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CHAMPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERAL:

Concrete involved with large quantities of Portland cement is inevitable and breaks
down after some time when subjected to joined natural and mechanical loading during their
mean life which brings about breaking, spalling, bond part, or complete failure of the concrete
component or entire structure, this requires proficient and successful repairs to expand their
mean life of the concrete structures. However Numerous repair materials including cementitious
mortars, polymer-modified cementitious mortars, resinous mortars, etc. have been utilized to
rectify the problem. Cement-free geopolymer mortars prepared from waste materials with high
content of silicate aluminum and alkaline activator solution are materializing as extendable
sustainable repair materials. Geopolymer binders are preferred as repair materials as they
generate 70–80% less carbon dioxide with remarkably lesser greenhouse gas emissions than
existing cementations repair materials. These new binders are extremely preferred for the
particular study due to their enhanced durability performance, sustainability, and environmental
friendliness.

Material selected for the repair should be compactable with substrate concrete and should
have low shrinkage properties, good workability, less setting time, Economically preferable and
better mechanical properties than the existing substrate concrete. Repaired section should be able
to with stand the stress induced in the section without any distress or deterioration over a label
amount of design period. However good bond strength and wear resistance are the central
requirements for a successful repair therefore these two parameters are mainly focused in the
current project, Bond strength of the concrete is encountered by different methods such as slant
shear test, pull out test and direct shear test, current research focuses on the slant shear test
because of their simplicity and nature of testing in both compression and shear gives exact
failure behavior, bond strength of the repair material is determined in accordance with ASTM
C882 standards. Abrasion of the repair material was determined through the rotating disk
abrasion testing machine according to IS 15658 :2006 and impact abrasion resistant test in
accordance with ASTM----- to figure out the wear of the repair material.

Behavior of the geopolymer composites is investigated in the particular project by


addition of chopped glass fibers, polypropylene fibers of size 6mm in obligatory proportions
and their performance is examined in the field of mechanical properties such as tensile strength,
abrasion, bonding strength and microstructure evolution of the matrix. literature shows that in
terms of tests for bonding addition of fiber to the repair material results in decrease in stress at
the interface between the overlay concrete and the substrate concrete.

1.2 GEOPOLYMER AS A REPAIR MATERIAL :

The approach of geopolymer was originally developed by Joseph Davidovits in 1978. In


terms of environmental aspects and decline of natural resources Geopolymers are found to be an
alternate material for conventional cementitious materials and Geopolymer concrete having
three-dimensional aluminum silicate inorganic polymeric chains in the form of (Si-O-Al-O)
developed by AlO4 and SiO4 tetrahedral ions which are were primarily prepared from industrial
wastes makes them favorable for repair. However there are different repair materials emerging in
the field of construction industries for repairing the concrete structures, Geopolymer being an
inorganic polymer concrete, can be used efficiently in rehabilitation and restoration of the
concrete structures which would be an alternative to the existing organic resins like epoxies and
polymeric mortars. Geopolymer as a repair material having various amusing properties such as
High strength, High rate of strength development, high temperature resistant, wear resistance and
corrosive resistant supports to adopt as good repair material. Furthermore Geopolymer find
broad range of applications in the field of transportation, emergency repairs, metallurgy, nuclear
waste disposals and as a coating for the marine structures as it performs better to chloride
attacks.

Since Bonding of repair material with the existing concrete is the main aspects to be
considered geopolymer having Poisons ratio, Modulus of elasticity and tensile strength Identical
to that of the conventional concretes demonstrates the compatibility of the Geopolymer
concrete with the conventional concretes. Moreover Geopolymer kind of conventional concrete
will be cured at ambient temperatures with positive strength development, possess low porosity,
and corrosion resistant properties which are favorable for repair of RCC structures. Geopolymer
concrete having high temperature resistant makes them an alternative solution in place of epoxy
repaired structures and Geopolymers can be prepared utilizing the machinery and practices
utilized for conventional concretes. In addition geopolymer concrete or mortar releases less
carbon dioxide discharges when compared to conventional cementitious , epoxies and polymeric
materials. All these unusual benefits makes geopolymer as a sustainable and eco-friendly
material for the repair of concrete structures.

1.3 GEOPOLYMER COMPOSITES:

Geopolymer composites are the cementitious material processed by adding discrete glass
fibers and polypropylene fibers in the geopolymer mix of optimal proportions which are having
a length of 6mm, these fibers are also called as chopped fibbers. Fibers used in the particular
study are alkali resistant glass fibers as durability of the concrete should not be affected because
of alkalinity of the RGL (Reaction generating liquid) which is main constituent in preparation of
Geopolymer concrete. However the workability of the fresh concrete gives lower slump values
with the percentage of increase in fiber content, it is recommended to choose optimal fiber
percentages in concrete to attain the required properties. Type of fiber used and solid to liquid
ratio also effects the properties of GPC.

1.3.1 ADVANTAGES OF FIBERS:

1. Toughness of glass fiber is high.

2. High tensile strength.

3. Acts as crack arresters in concrete.

4. Abrasive resistant.

5. Improves the Ductility of the concrete.

6. Fibers also reduces permeability and controls seepage.


1.3.2 APPILICATION OF FIBERS:

1. Used in fly ash bricks and paver block manufacturing.

2. Effectively used in sewer systems mostly in concrete manhole covers and concrete
sewer pipers.

3. Used in precast industry for making of precast lavatories and precast walls.

4. Used in the field of transportation in pavements and bridge decks and parking lots.

5. In case of improving the ductility of the beam column joints .

6. Most effectively used in the rehabilitation and retrofitting works.


1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:

 Feasibility study using Geopolymer composites as a repair material for concrete


structures.

 To investigate the mechanical properties such as compressive strength, bond


strength and compactness of the mix.

 To investigate the structural performance of repaired structural elements and


quality of repair using mechanical tests.

1.5 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT:

 To develop geopolymer composite repair material for the repair of conventional


concrete structures.

 To investigate the binding properties between geopolymer mortar and


conventional concrete.

 This includes the physical compactness and effect of surface preparation.


1.6 NEED FOR RESEARCH:

All the exiting materials for repair are inorganic epoxies and polymer based repair
materials hence there is a need for developing a organic material and sustainable material for the
repair of concrete structures. Make the repair material to perform its work with in less time
constraint. To improve its bonding strength and wear resistance of the repair material.

1.7 RESEARCH SIGINIFENCE:

To improve its bond behavior between geopolymer composite repair material and the
substrate concrete. Comparison of geopolymer composite repair material with a conventional
repair material available commercially. Reduce repair time, by allowing the repaired structure to
perform its structural function as soon as possible.