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BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY MUSEUM OF PEOPLES AND CULTURES TECHNICAL SERIES NO.

03-17

OPHIR PHASE II ABANDONED MINE RECLAMATION PROJECT CULTURAL RESOURCE SURVEY TOOELE COUNTY, UTAH
by Shane A. Baker Deborah C. Harris

Office of Public Archaeology Richard K. Talbot, Director Brigham Young University Provo, Utah 84602 September 2004
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BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY MUSEUM OF PEOPLES AND CULTURES TECHNICAL SERIES NO. 03-17

OPHIR PHASE II ABANDONED MINE RECLAMATION PROJECT CULTURAL RESOURCE SURVEY TOOELE COUNTY, UTAH

by Shane A. Baker Deborah C. Harris with contributions by Aaron Woods Craig Freeman Office of Public Archaeology Richard K. Talbot, Director Brigham Young University Provo, Utah 84602 prepared for Utah Department of Natural Resources Division of Oil, Gas and Mining 1594 West North Temple, Suite 1210 Salt Lake City, Utah 84114 September 2004 Contract Number 02-6607 Federal Antiquities Permit Number 03-UT-54624 Utah State Project Authorization Number U-03-BC-0069bps
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Abstract During July and August 2003, the Office of Public Archaeology, Brigham Young University (OPA), completed documentation and historic site assessments on 165 mine openings located on private patented land and lands managed by the Salt Lake Field Office of the Bureau of Land Management in Tooele County, Utah. Additional field work was undertaken during August 2004 in order to re-evaluate the status of selected sites. The mine sites are under consideration for rehabilitation under the Utah Division of Oil, Gas and Mining’s (DOGM) Abandoned Mine Reclamation Program (AMRP). Most of the mines in the project area resulted from exploration and extraction activities associated with the hard rock base metal and precious metal mining boom in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the western United States. Although many of the sites are relatively modest in scope, those that retain integrity and have sufficient material remains to convey significance and/or yield additional data are recommended as contributing resources within a regional historic context associated with the theme of hard rock mining as a facet of American frontier settlement and exploration. At a local level, hard rock mining played an important role in Tooele County from the 1860s through the 1940s, and substantially influenced the course of local history and economic development. The significance of the sites has been assessed within this broader regional and national context. Treatment of the sites determined to be eligible for the National Register of Historic Places should be conducted in such a way as to preserve as much of the historic fabric as possible of these sites so that they can be studied and interpreted as evidence of the historic hard rock mining process and its contribution to the broad pattern of our national history.

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Management Summary

Project Title:

Ophir Phase II Abandoned Mine Reclamation Project

Utah State Project Number: U-03-BC-0069bps Agencies: Utah Department of Natural Resources ─ Division of Oil Gas and Mining US Department of Interior – Bureau of Land Management, Utah AMR/045/908

DOGM Project Number:

Project Description: The project consisted of the documentation and evaluation of 165 abandoned mine openings in the vicinity of Ophir, Tooele County, Utah. Most of the openings are on lands managed by the Salt Lake Field Office of the Bureau of Land Management, but some lie on patented claims and one is on State Trust lands. The mine openings were examined in the field and grouped into 23 archaeological sites and 52 isolated features on the basis of proximity, association, and location. One additional non-mine site is a historic road located next to one of the mine sites. The archaeological sites were recorded using standard Intermountain Antiquities Computer System (IMACS) documentation and the isolated features were documented using a short isolate form developed by the Bureau of Land Management. Determinations of significance and eligibility were made for each site. Location: Dates of Fieldwork: New Sites Recorded: Previously Recorded Sites Revisited: Eligible Sites: Tooele County, Utah July - August 2003, August 2004 23 1 13

Summary of Sites: A total of 23 new and one previously documented sites were visited and recorded, all but one of which contain historic period components associated with hard rock precious metal exploration and mining in the southern Oquirrh Mountains of north-central Utah. The sites examined during this project are part of an extensive system of closely related sites and features that comprise one of the most extensive historic mining districts in the state of Utah. Thirteen of the sites are considered eligible for the National Register of Historic Places under Criteria A and/or D.
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Table of Contents Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii Management Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Project Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Regulatory Setting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Environmental Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Geology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Flora and Fauna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Historical Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Mining In the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 The Mining Industry in Utah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Pioneer Period Production — 1847 to 1869 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Precious Metal Mining -- 1869 to 1940. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Mining For Western Growth – 1940 to present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Uranium and Fossil Fuels – 1948 to present . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Mining in Tooele County . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 The Camp Floyd Mining District . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 The Mercur Mine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 The Ophir Mining District . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Summary of Historic Information on Project Mines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Camp Floyd Mining District . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Ophir Mining District. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Survey Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Site Designations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Site Assessment Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 National Register Evaluation Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Site Descriptions and Evaluations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Isolated Feature Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Ophir Mining Landscape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Assessment of Impacts and Proposed Closure Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Determination of Eligibility and Finding of Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 42TO2181 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 42TO2182 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 42TO2183 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 42TO2184 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 42TO2185 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 42TO2186 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 42TO2187 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 42TO2188 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 42TO2189 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 42TO2190 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 vii

42TO2191 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 42TO2192 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 42TO2193 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 42TO2194 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 42TO2195 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 42TO2196 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 42TO2197 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 42TO2198 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 42TO2357 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 42TO2358 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 42TO2359 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 42TO2360 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 42TO2361 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 42TO1772 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Appendix A: Ophir II 2003 Table Summary of Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A1 Appendix B: Mine Opening Eligibility Summary Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B1 Appendix C: Site Sketch Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C1

List of Tables Table 1. Previous Projects in Ophir II Project Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Table 2. Metal Production from the Oquirrh Mountains Mining Districts, Utah . . . . . . . . . 26 Table 3. Site Locations by Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Table 4. Site Locations and Legal Descriptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Table 5. Summary of Openings at 42TO2195 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

List of Figures Figure 1. Oquirrh Mountains, Rush Valley, and southern Tooele Valley.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Figure 2. Ophir II general project area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Figure 3. Geologic Cross Section of North Oquirrh Mountains. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Figure 4. Photo of two miners in front of unidentified mine portal, ca. 1910. . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Figure 5. Panoramic view of Ophir ca. 1930.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Figure 6. Photo showing town of Ophir, June 1930. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Figure 7. Photo showing town of Mercur, June 1903. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Figure 8. Topographic map showing 42TO2182 - 42TO2192 and isolated features. . . . . . . 45 Figure 9. Topographic map showing 42TO2193 - 42TO2196 and isolated features. . . . . . . 46 Figure 10. Topographic map showing 42TO2197 and isolated features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Figure 11. Topographic map showing 42TO2188 and isolated features. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Figure 12. Topographic map showing 42TO2198 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

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Introduction Project Description Between July 2003 and August 2003 the Office of Public Archaeology (OPA), under contract to the Utah Department of Natural Resource’s Division of Oil, Gas and Mining (DOGM), carried out an intensive examination and survey of 165 abandoned precious metal and base metal mine sites in the Oquirrh Mountains in the vicinity of the town of Ophir, Utah (Figures 1 and 2). Additional field work was undertaken during August 2004 in order to re-evaluate the status of selected sites. The project area is located primarily on lands administered by the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Salt Lake Field Office. Although most of the mines are under BLM jurisdiction, a few of the properties are located on patented mining claims which occur as inholdings within the boundaries of the federal jurisdictional unit. One mine was located on State Trust lands. The project was designated as the Ophir II Abandoned Mines Project. An earlier inventory of adjacent areas was completed by other consultants during 2000 and 2001, and constitutes Phase I of the project. A literature review and file search at the Utah Division of State History was conducted by OPA personnel in July 2003, immediately prior to commencement of fieldwork. In addition to information acquired at the Division of State History, crucial baseline data on each of the properties was provided by DOGM, who furnished descriptive information and location and access data for each opening. The literature review found no previously recorded archaeological sites within the actual project area, but the general vicinity has been the subject of a number of cultural resources inventories. These previous archaeological surveys conducted in the area are summarized in Table 1. Locations for all of the mines to be assessed were plotted in advance on standard USGS 7.5’ series topographic maps using the information provided by DOGM in order to aid in field relocation. In addition to the primary task of field documentation and assessment of the mine sites, OPA carried out historic research in an effort to develop an accurate historic context for each mine and to assess the role of precious and metallic mineral mining on a regional basis. Mining records were examined at the Tooele County Recorder’s Office in Tooele. Additional research was conducted at Brigham Young University Harold B. Lee Library, and at the Utah Division of State History Library and Archives. The Ophir II Abandoned Mine Reclamation Project is located in the southern section of the Oquirrh Mountains, primarily in the area to the south and east the town of Ophir in the vicinity of Silveropolis Hill, Lion Hill, Rover Hill, Porphyry Hill, and Meadow Canyon. Additional mine locations in the project occur to the west of the town in Ophir Canyon and the vicinity of Dry Canyon. The mines involved in the project are distributed over an area in excess of 43 square miles in size. The formal project boundary includes approximately 8,200 acres, though mines are not evenly distributed throughout this area; the acreage actually affected by mining is substantially smaller than the project boundary. Methods The project was carried out under the direction of Richard K. Talbot, director of OPA, under authority of Federal Antiquities Permit Number 02-UT-54624 and Utah State Project Number U-03-BC0069bps. Richard Talbot, Lane Richens and Shane Baker were field directors and served as crew chiefs. Crew members at various times during the project included: Sarah Baer, Craig Freeman, Danae Hansen, Holly Raymond, Jacob Sauer, Scott Ure, Aaron Woods and David Yoder, all of whom are Brigham Young University students. Historic research was conducted by Deborah Harris and Shane Baker. The report 1

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TOOELE GRANTSVILLE
SALT LAKE COUNTY

Mo
O na M ou nt ai ns

un
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ta
MAP LOCATION

ins

WAS AT C H N AT I O N A L FO R R E S T

O qu ir rh

Stockton

Ophir

M ou nt ai ns

RUSH VALLEY
TOOELE COUNTY

73
UTAH COUNTY

36

i

VERNON

OFFICE OF PUBLIC ARCHAEOLOGY
0 DOGM - OPHIR ABANDONED MINE PROJECT
TOOELE COUNTY

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5 KM 5 MI

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Figure 1. Oquirrh Mountains, Rush Valley, and southern Tooele Valley. 2

