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AIR CONDITIONING

- Candidate’s Name: Syed Hassan Hussainy


- Student ID: SUKD-1504571
- Group: I
- Lecturer: Vin Cen Tai
- Date of Experiment: 08-11-2017
- Submission: 15-11-2017
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING & BUILT ENVIRONMENT
SUBJECT: EME3431 LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS 4
EXPERIMENT 2: AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM

1.0 ABSTRACT:

To summarize the experiment done, the heating and cooling effects of the air conditioning
system is determined respectively. At the start of the experiment, the blower is switched on to allow the
heater to proceed with the process. Once it’s done, the temperature and relative humidity was recorded at
the inlet (ATI, AH1) and (AT2, AH2) of the pre-heater after the process was stabilized. This helped
measure the differential pressure reading of the pitot tube followed by different temperature (TO, TI2, TT3,
TT4) and the pressure (PI, P2) respectively. The experiments were repeated by selecting the Capillary Tube
(SV4) on Solenoid Valve Selector. A group of students then conducted a fundamental analysis on a basic
air conditioning system. The purpose was to gain a better understanding and the necessary measurements
needed to conduct the analysis.

2.0 OBJECTIVE:

The objective of the experiment is to study the heating and cooling effects and determine the
heating power of the heaters and the cooling power of the cooling coil respectively.

3.0 INTRODUCTION:

Air-conditioning is a widespread feature of building engineering. The main functions of an


air-conditioning system include heating and cooling in order to create the desired indoor air
conditions.

4.0 THEORY:

1.1 Heating process: In the pre-heater and re-heater of air-conditioning system, heat is
fed to the air. This is achieved by means of electrical energy. In building engineering,
heating water is generally used to heat the air.
1.2 Cooling process: In this Air-conditioning system the air is cooled by a direct
evaporator. In large-scale systems so-called cold-water sets are frequently interposed,
allowed for indirect cooling.
1.3 Psychometric chart: It is used for tracking the changes of state of the air in air-
conditioning systems. The changes of state of the air caused by heating and cooling
can be plotted. The Psychometric chart shows the following constants as lines or
curves:
- tp: Relative air humidity in %
- t: Temperature in °C
- h: Enthalpy in kJ/kg
- x: Absolute humidity in kg/kg

4.1 APPARATUS:
(i) Compressor
(ii) Condenser
(iii) Receiver/ Drier
(iv) Compressor clutch
(v) Evaporator
(vi) Expansion valve
(vii) Condenser fan
(viii) Cabin blower motor

5.0 PROCEDURE:

For Heating Process


1. The blower was switched on made to be run at maximum speed.
2. The pre-heater was switched on.
3. The temperature and relative humidity was recorded at the inlet (ATI, AH1) and (AT2, AH2) of
the pre-heater after the process was stabilized. Note: F stabilized in approximately 15 minutes.
4. The differential pressure reading of the Pitot tube was recorded.

For Cooling Process:


1. It was made sure that the Solenoid valve with the Receiver was selected.
2. The Expansion Valve (SV3) on Solenoid Valve Selector was selected.
3. The blower was switched on and run at maximum air speed.
4. The condensing unit was switched on.
5. The temperature and relative humidity at the inlet (ATI, AH1) and outlet (AT2, AH2) of the
cooling coil was recoded when a steady state was reached. Note: The process stabilized in
approximately 15 minutes.
6. The differential pressure reading of the pivot tube was recorded.
7. The refrigerant temperature (TO, TI2, TT3, TT4) and the pressure (PI, P2) was recorded.
The experiment was repeated by selecting the Capillary Tube (SV4) on Solenoid Valve
Selector.
6.0 RESULTS:

Orifice Calibration Formula:


Velocity of the air across the orifice:

Where,
AP =Pressure difference across the orifice (Pa). ρ =Density of air.
The mass flow rate of the air can be obtained: m = ρ V
Where,
m = Mass flow rate of the air.
ρ = Density of air.
V = Volumetric flow rate of air.
V=vA
A = Cross Sectional Area of the orifice
7.0 RESULTS

