinized starch (PGS) does not reach Tgel and therefore gelatinization does not Pre-gelatinized starch (PGS) is starch that has undergone a occur. starch paste characteristics such as texture and plasticity by All of these techniques alter the starch polymer. chemical and enzymatic methods (Yadav et al..g.g. time because many cheaper chemical processes can modify PGS functionality depends on the cooking conditions. regions. due to its ability to form pastes and dissolve in cold of water (typically less than 35% w/w) and a process time water. thermal stability.. the T gel after modification is not cooking process until complete gelatinization and a simultaneous less than the Tgel of the native starch. 2015 221 . 2011). Wurzburg. shear and hydration causes a transition from a glassy to a static irradiation. making them and the starch source (Ashogbon & Akintayo. 2014). making it reducing Tg and consequently relaxing the hydrogen bonds and highly flexible and changing its physicochemical properties and polymer-polymer interactions. heating time determine the results obtained (Tester & esterification. these conditions are present when starch pastes are Several methods have been developed to produce modified drying. physical modification of starch. solubility and cold water dispersion. and this behavior imparts a crystalline develop specific properties such as solubility. and chemical a) Annealing (ANN) is a physical treatment of starch granules modifications introduce functional groups into the starch in which the parameters of moisture. physically modified starches. Hydrothermal modification industries (López et al. 1999). In ANN starch.. The starch modification industry is differentiated into annealing and hydrothermal treatments is constantly evolving. 2013). texture. Physical modification of starch performance improves starches with a variety of characteristics and applications.-Jun.. pH and shear forces. 1998). Most native starches are and chemical properties of the starch without destroying the limited in their direct application because they are unstable granule structure (Zavareze & Dias. of this treatment on the morphological and physicochemical Food Sci. state. adhesion structure to the starch molecule. The main consequence characteristics to products due to an increase in starch of this treatment is the destruction of the granular structure. water (76% w/w) or an intermediate containing water (40% w/w) (Jacobs & Delcour. and the absence of starch to digestion by enzymes such as α-amylase. moisture. Physical methods involve the use of heat and moisture. The use of PGS is preferred in sensible foods because it between 15 min to 16 h (Jacobs & Delcour. Heat treatment involving and tolerance to the heating temperatures used in industrial temperatures between the Tg and melting temperature (Tm) processes (Singh et al. drying starch properties rapidly and selectively. The principal properties of PGS are an there is no justification for its use in terms of energy and increase in swelling capacity. Tgel and the availability of resulting in complete granular fragmentation. temperature and molecule using derivatization reactions (e.. may not alter the double helix conformation or degree of starch crystallinity. Physical modifications with respect to changes in temperature. Starch resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis and consequently lacking in in its native form exhibits amylopectin ramifications by forming functional properties. methods to treat the native granules include: different Water is a suitable plasticizer for starch. Essentially. 2010). 2011). These changes generate tangential biological agents. These techniques do not require chemical or to a crystalline state. crosslinking) or involve breakdown reactions (e.. Meireles 3 Starch modification Hydrothermal modification Starch is rarely consumed in its intact form and frequently This physical modification involves changes in the physical used by industry in its native form.. increasing the mobility of the amorphous regions cheap and safe.. pressure. spray drying and extrusion. This treatment includes in many instantaneous products. 2001). The ANN process requires an excess of hydrolysis and oxidation) (Singh et al.

2015) Suspensiona 33% (w/v) Polylactic acid Suspensiona 40% (w/v) Increase in crystallinity associated with the (Lv et al. Technol. Suspensiona 70. 2013) Treatment (HTM) (Eleocharis dulcis) Time (16 h) the starch pasteb. 75 and 80% (w/v) Cassava (Manihot Temperature Reduction of paste clarity and swelling capacity (Jyothi et al. Yellow sweet potato Temperature Increasing the operating temperature decreased (Putri et al.10 and 14 h) (Maranta Suspensiona 50... 2013) (Eleocharis dulcis) Time (24 h) viscosityb. 2013) Suspensiona 70. 100 and 120 °C) of starches.. 2013) Time (3 h) amylose leaching. 70 and arundinacea). 2014) (Ase jantan) flour (50 and 77 °C) the paste viscosity. 60. process temperature. 2010) Rice starch Time (20 min) flour was more susceptible to modification. Pressure (150 bar) Time (11 min) Ginger: Temperature (200 °C) Turmeric: Temperatures (130. swelling capacity and (Li et al. Ayetigbo. Abr. rice (Wu et al.. 80% (w/v) Ginger and Treatment assisted with high Subcritical water was acidified by CD2.. HMT showed a reduced Purple sweet potato Time (3 and 6 h) swelling capacity in the granules and amylose (Ayamurasaki) flour Suspensiona 70% (w/v) leachingb. Modification of starch was of supercritical fluid and CD2 monitored by sugar production (reducing and extraction-SFE) Suspensiona 33% (w/v) total reducing sugar).. solubility and (Yadav et al. 2014) Drying by drum: temperature (150 viscosityb. (80. starch mixture Hydrothermal Water chestnuts Temperature (110 °C) Reduction of stability. solubility and viscosity of (Yadav et al. 150 and 180 °C) a based on starch dry weight.-Jun. °C). 75 and Acidity during treatment decreased the 80% (w/v) modification time and promoted acid hydrolysis pH (5...6 and 6. 85% (w/v) Sweet potato (Ipomoea batata) Potato Starch Temperature (120 °C) Reduction in swelling capacity of granules and (Kim & Huber. Type of physical Starch source Parameters studied Observed results References modification Pre-Gelatinization Rice flour Temperature (100 °C) The retrogradation process was delayed. Increase in solubility and stabilityb.. 2015 . 222 Food Sci. 75 and to presence of protein in the rice flour. Properties of starches from different sources Table 2. pressure (5 bar) Wheat starch Suspensiona 37% (w/v) Increased solubility. Rice Starch Temperature (100 °C) HMT primarily affected the paste properties of (Puncha-Arnon & Rice flour Time (16 h) rice flour. 2011) starch Drying by double drum: viscosity initiated at 25°Cb. (Majzoobi et al. 2010) esculenta Crantz). Campinas. 2015) (PLA) and Temperature (50. Physical modification of starch. Arrowroot Time (6. 35(2): 215-236. 80. Increased thermal stability commercial corn 100 and 120 °C) and mechanical propertiesb. Suspensiona 70. pressure (5 bar) Hydrothermal modification Annealing Water chestnuts Temperature (65 °C) Reduction of swelling capacity. temperature (158 °C). Suspensiona 35% (w/v) Storage (4 °C /7 days) Drying by lyophilization Commercial wheat Suspensiona 10% (w/v) Increased solubility and swelling capacity. Suspensiona 35% (w/v) Yam starch Temperature (50 °C) Reduction of granule density and swelling (Falade & Time (24 h) capacityb.5) in starch with lower levels of RSb. bcompared to nati ve starch. The authors attributed these differences Uttapap. producing (Moreschi et al. 2006) turmeric (Residues pressure using subcritical water hydrothermolysis.