Figure 2. Ophir II general project area. preparation was undertaken by the professional and student staff members of OPA. Computer graphics, maps, and GIS support for report production were provided Scott Ure. Debbie Silversmith, OPA business manager, was responsible for technical editing of the manuscript and final document preparation. Each of the subject mines was located in the field using the data provided by DOGM, including plotted map locations, descriptive information and photographs. The relocation of the mine openings and field documentation work was conducted with crews of two to four individuals. Each crew was assigned specific sites which were accessed by driving or hiking directly to the mine opening. In a few instances somewhat lengthy hikes were required to reach some of the sites. Vehicle access to the southern portion of the project area is relatively difficult and road conditions are generally poor, with many of the access roads being used primarily by ATVs. This has allowed vegetative growth to narrow the travel lane in many areas on the less traveled roads. Considerable time and effort was saved by gaining access to the Rover Hill area via property controlled by Barrick-Mercur Mining. Appreciation is expressed to Barrick-Mercur for permission to cross their property and to their local foreman, Kevin Hamitaki, for his assistance in getting access and directions. 3

Table 1. Previous Projects in Ophir II Project Area
Agency Class III survey of electronic test site and access. Sec. 27, T5S, R4W Project Description Legal Location Reference Cartwright (1980) Weder, Smith, & Hauck (1981) Jacklin 1981

State Project No.

80- BL-0068

BLM

81-AF-0059

TRC Environmental Consultants, Inc.

81-BC-0063

CRMS/BYU

81-BC-0087

CRMS/BYU

Nielson 1981 Duffin 1982 Nielson 1983

82-BC-0055

CRMS/BYU

85-BC-0116 The project surveyed 20 acres.

CRMS/BYU

The project consists of a survey of 23 ten-acre sample units and an T5&6S, R3&4W additional 2510 acres in the area of the Historic Mercur Mining town. T6S, R3W, Sec. 8, 5, 4; T5S, R3W, Sec. 32, 31, Survey of cultural resources in the Oquirrh Mountains. 30, 19, 7; T5S, R4W, Sec. 24, 13, 12; T3S, R4W, Sec. 6, 7, 8, 17, 20 A Preliminary Report on the Test Excavations of Two Lithic Scatters T5S, R4W, Sec. 31 near Mercur, Tooele County, Utah, for Getty Oil Company An Archaeological Survey of a Portion of the UP & L Oquirrh-Tooele T3S, R3W, Sec. 4. 138 KV Powerline. Excavation of the small hunting camp Sparrow Hawk Site in the Oquirrh Mtns. 1:250,000 Southern Oquirrh Mountains. T8N, R5E, Sec. 8

85-BL-0876

BLM

Dodge 1985

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Drill sites and road construction survey. Mining test, drilling and road construction survey. Mineral exploration and road development survey. Survey of 357 abandoned mine properties. Survey of 54 small mines. Survey of 328 abandoned mines for the Utah DOGM.

88-BC-0113

CRMS/BYU

89-BL-0407

BLM

89-BL-0522

BLM

T4S, R4W, Sec. 31 FIREX88 Archaeological Class II Probabilistic Surveys in Tooele and T5S, R4W, Sec. 5, 6, 7, 8 Wilde, 1988 Salt Lake Counties, Utah. T6S, R6W, Sec. 36 Surveying for the Barrick Company that has proposed expansion of T6S, R3W, Sec. 4, 5, 6; Smith 1989 existing tailings dumps. T5S,W, Sec. 33 Digging trenches to explore and sample several geologic targets in the T5S, R4W, Sec. 25 and Christensen 1989 area. T5S, R3W, Sec. 30 Ophir Quad (1980) Ophir, 1:24,000 (1980) Sec. 16, T5S, R4W Sec. 25, T5S, R4W Christensen 1991 Brewster 1995 Desert West Research 1995 Melton 1996 Skinner and Helton 1998 Bassett and Edwards 1999 Stockton Quad (1980) Bassett 2000

91-BL-0426

BLM

95-BL-0425

BLM

95-WZ-0501

Desert West Research, A Class III cultural and paleontological resources inventory. Inc.

96-BL-0511

BLM

97-ST-0854

SWCA, Inc. Environmental Consultants

99-DH-03-P,b

Dames & Moore, Inc.

Cedar Fort Quad, Fivemile Pass Quad, Mercur Quad, Ophir Quad Mercur Quad, Ophir Quad, Fivemile Pass Quad

99-DH-0390

Dames & Moore, Inc.

Topography was wide ranging in the various localities of the project area, but was generally dominated by rugged slopes and canyons characteristic of the west flank of the Oquirrh Mountains. Some of the project sites are located in steep areas on slopes approaching 90 degrees. The field conditions for the duration of the project were generally quite good, with good ground visibility in most areas, except where thick vegetation became a problem in isolated locations. Once an opening was relocated, field crews conducted an intensive examination of the area surrounding the mine to identify any related cultural features or artifacts. As specified by contract stipulations, investigation of underground mine workings was not undertaken due to the risk factors involved. Accordingly, features and artifacts on the interior of the shaft or adit other than those visible from the outside were not examined. A minimum area of one acre (35 m radius surrounding the opening) was examined at each opening. For sites with a single mine opening, the effective area surveyed was therefore a circular zone 70 m in diameter centered around the actual opening. At several of the mines there were multiple closely related openings which were grouped into a single archaeological site for the purposes of documentation. (See “Site Assessment Categories” section for definitions employed in this report for the determination of site, isolated find, and eligibility category.) At these sites, the entire area circumscribed within the boundary of the site was examined and all related features documented. At these larger properties, the site boundaries represent the spatial extent of the area intensively surveyed, which was examined using a transect interval of 15 m. The area between sites and outside the boundaries of identified sites was considered to be out of the project area and was not examined. Accordingly, no systematic survey was conducted outside the boundaries of the defined sites and away from the subject openings previously identified by DOGM for the purposes of confirming the presence or absence of other historic or prehistoric cultural material not immediately associated with the project openings. No guidelines were given to OPA as to what the actual Area of Potential Effect (APE) would be. Therefore, for the protection of the cultural resources at the individual sites, we inferred the APE to be any disturbance that might occur within the site boundaries. For this reason, in this report the site boundares are designated as the APE. While every effort was made to document ancillary cultural features associated with each mine opening, the scope of work did not permit the identification or documentation of cultural materials outside of and not connected in some manner to the APE at each site. Borrow source areas for any of the openings proposed for backfill closure were not considered as part of any site APE. Further inventory of borrow source areas would need to be conducted before mechanical closure of these sites takes place. A preliminary assessment was made at each of the mine openings to determine the level of data recordation required. Many of the openings on the Ophir II project consist of small prospects or completely collapsed adits with no associated features or artifacts. In these cases, where a mine designated for assessment consisted only of a rather unremarkable opening and no associated artifacts, they were designated as isolated features rather than as sites. This distinction allowed these non-significant properties to be dealt with quickly and efficiently. Openings that had associated features or artifacts, or which retained substantial integrity in terms of preservation of the actual opening itself, were designated as archaeological sites subject to full documentation. Where several collapsed adits appeared to be grouped closely within a single locality they were considered to form a formal site, rather than several individual isolated features, and were documented as such. Each site was recorded using standard Intermountain Antiquities Computer System (IMACS) site forms; including Global Positioning System (GPS) generated location data, site sketch maps, and 35 mm black-and-white and color slide photography. Site locations were plotted on 7.5 minute series USGS maps using both GPS data and information provided by DOGM. In the field, individual mine openings were relocated on the basis of map plots and Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinates provided by DOGM. During the actual survey the openings were relocated and plotted using Garmin eTrek or 5

Garmin GPS40 GPS receivers. The UTM coordinates for each mine opening were checked in the field and compared against the data provided by DOGM. Where necessary, UTM coordinates were corrected. GIS data generated for the project consists of the point data for each of the mine openings. Site boundaries were not digitized in the field using GPS equipment, and have been marked on the topographic maps on the basis of field observations and point plot data for the openings. Most historic hard rock mining districts consist of a scattered patchwork of roads, prospects, openings, ore transportation and processing features, and less frequently, habitation features and even the remains of business or commercial structures. These cultural materials are often widely spread in the area surrounding the actual mine openings, and may require large amounts of time and money to document completely. Examples of these types of archaeological features do occur in the Ophir area outside the boundaries of the specific project openings, and therefore not all were documented. However, this more complex fabric of related cultural manifestations really does constitute a part of the regional framework within which these sites should be considered. Access to some of the openings examined during the project is available over established public right-of-ways, primarily unpaved county roads. However, some of the openings occur in relatively remote areas with limited access. No vehicle or equipment access routes were surveyed for sites located in these types of areas. Some of the openings are situated a considerable distance from the nearest public right-ofway. Regulatory Setting The Division of Oil, Gas and Mining (DOGM) administers the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 under the auspices of the Office of Surface Mining (OSM) through the Abandoned Mine Reclamation Program (AMRP). The program was developed in order to reclaim land and water resources adversely affected by past coal mining and left abandoned or inadequately restored. Today the AMRP protects public heath and safety from hazards at all abandoned mines and restores lands damaged by past, unregulated mining. The program is funded by a federal tax on coal produced in the state. OSM ensures that all Utah AMRP actions comply with the requirements of the National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA) and other applicable federal laws. The AMRP program is managed in accordance with the Federal Office of Management and Budget Circular No. A-102 and applicable state guidelines. Federal environmental and historic preservation laws apply both because the program draws on federal funds, and in the case of the Ophir Project, because the subject sites are located on federally managed land. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4371 et seq) established a formal federal policy to preserve natural, as well as historical and cultural aspects of national heritage when monies from federal agencies are used. Regulations for implementation of the act have been issued by the Council on Environmental Quality (40 CFR Part 1502.16[g]). The regulations require that federal undertakings and federally funded state undertaking that have the potential to impact historic and cultural properties must make an assessment of the consequences of such actions. The intent of this legislation is to preserve cultural and archaeological sites, and to direct agencies into selecting alternatives that lessen unavoidable impacts, but not necessarily to prevent appropriate actions that entail adverse effects to cultural resources and sites. The regulations do require, however, that impacts be recognized and minimized or mitigated whenever possible. Additional federal legislation governing the protection of historic properties includes the Antiquities Act of 1906, the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) of 1966, the Archaeological and Historical 6

