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Application of warp knitting CAD system development curtain series


Multi-bar braided warp knitting machine has been widely used in curtains, tablecloths, bedspreads,
sofa hoods, jacquard nets and other interior fabrics and women Coat lace, gold and silver jacquard
scarves and other clothing fabrics. And with the application of a variety of new materials, multi-
comb Raschel machine itself toward the high-speed, advanced technology and computer-
controlled direction, which makes the multi-comb knitted fabric products are numerous, endless.
With the continuous development of science and technology, all aspects of the textile industry have
developed by leaps and bounds. Especially the warp series of rich products, exquisite flowers, popular. In
order to meet the needs of the market, warp knitting technology, related configuration and a variety of
organizations have reached a high level. It is a historical necessity that the CAD industry of the warp
knitting industry is determined by the practical and feasible, quick and easy and easy product
development model of CAD. This topic is discussed from the aspects of design of fabric, selection of raw
materials, calculation of parameters, determination of models and finishing of products. It combines
theory and production practice, finds problems and analyzes them, and discusses the reasons or the

Keywords: Jacquard; multi comb; warp curtains; warp knitting CAD system


Warp knitting is an important part of the knitting industry, because of its fabric has a unique performance
and production efficiency and rapid development. Warp new technology, new technology, new raw
materials, new products continue to emerge. Over the past decade, China's warp knitting industry is
developing very rapidly, the number of warp knitting machines has been ranked first in the world, more
than North America and Europe.

In recent years, the warp knitting industry has been rapidly developing both in terms of speed of
machinery, electronic control, diversification of functions, ease of operation, computerization of design
and management, and modern warp knitting machine has become a modern equipment The Machine
speed reached 3 600 r / min, bar to 95, the possibility of greatly increased flowers, and further expand the
scope of application of the product. [1]

With the gradual improvement of living standards, people are no longer limited to the pursuit of food and
clothing, more and more people pay attention to the improvement of living environment. Home
decoration has become the topic of concern, warp knitted fabric because of its exquisite pattern, clever
patterns popular, which also contributed to the warp knot product variety and quality requirements are
getting higher and higher. For the production unit, the original manual design workload is very slow, and
with the number of warp knuckles more and more, these problems become more prominent, and the
design of the actual effect of the product does not have real visibility, Increasing competition in the market
today, has been unable to adapt to the needs of production development. Therefore, to find a practical,
fast and simple product development model is imminent. In order to solve this problem, at present, in the
warp knitting industry, have introduced for a variety of models of CAD software. Designers first draw
patterns, through the scanner to transfer the pattern to the computer, and then through the CAD system
for combing and selection of raw materials, automatic determination of the comb row of the yarn
movement, which can determine the bar Pattern data. The use of CAD system can not only pattern design,
but also to fabric simulation. Eventually you can also record the data, and the data saved to the floppy
disk, directly used for the control of the warp knitting machine.

Increasing living standards for home textiles opened up a broad market. Home textile products is China's
major export textiles, exported to Europe and the United States, South Korea, Japan. China's textile
exports in 2004 amounted to 357.96 billion US dollars, while household textiles exports amounted to
68.33 billion US dollars, accounting for 19% of total textile exports, and annual growth rate of 5% to 10%.
China's textile industry in 2004 yarn consumption of 7.6 million tons, accounting for 31% of the total fiber
consumption, and textile exports accounted for only 19% of total textile exports compared to the
development of home textiles still have great potential, promising.

Curtain as a family design in the necessary, first become the object of concern. The wide application of
floor-to-ceiling windows, curtain fabric gradually to the broad, jacquard, gorgeous luxury development,
so as a wide production of warp knitted fabric has an irreplaceable advantage. This article is a brief
discussion on the characteristics of raw materials and basic production process. With the continuous
improvement of people's living standards, due to architectural style, living customs and natural
environment and other factors, the East Asia area on a narrow range, the surface of the concavity, thick
sense of strong double jacquard series curtain fabric is also a demand, Especially in Japan and South Korea.

The purpose and significance of the project

This topic is discussed from the aspects of design of fabric, selection of raw materials, calculation of
parameters, determination of models and finishing of products. It combines theory and production
practice, finds problems and analyzes them, and discusses the reasons or the depth.

The use of warp knitting CAD development curtains products can not need the weaving process, so that
the fabric with the fastest speed realistic show in front of the designer; designers can be repeated
according to market needs, choose a different organizational structure and various branches, Of the yarn
on the screen to observe the effect of the fabric or through the printer output cloth simulation map,
greatly reducing the production costs and shorten the production cycle, this simulation is through the
input process parameters for precision calculation after the show on the screen , So the simulation results
are excellent.

1.1 The development of CAD

CAD (Computer Aided Design) is a new production model, it is the use of computer computing and judging
function of a variety of engineering or product design, manufacture. The engineering technician can
communicate with the computer by means of a display screen, a keyboard plotter, and a man-machine
interface. Specifically, CAD is engineering and technical personnel and computer work together, play each
other's strengths and expertise. Warp knitting industry on the road to the CAD is a historical necessity. [3]

1.1 foreign development of CAD

At present, in the warp knitting industry, have introduced for a variety of models of CAD software. CAD
software used to change the design of the work of the model, greatly improving the production efficiency.
The designer first draws the pattern and then moves the pattern to the computer through the scanner,
arranges the bar and the material selection through the CAD system, and then automatically determines
the movement of the mats of the combs so that each bar Of the pattern data. The use of CAD system can
not only pattern design, but also to fabric simulation. Eventually you can also record the data, and the
data saved to the floppy disk, directly used for the control of the warp knitting machine.

In the developed CAD system developed abroad, the most successful and most user is the PROCAD system
developed jointly by EAT Textile Electric Company and ALC Computer Corporation. The system consists of
PROCAD developer, PROCAD velours, PROCAD simujac, PROCAD simulace, PROCAD littejac , PROCAD
manager and other subsystems, you can complete the multi-comb - Jacquard warp knitted fabric, plush
fabric, Jacquard knit fabric design, you can comb - Jacquard lace, Jacquard flower Simulation, and can use
the PROCAD manager interface system to complete the data transfer between the computer and the
machine. The system design is reasonable, the use of efficient, can improve the efficiency of flower design
staff. At present, PROCAD system in China's Guangdong and Fujian, the use of large lace production
enterprises more than 20 sets of the country.