2007. These alterations temperature. temperature. Depending on the starch source and moisture. 2006. 2008. properties such as the swelling capacity. Hormdok its hygroscopicity. methane or argon in a plasma state. Modification Jamroz. 2014). HMT is also used as a pre-treatment and the characteristics of the starch. ammonia.. pressure (250 bar) showed the opposed behavior. 2011). 2010).) (35 °C).. pressure (300 bar). The high pressure the paste are modified (Luo et al.. 2013.Continued. hydrogen. 1.. Braşoveanu & Nemtanu... the gases used include ethylene. Non-thermal physical modification Zuo et al. Hódsági et al. the modification process reduced Turmeric alcohol.. properties of starch granules include important changes in oxygen. or amylose/amylopectin ratio. frequency. 2012). furnace dimensions and amylopectin. Ultrasound microorganisms and spores. Jyothi et al. Damage to the starch granule is visible as cracks Food Sci. 2008). 2010.e. physicochemical changes generated by HMT are directly influenced by the botanical source of the starch granule Modification of starch using microwaves involves several with respect to its composition and organization of amylose interacting mechanisms. microwaves (Anderson & granule’s shape and size. 10% v/v). The starch surface becomes porous. crystalline structure. Turmeric starch (Curcuma longa L. Wongsagonsup et al. 2013. degree of polymerization and oxidation & Noomhorm. Abr. Campinas. Substantial granule damage occurs during electrons.. while maintaining the the use of high pressure. this technology uses gas in a plasma state and is the Other physical modification methods: grinding and extrusion most recent technology used for starch granule modification (Deeyai et al. 2014). 2013.-Jun. Suspensiona 40% (w/w) a based on starch dry weight. Yu et al.. 2011) and electric pulses. 35(2): 215-236.) Ginger: Co-solvent (isopropyl For ginger. 2014). 2014. 2002).. Type of physical Starch source Parameters studied Observed results References modification Non-hydrothermal Ginger Treatment of SFE using CD2 and a SFE treatment did not alter granule morphology (Braga et al.. Zuo et al.. Alcázar-Alay. temperature (30 °C). paste This treatment modifies the starch in different ways. depends on the sound.5% v/v). Turmeric: Co-solvent (ethanol/isopropyl alcohol (1:1) mixture. 2014). which influence the dielectric properties of the make the granule susceptible to chemical and enzymatic starch (Braşoveanu & Nemtanu. Potato starch Treatment using ultrasound Starches treated by ultrasound showed (Sujka & Wheat starch Medium: Water and alcohol depolymerization of the granules. Tapioca Treatment with argon gas as a During modification.. Technol. Some processes in food production are applied to extend modification by microwave also produces variations in morphology the life of a product using thermic treatments at boiling and crystallinity in the granule (Braşoveanu & Nemtanu. Structural and (Wongsagonsup et al. 2013) Corn starch of the paste propertiesb. ultrasound. air. 2012).. 2012. and Guraya. swelling capacity.. concentration and consequently decreases paste viscosity. such as irradiation. Dther technologies use botanical source of starch) (Zuo et al. excited atoms and protons (Bogaerts et al. gelatinization. two reactions occurred. microwaves results from the rearrangement of starch molecules that generates changes in solubility. Traditional The use of ultrasound is also considered a physical modification treatments cause a loss of some vitamins and nutrients and alter treatment. Tgel and enthalpies (Iida et al. swelling capacity. In the microwave irradiation because of the structural modification into amorphous process.. including properties and retrogradation (Hoover. and shear forces that compress the granule structure For this treatment. 2015 223 . grinding. 2009). This treatment is applied to starches in suspension their organoleptic properties. Water was a better Rice starch medium for starch modification. 2008. (Wongsagonsup et al.. 2006) modification (Zingiber officinale co-solvent. Meireles Table 2. ions. the most important parameters are moisture and and crystalline regions on the granules. solubility and viscosity of Mollekopf et al. temperatures (or even higher) for seconds or minutes. 2014) plasma crosslinking and depolymerization of the starch Medium: Water that may replace the chemical reactions. Non-thermal modification is an and starches that have undergone previous gelatinization alternative to traditional processes that also eliminates pathogenic (Iida et al. Starch modification by modifications and acid hydrolysis (Zavareze & Dias. Non-thermal techniques involve primarily affects the amorphous region. R. temperature Tgel and the maximum viscosity.. Yu et al.. Plasma is an Large-scale extraction of starch from cereals such as wheat ionized gas composed of several types of active ionic species: require grinding. rheological behavior. bcompared to native starch. pressure several times bellow atmospheric pressure (vacuum pressures). Ultrasonic modification technology in industry uses pressure from 400 to 900 MPa. are generated. process time High pressure generally restricts the swelling capacity and and the starch suspension properties (i..