Preservation Act of 1974, the Archaeological Resources Protection Act of 1979, and the American Indian Religious Freedom act of 1978. Although NEPA is the broadest of the cultural resource authorities, Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act is the most specific of the cultural resource regulations, and provides guidelines to federal agencies, state, and private entities in regards to the appropriate treatment of historic properties affected by federally funded undertakings. The National Historic Preservation Act of 1966 (amended in 1992) authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to “expand and maintain a National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) composed of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects significant in American history, architecture, archaeology, engineering, and culture” as well as all documentation, artifacts, and remains related to these properties (Title 1, Section 101 (a)). Properties meeting the requirements stated in the NHPA are eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. The determination of the significance and eligibility of historic properties is to take place in cooperation with the State Historic Preservation Officer, who also consults with federal agencies in the mitigation of impacts to NRHP properties and to “advise and assist in the evaluation of proposals for rehabilitation projects that may qualify for Federal assistance” (NHPA 1966 Title 1, Section 101, paragraph 8). Implementing regulation for Section 106 have been promulgated by the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) and are codified at 36 CFR 800. Environmental Context Geology Because the project area lies in one of the most intensively mined regions of the state, and contains mineral resources of national caliber and significance, the geology has been the subject of a number of detailed studies which have been reported elsewhere (e.g. Boutwell 1905; Butler 1920; Cook 1961; Guenther 1973; Klatt and Tafuri 1976; Moore 1973; Peacock 1948; Rubright 1978; Spurr 1895; Tafuri 1987; Tooker 1999; Tooker and Roberts 1998). Only a brief summary of this large body of data is presented here to provide a context for the historic mining activities documented during the project. The Ophir II project area is located in north-central Utah in the south end of the Oquirrh Mountains. The Oquirrh Range is situated immediately south of the Great Salt Lake, and is first of several north to south trending mountain ranges which mark the extreme east edge of the Basin and Range province where it terminates against the west edge of the Wasatch Range. The Oquirrh Mountains extend a distance of approximately 56 km from the south shore of the Great Salt Lake to Five Mile Pass, and are flanked on the west by Tooele and Rush Valleys and on the east by Jordan and Cedar Valleys. The mountains arise abruptly from the south shore of the lake at a low elevation of approximately 1,280 m (4,200 ft asl) and ascend to a maximum elevation of 3,228 m (10,589 ft asl) at Lowe Peak in the southern part of the range. The north end of the Oquirrh Range consists almost entirely of Pennsylvanian and Permian sedimentary rocks of the Oquirrh Group, although the entire range is believed to overlie basement formations of Precambrian age (Chronic 1990, Tooker 1999). These same sedimentary rocks dominate the south end of the range, but are interrupted by intrusions of Tertiary granite. The sedimentary rocks throughout the range include materials of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic age, although the Paleozoic materials dominate. The Paleozoic deposits are dominated by thick accumulations of various amounts of carbonate-quartz clastics, orthoquartzite, shale, limestone and dolomite (Tooker 1999) (Figure 3).

7

Age Formation or Member
Quaternary

Feet
0-1000 0-250 0-12,000

Lithology

Alluvium & Lake Bonneville deposits Harkers Alluvium Valley fill in Tooele Valley

Oligocene

Eocene

Miocene Pliocene

Shaggy Peak rhyolite plug Quartz latite porphyry dikes Bingham & Last Chance qtz monzonite post trusting conglomerate 0-500? Paleozoic strata were folded and thrusted-during Jurassic - Cretaceous Sevier orogenic events Grandeur Limestone, Park City Group 760

Diamond Creek Sandstone

2000?

Kirkman Limestone

400

Permian

Wolfcampian

Freeman Peak Formation
(Clinker-rings when struck)

2400

Curry Peak Formation

2450

Missourian - Virgilian

Bingham Mine Formation

7300

Oquirrh Group

Commercial LsM (100-200) Jordan LS Mbr (100-300)

Pennsylvanian

Atokan - Desmoinesian

Butterfield Peaks Formation

9100

Morrowan

West Canyon Limestone

1060-1450

Adapted from Hintze 1988: 145

Figure 3. Geologic Cross Section of North Oquirrh Mountains. 8

The Oquirrhs were formed primarily by thrust faulting which occurred during the Cretaceous Sevier Orogeny. This block faulting resulted in a geological landscape along the thrust belt which is characterized by a relatively complex mix of folded and faulted geological strata, of which the Oquirrrhs are a prime example. Geologists have identified five nappes (thrust sheets) which comprise the Oquirrh Mountains, which include the Pass Canyon, Bingham, Rogers Canyon, South Mountain, and Five Mile Pass nappes. Tertiary igneous intrusive and extrusive rocks were introduced from crustal sources, which fractured and interrupted the older sedimentary layers. The valuable ore deposits present throughout the range were deposited as the result of hydrothermal activity associated with this Tertiary intrusive action. Ore-bearing solutions penetrated the fractured sedimentary strata and left behind the dispersed deposits of precious and base metals that constitute the economically important minerals found in the region today (Tooker 1999). Flora and Fauna The Ophir Project is located in the Oquirrh Mountains on the eastern edge of the Great Basin. The flora and fauna of the project area are consistent with those found widely distributed in the high-desert climate zones of the eastern Great Basin. They are only briefly summarized here. Grayson (1993:33) notes that there are well over 600 species of vertebrates native to the Great Basin, including mammals, birds, snakes, lizards, frogs, turtles, and fish. The project area falls within the Great Basin Faunal Area defined by Durrant (1952:480). The Great Basin Faunal Area, like all those defined for the state, is distinguished and defined largely by factors involving physiographic characteristics which have affected the evolution and spread of animals throughout the region. Durrant found that each of his defined areas were distinctive because certain species were restricted to it, and in most cases, served the defined areas served as centers for subspecies differentiation. The Great Basin Faunal Area is the largest in the state, and comprises most of the western half of the state. In terms of mammalian fauna, the area is distinct for at least one species found no where else in the state, and some 42 subspecies which are wholly or nearly restricted to this area (Durrant 1952:488). The animals found in the project area include a relatively wide variety of both large and small mammals, birds, and reptiles, including: deer, rabbits, lizards, snakes, birds of prey, and other associated species, as well as some fish in the perennial water courses. While the fauna were probably economically significant during the prehistoric period, their variety and distribution were probably of much less significance to historic peoples involved in mining pursuits. Due to the extremely broad span of elevational ranges covered in the project area, a wide range of floral communities are represented. The lower elevation sites in the foothills are characterized by pinyonjuniper woodlands, intermixed with low sagebrush, shadscale, and other Upper Sonoran community species. The higher elevations of the project area grade into the Transitional and Canadian life zones, and exhibit species common to those zones, including maple, oak, and other mountain brush community plants, as well as some spruce, fir and aspen (for more information on the flora and fauna of the Great Basin, see Bates 1996 and Grayson 1993). The majority of the field work took place in the late summer, and many of the locations in the higher elevation canyons exhibited an amazingly dense display of fruiting shrubs, including gooseberry, chokecherry, snowberry, and currants. These certainly would have been economically important to the prehistoric inhabitants of the area, and were probably expeditiously used by the historic occupants as well.

9

Historical Context Mining In the United States Conditions suitable for ore deposits are common only in limited areas of the world, and even where conditions are ideal, ore bodies are the exception rather than the rule. The sporadic occurrence of these ore deposits, then, makes the discovery of large mineralized regions very important. As noted above, economically important mineral and coal resources in the eastern United States were restricted mainly of rich deposits of coal and iron-bearing ores, along with limited localized precious mineral lodes, mostly found within the Appalachian mountain area (Bergendahl et al. 1981; Wallace 1976). The igneous origin of metals and the tendency for igneous activity to be associated with geologic crustal uplifting suggests that metal-ore bearing regions are often mountainous. Significantly, the western United States is characterized by numerous large, igneous mountain ranges and regions of crustal uplift. Due to this, a vast majority of the major mineral-bearing deposits within the United States have been identified throughout the western region of the nation. A mine is an “excavation made in the earth for the purpose of extracting useful minerals” (Gregory 1980:18). While the definition seems simplistic, the process of constructing a safe and economically viable mine is complicated and varied. A number of different techniques and approaches to mining were utilized throughout the historic mining period. The archaeological manifestations of these activities are dependent upon and reflective of these different processes. Mines in general can be divided into four classes: underground (hard-rock), surface (open pit), alluvial (placer) and non-entry (well/drilling). All four types of mines are found within the western United States, and all have been employed for the extraction of minerals, although wells have generally only been used, in terms of precious metal development, for the solution mining of copper. Mining methods most closely associated with precious metal procurement are placer (Sutter’s Mill, Clear Creek), open-pit (Bingham), and underground (Comstock, Ophir and the extended Bingham mines). Placer or alluvial mining relates to the recovery of heavy minerals that have been eroded out of their primary ore deposits and then concentrated, primarily by water action, into streambeds below gravel deposits and above the bedrock. These deposits are made possible because of the comparative differences between the specific gravity of precious minerals as compared to ordinary rock, gravel and sand. For example, diamond and gold dust have specific gravity weights of 21.4 and 19.3, respectively, whereas the average specific gravity weight non-mineral rock is 2.6. This means that as moving water slows, sometimes even fractionally, the heaviest material it is carrying will be dropped out (deposited) and concentrated, particularly at bends or more level areas within a streambed. These minerals, particularly when occurring in stream banks or terraces, can be mined by washing the materials down a sluice, which carries away the lighter materials, leaving the precious minerals behind. This is also the theory and method behind gold-panning, just that the process takes place on a much smaller scale. It was these types of finds which fueled the initial gold rushes into California, the Rockies and Alaska, and kept alive the drive for expansion across the west (Gregory 1980; Wyman 1979). ‘What a clover-field is to a steer, the sky to a lark, a mudhole to a hog, such are new diggings to a miner.’ So, in 1862, wrote The Oregonian about the large numbers of men who roamed the West in a tireless search for precious metal. Once the great California gold strike of 1848 had shown what riches the Western earth could hold, hordes of Americans hurried to every other promising corner of the wilderness (Wallace 1976:6). One such explorer was George Jackson, a miner whose impact on the mining west was significant. 10