In addition, Spain has developed a set of lace design software LACE DRAFTING SOFTWARE SAPO 3.1, the
system design features complete, simulation results are particularly realistic, recently by more and more
users love. [4]

1.1.2 CAD domestic development

China has made a lot of progress in the development of warp knitted fabric CAD system, from the early
DOS operating system to the present Windows system, there are different versions of a single model or a
single fabric warp knitted fabric CAD system The More domestic use is the development of Jiangnan
University WKCAD3.0 system. The system has a standalone and online version of the two versions, the
operating environment Windows 98/2000 or Windows XP, the use of good performance, friendly man-
machine interface, easy to operate, you can intuitive, fast and accurate design warp knitted fabric. When
the system is used in the local area network environment, the application is installed on the client, the
product database is placed on the server side, and the software can be converted into the online version
by adjusting the program. For the factory, you can achieve the sharing of network data, so that different
positions of the operators are able to in the shortest possible time to obtain new product information,
greatly improving the design of warp knitted fabric, shorten the product development cycle, Design
quality, thereby enhancing the competitiveness of the product in the market.

1.2 warp knitting fabric CAD classification and function [5]

1.2.1 Ordinary warp knitting fabric CAD system

The so-called ordinary warp knitted fabric, generally refers to the ordinary high-speed warp knitting
machine and ordinary Raschel warp knitting machine production of warp knitted fabric, due to the use of
fewer bars, the fabric structure is relatively simple, the general use of pad the movement of the warp
knitting fabric describes the structure of such warp knitted fabrics. Ordinary warp knitted fabric CAD
system is mainly used for ordinary plain weave, mesh, terry, full width weft, spandex warp knitted fabric
design. It is to achieve the ordinary warp knitted fabric structure design, while providing a perfect warp
process calculation functions, such as the estimated sent by volume, calculate the product weight and so
on. Ordinary warp knitted fabric CAD system also has the function of managing the product database, can
be all product data grouping, classification, and has a quick search function.
The yarn movement represents the trajectory of the yarn. For warp knitted fabrics, the mat yarn is the
most commonly used method of warp knitting. The specific method is as follows: to digital number 0, 1,
2, 3 ... ... order to mark the inter-needle gap (multi-comb Raschel machine to digital numbers 0, 2, 4, 6 ...
... marked inter-needle gap), for the guide The yarn should be marked on the left side of the machine, the
digital should be marked from left to right; for the yarn guide bar traverse mechanism on the right side of
the machine, the digital should be marked from right to left. And then write down the sequence of the
needle in the needle before the movement of the situation, which represents the warp knitting

For example, three-pin satin tissue mat yarn digital: 1-0 / 1-2 / 2-3 / 2-1 //. The first row is a 1-gauge
needle forward traverse and a 1-gauge needle back, the second row is a 1-gauge needle forward and 0-
gauge needle back, ... and so on. Draw the mat yarn according to the paddle number as shown in Figure

Figure 1 mattress chart

1.2.1 Jacquard warp knitting fabric CAD system

Jacquard warp knitting fabric CAD system is mainly used for Jacquard fabric design. It is also the function
of the flower design is the main, the system can scan the original flower pattern into a flower pattern, and
has a rich pattern editing function, you can design the completion of the flower simulation. After the
completion of the design, can generate flower pattern data, direct control Jacquard products on the

Jacquard flower pattern is generally used to show that in the artisan chart, with different colors that
different fabric Jacquard Jacquard effect.

The effect of Jacquard warp knitting is made up of tissue and Jakarta. The jacquard effect is mainly formed
by Jakarta, which is achieved by Jakarta. The yarn movement of the Jacquard is formed by the addition of
the basic pad yarn. The different colors of the artisan map represent different Jacquard migration tissues,
i.e. different Jacquard effects. When using different models and different "jia ka technology", use a
different jagga offset organization.

When the Jacquard fabric is designed, the original Jacquard pattern is first processed, and then the
machined pattern is transferred to the Jacquard warp knitting fabric CAD system, and the various colors
on the pattern are defined For the CAD system to agree with the color, you can turn the original flower
into Jakarta original artisan map, the three changes in the organization to fill the original artisan map of
the three color areas, you can get Jiaka flower pattern ,
After the generation of the Jacquard pattern, the colors on the artist's map are defined, that is, the basic
organization of the red, green, white and other colors, in fact, to determine the control information for
each row, such as the red control information for the HT , The green control information is HH, and the
white control information is TH. After defining all the colors, you can transform the pattern of artwork
into a pattern that can control the weaving of the machine. [6]

1.2.2 Multi-comb warp knitting fabric CAD system

Multi-comb warp knitted fabric Because of the large number of combs, so its flower design is a very
complex work, the traditional manual design process to read the digital, through the cycle is very time
consuming and laborious, therefore, manual design Patterns are large and inefficient. Multi-comb warp
knitting fabric CAD system can quickly improve the design efficiency because it can quickly carry out the
design of the flower pattern and get the digital and the wear law accurately. Compared with the ordinary
warp knitting fabric CAD system, multi-comb warp knitting fabric CAD system more attention to flower
design, the pursuit of easy and quick way to draw flower pattern. Pattern design staff to design, just depict
each comb the outline of the flower pattern, you can automatically generate the pattern of mat yarn and
wear through the cycle. Design can also check the collision pin, the cumulative traverse, etc., to ensure
that the pattern can be normal production. Multi-comb warp knitted fabric CAD system is mainly used for
strip lace, clothing fabrics, curtains design. It is mainly in the function of flower design, the system can not
only provide a wealth of flower design tools, and has a simulation function. After the completion of the
design can generate flower pattern data, direct control lace products on the machine.