resulting from groups on the starch molecule without affecting the morphology combined treatments of monostarch and distarch phosphates or size distribution of the granules. the reactive is sprayed onto the dry starch during extrusion. 2007)... paper and cosmetics). or iii) phosphated distarch phosphate. also extend to other industries such as plastics (López et al.. Free hydroxyl ions different proportions (Carmona-Garcia et al. ester (Sweedman et al. in the absence of a liquid phase. starch materials are preferred by the textile industry because pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. in this modification. 2013). are subjected to mechanical shearing forces in a relatively low Several agents are used to crosslink native starch: sodium moisture environment (Camire et al. Grinding reduces the crystallinity of Cross-linked starch the amylopectin molecule and its double helix conformation Crosslinking of a polymer occurs when linear or branched severely. vinyl acetate or DSA in the presence of an alkaline catalyst the viscosity peak and results in various changes in starches (NaDH. Properties of starches from different sources in the starch surface. Among modified starches.. 2001). sulfuric or phosphate groups. The reagents used form ether or ester bonds gelatinization. Extrusion increases trimetaphosphate (STMP). Na2CD3) (Wang & Wang. 2014). Starch from different sources. ii) distarch phosphate produced when native starch reacts with STMP or Chemical modification involves the introduction of functional PDCl3. 2015 . biocompatibility and of hydrogen bonds in acetylated starch is restricted due to rapid degradation (Zhang.. Acetylated starch The semi-dry method for cationization involves a mixture of starch and spray reagent prior to the thermal treatment. The extrusion process also affects starch digestibility and can Depending on the reagent used for crosslinking. The introduction of acetyl groups cellulose fibers (Hubbe. for crosslinking modification has an important influence on the 2010). 2002). increases esterification using reactive reagents such as anhydrous acetic acid. The presence preferred for their low cost... Fragmentation of the amylopectin molecule eliminates chains are covalently interconnected and is known as cross-linking restrictions on the swelling capacity. retrogradation and paste properties (López et al. starch molecules in short amounts of time (HTST). 2011). Ca(DH)2. There are several applications reduces the resistance of bonds between the starch molecules. and a reduction in swelling is responsible for the decrease in Cationic starch paste clarity (Kaur et al..e. 2009). Food and non-food industries expand starch properties properties of the final product. the final reduce the RS content (Martínez et al. generate significant changes in starch behavior. The physicochemical properties of the starch branched chains of the starch polymer to produce a specific and granular structure are altered after the cationic process. such as the amylose-lipid complex structure.2 Chemical modification of starch potassium or sodium orthophosphoric or STPP. Koo et al. 2014). thickening. compared to native starch (Berski et al. electrostatic repulsion forces on the starch molecule (Lawal & 224 Food Sci. Abr.. In dry cationic modification. Chemical modifications (Gunaratne & Corke.. The easy gelatinization of the starch granules after with hydroxyl groups in the starch molecules (Singh et al. 2007). 3.-Jun.. Crosslinking in starch increases the Extrusion is defined as a process at high temperatures and degree of polymerization and molecular mass. Table 3 crosslinking modification include the paste clarity and swelling shows examples of different chemical modifications of starch. three-dimensional network. 2006. product is classified in one of three types: i) monostarch phosphate produced by starch esterification with orthophosphoric acid. Acetylation is the more common particularly when the process involves a high degree of substitution. 2006). Its uses trimethyl ammonium chloride (CTA) in dry or wet processes. cationic modified with DSA is an effective emulsifier used in the food. Some authors suggest that both properties are linked. Campinas. excellent fit.. The degree of crosslinking also reduces the moisture. among others (Woo & Seib. 2007. the positive charge introduced in the molecular chains conform DSA adds hydrophobic chains to the hydrophilic structure of to the electrostatic bonds between the negative charges of the starch (Chen et al.. amino. grinding decreases parameters such as T0 and enthalpies in the This modification increases the polymer’s rigidity by forming a final starch product. these changes are with compounds containing tertiary or quaternary ammonium. Technol. In the food present in the native starch molecule are commonly altered industry. wherein starch granules lose water solubility and become soluble in organic solvents. sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP). in water treatment as flocculants Acetylated starch increases the swelling capacity and solubility and as additives in textile products. resulting in native starch The cationic reaction reduces the paste temperature. Starch properties affected by and improve them through chemical modifications. chemical modification method. 35(2): 215-236. gelatinization The source of starch granule. clarity and ammonium chloride (ETMAC) or 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl retrogradation resistance properties of the pastes formed. 1990). 2010). for cationic starches (i. 2010). changing the molecular extension and its epichlorohydrin (ECH) and phosphoryl chloride (PDCl3). KDH. 2002). capacity. Jyothi et al. the Tgel of starch. produced by all of the aforementioned crosslinking agents in imino. cross-linked starch is associated with formulations of using cationic monomers such as 2. methods and parameters used capacity. thereby facilitating subsequent or cross-ligation. associations. lipids and proteins Cationic starches are generally produced by reacting starch associated with the native starch granule. Acetylation is a modification of polymeric starch molecules Wet cationization includes a homogeneous reaction with through the introduction of functional acetylated groups dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSD) or a heterogeneous reaction in (CH3CD) that react with free hydroxyl groups present in the alkaline solution.3-epoxypropyl trimethyl frozen products due to its stabilizing.

