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INTRODUCTION TO

ANAESTHESIA

Fatiş Altındaş
Department of Anesthesiology

† Dioscorides first used the term
anesthesia in first century AD
„ To describe the narcotic-like effects

† As “a defect of sensation” in Bailey’s
An Universal Etymological English
Dictionary (1721)

† Oliver Wendell Holmes used its present meaning (1846) „ means the sleeplike state „ makes possible painless surgery .

coca leaves. mandrake root.History of Anesthesia † In ancient time. people used „ Opium poppy. alcohol. phlebotomy † Ancient Egyptians used the combination of opium poppy and hyoscyamus morphine and scopolamine .

Long and William Clark used it on patients in 1842 .Ether † Prepared in 1540 by Valerius Cordus † Used as sedative in „ tuberculosis „ asthma and whooping cough „ remedy for toothache † Crawford W.

1846. Boston .William Morton (1819-1868) † The first succesful surgical anesthesia.

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Chloroform Professor James Young Simpson (1811- 1870) † found chloroform to be efficacious and reasonably safe † used for Prince Leopold’s and Princess Beatrice’s birhts .

Davy .Nitrous oxide (N2O) † Produced by Joseph Priestly 1772. † Horace Wells first used it in humans for anesthesia in 1844 † Less popular in tree agents „ Low potency „ Tendency to cause asphyxia H. † Humphrey Davy first noted its analgesic properties in 1800.

Intravenous Anesthesia (IVA) † Pierre Cyprien Ore „ Pioneer of IVA „ Chloral hydrate in 1872 † Barbiturates were synthesized 1903 „ For induction of anesthesia .

† Karl Koller used cocain for eye block in 1884 † In 1885.Regional Anesthesia † In 1860. Albert Niemann isolated crystalized alcoloids of coca. first spinal anesthesia by August Bier † Second local anesthetic agent (prilocain) was founded in 1904 † Lidocain was founded in 1946 . first epidural block † In 1898.

.Evolution of the specialty †The development of the indepented medical specialty of anesthesiology would not occur until the early 20th century.

“The Society of Anesthetists” † In the United States.† In England. in 1893. the first organization of physician anesthetists was formed in 1911. the first organization of physician specialists in anesthesia. .

† invented an inhaler for ether † published the first book on general anaesthesia:On the Inhalation of Ether John Snow the father of anaesthesia .

History of Anesthesia in Turkey-1 † The first publications belong to surgeons † They made great contributions to anesthesia in Turkey † Publication of Miralay Ahmet Bey „ includes the information about the use of ether † Ether anesthesia was first used in Gülhane Askeri Hospital in 1898 by Rieder Paşa .

History of Anesthesia in Turkey-2 † Dr. anesthesia was accepted as a medical specialty by Ministry of Health . Sadi Sun is the first anesthesiologist in Turkey † The first endotracheal entubation was performed by Dr Sun † In 1955.

during and after surgery. .What is Anesthesiology? †Practice of medicine dedicated to the relief of pain and total care of the surgical patient before.

.† Anesthesiologists are a physician who complete a six years of medical school and four more year anesthesiology residency training program.

† Anesthesiologist is the perioperative physician † Provides medical care to each patient „ Evaluating the patient before surgery (preoperative) „ Consulting with the surgical team „ Providing pain control „ Supporting of life functions during surgery (intraoperative) „ Supervising care after surgery (postoperative) .

blood pressure.In the operating room † The role of anesthesiologist is to provide continual medical assessment of the patient „ Monitor and control the patient’s vital functions † Heart rate. rhythm. fluid balance † Immediately diagnose and treat any medical problems during surgery or recovery period „ Control pain and level of unconsciousness . breathing. body temperature.

In the postanesthesia care unit † Patients are transferred to recovery room after surgery „ Allowing them to emerge fully from the anesthetics’ effects † They are observed by skilled nursing personnel „ After stabilization sufficiently. transferred to regular room or home .

What is Scope of Anesthesiologist? † Anesthesiologists work in ICU .

„ to diagnose and treatment of acute and chronic problems. cardiac catheterization etc. † Pioneers in cardiopulmonary resuscitation † In childbirth.† Sedation and providing anesthesia outside the operating room „ Magnetic resonance imaging. anesthesiologists manage the care of two persons † Anesthesiologists are also involved in pain management. .

Happy New Year! .