For Heating Proces

Air Duct Cross Sectional Area, A = 0.0224 m2


Specific Heat Capacity of Air, Cp = 1.0052 kJ/kg.K
Inlet Air Temperature, AT1 C 25.4
Inlet Air Relative Temperature, AH1 % 57.6
Outlet Air Temperature, AT2 C 30.6
Outlet Air Relative Humidity, AH2 % 43
Orifice Differential Pressure, DP Pa 48263
Velocity of Air Across Orifice m/s 167.86
Air Mass Flow rate 𝑚̇ = 𝜌𝑉̇ kg/s 4.606
Heating Power, Q
kW 22.22
𝑄 = 𝑚̇ × 𝑐𝑝 × (𝐴𝑇2 − 𝐴𝑇1)

Sample Calculation:
2(48263 𝑃𝑎)
Velocity, v = 0.598√1.225 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3 = 167.86 m/s
Volumetric Flow Rate, V = (167.86m/s) (0.0224 m2) = 3.7601 m3/s
Mass Flow Rate, ṁ = (1.225 kg/m3) (3.7601 m3/s) = 4.6062kg/s
Heating Power, Q (W) = ṁ x cp x (AT2 – AT1)
= (4.6062 kg/s) (1.0052 kj/kg.k) (30.6 – 25.4)
= 24.077 kW
For Cooling Process:SV3

Air Duct Cross Sectional Area, A = 0.0224 m2


Specific Heat Capacity of Air, Cp = 1.0046 kJ/kg.K

Inlet Air Temperature, AT1


C 26.6

Inlet Air Relative Temperature, AH1


% 53.3

Outlet Air Temperature, AT2


C 17

Outlet Air Relative Humidity, AH2


% 90.3

Orifice Differential Pressure, DP


Pa 744734

Velocity of Air Across Orifice


m/s 659.39

Air Mass Flow rate


kg/s 18.09
𝑚̇ = 𝜌𝑉̇
Heating Power, Q
kW -174.49
𝑄 = 𝑚̇ × 𝑐𝑝 × (𝐴𝑇2 − 𝐴𝑇1)

Sample Calculation:
2(744734 𝑃𝑎)
Velocity, v = 0.598√ 1.225 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3 = 659.40 m/s
Volumetric Flow Rate, V = (659.40m/s) (0.0224 m2) = 14.771 m3/s
Mass Flow Rate, ṁ = (1.225 kg/m3) (14.771 m3/s) = 18.094 kg/s
Heating Power, Q (W) = ṁ x cp x (AT2 – AT1)
= (18.094 kg/s) (1.0046 kj/kg.k) (17-26.6)
= -174.50 kW
For Cooling Process:SV4

Air Duct Cross Sectional Area, A = 0.0224 m2


Specific Heat Capacity of Air, Cqp = 1.005kJ/kg.K

Inlet Air Temperature, AT1


C 27.5

Inlet Air Relative Temperature, AH1


% 50.9

Outlet Air Temperature, AT2


C 17.6

Outlet Air Relative Humidity, AH2


% 90.1

Orifice Differential Pressure, DP


Pa 703265

Velocity of Air Across Orifice


m/s 640.78

Air Mass Flowrate


kg/s 784.95
𝑚̇ = 𝜌𝑉̇
Heating Power, Q
kW -7810
𝑄 = 𝑚̇ × 𝑐𝑝 × (𝐴𝑇2 − 𝐴𝑇1)

Sample Calculation:
2(703265 𝑃𝑎)
Velocity, v = 0.598√ 1.225 𝑘𝑔/𝑚3 = 640.778 m/s
Volumetric Flow Rate, V = (13.6105m/s) (0.0224 m2) = 14.42 m3/s
Mass Flow Rate, ṁ = (1.225 kg/m3) (14.42 m3/s) = 17.6614 kg/s
Heating Power, Q (W) = ṁ x cp x (AT2 – AT2)= (17.6614 kg/s) (1.005 kj/kg.k) (17.6-27.5) = -
175.72W
Psychometric chart
8.0 DISCUSSION:

Along with enthalpy the entropy of the system at different state points may also be interpolated using
the temperature and pressure measurements obtained experimentally. The values of specific entropy
noted as “s”. Capillary tubes act as a throttling device which utilizes the Joule-Thompson Effect
where a large drop in temperature is associated with a large drop in pressure from expansion. Our
capillary tubes are idealized assuming that it is an adiabatic throttling process. This allows the tubes
to be viewed as an isenthalpic device where the enthalpy remains constant. This is an important
assumption because it allows the enthalpy value obtained at the condenser exit to be used at the
evaporator entrance. Since the difference of air temperature entering the evaporator found
experimentally was lower than the temperature difference the manufacturer used there will be less
heat transferred to the refrigerant. The general rule is that the greater the temperature difference the
greater the heat transfer. Another part of the analysis was to determine the states of the air entering
the AC or the room’s air and air exiting through either the evaporator or condenser. This
encompasses using the relative humidity and dry bulb temperatures measured during the experiment
to determine the wet-bulb temp, specific humidity, and the specific enthalpy of the air and water
vapor mixture. The incoming air temp is greater than the air temp exiting the evaporator since
thermal energy is extracted from the air by the refrigerant shown by the decrease of specific enthalpy.
This is the desired effect of an air conditioner, take air from the room, cool it off and return it into
the room. Over the evaporator and condenser moisture is removed from the incoming air, represented
by the decreases in specific humidity. Water condenses out of the room air on the cold evaporator
coils thus decreasing the ratio of mass of water vapor to mass of dry air. This is a cooling and
dehumidifying process. The increased air temp leaving the condenser is to the thermal rejection of
heat since the condenser coil temperature is greater than the surrounding room air temp. The enthalpy
of the air also increases relative to the increase in air temp. The relative humidity values measured
increase and decrease according to the air temp and the actual amount of moisture present in the air.
When the air temp and moisture content exiting decreases such as over the evaporator the relative
humidity will increase since the air is less able to contain moisture. While the opposite occurs over
the condenser and the relative humidity decreases. The wet-bulb temperatures were estimated by
examining a psychrometric chart. These values are supplemental and not actually used for
calculation purposes. The heat rejected to the surroundings may be obtained by using the values of
specific enthalpy obtained along with the mass flow-rate of air going across the evaporator and the
condenser. In this experiment the heat is being added back into the room since the condenser isn’t
placed outside.
9.0 CONCLUSION:
All of the data collected during this experiment is enough to explain to any engineer or layman what
the air conditioning unit will do when it is put into use in the lab settings. Anyone can use the same
type of system to analyze any air conditioning unit to see what the actual output of the unit into the
surrounding environment will be instead of going by what the optimum values are that are provided
by the manufacturer that are purposely skewed to make their product seem better. The purpose of
doing the lab this way was that it can be performed by anyone as long as supporting instructions and
directions are given in a clear manner. It is simplified to a point where the valuable information
emerges. Simplifying a system allows the important areas to be evaluated with less stress on
obtaining the so called “right” answer. The bad part of making these simplifying assumptions are
that certain error in the calculations are introduced making the values mere estimates. For the
purpose of this lab which was to analyze the performance of an air conditioning system based on
measurements, these certain assumptions were all simplifications that proved to be beneficial.

10.0 REFERENCES:

1. Building Services and Equipment, Second Edition


2. Building Services ECM 216 Text Book
3. Electrical and mechanical engineering notes (ECM436)
4. http://www.aelag.com.au/air-conditioning-type
5. Georg, Munters Carl, and Norback Per Gunnar, 1960, "Air conditioning system." U.S.
Patent.