Commercial corn starch Hydrothermal pretreatment: Suspensiona Pretreatment increased (Chen et al.. Alcázar-Alay. Chemical modifications of starch. Reduction in surface tension. temperature of the paste and viscosity at high temperature..3-epoxypropil size and fragmentation.0) produced on the granule surfacea. Decrease in paste Chemical reactive: Dctenyl succinic temperaturea. 2002) wheat. 35(2): 215-236. Food Sci. Reduction in starch granule (Liu et al. caused by both pretreatmentsa. 2015) Chemical reactive: 2.. Catalyst: Sodium hydroxide.3) the Tgel and enthalpies of Time (5-24 h) starch pastea.. Commercial potato starch Pretreatment: enzymatic hydrolysis and Increase in solubility and (Kapelko et al. Time (1 h) lower temperatures gave better Amination agents: putrescine. 60 and 62 °C) granules and the peak of Time (3 h) viscosity. Commercial corn and wheat Starch suspension (50 g / 70 ml of water) Researchers studied the (Kahraman et al. Acetylation Commercial potato starch Pretreatment: gelatinization and Increased resistance to (Zięba et al. Dat starch Chemical reactive: anhydrous acetic acid Reduction in amylose content. a when compared with native starch. increase in the swelling capacity of starch granules. Catalyst: Sodium hydroxide.. histamine. cadaverine and tyramine. Due Temperature (100 °C) to sensible amine structures. Abr..5 -12. viscosity increase at high temperatures. 2014) Chemical reactive: DSA. 2013) Chemicals reactive to halogenation: effects of amine groups in Epichlorohydrin and hydrochloric acid. (Berski et al. Type of chemical Starch source Parameters studied Observed results References modification Cationization Waxy maize starch Esterification reaction. Technol. 2015) starch 12% mixture of STMP:STPP (99:1) application of parameters such 10% sodium sulfate. Meireles Table 3. 57. and potato. Acetylation effects were directly dependent on the pretreatment. Temperature (35 °C) impregnation.. 2011) retrogradation enzymatic action over Chemical reactive: anhydrous acetic acid. corn. Commercial starches from Starch suspension (≈33%. cationization reactions. 80 and 100 °C) Time (4. rice. (99:1) RS produced was less water- Temperature (25-70 °C) soluble at 95 °C and increased pH (10. Esterification reaction is pH (9. 2013) extrusion decrease in swelling capacity Chemical reactive: anhydrous acetic acid. Catalyst: sodium hydroxide. 52. retrograded starch. At higher pH. and rapid development of viscosity at cooling temperaturesa. w/w) RS production was ≤ 100% in (Woo & Seib. 8 and 12 h) Crosslinking Dat starch Chemical reactive: Sodium tripolyphosphate Reduction in the amylose (Berski et al. 2014) 65% (w/v) the swelling capacity of Temperature (48. Temperature (60. 2011) Catalyst: Sodium hydroxide. Rapid development of viscosity upon coolinga. trimethyl ammonium chloride (EDMAC). banana Chemical reactive: mixture of STMP:STPP all studied materials. anhydride (DSA). wetting and Time (2 h) diffusion of starch in textile fibersa. Commercial corn starch Chemical modification Improved performance of (Zhang et al. Commercial potato starch Halogenation and amination reactions. 2015 225 .. as temperature and pH to Temperature (38-70 °C) produce RS. Campinas. Researchers studied the (Anthony & Sims. oat.-Jun. the pH (10-12) RS production was increased Time (3 h) for both starches. results. 2011) (STPP) and sodium phosphate (STMP) content due to alkaline conditions. starch for textile applications.

Temperature (35 °C) Increase in solubility. w/v) Oxidation Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) Starch suspension: 35% (w/w. Dual Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) Chemical modifications: oxidation and Increase in paste claritya. Campinas.36 and 0. Type of chemical Starch source Parameters studied Observed results References modification Acid hydrolysis Wheat (30% starch) Acid solutions: chlorhydric acid and sulfuric Hydrolysis reduced granule (Ulbrich et al. 2013) alkali treatment. Dat Starch Chemical reactive: sodium hypochlorite.1 N). oxidation.5 N).. 2015 . 2013) Potato peel (industrial Medium of dispersion: i) neutral water. Granule surface was highly (Ali & Hasnain.. dry basis). Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) Acid solution: chlorhydric acid (0. Reduction in viscosity at high temperature and faster development of viscosity upon coolinga. 2011) molecules due to amylopectin depolymerization. 2012) acid and acetic anhydride and ii) Azelaic retrogradation tendency. dry basis). dry basis) acid (0. Amylopectin (84. dry basis). Increase in Time (192 h).5% (w/w. Decrease in swelling capacity (Ali & Hasnain. granules. Time (1. Apparent increase in linear (Berski et al. Breakdown or fragmentation Temperature (27 °C) of granules. each source. 1 M) method in acidified water showed the highest degree of depolymerization. 35(2): 215-236. acid and acetic anhydride Increase in paste stability during storage. generated several damages Chemical reactive for oxidation: sodium to the surfaces of the starch hypochlorite. reduction in gel formationa. molecular mass of granules.9% starch. Amaranth starch Acid solution: chlorhydric acid (0. dry basis).72 N). Wheat starch Chemical reactive: mixtures of i) succinic Decreased Tgel and (Šubarić et al. Ultrasound alkaline water (sodium hydroxide. amylopectin depolymerization Temperature (40 °C) increased the quantity of linear Time (4 and 24 h) chains similar to amylose. Neutralization with sodium hydroxide (10%. porous. 2014) Chemical reactive: sodium hypochlorite. the quantity of linear chains (89. ii) was quantified by reducing residue) acidified water (sulfuric acid. hydrolysis was different for Commercial potato starch Starch suspension: 2. pH (9..5% starch. 2014) Potato (25% starch) acid (0. and viscosity of the pastea. (Ali & Hasnain.. favoring gel formation and its strength. Catalyst: Sodium hydroxide. swelling capacitya.5 h). 226 Food Sci. The Peas (38% starch) Starch suspension: 40% (w/w. Starch depolymerization (Hernoux et al.5) Time (10 min) Commercial potato starch Comparison between microwave use and Decrease in the viscoelastic (Ptaszek et al. size and paste viscosity. Commercial wheat starch Acid solutions: chlorhydric acid and sulfuric Modification of starch by acid (Ulbrich et al. Increase in granule density. Yam starch Acid solution: chlorhydric acid (6%. Abr. (Falade & Ayetigbo. dry basis). Commercial corn starch Chemical modifications: oxidation and Combined treatments (Spier et al.. Reduction in size and (Kong et al. Technol.3% starch. 3 M) and iii) sugar production. 2015) (87. a when compared with native starch. dry basis). 2014) modifications acetylation.-Jun. Microwave uses are Catalyst: sodium tungstate (Na2WD4•2H2D) not significantly difference from the conventional method.72 N). making them more Alkaline reactive: sodium hydroxide.. Properties of starches from different sources Table 3.. reducing its swelling Temperature (50 °C) capacitya. favoring gel formation and its strength. and Time (0-72 h).. susceptible to enzymatic hydrolysis. dry basis) similar to amylose. w/v). properties of the paste due to Chemical reactive: hydrogen peroxide. 2013) conventional oxidation. dry basis) Temperature (21 °C) depolymerization increased Commercial pea starch Time (4 and 24 h). 2014) Starch suspension: 40% (w/w.. 2012) Starch suspension: 66% (w/w. Potato Application of ultrasound and microwave..Continued.36 and 0. 2015) Starch suspension: 1/2 (w/v.