Multi-comb warp knitting pattern is mainly formed by local weft. The weft yarns are held by the ring and
the extension line of the tissue. The weft threading method is 0-0 / 6-6 / 2-2 / 10-10 ... that is, the position
of the needle between the weft thread is the weft movement, since the two numbers are the same, Thus,
for a multi-comb warp knitted fabric, a number can be used to indicate that a flower is combed in a row
of yarns, and a two-dimensional array of mat yarns can be used to represent the mattress movement of
the multi-comb.

In the multi-comb fabric design with the Jacquard fabric, in order to obtain the Jacquard pattern, we must
first perform image processing on the scanning cloth. Use special image software processing, you can get
Jacquard original flower pattern. Under normal circumstances, the green represents the basic Jaka effect,
the red indicates the thick Jakarta effect, the white means the thin or mesh Jaka effect. Other variations
can be filled with other colors. And then define the corresponding Jacquard changes for each color. Jakarta
changes the organization according to the actual structure of the sample cloth after the analysis to

2 warp curtains overview

Curtains are mainly used to adjust the light, to protect personal space, wind, dust, muffler and other
effects, in the current family also became a soft decoration. There are curtains, curtains, curtains, blinds,
blinds and other basic forms, and each basic form can be through the curtains mantle, structure, material,
suspension, changing a lot of different styles of curtains. Raw materials have a romantic soft silk, yarn
quality, a certain degree of glossy silk, environmentally friendly type of yellow cotton linen and do the
blinds of bamboo, etc., have different characteristics of the style.
Warp knitting curtains are generally large pattern, full of floral pattern, has the following characteristics:

1. 1. Warp knitting fabric production efficiency, the highest speed has reached 3600rpm, the door
width of 210 inches, can be directly to the floor windows, wide curtains of direct weaving, the
efficiency of up to 98%.
2. Compared with weft knitted fabric, the general elongation is small. Warp knitting because of their
special needs, generally have a good dimensional stability.
3. Warp knitted fabric can use unneeded tissue to reduce the yarn breakage caused by broken yarn,
broken hole, with good anti- Decentralized.
4. Can use different thickness of the yarn, the different weft knitting, which can form a different
form of mesh tissue, pattern change is simple, so almost all of the fabric can be woven out.
5. In the production of mesh fabrics, warp knitting technology is more practical. The mesh fabric
produced can have different sizes and shapes, and the fabric shape is stable and does not require
any special finishing.

3 warp machine features

Production of warp curtains are Jacquard warp knitting machine production and multi-comb warp knitting
machine, its specific features are as follows:

3.1 Jacquard warp knitting machine

Jacquard is an important jacquard method in the production of warp, which uses the shifts of the Jacquard
yarns to form patterns, widely used in single needle bed warp knitting machines and double needle bed
warp knitting machines for the production of mesh Decorative fabric. Jacquard warp knitting fabric is
characterized by easy to produce wide and full width of the overall pattern, mesh, thin, thick tissue
according to the pattern needs to be configured, with a certain level, can be made transparent,
translucent and other fabrics. Its products are mainly used for interior decoration (such as curtains, etc.)
and decorative women's underwear fabrics and lace accessories.

3.1.1 The basic principle of Jacquard Jacquard [8]

Jakarta jacquard principle is to control each JIA card guide needle every time the yarn movement.
Although they are mounted on the same bar, these guide pins can also be laterally offset, for which the
guide pins should be long and flexible. In order not to interfere with the adjacent guide pins, each guide
needle can only offset one pitch. So there is a certain limit on the number of needle pitch of the yarn
Jacquard warp knitting machine used to form the organization, and with Jacquard combs to cover the
pattern of these organizations. The following figure, with the basic weft movement of the two knitting
needles, takes each of the following three yarns as one of the following.

Figure 2
1. The yarns follow the weaving of the knitting strands, thus forming the mesh area.
2. The yarns are placed between the adjacent two knitting needles, and the mesh holes are covered by
two extension lines. The fabrics in this area appear to be denser areas.
3. The needle is used to span the two wefts so that each eyelet covers four extension lines to form a dense

Rely on the control of the root guide needle traversing the number of different points, the use of these
three kinds of fabric effect, you can form a pattern on the fabric.

The Raschel warp knitting machine with the Jacquard device is called the Jacquardcher warp knitting
machine. General configuration 3 to 8 of the bar, which Jacquard bar with 1 or 2, it uses the displacement
of the Jacquard yarn to form the pattern. Jacquard is the most effective way to form a pattern in the warp
knitting process. Jacquard function to produce patterns of changeable, full pattern, structured, stable
texture of the jacquard warp knitted fabric. Its style is unique in the textile, widely loved by consumers.

3.1.2 Classification of Jacquard warp knitting machines

In the past decade, the development of Jacquard warp knitting machine has been rapid, from the
development of mechanical Jakarta device to the Jakarta device of electromagnetic control, and then from
the electromagnetic type to the present piezoelectric type, namely Piezo jia card system. Piezo Jaka's
successful development, making the machine speed increased by 50%, up to 1300 r / min, and Jakarta
jacquard principle has been further developed. According to the different jacquard jacquard principle can
be divided into loop-type Jacquard warp knitting machine, its products in women's underwear, swimsuit
and beach clothes has a wide range of applications; weft lattice Jakara Scheler warp knitting machine,
generally used to form The weaving machine has its three-dimensional effect, mainly used for the
production of curtains and tablecloths. The floating-type Jakala Scheler warp knitting machine, this kind
of machine application has been used in the past. Of the mesh curtains, tablecloths, etc., has now
successfully penetrated into the lace area, also used for women's underwear, tights and coat fabric

Jakara Raschel warp knitting machine is mainly used for the production of mesh jacquard fabric,
specifically the following applications.

