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TOPIC: EFFECTS OF SMOKING

How does smoking affect my bones?
Recent studies show a direct relationship between tobacco use and decreased bone density. Smoking is one of
many factors—including weight, alcohol consumption, and activity level—that increase your risk for
osteoporosis, a condition in which bones weaken and become more likely to fracture.

Significant bone loss has been found in older women and men who smoke. Quitting smoking appears to reduce
the risk for low bone mass and fractures. However, it may take several years to lower a former smoker’s risk.

In addition, smoking from an early age puts women at even higher risk for osteoporosis. Smoking lowers the
level of the hormone estrogen in your body, which can cause you to go through menopause earlier, boosting your
risk for osteoporosis.

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How does smoking affect my heart and blood vessels?
The chemicals in tobacco smoke harm your blood cells and damage the function of your heart. This damage
increases your risk for:

Atherosclerosis, a disease in which a waxy substance called plaque builds up in your arteries
Aneurysms, which are bulging blood vessels that can burst and cause death
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which includes:
Coronary heart disease (CHD), narrow or blocked arteries around the heart
Heart attack and damage to your arteries
Heart-related chest pain
High blood pressure
Coronary Heart disease, where platelets—components in the blood—stick together along with proteins for form
clots which can then get stuck in the plaque in the walls of arteries and cause heart attacks
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD), a condition in which plaque builds up in the arteries that carry blood to the
head, organs, and limbs
Stroke, which is sudden death of brain cells caused by blood clots or bleeding
Breathing tobacco smoke can even change your blood chemistry and damage your blood vessels. As you inhale
smoke, cells that line your body’s blood vessels react to its chemicals. Your heart rate and blood pressure go up
and your blood vessels thicken and narrow.

How does smoking affect my lungs and breathing?
Every cigarette you smoke damages your breathing and scars your lungs. Smoking causes:

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease that gets worse over time and causes wheezing,
shortness of breath, chest tightness, and other symptoms
Emphysema, a condition in which the walls between the air sacs in your lungs lose their ability to stretch and
shrink back. Your lung tissue is destroyed, making it difficult or impossible to breathe.
Chronic bronchitis, which causes swelling of the lining of your bronchial tubes. When this happens, less air flows
to and from your lungs.
Pneumonia
Asthma
Tuberculosis
People with asthma can suffer severe attacks when around cigarette smoke.

Can smoking affect my vision?
Smoking is as bad for your eyes as it is for the rest of your body. Research has linked smoking to an increased risk
of developing age-related macular degeneration, cataract, and optic nerve damage, all of which can lead to
blindness.

About 70 of them are known to cause cancer. and is known to cause cancer in the: Lungs Trachea Bronchus Esophagus Oral Cavity Lip Nasopharynx Nasal Cavity Larynx Stomach Bladder Pancreas Kidney Liver Uterine Cervix Colon Rectum In addition. Surveillance is key Good monitoring tracks the extent and character of the tobacco epidemic and indicates how best to tailor policies. illness and impoverishment The tobacco epidemic is one of the biggest public health threats the world has ever faced.and middle-income countries. Back to top Do cigarettes cause cancer? Tobacco smoke contains more than 7. which is caused by the nicotine that is absorbed through the skin from the handling of wet tobacco leaves. More than 6 million of those deaths are the result of direct tobacco use while around 890 000 are the result of non-smokers being exposed to second-hand smoke. children from poor households are frequently employed in tobacco farming to provide family income. Smoking cigarettes is the number-one risk factor for lung cancer.  Tobacco kills more than 7 million people each year. smoking can affect your entire body. Nearly 80% of the more than 1 billion smokers worldwide live in low. raise the cost of health care and hinder economic development. killing more than 7 million people a year. monitors tobacco use by repeating nationally representative youth and adult surveys at least once every 5 years. In some countries. Tobacco users who die prematurely deprive their families of income. Leading cause of death. But. Only 1 in 3 countries. More than 6 million of those deaths are the result of direct tobacco use while around 890 000 are the result of non-smokers being exposed to second-hand smoke. smoking is known to cause leukemia. Second-hand smoke kills .  Nearly 80% of the world's more than 1 billion smokers live in low. representing one third of the world's population.000 chemicals. where the burden of tobacco- related illness and death is heaviest. Key facts  Tobacco kills up to half of its users. These children are especially vulnerable to "green tobacco sickness".and middle-income countries.

Among smokers who are aware of the dangers of tobacco. There is no cessation assistance of any kind in one quarter of low-income countries. https://betobaccofree. including coronary heart disease and lung cancer. with some countries experiencing a decline in consumption of up to 16%. For example. Smoke-free laws protect the health of non-smokers.3 billion people.  In 2004.  Only 29 countries. In pregnant women. promotion and sponsorship can reduce tobacco consumption. Every person should be able to breathe tobacco-smoke-free air. Second-hand smoke is the smoke that fills restaurants. it causes low birth weight. are popular. Ad bans lower consumption Bans on tobacco advertising. promotion and sponsorship.or middle-income countries.  Almost half of children regularly breathe air polluted by tobacco smoke in public places. Picture warnings work Hard-hitting anti-tobacco advertisements and graphic pack warnings – especially those that include pictures – reduce the number of children who begin smoking and increase the number of smokers who quit. There are more than 4000 chemicals in tobacco smoke.  In adults. promotion and sponsorship. Singapore and Thailand consistently show that pictorial warnings significantly increase people's awareness of the harms of tobacco use. most want to quit. Graphic warnings can persuade smokers to protect the health of non-smokers by smoking less inside the home and avoiding smoking near children. National comprehensive cessation services with full or partial cost-coverage are available to assist tobacco users to quit in only 24 countries. Over 1. offices or other enclosed spaces when people burn tobacco products such as cigarettes.html http://www. meet the best practice for pictorial warnings.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs339/en/ .  Around 1 country in 3 has minimal or no restrictions at all on tobacco advertising. a 2009 survey in China revealed that only 38% of smokers knew that smoking causes coronary heart disease and only 27% knew that it causes stroke. which includes the warnings in the local language and cover an average of at least half of the front and back of cigarette packs.who.  Second-hand smoke causes more than 890 000 premature deaths per year. In infants. Only 42 countries. Counselling and medication can more than double the chance that a smoker who tries to quit will succeed. There is no safe level of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke.hhs. representing 19% of the world's population. of which at least 250 are known to be harmful and more than 50 are known to cause cancer. it causes sudden death. Studies carried out after the implementation of pictorial package warnings in Brazil. or 18% of the world's population. representing 12% of the world’s population. have completely banned all forms of tobacco advertising. Canada. second-hand smoke causes serious cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. do not harm business and encourage smokers to quit. promotion and sponsorship could decrease tobacco consumption by an average of about 7%. Mass media campaigns can also reduce tobacco consumption by influencing people to protect non-smokers and convincing youths to stop using tobacco.gov/health-effects/smoking-health/index. representing 15% of the world's population. Over half of the world's population live in the 39 countries that have aired at least 1 strong anti-tobacco mass media campaign within the last 2 years.  A comprehensive ban on all tobacco advertising. Most of these countries are low. are protected by comprehensive national smoke-free laws. Tobacco users need help to quit Studies show that few people understand the specific health risks of tobacco use. bidis and water-pipes. children accounted for 28% of the deaths attributable to second-hand smoke.