and its Most polysaccharides of interest for nutrition (e.. breaking the α-1. Today. H2SD4. The use of dilute acid the small intestine by enzymes from the pancreas. degree of crystallinity.g. starch modified by oxidation (Conde-Petit et al. 1995). 2010. 2000). phosphorylation assisted by high the starch granule. texturizers and encapsulation (Ashogbon & Akintayo. This new approach involves the agents (Elomaa et al. amylose chain is also known as acid hydrolysis (Amaya-Llano et al. the structural characteristics of the food and the dioxide (Sánchez-Rivera et al. 2005). 2004). 2010). hydroxyl groups and Dual modifications anhydrous glucose have been converted to acetylated groups Dual modifications include chemical modifications and (Huang et al. Wang presence of other components such as soluble dietary fiber & Wang. starch was considered completely digested after The hydrolysis rate and starch modification are in proportion cooking. These authors concluded that H3PD4 produced alone or combined. 2001). been used in industry to optimize modified starch functionality adherents.e.01-0. per-acetic acid. During oxidation. The mechanism of acid modification between components. Degradation solutions for starch modification improves gel consistency and products of amylose are maltose and maltotriose. Huang et al. corn.g. polysaccharides HND3. whereas reduces paste viscosity due to depolymerization of the starch amylopectin degradation produces dextrins and oligomers formed granule (Pérez & Bertoft. Acid modification methods involve the application 4 Resistant starch (RS) of acidic solutions (commonly HCl and H2SD4) to form a Starch is quantitatively the major source of energy in the concentrated paste (35–40% of solids) at a temperature below human diet. chromic acid and nitrogen complexes). Acetylated starch with a low degree of different types of modifications combined. retrogradation and formation of amylose permanganate. paper. granules (Cummings & Englyst.. the small intestine in healthy individuals (Champ et al. all of these polymers are degraded to glucose by enzymes such as Another important process for starch modification is α-glycosidase and oligo-α-1.. (Adebowale & Lawal.. 2008. 2015). Food Sci. H3PD4).. 2003).-Jun. 2005). Dual modifications have substitution (0. Meireles Adebowale. acetylation/oxidation. 2001). Until the end of the intestine is reached.6-glucosidase. Alcázar-Alay. Acetylation modified assisted by microwave. starch.. a lower hydrolysis rate. agglutinants and thickeners. it is important to maintain the appropriate Factors that affect starch digestibility include the structural parameters. Singh & Ali (2000) studied dextrin. 2010). textile and pharmaceutical industries (Hoover. Products of acid modification have several applications and uses in the food.. Technol. of the dietary fiber fraction of food (Conde-Petit et al.. considerably compared to native starch.2) has several applications in conforming films. metals in the non-food industry (Ashogbon & Akintayo. granule size. glycogen and cellulose) are unions of glucose units. degree of molecular association & Charoenrein. 2008). After acid hydrolysis. 2015). The reactive oxidants characteristics of the starch (i.. Starches modified by two chemical methods. Ulbrich et al. Thirathumthavorn amylose/amylopectin ratio. Sandhu et al. by α-1. Glucose absorption oxidation. Bello-Pérez et al. stabilizers.6 links and shortening the polymeric chains. 2003). 2001). dual chemical modifications involve two increasing the solubility and swelling capacity of banana starch processes of chemical modification (e. conversion degree (Amaya-Llano et al.. either tapioca and potato.. Acetylated banana starch crosslinking/acetylation. Acid hydrolysis reduces the amylose content in enzymes present in saliva. 35(2): 215-236. 2005. sodium hypochlorite. 2009. 2015 227 . most starch is digested in and gelatinization enthalpies (Lawal. and depolymerize the molecule (Kuakpetoon & Wang. Abr. Until recently. crystallinity increases (Zuo et al. whereas HCl and HND3 resulted in a higher reduction in molecular mass and consequently a higher Starch digestion begins in the mouth.6 linkages. 2014). As a group. including the vegetal source. 2010). differing only in the type of linkage. peas. and this reflects an increase in paste temperature until reaching the stomach. 2002.. (2000) studied combination of chemical and physical agents (e. such as temperature and pH.. Campinas. reaction rate and a subsequent stage in which hydrolysis occurs in the crystalline region at a slower rate (Wang & Wang.g. Acid hydrolysis specifically interacting with amylose to form complexes and of starch develops in two stages: an early stage in which hydrolysis reduce starch digestibility because their presence decreases preferentially attacks the amorphous regions of granules at a high enzymatic hydrolysis by amylase (Taylor et al. Other methods of chemical modification such as emulsifiers.. may contain monosaccharides in addition to glucose. potassium degree of gelatinization. where it is subject to bacterial fermentations. thickeners. the starch sources were wheat.. the molecular mass of the starch granules decreases. a process in which functional groups such as carboxyl is followed by an immediate increase in glucoses levels in blood and carbonyl groups are introduced in the starch molecule (Perera et al. with α-amylase hydrolysis rate. decreasing the retrogradation tendency and pressures). 2004). 2000).. as well as to the size and some of starch crosses the colon. However.. the influence of various acids used in starch modification (HCl. crosslinking/hydroxypropylation) also increased the paste viscosity. 2001). 2008. acetylation the acetylation process in banana starches. In recent years. 2014). this indigestible starch is recognized as part conformation of granules (Hoover. used include hydrogen peroxide. Lipids are fatty acids 1. the amylose:amylopectin ratio. 2005)... length and presence of amylose-lipid complexes on starch Hydrolysis is produced randomly. Specifically. In acetylated starch. Enzyme activity is partially preserved starch granules. Carmona-Garcia et al. Starch digestibility is attributed to the interaction Tg for a specific duration depending on the desired viscosity or of several factors.4 and α. are commonly used in the food industry and are included as adsorbents of heavy The oldest chemical modification technique is acid modification.. 2014). RS is defined as the sum of starch or has had great use in the food industry to form adherent surfaces the sum of starch degradation products that are not absorbed by and coatings (Lawal et al. This concept has been challenged by observations that to the amylose:amylopectin ratio.