1. Interior decoration fabric: with three-dimensional effect of the mesh curtains, tablecloths, sofa
backrest and handrails.
2. Decorative clothing fabrics: women's underwear, swimsuit, tights, sportswear, coat, scarves and
shawls and so on.
3. Decorative clothing accessories: strip lace

The current use of RJWBS / 2 type Textronic jiajia warp knitting machine production lace, is popular in
foreign countries. The lace can be elastic or inelastic, with wreaths can also be without wreaths, exquisite
patterns, with three-dimensional effect, and the base fabric structure is clear, light weight, low cost. This
product has a wide range of applications in high-end women's underwear. [9]
3.2 multi-comb warp machine

In the Raschel warp knitting machine, the number of bars arranged in l8 or more, generally known as
multi-comb Raschel warp knitting machine, referred to as multi-comb warp knitting machine, it is the
most capable of warp knitting machine A class of machines. Mainly used in the production of mesh
jacquard fabrics, such as mesh curtains, mesh tablecloths, elastic and inelastic mesh clothing and lace

3.2.1 The characteristics of multi-comb warp knitting machine

The development of the multi-comb warp knitting machine began in 1955 when the first 8-comb warp
knitting machine was used to produce mesh lace, but due to production speed, pattern range and
adaptability to yarn raw materials, there was no commercial Production. The main reason is the increase
in the number of comb row, bar swing movement increases, the machine speed. In recent years, the
continuous development of warp knitting industry, to promote the continuous improvement of warp
knitting machine, modern warp knitting machine has become a modern equipment, multi-comb warp
machine development is mainly reflected in the following aspects: [10]

A. Use the "agglomeration" principle

B. Changes in the movement of the circle
C. Increased the pressure plate device
D. Multi - comb and Jacquard Warp Knitting Technology
E. The application of electronic technology

3.2.2 Classification of multi-comb warp knitting machines

Modern multi-comb warp machine, whether it is machine structure, the use of raw materials, from the
flower principle, flower design have undergone great changes. Has now become the production of lace,
women's underwear and coat the main models. Multi-comb warp knitting machine according to its
structural characteristics, use and additional devices can be divided into the following categories:

Weft-weft-type multi-comb warp knitting machine This type of machine is generally used in front of the
2-3 comb bar to form a mesh base fabric, behind the weft knitting combs generally use 2, 4 and 6 to gather
into a cross line. The pattern is mainly formed by the flower of the weft. So the pattern effect is relatively
flat. The machine mainly produces strip lace, full flower mesh fabric and mesh curtains.

The looped multi-comb warp knitting machine is combed in front of the comb, and made into a loop
weaving, using a long extension line to form a three-dimensional effect of the fabric. All the combs are
used SU electronic bar traverse mechanism control, and the machine's machine up to E28. Because the
machine combs into a circle movement. So the use of combing yarn, there is no multi-comb machine with
a pressure plate so wide, subject to certain restrictions.

Multi-comb warp knitting machine: This machine has mechanical control of MRGSF 31/16 EH and
electronically controlled MRGSF 31/16 SU. Flower comb divided into two, one placed in front of the
pressure plate, you can form a three-dimensional effect; the other on the back of the comb, for the weft
movement, the main form of flat pattern, to set off the main flower pattern.
Contourette Multi-comb warp knitting machine (Contourette: In the multi-comb warp knitting machine
plus Jacquard system, the use of Jacquard to form fancy base fabric, the production of contours with
curtains, this type of machine we call Kang Wright multi-comb warp knitting machine, mainly using
electromagnetic Jakarta control of the MRJC 22/1 and the use of Piazo (Piezo) Jake control MRPJ 24/1

Jacquardtronic warp knitting machine (Jacquardtronic): In the multi-comb warp knitting machine plus
Jacquard system, Used to produce lace, known as Jacquard Nick Warp Knitting Machine, Which has been
controlled by electromagnetic Jakarta. MRESJ43 / 1 and MRESSJ78 / 1. There are MRPJ25 / 1 controlled
by Piazo Jakarta, MRPJ43 / 1 and MRPJ 73/1. This type of machine can produce elastic or inelastic lace

Turks Cluster Nick Doo Comb Warp Knitting Machine (Textronic): The machine is a multi-comb warp
knitting machine with Jacquard and a pressure plate, which is a high-quality lace-making machine
designed to produce very fine, high-quality lace fabrics, much like the traditional lace. Mainly MRPJF59 /
1/24 and its changing model MRPJF54 / 1/24. [11].

Multi-comb warp knitting machine mainly produces two kinds of fabrics, namely elastic or inelastic full-
flow fabric and strip lace. Full flower fabric is mainly used for women's underwear, bra fabrics, tights,
women's clothing and curtains, tablecloths and other decorative; strip lace as clothing accessories.

At present, Europe and the United States mainly use high-end computer-controlled multi-comb warp
knitting machine production lace fabric, widely used in women's underwear, coat and bra areas. China in
recent years more comb lace industry is also developing rapidly. But in general, compared with foreign
advanced countries, the use of equipment mainly to mechanical multi-comb-based, low grade products,
mostly for ordinary women's underwear fabric, failed to enter the ranks of international brands, Pattern
design to each other "copy" based. Therefore, the urgent need to introduce foreign high-end equipment
and technology, and actively digest and absorb, as soon as possible to improve the level of China's design,
to shorten the gap with foreign countries.

4 warp curtains CAD product design

4.1 Selection of raw materials

Warp knitting products mainly to chemical fiber filament, which polyester silk, polyester low elastic yarn,
nylon filament the most widely used. Nylon high-elastic silk, polypropylene fiber, spandex, PBT, silk and
various types of viscose silk more.

Polyester: The most widely used, with high strength, resistance to sunlight, friction, not mildew does not
bite, easy to fold the advantages. Specifications for the 33.3dtex, 50dtex, 55.5dtex, 75.5dtex, 83.3dtex;
because of its good light fastness, the curtain in the production process used in particular.