On January 6, 1859, George Jackson found himself dangerously short of food in the snowy Rockies 30 miles west of Denver. He had just decided to quit his gold hunting and head toward Denver when he chanced upon some hot mineral springs near Clear Creek. The springs had melted the snow, and the area was surrounded by mountain sheep which were grazing on the exposed vegetation. Taking advantage of the opportunity, Jackson shot one of the sheep in order to feed himself, then made the decision to devote one more day to his hunt for gold. The next morning Jackson resumed his hunt along the south fork of Clear Creek, scanning the frozen stream bed for a gravel bar, where any yellow flakes from upstream might be trapped. In his travels he had seen many such so-called placer formations. Late in the day Jackson spotted a promising gravel bar, hacked out some slushy sand with his knife and panned it in his tin drinking cup, the only suitable implement he had at hand. He swished water around in the cup until all the light sand was washed out. Left in the cup were a few tiny but heavy yellow flakes: gold and no mistake. Jackson panned several more handfuls of sand, collecting a vial of gold dust and one small nugget worth $10 in Denver at current market levels. Being short of equipment and supplies, Jackson could not really work his find until the spring thaw, so he concealed the evidence of his activity and marked a tree 76 paces to the west, identifying the site so that he could return later and work the claim. In his diary he wrote:
If only I had a pick and pan instead of a hunting knife and the cup, I could dig out a sack full of the yellow stuff. My mind ran upon it all night long. I dreamed all sorts of things - about a fine house and good clothes, a carriage and horses, travel, what I would take to the folks down in Old Missouri and everything you can think of - I had struck it rich! There were millions in it! [Wallace 1976:19].

George Jackson was partly right. The Clear Creek area would yield more than $100 million worth of gold in 60 years. But like most prospectors, he overestimated his personal gain. The strike did not make him rich -- only a little more comfortable. On his return to the gravel bar in May, he and a few partners panned $1,900 in dust in six days work; not long after, Jackson sold out for an unknown sum, probably modest. Nevertheless, Jackson had discovered the first major gold field in the West’s immense interior wilderness (Wallace 1976).
Gold had always been a good story, and opportunists of all sorts turned it to their own advantage. In towns along the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, merchants had done a brisk business outfitting gold seekers for the 600- or 700-mile journey. No fewer than 17 writers, most of whom had never seen the Rockies, rushed into print with guidebooks to the chimerical gold mines, which they loosely named after the region’s best known terrain feature: Pikes Peak. One journalist, D.C. Oakes, extolled the ease and comfort of the trip, and other assured his readers that ‘Gold is found everywhere you stick your shovel.’ By April 1959, a torrent of prospectors - estimated at 100,000 - had set out for the “New Eldorado,” most of them ill-equipped and ignorant of the hazards they faced. Their wagons, painted with the slogan “Pike’s Peak or Bust,” broke down in the prairie. Many ‘fifty-niners’ got lost, perished of thirst, hunger, disease, or Indian raids. About half of the emigrants never reached the Rockies, or turned back bitterly crying “fraud.” . . . By mid-May...the tide of “go-backers” reached its crest, and it seemed that the search for gold was over. But then, two miners from the south fork of Clear Creek came into Denver, full pouch of gold dust in hand, saying: “Here’s a sample of our stuff. We’re taking out nearly $2,000 a week up on the south fork” [Wallace 1976:8].

The Clear Creek strike made by George Jackson, and the gold rush that it precipitated, opened up a new chapter in the saga of western mining. In the hectic half century that followed the Colorado discoveries, the continent’s mountain bound interior - from the Rockies to the Sierra Nevada and the 11

Cascades, and from Canada to Mexico - was crisscrossed by legions of prospectors and miners, who flung up hundreds of outposts in the unpopulated uplands that the forty-niners had ignored in their rush for the Pacific. “It was,” wrote prospector William Parsons, “a mad, furious race for wealth, in which men lost their identity almost, and toiled and wrestled, and lived a fierce, riotous, wearing, fearfully excited life: forgetting home and kindred; abandoning old, steady habits; acquiring restlessness, craving for stimulant, unscrupulousness, hardihood, impulsive generosity, and lavish ways” (Wallace 1976:8). No one knew how many freelance prospectors and wage-earning miners took part in the adventure; in the race from strike to strike, many of these entrepreneurs circulating in the unsettled areas of the frontier seldom stayed put long enough to be counted. But their strikes increased at a staggering rate. By 1866, a scant seven years after Jackson’s find on Clear Creek, miners had organized more than 600 far-flung mining districts in an effort to regulate their own affairs until some official government reached their remote camps. And that was merely the beginning. According to a careful estimate, the West may have had as many as 100,000 mining districts by 1900. Most of the strikes were small and short-lived; the boomand-bust cycle often ran its full course in less than a decade. But in dozens of rich areas, prospectors and miners wrung enough wealth from the earth to strain their own willing credulity” (Wallace 1976:21-22). The Mining Industry in Utah “The history of mining in the West (goes) back to the very beginning of the Mormon development of Utah. . . . President Lincoln, recognizing the vast wealth of the west said, ‘Utah will yet become the treasure house of the nation.” (Carter 1939:1). However, the mining industry, which eventually played an extremely important part in the development of Utah, played little role in the lives of the early pioneers. These first settlers did not come west for material riches, but were seeking a place of refuge. The first priority of these pioneers was to build permanent, self-sustaining communities based on agriculture, home industries, homes, churches and schools; and Brigham Young, who often declared that the mountains of Utah were filled with precious metals, discouraged prospecting in order that strong communities could be fully established before any mining industry should be developed (Carter 1939). This placed Utah in contrast to many other western states whose early colonization and foundations lay primarily in economic forces driven by mining. The unique foundation established by the Mormons in Utah perhaps altered the way in which mining would unfold as a factor in the state’s development, but it did not preclude the fact that Utah would enjoy tremendous growth and economic development at least in part due to its natural resources. The history of mining in Utah has been summarized into four broad periods or phases: 1) Production by the pioneers of minerals suitable to their isolated, home-industry, agricultural economy – 1847 to1869. 2) Mining and smelting of lead, silver, gold, joined by copper and zinc in the latter stages – 1869 to1940 – largely for export trade. 3) Mining and processing of metals and nonmetallic minerals to meet needs of rapidly growing Western States area – (iron, gypsum, phosphate, cement, salt, potash, clays, etc.) – 1940 to present. 4) Uranium, potash and oil and gas development – 1948 to present [Utah Mining Association 1967:9] The key developments of the mining history of the state will be summarized briefly in each of these periods in order to develop a broad historical outline for the project area. 12

Pioneer Period Production — 1847 to 1869 As already noted, the early economic emphasis of the Mormon colonists of Utah was decidedly agrarian and explicitly “anti-mining.” The Mormon ecclesiastical leaders were relatively unified in their belief that agriculture and horticulture were a more trustworthy basis for the types of millenialist religious communities that they were trying to establish in the Great Basin. Mining was seen as a somewhat threatening distraction to the objective of building stable, prosperous egalitarian communities. In a very real sense, the survival of the early colonists during the first crucial years was dependant upon their success in establishing agricultural pursuits, and anything else constituted a distraction that could not be afforded. This led to an official policy that discouraged mining pursuits, but did not overtly prohibit them. In light of this general bias against mining in the core area of Latter-day Saint settlement along the Wasatch Front, it is interesting to note that Mormons in California were involved in the first discovery of gold at Sutter’s Mill in 1848. Shortly after the main body of Latter-day Saints left Nauvoo, Illinois, in 1846, the federal government requested that Brigham Young raise a contingent of approximately 500 male members of the church to serve in the U.S. Army. Congress had declared war with Mexico on May 12, 1846, and President James K. Polk was anxious to assert U.S. control over Upper Mexico and California, and needed additional military forces to carry out his plan. The group of men raised from the Mormon immigrants camped in Iowa became known as the Mormon Battalion. The group was outfitted in Fort Leavenworth, and was sent west to provide support for support for General Stephen W. Kearny, commander of U.S. forces in the western United States. The Battalion marched overland from Fort Leavenworth to Santa Fe, New Mexico, and from there to San Diego, where they arrived in January of 1847. The men were officially discharged at Los Angeles on July 16, 1847. Most of the men began preparations to head east to meet up with the main body of the LDS Church, which had arrived in the Salt Lake Valley in early July of that same year. However, a message was received from Brigham Young asking those men without families to remain in California for the winter to work. Some of the men made their way north to Sutter’s Fort on the Sacramento River, where they took contracts to work for Sutter in his business ventures. At least six of the eleven men present at the first discovery of gold at Sutter’s lumber mill in January 1848 were Mormons who had been members of the Battalion. This find sparked the beginning of the California Gold Rush. Although some of the Battalion members wanted to stay on in California, most returned to the Salt Lake Valley as soon as possible. The Mormon Battalion was not the first group of Latter-day Saints to arrive in California. A group of 238 church members under the direction of Samuel Brannan sailed from New York on February 4, 1846 headed to California, arriving at Yerba Buena (San Francisco) in July 1846. From there, the group was supposed to travel east to meet up with the main body of Mormon immigrants moving overland from Nauvoo. Brannan, the leader of this group of Mormons who had sailed from New York to California, strongly urged the church leadership and other pioneers to come further west to make their fortune. However, Brigham Young declared to the people “Do not any of you suffer the thoughts to enter your minds that you must go to the gold mines in search of riches. That is not the place for the Saints” (Carter 1939:1). During the period of the early colonization of Utah, Young was concerned that the rush to obtain riches would not only harm the effort to build safe and successful communities, but he was also apprehensive about the effects of influx of miners and gold-seekers on Utah pioneers (Rickard 1932). Some limited development of minerals and metals was pursued with the permission, and under the direction of, Church leaders, as it met the needs of the developing agriculture and home industry base. Iron ore deposits were discovered by the Parley P. Pratt exploration party in Iron County in 1850. Beginning in 1851, the deposits were the focus of an active, but largely unsuccessful effort to produce iron. In 1854, the Territorial Legislature offered a reward of $1000 for the first discovery of commercial coal within 40 13