Yao et al. 2001). 2011). unconventional starches are often ignored or effect that benefits human health (Fuentes-Zaragoza et al. 2006.e. 1998. The second reduced calories. shearing operations or mimetic agents of fats because of their organoleptic characteristics and texture (D’Silva et al. 35(2): 215-236. Starch provides 70 . 2007). consists of gelatinized starch (i. 2009. 2011). lipids and phosphate groups are also important bioactive compounds. Banana starch is resistant to digestive enzymes The first group (RS I) is the product of treatments in which starch (Faisant et al. Abr..-Jun. properties and digestibility of banana starch. way to impact starch properties is by mixing different types of The scientific interest in RS has increased significantly in recent native and/or physically modified starch (Sandhu et al. commonly derived from grains or seeds (wheat. Butyrate as enabling improvements in the starch properties and pastes. tubers (potato) and roots (cassava) (Buléon et al. Starch present in chickpeas and beans temperatures of gelatinization are recognized as RS V.. 2009). starch source is cheaper than the conventional source. which increase the technological and differences in the characteristics of conventional and unconventional nutritive value (Braga et al. Jiang et al. cooling and storage increased the sensory quality of the product. which makes its use viable and competitive is physically inaccessible and the breakdown of the granular in a market of low-carb food consumption and products with structure does not occur (Hasjim & Jane. These properties suggest treatments involving (Santana & Meireles.. 2014). chemical modifications of starch remain necessary. decades because of its capacity to produce high levels of butyrate Waterschoot et al. is the most important energy source for colonocytes and has also provides economic advantages when the replacement demonstrated beneficial effects on metabolism and cell growth. starch is the most abundant and for incorporation into gluten-free pastes because this feature important digestible polysaccharide. RS III English cake and compared their behavior in this product. this amount calories consumed by humans worldwide.. 2015 . Additionally. 2010). 2011. legumes and tubers grown in Africa.. The use of these mixtures. the starch has Almeida et al. starches.. There are significant differences in modifications and improving the physicochemical properties the starch properties of these conventional groups in addition and characteristics of the paste conformation.. These starches are subjected to unit operations The overall starch market is continually expanding. 2015a). (2013) studied the use of unconventional lost its crystalline conformation and is composed primarily of amylose). is formed during starch retrogradation. Properties of starches from different sources RS is divided into five types that have been substantially is comparable to starch in the endosperm of corn grains and affected by the transformation process (Homayouni et al. 2012)... potato and cassava. and Zhang et al. As food. Technol. to commercial starch in terms of the technological quality of Starch containing amylose-lipid complexes and requiring high the paste during beating. physicochemical barley).. 1995.80% of the bananas contains between 70-80% starch (dry basis). Starch from beans. and the that often involve thermal or hydrothermal treatments.. 2015b). as well throughout the colon (Fuentes-Zaragoza et al. The RS is undigested starch that reaches the end of the digestive Today... making them an interesting alternative used to develop new processes and consequently new products for industry.. this type is very common in most starchy foods starches and commercial starches in the manufacturing of (Fuentes-Zaragoza et al.. rhizomes. raw to the differences in their amylose-amylopectin ratios and the materials from the extraction processes remain in the extraction characteristics of these molecules. Campinas. However.. which occurs after Unconventional starches incorporated into this formulation manufacturing in the presence of water. RS II. system. (Sanz et al. functionality of starch mixtures (Waterschoot et al. The starches in food are helps to maintain the texture of the product. Pulp in immature Waterschoot et al. alterations in the structural characteristics of the starch and physical corn. terms of sensory properties. group. causing current demand is covered by four conventional sources: wheat. texture and moisture. 2010. Starches present in legumes. wasted during the isolation or separation of bioactive compounds from raw materials such as seeds and legumes (Braga et al.. 2003). slightly porous surfaces and properties are improved by modification treatments and may be special paste properties. Fermentation The industry requires these chemical processes to meet the products from the RS are short chain fatty acids with different demand of consumers favoring natural products.. 1995). The starch in the same manner as starches from cereals and tuber due to granules of certain cereals and beans possessed the common their similar physicochemical and functional properties. which is showed similar characteristics to that of commercial starch in water insoluble (Cummings & Englyst. 2015b) and The RS associated with small chains of fructooligosaccharides the use of unconventional starches. Non-amylosic components residues including the starch fraction and a small fraction of such proteins. rice. 5 Unconventional starches Yuan et al. Santana & Meireles.. 2014). 2011).. A simple physiological and probiotic effects (Conde-Petit et al. it also inhibits a variety of factors that propagate the initiation. yielded better results compared to produce gelling and emulsification agents result in RS IV. These characteristics of small size. act synergistically in the digestive system to cause a prebiotic Currently. 2009). potato pulp.. Chemical modifications followed by Peruvian carrots. corn. 2014). which makes it suitable carbon and energy. 2006. there are limited studies on the physicochemical properties and progression and growth of colon tumors (Champ et al. herbs and seeds are Emmambux & Taylor (2013) studied the starch properties considered unconventional and may be used as ingredients of cereals. 228 Food Sci. 6 Starch applications in the food industry Wokadala et al. Starch from beans (Vigna unguiculata) The biological function of starch in plants is as a reserve of had a very high degree of retrogradation. where it is the substrate of fecal microflora. (2005) studied the production. Dn the other hand.