Nylon: The best resistance to fatigue, but the modulus is low, anti-fold less than polyester, intolerant light,
easy to change color and crisp. Common specifications are 22.2dtex, 38.3dtex, 55.5dtex, 75.5dtex,
83.3dtex; current 22.2dtex, 38.3dtex, two specifications for the single crystal nylon yarn, without twisting
or pulp, with slim, transparent, and easy to reveal features, for the production of transparent thin fabric.
Acrylic: Also known as "artificial hair", a lot for the warp knitted fabric. With special resistance to sunlight,
it is suitable for the production of curtains (mostly thick curtains, shading, muffler function is better) and
outdoor decorative fabric.

Spandex: Also known as "Lycra", spandex bare silk. Mainly used for tights, sportswear, leggings, surgical
bandages. Spandex with spandex and spandex and other fibers and twisted from the twisted wire, the
main used for a variety of warp, weft knitted fabric. Warp curtains in order to maintain its stability,
generally do not use spandex. Will be a unique combination of raw materials with clever, can form a
special visual effects and tactile effects, so that the lace to form a vagaries of the appearance of the effect.
For example, the use of natural texture of the cotton yarn and fine soft spandex with fine spandex to
emphasize the cotton yarn rustic and natural, the formation of pastoral style; use of two-color viscose silk
and bright nylon with, making the lace in the interesting color gradient effect at the same time, Through
the nylon luster to create a rainbow as gorgeous (Figure 2), the pursuit of abstract visual beauty. The
appearance of various raw materials to make the appearance of different lace style, rational use of raw
materials, a variety of configurations, to promote the appearance of lace to form a unique texture effect,
giving a strong visual appeal and artistic appeal. [12]

Figure 3 two-color viscose silk with bright nylon

4.2 Analysis of warp knitted fabrics

Analysis of the raw materials of the main use of visual inspection, combustion, microscopic observation,
drug coloring, dissolution and other methods.

The fabric parameters are mainly dense (cpc: 1cm the number of coils) and cross-dense (wpi: 1in the
number of coils)

Machine number = number of vertical lines per inch × (100 - shrinkage) / 100
Fabric weight, refers to the square meter weight, you can use the torque balance, analytical balance

G = g × 10000 / (L × B)
G - sample weight per square meter g / m2
G - sample weight g
L - sample length cm
B - sample width cm

The average send-off of each row or every 480 rows [1Rack] determines the important parameters of the
warp knitting process.
The analysis of the fabric finishing, mainly based on visual judgments to determine whether the cloth after
dyeing, printing, burnt and cashmere finishing process, according to feel to determine whether the resin

4.3 Warp process calculation

Warp knitting process is generally divided into three states: machine weaving state, fabric and finished
products. The specific process is as follows [10]:

1. Pattern data: including product number, organization number, use, design and design date.
2. Machine basic parameters: including models, machine width, machine number, machine number, bar
number, special equipment (EBC, EBA, EAC, EL, SU and pressure plate, etc.) and machine drive number.

3. The raw material of the parameters of the parameters: the raw materials and through the bar through
the raw material thickness, the number of filaments, yarn type, twist direction, fiber length and fineness,
yarn characteristics, color and wear.

4. The amount of warp: the length of the warp used to weave the 480 rows of fabrics. The formula is as

Figure 4 send the estimated parameters

S a = 0, b = 0
(B + 0.3) T a = 0, b ≠ 0
(Rpc) = Πd / 2.2 + 2S + S a = 1, b = 0
Πd / 2.2 + 2S + bT a = 1, b ≠ 0
2 × (Πd / 2.2 + 2S) + (b + 1) T a = 2

Wax mass (mm / Rack) = 480 × i / m

A - the number of stitches before the needle

B - needle back to the number of needles
D - the thickness of the knitting needle, mm (Table 1)
S - machine ring height, mm, S = 10 / cpc
T - pitch, mm; T = 25.4mm / E
Table I

E14 E20 E24 E28 E32 E36 E40 E44

Needle 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4
Thickness 0.7 0.7 0.5
5 1 1 1 1


Needle 1.8 1.2 1.0 0.9 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.5

pitch/mm 1 7 6 1 9 1 4 8

5. Design fabric density: the process of density is woven on the machine when the dense, the column /
6. Through the rate: the general use of the pattern through the number of cycles through the number
7. Delivery rate: refers to the length of the fabric, regardless of the density, weaving a certain length of
the length of the warp. The following describes its calculation method: [5]

Table II

A 1 row of
virtual pad

Coil trunk
(1 stitch
B2 1.00
needle 6
back pad)
B 1 row of
Kovney 1.02

(3-gauge Weft insertion

stitch- with one wale
gauze) B 2  17

3 (N-Needle Weft insertion

Spacer) with two wales
N 2 B2 0.3+ B2 1

(Chain) 9
extension Weft insertion
A/2 0.3+ N 2 B 2  1
line with N wales

Cushion (2
trunk and 2A+B
5 extension
First, calculate the number of units of the warp knitting machine with the A and B parameters. The yarn
elements of the warp knitting base structure are shown in Figure 4.1. For each element, the unit values
or simple equations with a row interval of 1 are given, which are obtained by theoretical or experimental
methods (parameters A and B According to machine number, dense, raw material lookout table).

(1) the coil trunk is A;

(2) N-stitch needle from the back of the yarn extension line;
(3) open or closed chain extension of the line for the A / 2;
(4) the length of the trunk in the organization and the extension between them is 2A + B;
(5) a row of virtual pad structure of 1.00;
(6) a row of the Corwinit organization was 1.06;
(7) intersects N wales with a latitude of 0.3+

According to the combination of these elements, we can design the warp knitted fabric. The stroke rate
of each warp yarn can be obtained by removing the total value of the unit values in a complete
organization by the number of rows in a complete organization. Then the first,

Where: M - the number of rows of a completely organized;

Z (i) - i The total value of the estimated value of the unit.

