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The Main Differences Between English

and Indonesian

Meanwhile, adjective phrases in the two languages are in opposite order. In English,
the adjective comes before the noun, but in Indonesian, the noun is mentioned
first: red car / mobil merah.

Many languages spoken around the world share similarities in syntax, grammar or
even vocabulary because they share the same origins, such as Dutch and German,
Indonesian and Malaysian, or French and Spanish.

English and Indonesian, however, are worlds apart, having West Germanic and
Austronesian roots, respectively. Given the vastly different rules separating the two,
it can be quite challenging for a native speaker of Indonesian to learn the ins and
outs of the more complex English language.

By keeping these four differences in mind, you might have an easier time
understanding English:

Syntax

Syntax is the arrangement of words in a sentence, which is mostly the same


between English and Indonesian in simple phrases, but begins to differ
in questions and adjective phrases.

English questions, for example, start with a question word (who, what, when, why,
where, how) followed by a verb and then subject; or in yes/no questions, they begin
with a verb followed by the subject:

WHAT ARE YOU EATING? / ARE YOU EATING?

In Indonesian, questions start with the subject:

KAMU MAKAN APA? / KAMU MAU MAKAN?

Meanwhile, adjective phrases in the two languages are in opposite order. In English,
the adjective comes before the noun, but in Indonesian, the noun is mentioned first:

RED CAR / MOBIL MERAH


Verb Tenses

Bahasa Indonesia is relatively easy to learn because of its simple grammar rules,
particularly with regards to verb tenses – or the lack of it. Unlike Indonesian, which
uses the same verb for past, present and future situations, English has 16 different
tenses! It may take time to master all of them, but it is not impossible!

While the passive voice is frequently used in Indonesian, English sentences are stronger
in the active form, especially when the focus is on the object. For example, the sentence,
“The last slice of cake was eaten by my brother” seems more awkward and wordy than when
it’s active: “My brother at the last slice of cake.”
Plural Form

Once more, Bahasa Indonesia keeps it simple in the way it describes an object of
which there is more than one: merely repeat the work, as in buku buku or anak anak;
or add a plural determiner, such as banyak lukisan, para penonton and sejumlah
toko.

English plural forms are a bit more complicated. Firstly, they are divided into two
categories: regular and irregular nouns. The former simply gains an -s or -es, like
books, paintings, potatoes and glasses – that’s the easy part.

Various things can happen to irregular plural nouns, from changes that are slight
(knife-knives, wolf-wolves, woman-women) and more complicated (child-children,
person-people, mouse-mice, foot-feet), to changes that are rather odd (cactus-cacti,
phenomenon-phenomena). And then there are those that stay the same, such as
sheep, deer, species and offspring.

Passive vs Active

Both English and Indonesian use the active and passive voice. But while the passive
voice is frequently used in Indonesian, English sentences are stronger in the active
form, especially when the focus is on the object. For example, this sentence:

THE LAST SLICE OF CAKE WAS EATEN BY MY BROTHER.

seems more awkward and wordy than when it’s active:

MY BROTHER ATE THE LAST SLICE OF CAKE.

Don’t let the difference between the two languages intimidate you. With practice and
determination, you will surely be able to master the complicated world of English!