miles of Salt Lake City. By the mid-1860s coal from Summit County was available in Salt Lake City at $40.00 per ton (Utah Mining Association 1967:6). Other early efforts involved attempts to find suitable lead sources for bullets, and the extraction of salt from area around the Great Salt Lake. The gold rush of 1849 drew many classes of prospectors and people to California. Since Salt Lake City was the one “oasis” in the desert crossing, many immigrants made their way through the city, some becoming temporary residents before resuming their journey west. Although records dating back to 1859 confirm that the United States government was aware of the vast mineral potential of the Utah Territory, the “rich and extensive placer deposits that were the first incentive to mining in many western camps were lacking, and the lode deposits, though many of them were very rich, required extensive machinery for profitable exploitation” (Butler et al. 1920:118). These challenges, together with the established antimining stance taken by the political and religious leaders of the territory slowed the development of any serious efforts at mining in the territory. The commencement of the first intensive efforts related to mineral exploration and mining in Utah dates to the arrival of Colonel Patrick E. Connor in October, 1862 (Butler et al. 1920; Rickard 1932). Connor, who commanded a force of approximately 750 United States soldiers, was dispatched to the Territory with the explicit orders to control “Indian depredations,” but also undoubtedly with the secondary objective of keeping an eye on the Mormons, whom the federal government distrusted (Carter 1939:8), and to offer protection to prospectors and overland immigrants. Upon their arrival, the soldiers immediately established Camp Douglas on a bench east of and overlooking Salt Lake City (Butler et al. 1920). Shortly thereafter, Colonel Conner [he was promoted to General in 1863] organized the West Mountain Mining District. He then published a “circular to the world that ‘the strongest evidence that the mountains and canyons in the territory of Utah abounds in rich veins of gold, silver, copper and other materials, and for the purpose of opening up the country to a new, hardy and industrious population, deems it important that prospecting for minerals should not be untrammeled, but fostered by every means’” (Carter 1939:8-9). Colonel Connor, however, was not only concerned with encouraging mineral prospecting, but also with promoting immigration to the Utah territory, as he considered the pervasive Mormon presence in the region to be “troublesome” and he appears to have strong intentions to dilute Mormon influence in the Territory by encouraging the immigration of non-Mormon “gentiles” into the region (May 1989:204; Rickard 1932). In a July, 1864 report to the War Department, Connor stated:
As set forth in former communications, my policy has been to invite hither a large Gentile population, sufficient by peaceful means and through the ballot box to overwhelm the Mormons by force of numbers, and thus wrest from the Church - disloyal and traitorous to the core - the absolute control of temporal and civic affairs. . . . With this in view I have bent every energy and means of which I was possessed, both personal and official, toward the discovery and development of the mining resources of the territory, using without stint the soldiers of my command . . .” [Carter 1939:9].

Connor encouraged his troops to spend their time prospecting, and he used government funds to publish the Union Vedette, a pro-mining periodical that touted the prospects of Utah’s mineral wealth. Connor also organized the first mining districts in Utah in 1863 in connection with the first claims on silver veins in the Bingham area (May 1989:204). The earliest discoveries of rich deposits of silver, lead, copper and zinc in Bingham Canyon were made by George B. Olgivie, Archibald Gardner and soldiers from Camp Douglas (Ellsworth 1985; Carter 1939; Rickard 1932). These finds prompted a prospecting rush, strongly supported by the Connor and the Camp Douglas soldiers, which lasted for three years. It is possible that, were it not for Colonel Connor and the soldiers of Camp Douglas, it might have been many years before the mineral resources of Utah would have been successfully mined. According to Rickard, 14

In the summer of 1864 the West Jordan Mining Company was incorporated under the laws of California, and a tunnel was started, at $60 per foot. In the same year, the first smelting furnace was constructed by General Connor, who enlisted the help of friends in California; but they were inexperienced, save in placer mining, and failed completely in this venture. In June, 1864, another mining district, named the Rush Valley, was organized. This covered the western slope of the Oquirrh range, leaving the eastern side to the West Mountain district. Vigorous prospecting ensued; but these early operations languished, in spite of the discovery of several handsome outcrops of argentiferous lead mineral, because so many obstacles stood in the way of profitable mining [Rickard 1932:188].

Although claims were made and deposits discovered, the costs of mining were prohibitive until the arrival of the railroad in 1869. Much of the mining that took place during the 1847 to 1869 period, and during the period that followed, was carried out by small scale prospectors and self-employed entrepreneurs seeking to make their fortune (Figure 4). While some of these men were grubstaked by larger interests, many of them were totally independent, and worked at very small scale endeavors with limited capital and technological resources. These men were very much in the romantic mold of the solitary American miner of the Western frontier. Many of these men came west as part of the mining boom which began with the California Gold Rush of 1849 and continued through the early decades of the twentieth century. Individuals often prospected on their own, or as part of small organized groups, and conducted the initial work to prove up a claim. If marketable ore was discovered, they often sold out to better organized firms and consortiums which had the capital to exploit the deposits in an economically viable way. In this regard, the early mining in many of the Utah Districts simply paralleled a broader pattern found throughout much of the western United States. Precious Metal Mining -- 1869 to 1940 Despite some early promising success with the discovery of ores in the West Mountain Mining District, Rush Valley District and other areas, most of the early efforts to develop profitable mines in the state failed due to its remote location and the high transportation costs associated with reaching distant markets. With the arrival of rail transport, mining became profitable and much more feasible throughout the state. The completion of the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads at Promontory, Utah, on May 10, 1869, placed Utah in a position to more advantageously exploit and market mineral resources. “On the advent of these railroads metal production became important, and as each branch line was completed, a notable increase in output was observed. Several smelting towns (Sandy, Midvale, Murray and Morgan) were built along the new lines south of Salt Lake [with the exception of Morgan which is actually located northeast of Salt Lake City on the Union Pacific line], and several smelters along the branch line to Bingham. The road from Sandy to Alta was also beneficial, and as the railroad extended southward other mining regions were benefited, notably the Tintic and several districts in Beaver County” (Butler et al. 1920:118). “The completion of the railroad communication (also) led to the mining of silver ore in Little Cottonwood Canyon, in the Wasatch Mountains, in 1864, by some of General Connor’s men, but it was of no consequence until four years later” (Rickard 1932:189), when the Emma Mine was discovered. These early successes in the 1860 initiated the first real mining boom within Utah, and from this time on, towns grew up almost overnight (Ellsworth 1985; Herring 1979). Growth in some of these towns was, at some periods, overwhelming. In fact, the town of Bluff, Utah, blossomed from its normal population “of 175 to over 700 in only a few days” (Jensen 1966:97). Census figures for the years 1870 through 1920 indicate that, excepting the states of Arizona and Colorado, Utah generally had the highest number of workers identified as miners in the intermountain west region (Brown 1979). By 1917, 167 mining districts had been established throughout the boundaries of the state, with at least 50 consisting of significant, dividendpaying mining districts for both hard metal and soft rock mineral resources. Principal ores prospected consisted of copper, silver, lead, gold and zinc in order of importance (Butler et al. 1920). 15

Figure 4. Photo of two miners in front of unidentified mine portal, ca. 1910 (Photo courtesy of Utah State Historical Society, used with permission, all rights reserved. Shipler photo no. 196). Following the arrival of the railroad, in the early days of Utah mining, silver was the most economically important of the metal resources being extracted, and most of the rich silver-bearing ores were found in the Park City and Tintic mining districts (Butler et al. 1920; The Salt Lake Mining Review 1912). By the early 1900’s, however, precious metal production had dropped considerably in proportion to the output of other metals. “In 1917 copper alone yielded considerably more than 67 percent of the total value” (Butler et al. 1920:129) of all metallic resources recovered in the state, the majority of which was recovered from mines within the Bingham (West Mountain) district (Butler et al. 1920:130). “In Utah, as in many of the Western States, the earliest important metal production was of placer gold. Placer mining was begun at Bingham Canyon in 1865, and for some years yielded an important production” (Butler et al. 1920:131). Generally, however,
“commercial placer operations in Utah have been generally unsuccessful or discouraging. . . . The only gold placers which have contributed largely to the state’s gold output were right next door to most of the state’s population - the Bingham mining district, southwest of Salt Lake City. Other

16

placers have been worked in the state, notably in the La Sal Mountains, the Henry Mountains near Marysvale, and on the Colorado River and its tributaries” (Parker 1966).