Delivery rate (%) = send by the amount (mm / Rack) × machine on the dense (cpc) / 48

8. Yarn fineness: yarn line density is generally expressed with dtex, if the elastic yarn, the general shrinkage
rate Vs (%), then:
Linear density of stress yarn (dtex) x 100
Elastic yarn line density (dtex):
Elastic yarn shrinkage Vs(%) + 100
9. Calculation of square meter weight
First calculate the weight of each comb line, and then superimposed.
Qi = machine number (needle / inch) x through rate Y (i) × yarn density d (i) / 25400

Qi - the first i to bar the weight, g

Y (i) - the first i through the bar,
E (i) - the first i to send the bat, the%
D (i) - i to the comb line yarn density, dtex
Gf - the weight of the yarns of the combs and the loops, g

When a bar with different types of yarn, the different yarn should be calculated separately, and then the
data superimposed. When the full-width weft, the full-width weft yarn weight is calculated as follows:

Q = Gf + Qw + Qv
Gw = wear rate × density (cpc) × line density (dtex) / 100
Gf - the weight of the yarns of the combs and the loops,
Gw - the weight of the whole weft yarn
Gv - the weight of the web g

The gray cloth square meters Weight:

Mick squared weight X fabric length X the density of fabric
Gray cloth square meters weight:
Upper longitudinal seal X Upper transverse density

Mick squared weight X vertical length X density of the fabric

Finished square meters weight:
Upper longitudinal seal X Upper transverse density

Calculation of yarn ratio:

The ratio of the yarn to the bar:

The yarn ratio of the jth raw material:

Where: n - bar number;

Q (i, j) - represents the square of the first j of the j-th yarn;
Q - that the square of the fabric weight.

10. Calculation of production: machine output in the machine weaving fabric output speed

Machine Speed(r/min) X 60 X Efficiency 𝖞(%)

Machine production (m / h):
Upper Longitudinal SealX10000
Machine Speed(r/min) X 60 X Efficiency 𝖞(%)
Machine production (m / h):
Fabric Length X 10000
Machine Speed(r/min) X 63 X Efficiency 𝖞(%)
Machine production (m / h):
Vertical Length X 10000

The same is true for double needle bed warp knitting machines.

5 curtain product analysis

5.1 Jakarta curtains product analysis
In the Jacquard RJPC4 / 1 Jacquard warp knitting machine on the production of mesh curtain effect map,
the parameters and processes are as follows:

Figure 5

1. Machine specifications

(1) Model RJPC4 / 1 type

(2) machine number E18
(3) the number of bars 4 (2)
(4) the number of flowers 2
(5) Width 330cm (130in)
(6) Machine speed 720r / min

2. Jacquard technology: three-pin technology (full machine number)

Raw material

(1) A 167dtex / 144f × 2 polyester deformation wire, light;

(2) B 76dtex / 24f polyester deformation wire, light.

4. Organization, wear through

(1) JB1.1: 0-2-2-2-4-4 / 4-2-2-2-0-0 / / full wear A, the formation of patterns, the use of three-pin
technology full machine number;
(2) JB1.2: 0-2-2-2-4-4 / 4-2-2-2-0-0 / / full wear A, the formation of patterns, the use of three-pin
technology full machine number;
(3) GB2: 0-0-2-2-2-2 / 2-2-0-0-0-0 / / full wear B, forming a grid at the end of cloth.

5. Fabric specifications

(1) Density: 15.8cpc (machine on the dense: 16.5cpc)

(2) Horizontal close: 18.9wpi
(3) Square meters Weight: 105g / ㎡
(4) Horizontal shrinkage: 95%
(5) Yield: 27.3 m / h

6. After finishing: washing, bleaching, stereotypes

RJPC4 / 1 Jakarta warp knitting machine from the ground, the pressure plate, the separation of Jia Jia
comb JB1.2, the separation of Jacquard comb JB1.1, Piezo Jia card comb JB, knitting needle, off ring comb
and pin core Composition, see figure. The machine uses compound needle, and single needle insertion.
The needle core uses a 1/2 inch width needle. Using a combination of Jacquard bar, by the two separate
Jia Jia comb JB1.1 and JB1.2 combination. All looped parts are controlled by cams or cranks in a closed
tank. RJPCAF Jacquard Jacquard card only for the traverse, do not swing; pressure plate for the upper and
lower movement, 3 to comb both swing and move.

Figure 6 RJPC4F into the ring machine configuration diagram

1-comb; 2-chuck; 3-segregated jia card combs JB1.2;

4 - separated Jaka combs JB1.1; 5-piezo jia card comb JB;

6-knitting needle; 7-off-loop comb; 8-pin core

RJPC4F Jacquard warp knitting machine and Jacquard comb traverse by the right side of the machine N-
type or E-type (using the chain block) traverse mechanism control. N-type pattern mechanism l2 travel,
disk with interchangeable curve chain block, the replacement of the organization does not need to re-
configure, as long as the Jacquard bar control lever can be moved. Each disk, Replacement of the
organization does not need to be reconfigured, as long as the Jacquard bar bar can be moved sideways.
The blocks of each disk are shown in the table. [12]

Table 3 of the disk block number and mat digital

Disk number Organization Mat yarn digital

DISK1 JFE112 0-2-2-2-8-8/8-4-4-4-0-0//

DISK2 JFE113 0-2-2-2-6-6/6-4-4-4-0-0//

DISK3 JFE13 0-2-2-2-4-4/4-2-2-2-0-0//

DISK4 JFE112 0-2-2-2-8-8/8-4-4-4-0-0//

DISK5 JFE112 0-0-2-2-2-2/2-2-0-0-0-0//

Jacquard weaving machine technology, including the use of two-pin technology, three-pin
technology and four-pin technology. The second-pin technology is unique to the looped Jacquard
warp knitting machine. Three-pin technology and four-pin technology are typical of the Jacquard
technology, both of which can form a three-dimensional pattern effect, four-pin Jacquard
technology due to the formation of a longer extension line, fabric three-dimensional effect

Three-pin technology is one of the most widely used technology, can form a three-dimensional
pattern effect, the basic yarn for the 1-0 / 1-2 / /, thick tissue effect of the yarn 1-0 / 2-3 / /, Mesh
texture effect when the pad of yarn 2-1 / 1-2 / /, as shown in the figure:
Color effect Color effect