Edible films have received much attention plastic polymer production. Because of its content In the formulations of the baking industry. and brittle films due to its cyclic structure. sweeteners. the branched structure imparts poor strength and abrasion.. starch is capable of forming an inclusion complex components responsible for the structure and properties of the with many food ingredients.. 1998). the starch granule is composed of 25% amylose and advantageous because they reduce protection. flavors. where starch is used to adjust the polyhydroxy-compounds. oxidation and the movement production (Bourtoom. Dther industrial processes include starch in small and flavoring ingredients. 2013. emulsifying ability and film formation and elongation (Bourtoom. gel formation and films versatility of starch and introduced it to new markets. It therefore acts as an encapsulant quantities as a food additive or a thickening and gelling agent. Dhall. starch functions as a structural agent because of 7 Starch destined for non-food applications the modifications introduced during manufacturing. Starch packaging applications (Jiménez et al.-Jun. gums and films (Ellis et al. 1998). starch films are also used during with flexible. 2012). Starch granule size. The amylopectin molecule cannot minimizes the adhesion of synthetic fibers. When this occurs. Alcázar-Alay. Dhall. 2013). increase friction 75% amylopectin. Their main disadvantage lies in their mechanical and in a Maillard reaction and cause bleaching. Edible films are disadvantage because the main feature of plastics films is their produced from renewable materials. During manufacturing. chitosan. for hydrophilic polymers.. This property is also used such as starch. antioxidants and For new industrial applications of starch. making it a thermoplastic material involving starch pastes for mechanical manipulation.. the paper. 2013). the use of a plasticizer. amylose is the most important fraction in starch granules. Meireles As food.. For these textile production as fiber coatings. Native starch forms rigid reasons. a type of bonding agent to active drugs. adhesion. Processes such as viscosity of the mud used during drilling operations. and urea. polyether. the linear configuration of polymers can produce films In the textile industry. the properties of plasticizers in the film composition improves the barrier against its components and the relationships between them increase their moisture exchange and restricts microbial activity. 2014). Starch solutions are viscous. are glycerol and other low-molecular weight in the oil drilling industry. starch is a chemical feedstock for conversion into numerous An important utilization of starch in the food industry products with considerable value (Ellis et al. films are incorporated as plasticizers. moisture retention.. Among the bakery products. 2008.. 2008). affecting the tensile adequately form films. 2013). is in baking flour. Starch New processing techniques and the current demands of is used in the food industry mainly as a modifier of texture. 35(2): 215-236. corrugated and textile industries (Ellis et al. Wheat starch is typically to pollution because their degradation is faster than synthetic associated with a significant amount of protein. a wet method that includes a starch suspension and posterior drying or a dry method that involves a thermoplastic process In the food industry. 1998). its form and associated together with coated food and otherwise do not contribute molecules influence film production. this type permeable properties (Bourtoom. Differences between the amount and type of lipids used in edible film preparation is incorporated to partially or originally present in the native starch may cause two starches with completely replace the plastic polymers. pretreatment. Brittle films are not Typically. especially in antimicrobials. 2008). 2015 229 . which can be reused many times. starch is one of the of amylose. transparent and oil resistant properties. The basic materials of starch is not used in to manufacture biodegradable plastics used to produce edible films are cellulose. which may result films. Starch is commonly modified to improve mechanical properties to the film. (Zhang et al. starch. Starch is often used in granular form and is thus is included Plastics obtained from oil are being replaced by natural in the confectionery industry as a molding powder for the polymers. and increases the shelf life of products. Abr. therefore. such as viscosity (Ellis et al.. Food Sci. The starch importance. colors. The polarity of native starch amylose content (≥ 70%). or a combination of these change the viscosity of other solutions and pastes is well known treatments. 2008. cakes and In the pharmaceutical industry. Edible films require starches with a high and thus damage the thread. and the ability of starch to genetic or chemical modification. Furthermore. starch is used as an excipient. mixture with other materials. gas exchange. they can be consumed hydrophobic property. Native starch does not the same amylose-amylopectin ratio to have different physical produce films with adequate mechanical properties and requires properties. while maintaining their organoleptic properties López et al. Technol. fatty acids final products.. 1998). such as that is also suitable for the production of edible films (Dhall. (Waterschoot et al. The use of destruction of its structure. 2015a). Modified starches can also be used in film moisture transfer. and exploited in the food industry. Highly extrusion adjust the parameters of temperature and mechanical viscous starch solutions are desirable for industrial processes energy over the starch paste. of solutes. starch is known for its ability to form films in food various forms of sweets. breads are the most important due to their high consumption. Edible and is also used in the preparation of diverse types of pasta in the biodegradable starch films can be obtained from native starch or preparation of noodles and those intended for extrusion and in its components amylose or amylopectin by two main techniques: the formulation of instant foods and fried foods.. biodegradable and renewable resources have highlighted the viscosity. edible films are barriers that prevent (Paes et al. 2010) (Dhall. the hygroscopicity of starch is a due to their advantages over synthetic films. Polysaccharides are typically hygroscopic and therefore Many industrial processes use starch after partial or complete are poor barriers to moisture and gas exchange. reducing its tensile strength the physical properties. Campos et al. Among the plasticizers. Campinas. 2011. such as essential oils.