The Bingham placer operation, however, has been, and continues to be the most successful of the mining operations within the state of Utah. In terms of gold placer production, the Bingham Mine’s highest production was reached from 1868 to 1872. By 1905, more than $1,000,000 in gold from stream gravels had been recovered from the Bingham mining district, with total statewide placer gold production equaling approximately $1,800,000 by 1920 (Parker 1966). Other gold resources had to be mined out of hard-rock mines. Although the actual amounts of gold mined within the state were relatively small in comparison to the other mineral resources, it still remained an important state and national resource. Even though prospecting in order to get rich was forbidden by Brigham Young, “it is an irony of history that 100 years after the colonizers entered the valley, Utah would be mining 20 percent of the nation’s gold production. The figure has been even higher - in 1934 it stood at 34 percent” (Woodward 1964:npn). In fact, during the years 1938 to 1948, Utah was consistently ranked within the top five gold producing states, and was actually ranked first in the amount of gold produced during the period 1946-1948 (Salt Lake Tribune 1938, 1944, 1948; Deseret News, 1947). Mining For Western Growth – 1940 to present The period from 1890 to 1920 marked a crucial phase in the development of Utah’s economy, characterized by the commercialization of agriculture, emergence of a substantial business sector and the development of corporate mining and manufacturing (Poll et al.1989:429-430). While the single largest occupation of Utahns between 1890 and 1920 was agriculture, the leading export industry was mining. This growth of mining and manufacturing resulted in the state’s integration into the national economy. While producers still struggled with the challenges of reaching distant markets, it was clear that the state was becoming a significant economic force in the region and a major producer even at the national level. In 1949 Utah ranked second nationally in the production of copper, silver, and molybdenum, third in gold and lead, and seventh in zinc (Christy and Stowe 1981:197). By 1979 the state ranked first in the production of gold and beryllium, second in copper and vanadium, third in iron, fourth in molybdenum, and fifth in silver and uranium. In overall mineral production Utah has averaged about 2 percent of the national total. It reached a high point in 1916, when the state reached 2.84 percent of national production (Christy and Stowe 1981:197). In many sectors the state has continued to rank nationally in production of key minerals. Since 1943, Utah has averaged 22 percent of the gold production in the United States, and in 1944 reached a market high of 34.5% of national production. The state ranks consistently second in the production of copper and has also been a leader in the silver (Christy 1981:198). Integration of the state’s economy with the regional and national economies encouraged the development of mining and extraction efforts that directly served to meet the needs of the rapidly growing region of the western United States. The production focused in many cases on key non-metallic minerals such as salt, gypsum, clays, phosphate, potash, etc. The exploitation of these less glamorous materials has played a major role in the mining industry of the state since World War I. Uranium and Fossil Fuels – 1948 to present While Utah led the nation through much of the Post-WWII period in the production of several key resources, those production numbers have been drastically reduced since the end of the twentieth century. Although still economically important, some of the major industries have retracted as reserves have run out and production has declined. However, within the period of the last twenty years, “mining in Utah [still] 17

accounts for almost nineteen percent of the nation’s copper, two percent of the gold, fourteen percent of the silver, six percent of the lead and eight percent of the zinc” (Martin and Martin 1979:144-145). Even as production of many of the precious minerals began to decline in the late 1900s, Utah saw increased importance in the development of resources related to energy and fossil fuels. The development of fossil fuels and other energy related resources is the final phase in the history of the state’s mining, and runs concurrently with other developments taking place during the same time period in the other aspects of mining discussed above. No commercial discoveries of oil or gas were made in the state until 1948, and there were few early indications of any substantial reserves of petroleum. Although the first oil exploration began in the state as early as the 1880s, and some gas and oil fields of limited value were found in Davis, Washington, and San Juan County, none of the finds resulted in meaningful commercial production. Sporadic exploratory activity continued, and as geological knowledge increased drillers were able to more accurately locate oil bearing strata (Ritzma 1981:211). After the first commercially viable discoveries were made during 1948, production of oil jumped from nearly zero to a rate of over 115,000 barrels per day in 1958 (Utah Mining Association 1967:9). Numerous oil fields have been developed in Uintah, Duchesne and San Juan Counties. Interestingly, due to variations in the geologic structures throughout the state, the development of energy related minerals occurred primarily in those portions of the state that previously enjoyed little of the wealth from earlier mining success in the metallic and ferrous minerals. Presently, Utah has more than 140 producing oil and gas fields. Annual oil production peaked at 41 million barrels in 1985, and totaled almost 14 million barrels in 2002. A high of 348 billion cubic ft of natural gas was produced in Utah during 1994, and 2002 natural gas production totaled 293 billion cubic ft. Exploration for oil was very active in the 1970’s and 1980’s while natural gas exploration activity was high from the 1980’s to today (Utah Division of Oil, Gas & Mining, Stever Schneider, personal communication 2003). The industry continues to be heavily influenced by both domestic and foreign policy issues, environmental issues, and an increasingly integrated international market economy that strongly influences economic conditions which affect domestic exploration and production. Utah consistently ranks in the top four states in the domestic production of uranium. The importance of this heavy metallic element was significantly and permanently changed during the World War II period with the development of nuclear weapons for military applications as well as the pioneering of nuclear reactors as a source of energy. The uranium industry underwent a major boom during the 1950s, largely in response to government sponsored exploration, milling and acquisitions programs. The Cold War period was dominated by federal government policies that significantly impacted the economics of the industry. By the mid-1960s the boom was over as the market collapsed in response to the end of government purchasing and the increasing availability of cheaper foreign sources for commercial reactors. Throughout the period of exploration and development of uranium in the state, activity was strongly influenced by both government manipulation of the uranium market, and to a lesser degree by other aspects of the law of supply and demand, and mining activities fluctuated accordingly. A record high production of uranium oxide was reached in 1958 with the production of 6.1 million pounds (Neff 1981:217). Although the uranium industry at present is seeing little activity in Utah, it has been a significant factor in various parts of the state in the past.

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Mining in Tooele County Mining played a more prominent role in the development of Tooele County than almost any other county in the state of Utah. Tooele County has more metal mining districts than any other Utah county – 22 in all, and the economic role that mining played was key in many of the historical developments that took place in the county (Utah Mining Association 1967:80). The existence of silver ore near the Great Salt Lake had been known as early as 1857, but the strong anti-mining sentiments of the leadership of the LDS Church effectively thwarted any early exploration or exploitation of mining resources as already discussed above. The eventual development of an active mining economy in Tooele County, and elsewhere during the early history of Utah Territory is directly attributable to the influence of General Patrick Connor, who also played an instrumental role in introducing mining to Tooele County. Early in the summer of 1863, a fragment of lead ore was found by a local settler, George Ogilvie, while he was logging in Bingham Canyon. Ogilvie took the samples to Camp Douglas near Salt Lake City, where Connor and the Third California Infantry were stationed. Acting on the information from Ogilvie, a group of soldiers from Camp Douglas, under the leadership of Captain A. Heitz, were able to locate a promising deposit of argentiferous galena and copper in Bingham Canyon on the east slopes of the Oquirrh Mountains. On September 17, 1863, the location of the find was claimed as the West Jordan, which was the first mining location made in Utah. The following year, the West Mountain Mining District, the first in the Territory, was organized. The district included the northern portion of the Oquirrh Range (Rickard 1932:184-185). Shortly after the District was officially designated, Connor met with several other interested parties at Archibald Gardner’s Mill on the Jordan River, where they drafted up the laws and regulations of the new district, and elected Bishop Gardner the recorder of the district (Rickard 1932:186). With this clear indication that the mountain range contained geological deposits containing precious metals, the push to explore the remainder of the range began.
West of Salt Lake City, attention turned quickly from Bingham on the eastern slopes of the Oquirrh Mountains to the western slope of that range. The mining town of Stockton was developed by General Conner in 1864, and in 1870 the Ophir mines were discovered immediately to the south. Still further south on the west slope of the Oquirrhs, the Tintic area was opened in 1870-71. The quicksilver deposits that led to settlement of Mercur, between the Ophir and Tintic mines, were not discovered until 1882. Separating silver from mercury was extremely difficult with the technology available, however, and it was not until 1893, with the discovery of the cyanide separation process, that the Mercur mines flourished, producing millions of dollars worth of gold, silver, and lead” (Poll et al.1989:222).

In 1864, Connor located the first mining claim within the boundaries of Tooele County, the Honorine. During that same year, Connor established a small army post in Rush Valley which he named Camp Relief. The post quickly grew as a center for burgeoning mining activity on the west side of the Oquirrhs. A town was surveyed and laid out, and the first permanent house was built. Connor named the new community Stockton, in honor of his former place of residence in Stockton, California. The Rush Valley Mining District was organized in 1864 by dividing the West Mining District, organized by Connor at Gardner’s Mill the previous year, into two separate districts --one covering the east slopes of the Oquirrhs, and the other the west slopes (Blanthorn 1998:121). The Rush Valley District became the first of several mining districts established in Tooele County (Atkin et al. 1986). Due to the stimulus from mining, the town of Stockton continued to grow. With the help of backers from California, Patrick Connor built a smelting-furnace in the town to handle the ores from the 19

Rush Valley District. It was the first smelter east of St. Louis. Unfortunately, Connor and his supporters, who were more familiar with the placer mining techniques successful in California, failed in their efforts to succeed with the smelter in Stockton. Others followed up these first efforts, constructing the Monheim and John Smelters in 1866. Development of the smelters resulted in the increased importance of other municipal services and infrastructure. In fact, the town would eventually boast the first electric lights in the state of Utah (Miller 1990). By 1866, supported by the presence of Connor and his men, Stockton had grown to 40 houses and over 400 inhabitants (Miller 1986:15). However, of the mining towns founded in Tooele County, Ophir and Mercur probably became the most important. Ophir boomed in the 1870’s with an estimated population of 6,000 and mines that produced millions of dollars in silver, lead, zinc and gold (Figures 5 and 6). Mercur’s fate waxed and waned over the years as the community endured several boom and bust cycles as well as two major fires (Powell 1994:559). By the fall of 1865, over 500 mining claims had been filed in the Rush Valley District. Over the next six years, several other important mines were identified and developed such as the Ben Harrison, Argent, Calumet, Galena, King, Tip Top and Bluestone. On 23 August 1870 the Rush Valley District was divided three ways. The northern portion was renamed the Tooele City District, and the southern portion became the Ophir District. The area in the middle remained the Rush Valley District, although later the designation was changed to the Stockton District (Blanthorn 1998:121). A number of other districts were organized throughout the county during the late 1800s and early 1900s including the North Tintic (organized in 1902), Gold Hill-South Clifton (1869), Willow Springs (1891), Point Look Out (1896), Shambip (1870), Free Coinage (1895), Silver Islet (1872), Lakeside Mountain (1871), and Dugway (Blanthorn 1998). Few of these could compete with the prominence of the Ophir, Stockton, and Rush Valley Districts, which were the leading producers for the county. The total value of ore produced from mines in the Ophir-Rush Valley area between 1870 and 1927 was more than $43 million (Blanthorn 1998:127). Mining in Tooele County continued to be driven mostly by non-Mormons, with the off-duty military personnel under General Connor playing a key role. Connor’s Pioneer mill in Stockton began operation in 1864, but was largely unsuccessful in separating gold and silver from the lead-rich ores found in the county. Connor and his troops were mustered out of service on 30 April 1866, and many of the men left the Territory. With their departure, mining in the county slowed considerably, and mining related activities would fluctuate considerably over the next several decades. In the years following the departure of Connor’s men the town of Stockton went into a slow decline. One of the major difficulties encountered by the mining districts in the county was their isolated location and the difficulty of getting their products to distant markets and processing facilities. The lack of railroad transport rendered all the supplies and equipment needed for mining quite expensive; a shovel cost $2.50 and a keg of powder, $100 (Rickard 1932:188). When the transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869, it provided a significant boost to mining ventures throughout the northern area of the Territory (Blanthorn 1998:122). The railroad made possible the development of the mining industry by dramatically reducing the cost of the transportation of ore (Poll 1989 et al.:221). The rail lines encouraged the growth of large mining interests in Utah, such as the mines in Bingham and Little Cottonwood Canyons, which produced significant amounts of silver, lead and copper throughout the 1800s. A Tooele resident, Eli B. Kelsey, worked at actively promoting mining in the area, and was able to convince foreign and eastern capitalists to invest in both the mines and smelters of the county (Blanthorn 20