Figure 7 three-pin technology

In the fabric design using three-pin technology or four-pin technology, mainly depends on the amount of
raw materials requirements, such as can achieve the effect of flower-type requirements, you should use
three-pin technology to save raw materials. In addition, if you want to organize the formation of some
mesh or small mesh effect of the fabric, you can only use three-pin technology, that is, the basic
organization using flat pad yarn. [13]

5.2 multi-comb curtain product analysis

In the MRSS32 warp knitting machine on the production of curtain fabric, the final appearance of the
parameters and processes are as follows:

Figure 8
1. Machine specifications
(1) Model MRSS32 type
(2) Machine number E24
(3) Number of bars 32 (26)
(4) The number of chain blocks 3456
(5) Number of pins: 144
(6) Machine speed 450r / min
(7) Stroke number: number of ground comb = 2, number of flowers comb = 1
(8) Yield: 13.5 m / h

2. Material specifications
(1) The organization: 44dtex / 13f nylon, 17%;
(2) pattern structure: 100dtex / 30f × 6 nylon deformation wire, 29%; 156dtex / 34f × 2 nylon
deformation wire, 33%; 67dtex / 17f polyester bright wire,

3. Product specifications
(1) Longitudinal: 27cpc (machine on the dense: 25cpc)
(2) The weight per sub-meter: 6.3g / Ldm

(3) Square meters Weight: 105g / ㎡

(4) Lateral shrinkage: 95%

4. Finishing: washing, scheduled type, dyeing, drying, finishing

The forming part of MRSS 32 warp knitting machine is composed of slot needle, needle core,
uncoated grating, sinker and guide bar, etc. The sinker is fixed and all the bars are not swinging,
, Swinging plate to do swing movement. The advantage of this mode of motion is to avoid the
large number of bar swing inertia, is conducive to the correct padding into the yarn. The machine
uses a slot needle, so that the degree of freedom of design and the use of raw materials have
been expanded in the weaving of cotton and blended yarn spinning, the groove needle system
can automatically remove the needle slot of the fly, impurities, which to ensure the normal
Multi-comb Raschel machine in the production of mesh curtain fabric, the commonly used 2 to 3
of the ordinary full set of comb woven mesh organization, and many of the comb is woven in the
organization pattern. The complexity of fine patterns need more flowers comb, generally
available 20 to 78; and in the weaving relatively simple pattern, such as small curtains, jacquard
nets, gold and silver scarves, etc., then use 9 to 18 bar comb, although the comb The number of
knots will limit the pattern design of the degree of freedom, but the machine speed can be
5.2.1 Basic principles of multi-comb process design [14]

1. The principle of the corresponding arrangement of the fineness of the raw material and the comb.

All Raschel machines are numbered in sequence from the front to the back of the machine. When
weaving lace or other jacquard fabrics, often using different thickness of raw materials to reflect
the sense of layering. The thickest yarn (330 to 600 dtex) is often used to wrap edges to highlight
the contours of the pattern. Thicker yarns (150-250 dtex) are often used to weave the main
pattern while thinner yarns (44-100 Sub-special) is used to modify the main pattern,
embellishment. In order to obtain a clear and transparent effect, often using 20 to 44 dtex special
chemical fiber filament woven organization. Process design, generally follow the following

(1) Ground combing coil must weave lining weft yarn, the bar should be arranged in the forefront.
(2) The roving edge of the roving is arranged at the front.
(3) Of the rough yarn jacquard bar arranged in the middle.
(4) The finest yarn jacquard comb arranged in the back.

The reason for this arrangement is that, on the reverse side of the fabric process, the weft of the
front bar is stacked on top of the weft of the rear bar. If the bar is arranged arbitrarily, it is possible
to cover the covered yarn with the weft-in-laid yarn. Roving is covered by spun yarn, it is caused
by the pattern itself and the edge blurred.
1. Selection principle of weft insertion direction in jacquard comb

Jacquard comb weft insertion weft, there is no special circumstances, all the jacquard comb
should move in the same direction, that is the same direction to the yarn. The advantages of the
same yarn to the yarn, the pattern on the adjacent two jacquard comb the yarn with a good
effect. In particular, considering the characteristics of combing the bar, the same direction of the
yarn will help to simplify the bar arrangement, but also conducive to the chain of digital reading
and inspection.

3. The principle of determining the amount of needle

Jacquard bar The maximum needle retraction needle volume at one time depends on the
allowable traverse time of the bar and the steepness at which the chain can be ground. All the
jacquard brackets carry the needle back pad when the slot needle is in the final position. Since
the jacquard comb located at the rear face is closest to the back of the needle, the traverse time
is relatively short. So that all the jacquard bar a maximum needle back shift needle volume based
on the loop curve can be determined as: L4 ~ L10 to 12 stitches, L17 ~ L18 to 10 stitches, L29 ~
L32 for the 8 stitch. When the electronic traverse mechanism is used, the maximum needle
movement can be up to 16 stitches.

The cumulative amount of traverse of the comb is dependent on the height of the chain, and the
maximum cumulative traverse of the jacquard bar is 70 mm for the MRSS 32 warp knitting

4. As the jacquard bar has the characteristics of agglomeration, so in the pattern cycle, the same
line on the weft insertion weft bar in each row must be more than two stitches, so as not to
knitting each other when the machine damage caused by the collision.