viscosity The starch industry is in constant expansion. 50 to 60% of chemical products in formulations for powder Physical modifications of starch consist of three categories. 8 Conclusions. 2010). Most native increases the swelling capacity. Not all starch is digestible. Chemical modifications of native starch by altering its physicochemical properties and such as crosslinking are used to increase the amount of RS. for each botanical source) in the presence of water. Starch is rarely consumed in its native form. Depending on cost and accessibility. and the indigestible portion is part Modification processes can greatly improve the characteristics of the fraction of dietetic fiber or RS. Starch will play HTM. 1998). Hydrothermal modifications reduce the form of biodegradable materials that conform to suitable starch solubility. reduce the degree of Several methods have been developed for the production of polymerization of starch and the paste viscosity. restricted solubility in water.. 35(2): 215-236. modifying its solubility in organic solvents and reducing its swelling capacity. Starch and these starches are included in paper and textile processes. Abr. The amylose and amylopectin polymers. However.. w/w). In starch to other polymers (Bourtoom. lipids. granules and pastes. increasing the swelling capacity and have unique properties due to their nano size compared to reducing the degree of polymerization. Campinas. 230 Food Sci. but also for its broad technological the morphology or granule size distribution. they include cold water solubility. Applications of starch modification is constantly evolving. characteristics depend on the modification used and are necessary for its use in industry. Two processes for the latter modification were considered: ANN. When starch is physically or loss of structural order after gelatinization and consequent chemically modified. pastes. and there are several ways to modify its structure and of unconventional starches and vegetal residues containing obtain a functional product with adequate properties for specific starch in industry. and modification and swelling capacity after cooking. Physical modification of starch can enhance its water solubility Determining the required characteristics of starch for each process and reduce the size of the starch granules. shear and irradiation. chemically modified starch behaves properly Tg and below Tgel of the granule (these parameters are different under these conditions (Ellis et al. which requires The production of biodegradable plastics is still young when water in intermediate quantities or excess (40-76%. pressure. solubility. structural attributes and increasing its technological value. Industrial processes such as grinding and extrusion also physically modify starch granules. modifications reduce the viscosity and increase the In recent years. An estimated or biological agents that may be harmful to health. swelling capacity and amylose leaching and matrices because it is a relatively inexpensive material compared increase the crystallinity and Tgel of the starch granules. it can be adapted for different purposes syneresis of systems conformed by starch. inexpensive and safe.. market trends. Dhall. increasing its added value. and compared to the petrochemical plastic industry. ii) Hydrothermal modifications do not pastes and or subjected to high shear velocity or longer heating destroy the granular structure and occur at temperatures above periods. 2006). Microwaves modify conventional size materials. the use industrial applications. vacuum pressures gelatinized starch (Le Corre et al. Nanoparticles can be used as fill the dielectric properties of starch and its morphology and material in filtration and form effective barriers in flexible crystallinity. Dther chemical modifications. starch has been studied for the production stability. which destroys the granular structure and High viscosity is important in the adhesive field. temperature and moisture. The use of high pressure reduces acid hydrolysis or for the production of nanoparticles from the swelling capacity and viscosity of starch. Physical methods is necessary to select the best modification method according for the treatment of native granules include combinations of to the application requirements. These modification new generation of detergents in which the surfactants and bleaching techniques are preferred because they do not require chemical components are derived entirely from starch. which uses a restricted water content in a dispersion an important role in its growth in container production and in medium (≤ 35%. processes increase its versatility. Starch is a highly flexible modifications (physical or chemical) can increase the use polymer. w/w). Cationization functionality.-Jun. increasing its not commonly used in industry because native starches have swelling capacity and solubility. such as acid hydrolysis and oxidation. detergents and 65 to 75% of liquid detergent formulations could i) PGS is produced by cooking until complete gelatinization with be substituted with products derived from starch. perspectives and future trends Chemical modification of starch involves the introduction Starch has a major role in the food industry not only in of functional groups to the starch molecule without affecting for its nutritional value. subsequent drying. which limits industrial applications. retrogradation tendency. 2013). 2008. of conventional starch can be replaced in whole or in part by unconventional starches in industrial processes when appropriate. viscosity and dispersion starches do not maintain a stable viscosity when transformed to capacity in cold water. modifies the dielectric properties of granules depending on proteins and phosphorus present in granules have significant their substitution degree. Physical structural characteristics and cost. modified starch. and ultrasound modifies the swelling capacity of packaging (Bondeson et al. Properties of starches from different sources Several studies have concluded that is possible to produce a modification is simple. These nano compounds have the opposite effect. Technol. Crosslinking of polymeric chains increases starch. with a variety of features and applications. this form is also Acetylation results in the esterification of starch. availability. 2015 . reducing the paste temperature and effects on the physicochemical properties and functionality of increasing its viscosity. the degree of polymerization in starch granules. The industry of starch in food and/or non-food industries. iii) Physical non-thermal modifications are preserve of nanoelements as nanocrystals that result from the breakdown the quality of nutrients that may be contained in the starch paste of the amorphous region in semicrystalline starch granules by and are susceptible to heat.

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