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Masonry Structures

(material, design & case study)

University of Cambridge
Year 2 Architecture
by Simon Smith

References
www.brick.org.uk

• Materials • Basic Principles • Design • Case Studies • Other Buildings .

Materials • Units – Clay bricks – Calcium silicate bricks – Concrete blocks – Stone masonry (natural or manufactured) Stock brick Fletton brick – Compressed earth • Mortar – Cement mortar – Lime mortar .

co.php www. Materials • Clay bricks • Concrete blocks – Density 23-28KN/m3 – Density 5-20KN/m3 – Strengths 5-100N/mm2 – Strengths 3-30N/mm2 – Tendency to expand – Tendency to shrink – Varying porosity – New low carbon blocks – Varying durability emerging www.greenspec.php .greenspec.uk/bricks.co.uk/blocks.

Basic principles • Masonry is good in compression but has limited flexural or tensile strength • Tend to rely on gravity to stabilise masonry structures .

Pinnacles .

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US .Anaconda stack.

Germany • Completed 1500 • 130m .St. Martin's Church.

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Basic principles • Masonry is 3x weaker in bending parallel to bed joints than it is perpendicular • Strengthen masonry by sitting heavy slab on it or using buttressing .

Design • Design – Design Codes – Factors of Safety – Strength • Brick. Block and Stone • Mortar • Combined – Stability / Slenderness – Movement – Durability – Robustness – Preliminary Sizing – Non-loadbearing masonry .

Design codes • BS5628 Parts 1-3 : 2005 • Eurocode 6 • Limit State Codes – Factored loads – Ultimate stresses .

Factors of safety • Loads • Materials .

• With thinner mortars and large units the wall compressive strength approaches that of the unit. Unit strength • Unit or brick/block strength can be quite high but mortar is the weakest link. .

. Unit strength • Strength of natural stone can be highly dependant on bedding direction.

Compressed earth units .

Mortar strength .

Combined strength .

(ie concentric or eccentric) • The slenderness ratio should not exceed 27 (building more than 2 storey it should not exceed 20) . Stability & slenderness • Strength of a masonry wall dependant on slenderness and type of load applied.

strength of wall reduces.5m office floor -125KN/m floor load -75KN/m brick self weight . Stability & slenderness • As height of wall increases. 1N/mm2 = 215KN/m 5 storey building supporting 7. • Rate of reduction in strength to increase in height is not necessarily linear.

Movement • Clay brickwork tends to expand over time • Concrete blockwork tends to shrink over time .

– F = frost resistant – M = Moderate frost resistant – N = No frost resistant – L = Low soluble salt content – N = Normal soluble salt content . Durability • ‘Stronger’ bricks and mortars are more durable than weaker ones.

Robustness Ronan Point collapse .

. Preliminary sizing • Whilst slenderness and strength are not always linear relationship. preliminary sizing of masonry is still based on height/depth ratios (which are linear).

Non-loadbearing masonry .

Case studies • Baker Street • The Forum • Winterton House • 30 Finsbury Square .

Baker Street. London .

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The Forum. Norwich .

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Winterton House. London .

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London .Finsbury Square.

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Ilfracombe • World of Glass. London • Inland Revenue. St Helens • SSEES UCL. New Delhi • King Willem College. Dorset . Cork • Office for SAHRC. Netherlands • Bryanston Science School. Other projects • The Landmark. London N4 • Institute of Technology. Nottingham • St Pauls Church.

Ilfracombe .The Landmark.

St Helens .World of Glass.

SSEES UCL. London .

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Nottingham .Inland Revenue.

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London N4 .St Pauls Church.

Cork .Institute of Technology.

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New Delhi .SAHRC.

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King Willem School. Netherlands .

Bangladesh .National Assembly.

National Assembly. Bangladesh .

Ahmedabad .IIM.

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Germany .MARTa Herford.

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Ramboll Whitbybird .