6. Design and development of curtains with large floral patterns on the Contourette combed
warp knitting machine (Contourette):
6.1 Thread design on warp-knitted CAD system

6.2 Analysis of Raw Material Selection

6.3 The corresponding specifications and configurations for the product braiding on the Raschel
cluster machine
With the continuous development of the Raschel lace machine, the increase in the number of
combing bars, the addition of the press board and the Jacquard device, make the Raschel lace
pattern become more and more complicated and complicated, the three-dimensional feeling is
strong, and Jacquard's jacquard function makes Organizational change is rich, structured,
showing an excellent appearance. [3]

6.4 Product Finishing

6.5 Product market merits and demerits

7. Conclusion

The economic development of the warp knitting industry to the multi-species, small quantities,
short-cycle, high-quality direction, and warp knitting CAD to adapt to the characteristics of the
development of the market with rapid response capability, it will gradually become warp
enterprises The face of competition in the market an effective tool. Warp CAD in the role of
modern warp knitting enterprises mainly in the following areas [15]:

Shorten the development cycle of new products, thereby improving labor productivity. New
product development cycle, including the new product design cycle and production cycle.
Designers can use the warp CAD system for pattern design, can also be transferred out of the
original product data to modify, patterns, colors can be free to mix, fast and convenient, so
designers can be liberated from the heavy painting, give full play to their own Imaginative,
improve the design quality and design speed can significantly shorten the product development
cycle, greatly improve labor productivity, enterprises have spare capacity for product upgrading
to adapt to the rapidly changing market, thereby enhancing the enterprise's own vitality And
competitiveness, but also to meet the modern warp fabric popular fast, short cycle of
consumption characteristics.
Saving manpower, material resources, space and time, thereby reducing costs. The use of warp
CAD system design product is simple and quick, save manpower, the original need a few people
to complete the application of warp CAD system only one person, and time is fast, high precision,
but also reduce the labor intensity. For example, the design of multi-comb lace, using the
traditional method of time and effort, and need to spend a lot of cost, the use of CAD system,
the use of multi-comb system lace simulation function, cut costs.

With the progress of science and technology, the warp knitting technology content improvement,
the warp knitting CAD technology in the modern warp knitting enterprise's function and the
status are more and more important. China's warp knitting enterprises must use advanced
production technology for industrial upgrading, and take the road of integrated production, the
implementation of brand strategy, to achieve low-grade products to high-end products, brand-
name transfer and development in order to get rid of the current difficulties, to achieve the
desired goal. Warp knitting market competition is becoming increasingly fierce, changing rapidly,
the warp of the popular to the fashion, personalized, short cycle direction, companies only use
the accuracy of warp CAD technology and rapid response capability in the fierce competition in
the market neutral In the undefeated, these reasons are prompted by the warp knitting CAD
system in the modern enterprise for the popularity of warp, also contributed to the progress of
warp CAD technology. With the intelligent technology, information technology gradually into the
warp knitting production, warp CAD technology is a new look to the warp knitting industry brings
vitality, but also for the modern warp knitting industry to bring a profound revolution.

Looking to the future, China's warp knitting manufacturing industry will face a beautiful and
highly competitive future. [16]

1. The international market is broad, the focus shifted to the East

China's warp knitting industry after 20 years of development, continue to carry out structural
adjustment, has formed a warp knitting industrial production and sales area and base. Such as
the Guangdong focus on more than 1,000 sets of multi-comb lace machine, forming a knitted
underwear fabric production and sales base; Fujian Changle region is China's production of multi-
comb lace an important gathering place, with more than 2,000 lace machine, Domestic demand
is also exported to overseas; Jiangsu and Zhejiang region of the warp knitting industry is also
growing, and with the help of favorable geographical location and economic base for the
formation of large-scale warp science and technology park, the Yangtze River Delta region to
build warp base.

In the 21st century, 70% of global lace production in China, although China is not the birthplace
of lace, but we can see that with the further integration of the global economy and the
continuous development of science and technology, production lace technology and technology
in China With a wide range of communication and rapid development, the focus of the
development of lace production is being transferred to the East.

2. Update production equipment, improve product quality

Europe and the United States mainly use high-end computer-controlled multi-comb warp lace
fabric production, widely used in women's underwear, outerwear and bra areas. In recent years,
many combs lace industry is also developing rapidly, but generally speaking, compared with
foreign advanced countries, the use of large equipment mainly mechanical multi-comb machine,
accounting for about 70%, about 30 computers %, High-end Turkic Nick accounted for about 10%,
Jia Quni Nick accounted for about 20%. As the old machine products lead to lower grades, most
can only be used for ordinary women's underwear fabric, it is difficult to develop new products,
easy and out of line with market demand. Therefore, China's warp knitting enterprises need to
introduce foreign high-end equipment and technology, timely update the machinery and
equipment, understand the development of machinery and equipment, and market demand
closely, improve product quality and enhance the international competitiveness of products

[1] Jiang Gaoming Modern warp technology progress (a) Shanghai Textile Technology 2005 33 (5) 35-37
[2] Qiu Yuxuan the development of new textile products (6): home textiles textile technology 2006 34 (6)
[3] Jiang Gaoming, Cong Honglian Development and Application of CAD Technology for Warp Knitting of
Textiles in Jiangnan University 56-58 2003 2
[4] Jiang Gaoming Modern warp knitting technology progress (5) Shanghai Textile Technology 2005 33 (9)
[5] Jiang Gaoming Ye Xiaohua computer aided process calculation
[6] Xu Dongping, Li Wei, Feng Xunwei. Development and Design of RSJ Series Jacquard Warp Knitted
Fabrics, Knitting Industry 2006 8 30-33
[7] Warp knitting product classification, features and uses
[8] Chen Jigang Ji Kala Lace machine and its products (on) - warp knitting fabric production of the nine 24-
[9] Jiang Gaoming Cong Honglian Modern Jacquard warp knitting machine structure principle and product
design (continued second) Shanghai Textile Technology 2002 30 (2) 33-35
[10] Jiang Gaoming modern warp technology and equipment [M] Beijing, China Textile Press 2004.2
[11] Jiang Gaoming, Ying Weigong modern multi-comb warp knitting machine structure principle and
product design knitting industry 2001.3 19-21
[12] Cong Honglian RJPC4F Jacquard warp machine new jacquard process principle of Shanghai Textile
Science and Technology 2006 34 (11) 63-66
[13] Cong Honglian RSJ4 / 1 Jacquard flower pattern design method of Shanghai Textile Technology 2003
31 (5) 29-31
[14] The basic principles of MRSS 32 type multi-comb warp knitting machine process design knitting
[15] The development and application of warp knitting CAD technology