21

Figure 5. Panoramic view of Ophir ca. 1930 (Photo courtesy of Utah State Historical Society, used with permission, all rights reserved. Shipler panorama no. 401).

Figure 6. Photo showing town of Ophir, June 1930. (Photo courtesy of Utah State Historical Society, used with permission, all rights reserved. Snipler photo no. 00524)

1998:122). In addition to the Pioneer Smelter, the Monheim, John, Waterman, Smith, Jack, Carson and Bozo, and Chicago smelters were built and operating the in the Rush Valley District by 1873 (Blanthorn 1998:122). The development of mining in the area was facilitated as other efforts were made to construct railroads into the various areas of the county, primarily to serve the needs of the mining districts. By 1875 the narrow gauge Utah Western Railroad line was completed from Salt Lake City to the Lakepoint Station in Tooele County. From 1875 to 1883, ore was hauled by wagon from Stockton, Ophir and Dry Canyon to this railhead on the south shore of the Great Salt Lake. The line was extended south to the town of Stockon and to Bauer in 1883 (Miller 1986:131). With an increase in mining activity in the Tintic District, the Salt Lake & Western Railway, a subsidiary of Union Pacific, was organized in 1881 to provide service the mining areas of the county. The new standard gauge line began at Lehi Junction on the Utah Southern Railroad two miles north of the town of Lehi, and extended 53 miles around the north end of Utah Lake, through Five Mile Pass to a terminus at Ironton. Although the promoters of this railroad initially envisioned it extending into Nevada to tap the mining areas there and eventually continuing as far south as Los Angeles, the changing landscape of railroading in the state caused the line to fail to ever meet this ambitious goal. However, by 1882 the line was in operation, including a branch line to Silver City, and the company was delivering ore to the various smelters in the Salt Lake Valley (Carr and Edwards 1989). Following the merger of the Salt Lake & Western and Utah & Nevada railroads into the newly formed San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake Railroad, a standard track was constructed from Salt Lake City south to Leamington, Millard County (about 20 miles northeast of Delta, Utah). 22

Mining success at Mercur during the period 1890 to 1917 was sufficient to convince Joseph G. Jacobs to construct a standard gauge rail line, the Salt Lake & Mercur Railroad, into the area in 1895. The route originated at Fairfield Station on the Oregon Short Line (formerly the Salt Lake & Western Railroad) and connected both Manning and Mercur by rail (Carr and Edwards 1989:127-129). Another railroad important to the success of mining operations west of Salt Lake City was the Ophir and St. John Railroad. As rail service was gradually spreading throughout Utah, particularly in the areas of high population or high mining activity, and the Southern Pacific, Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad (later the Union Pacific) built its mainline to extend to the south of Stockton, construction of a spur line was made feasible (Carr and Edwards 1989). Montana Senator William A. Clark, a wealthy man who promoted both railroads and precious metal mines, owned the Ophir Hill Mine. When the SP, LA & SL line was completed, Senator Clark was “instrumental in the building of the St. John & Ophir Railroad from the St. John Station on the Salt Lake Route...to Ophir. The branchline was constructed mainly for transporting the ores of his mine, but also was made available to other mines in the canyon for their concentrates” (Carr and Edwards 1989:1370. The St. John & Ophir Railroad was a standard-gauge line which ran for nine miles from the main rail line connection up through Ophir Canyon to the town of Ophir. The first tracks were laid in early 1912, and the line reached the town on August 1, 1912. The arrival of the railroad to the town “was such a long-looked for occasion that Clark and others proclaimed (the day) ‘Railroad Day,’ and residents and visitors alike were treated to free rides to the mainline and back” (Carr and Edwards 1989:137). From that point, the St. John and Ophir Railroad carried passengers, general freight, and ore from the mines, running between Ophir and the mainline twice each day. The St. John and Ophir line operated for sixteen years, as long as the amounts of ore produced by the mines allowed the venture to be economically viable. “The railroad shut down in 1928, although the tracks and the combination car remained in place till 1937” (Carr and Edwards 1989:137). Approval for abandonment of the line was granted in 1938 and the tracks were removed. Railcars for the St. John and Ophir consisted of one passenger car, freight bins for ore transportation, boxcars as needed for other freight, and Climax-type locomotives. The St. John and Ophir was the “only railroad in Utah known to have used the Climax-type engines” (Carr and Edwards 1989:137), which were necessary to pull the trains up the steep 7% grade of the canyon to Ophir. When the line was abandoned, the combination passenger-baggage car was left behind, and, at least as of 1989, still sat alongside the edge of the road leading into Ophir. The car was abandoned at the old location of the rail yard, which was also destroyed when the tracks were taken up. Advances in mining technology led to a new boom at the towns of Mercur and Manning in the late 1800s and early 1900s. An Australian metallurgist by the name of William Orr developed a new process for recovering gold from refractory ores using a cyanide process. A carload of ore was shipped from Mercur to Orr’s lab in Denver for testing and the results demonstrated the applicability of the new process to the Mercur area ores. In 1899 the Consolidated Mercur Gold Mines Company was formed, and a huge new mill, the Golden Gate Mill, was constructed on the hill overlooking the town. Electricity was brought in to run and light the mill. The power was generated at a hydroelectric plant built by L.L. Nunn at the mouth of Provo Canyon, and was carried to Mercur by a high-voltage transmission line operating at 44,000 volts. It was the first extended high-voltage line in the world (Blanthorn 1998:145). With the introduction of power and the railroad, the town of Mercur grew to over 2,500 inhabitants. The success of the mines allowed the town to continue to grow. 23

Although Tooele was/is the county seat, Mercur’s population was growing so fast that some promoters suggested that the county government should be transferred to the mining town. This proposal was never successful, and became a moot point as Mercur’s fortunes quickly began to sour. A devastating fire swept through the town on 26 June 1902, destroying nearly all of the commercial district in the center of the city. Fortunately the fire sparred the mill and most of the town’s homes, but the impact to businesses proved more than many could recover from. The mill continued to operate until 1913, but became unprofitable as the ores played out. In March of 1913, the Mercur mine and the Golden Gate Mill were finally shut down due to diminishing profits and higher costs, and the town was completely abandoned (Powell 1994; Miller 1990). During the first part of the twentieth century, Mercur was not the only profitable mining venture in the county. In 1910, an ore smelter was built east of Tooele by the International Smelting and Refining Company, for the purpose of processing ores produced by the Bingham Mine. The smelter operated for more than 60 years, and attracted employees from southern and Eastern Europe, thus diversifying Tooele’s ethnic and religious mix, as well as bringing further mining expertise to the area. The Tooele Valley Railroad was completed in 1909 to serve the smelter and provided additional mining-related employment to the people of the area. Mining continued to provide significant economic support to the Tooele Valley up to the late 1930’s to early 1940’s, when much of the land used in Tooele County was converted for the use of military installations (Powell 1994; Alexander 1995). By the turn of the century many of the small mines in the area north of Ophir and east of Stockton were still continuing in operation but were encountering problems due to water in the lower workings. The individual miners seldom had the capital or resources to effectively deal with this problem in the deeper reaches of the active mines. Between 1901 and 1906 the Honarine Mining Company bought up many of the mines and drove a lengthy tunnel at a depth of about 1200 ft to dewater the active operations. In 1910 the Bullion Coalition Company was formed and bought out the Honarine Mining Company and most of the remaining small mining operations in the area and built a gravity concentrating mill at the portal of the Honarine drain tunnel. This facility, located just northwest of Stockton, came to called Bauer, and became the location of a very successful milling and processing operation. After the facility was taken over by the Combined Metals Reduction Company, it led the nation in advancements in the milling and processing of lead-silver ores. The processes of fine grinding and selective flotation soon became the standard procedures for the industry. The Honarine drain tunnel produced large quantities of water throughout the first part of the century. The flow was estimated at times to be close to 10,000 gpm. Some of the water was necessary to run the mill, but the rest was diverted for other uses. In 1910 the mine managers of the Bullion Coalition Company decided to use the excess water for agricultural purposes. This resulted in a unique combination of mining and fruit raising that provides an interesting side note to the mining history of the region. The mining company began a ranch with an extensive orchard, alfalfa fields, potatoes and wheat. The orchard grew to be one of the largest in the state, covering more than 175 acres with apricots, peaches and apples. Apples were the dominant crop raised, with apple trees numbering more than 19,000 at the time of peak production. Water from the drain tunnel was used to irrigate the orchard and crops, and was said to be ideal for farming purposes because it contained some trace elements that appeared to be advantageous for the trees. A large underground storage and sorting cellar was constructed, and the company shipped carloads of fruit throughout the western United States. The orchard produced significant quantities of fruit during the period 1910-1938, with production ending in 1938 when pumping operations in the Bluestone Mine were stopped and the flow of water decreased.

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The mines and mill continued in operation throughout World War II. During the war, the federal government’s need for strategic metals necessary to the war effort led the Army to assign active duty soldiers to work in the mines as miners. The Bauer Mill and associated mines finally ceased operations altogether in 1957 when rising costs and decreasing revenues made the operation unprofitable (Miller 1986). Recent efforts have been made to revive the languishing mining areas of the Oquirrh Mountains and to effectively continue the legacy of mineral exploitation that has been such an important part of the county’s history. Although closed in 1913, the Mercur mine reopened in 1981, and with improvements in both mining technology and the construction of a new cyanide processing plant, the mine was relatively successful at processing relatively significant quantities of gold (Blanthorn 1998149-150; Powell 1994:361). Initial attention was focused on reprocessing the old tailings from the Golden Gate Mill, but an aggressive program of exploratory drilling also confirmed the presence of low grade ores which were too dispersed to be of interest to the miners of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. These deposits were actively mined using open pit techniques (Skillings 1990). In September 1997, Barrick Gold, the most recent operator of the Mercur Mine, announced that they would be closing the mine due to decreasing profitability. Today the mine is closed and almost entirely reclaimed, with only a few buildings, ponds, and roads remaining from the once busy operation. Over the course of the past 140 years, the mining industry has contributed heavily to the economy of Tooele County and the state of Utah, although the “higher grade, readily available deposits in Tooele County have been mined out, leaving remaining known deposits of generally low grade” (Utah Mining Association 1967:81). Tooele County’s mining deposits are not limited only to silver and gold. The mining industry also produces significant amounts of lead, copper, zinc, cinnabar, antimony, magnesium, manganese, mercury and tungsten. Important non-metallic resources include building stone, clay, gem stones, gypsum, salt, sand and gravel, as well as oil and gas (Utah Mining Association 1967). One of the most interesting aspects of the mining industry in Utah, particularly in Tooele County, is that the major, precious metal–producing ore bodies are composed mainly of silver and lead, rather than gold. “This combination of metals in the ores required special treatment for their recovery, which proved to be advantageous to the State in several ways. It required the establishment of smelters . . . to recover the values in the ores. The smelters, in turn, stimulated the expansion of the railroads, which were needed to transport the ores and carry the supplies for the burgeoning industry” (United States Geological Survey 1964:9). The need for such heavy industry fueled both growth in both the State and Tooele County, encouraging the spread of an expanding population away from the city centers and into the rural landscape (Alexander 1995). Historically, the most important mining districts in Tooele County, at least in terms of precious metal and mineral production, are the Camp Floyd (Mercur), Ophir, RushValley (Stockton), and West Mountain (Bingham) districts. Two of these units, the Camp Floyd (Mercur) and Ophir districts, are included within the survey boundaries of this report. Historic production figures for all of the mining districts are summarized in Table 2. The Camp Floyd Mining District The Camp Floyd mining district was organized on April 16, 1870, following the 1869 discovery of silver in Lewiston Canyon (later renamed Mercur Canyon) (Historical Records Survey 1939).

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Table 2. Metal Production from the Oquirrh Mountains Mining Districts, Utah
BINGHAM 1863-1972 11,900 1973-1981 1,670 1982-1990 551 1991-1992 579 1993-1996 1,217 15,917 Total MERCUR 1871-1950 0.2 1983-1990 1991-1992 1994-1995 1996-1997 Total 0.2 OPHIR and STOCKTON 1870-1901 101.5 OPHIR 1902-1972 4.8 STOCKTON 1902-1970 2.9 BARNEYS CANYON 1989-1990 1991-1992 1993 Total 109.2 TOTAL 16,026.40 PROD. Copper (CU) (1000 tons) Gold (AU) (1000 oz) 13,253 3,639 616 973 >51 18,997 1,100 766.6 248.5 210.1 875 3,200 12 10.6 74 157 238 395 790 23,017.20 Silver (AG) (1000 oz) 244,413 ? 811 7,679 >8,600 261,503 223 Lead (PB) (1000 t) 2,400 ? Zinc (ZN) (1000 t) 1,004 ? Mercury (HG) (Flasks)

2,400 1.8

1,004 0.7 3,338 ? ? >3,338

223 50 14 11

1.8 329 172 245

0.7 17 46 86

75 253,201

746 3,147.80

149 1,149.70 >3,338

Table adapted from Tooker 1999:147

“In 1858, U.S. Army troops, under the ocmmand of Colonel Albert Sidney Johnston, constructed army quarters at Camp Floyd in Cedar Valley. Due to the Civil War, the post was abandoned by 1862; however, some former soldiers remained in the area and prospected for precious metals. A small discovery of silver ore was made and formed the start of the Camp Floyed Mining District” (Blanthorn 1998:142).

The 1870 discovery of rich silver deposits at Ophir, several miles to the north, encouraged further prospecting within Lewiston Canyon and deposits of ore contining both gold and silver were found, leading to the development of several active mines. Ebenezer Shaw bought and developed what he named the Sparrowhawk Mine to exploit a rich vein of stibnite ore containg high quantities of silver. Other important claims included the Silver Cloud, Mormon Chief and the Grecian (Berge 2000). Sufficient ore was extracted to justify the construction of a concentrator in 1872 (Utah Mining Association 1967). Mining activities in the Lewiston Canyon area expanded quickly and after several mines were opened the town of Lewiston was established. Some success was had in producing silver, but attempts to amalgamate the gold ore failed. Assays confirmed the presence of gold, but the miner lacked a suitable technique to separate 26

the microscopic gold from the clay-rich ores. Silver production from the mines peaked during 1873, but by 1880 most of the mines had been played out and were dormant (Berge 2000; Skillings 1983, reprinted in Miller 1990). The majority of the Lewiston mines produced silver, although less significant amounts of other minerals, such as cinnabar, were also extracted (Berge 1994). A catastrophic fire destroyed a large part of the town of Lewiston at about the same time production was dropping off in the mines, and the area was generally abandoned. The town would not be rebuilt until years later, when a second boom would fuel the growth of a new community that was named Mercur. The Mercur Mine was the largest and most productive mine within the Camp Floyd Mining District, although several other significant mines, such as the Comstock, Black Bear, and Nora also contributed substantially to the economies of the area. In terms of early gold production, “gold is present in practically all the metal deposits of the State . . . In but few districts, however, is the most important metal production in gold, and only one of these, Camp Floyd (Mercur), ranks among the important goldproducing districts of the country” (Butler et al. 1920:131). The Mercur Mine One of the largest and most significant mines within the state of Utah, together with its associated mills and township, was the Mercur Mine. Following the discovery of silver in Lewiston Canyon the canyon was inundated by dozens of prospectors searching for other ore sources. One such prospector was a man of German descent named Arie Pinedo. “On April 30, 1870, Arie Pinedo found cinnabar (mercury sulfide) and named his claim Mercur in his native (Bavarian) language. He also identified gold in the cinnabar, but it could not be extracted with methods known at that time” (Skillings 1983, reprinted in Miller 1990:134). “Pinedo abandoned his claim after he failed to extract commercial amounts of mercury; however, other area prospectors remained active, seeking both gold and silver” (Blanthorn 1998:143) During the 1870s, about 1,500 residents of Lewiston engaged in the silver mining in the canyon, and numerous claims were staked which criss-crossed the area. Nearly every assay indicated gold in addition to the silver, but like Pinedo, all of these early miners failed to develop the means to extract the gold. When the silver ores failed, Lewiston was abandoned despite this known resource of recalcitrant gold ore (Alder and Alder 1959; Weder et al 1981). During the late 1890s, national interest in western silver mines was beginning to wane, but some eastern capitalists developed a new interest in investing in gold properties. This new source of outside funding renewed intrest in the gold deposits of Lewsiton Canyon. Two eastern capitalits, G.S. Peyton and H.W. Brown (Weder et al. 1981) “secured an option on Pinedo’s former claim for $10,000, and they in turn sold it to John Dern, E.J. Airis, G.S. Peyton and Hal W. Brown, who then formed the Mercur Gold Mining and Milling Company” (Blanthorn 1998:143). Subsequently, during the late 1880s and early 1890s, a new town named Mercur was built on the site of the former mining community of Lewiston. The rebirth of the community was made possible by the development of new milling, extraction and smelting methods (Alder and Alder 1959) introduced to the area by “William Orr, an Australian promoter of the McArthur-Forrest cyanide process” (Berge 2000:iv). The process Orr was promoting for using cynaid to leach the fine particulate gold from the clay-rich ores finally unlocked the gold reserves of Lewiston Canyon. During the early 1890’s, the Mercur Gold Mining and Milling Company built the first cyanide mill in the Camp Floyd district in nearby Manning, Utah, in order to efficiently process the cinnabar, silver and other semi-precious minerals which were being extracted from the mines around Mercur (Weder et al. 1981). Although relatively small amounts of gold were also being pulled from the mines, the cyanide mill did not have the means to efficiently or economically extract it until 1895, when Daniel C. Jackling, “who later became prominent in the development of the Bingham Canyon copper deposit, entered the Camp Floyd district and conceived the idea of roasting the ore prior to cyanide treatment to improve recovery of 27

the gold” (Skilling 1983, reprinted in Miller 1990:135). Jackling’s method was so successful that milling costs were drastically reduced, and even low-grade ores could be processed at an overall profit (Sadler 1994). With improved milling technology allowing extraction of gold from ores containing only a small percentage of the metal, the amount of material being processed quickly outgrew the Manning plant’s capacity, as it was processing in excess of 500 tons of ore per day (Berge 2000). In 1895, Capt. J. L. Delamar purchased the Golden Gate mining claims located next to the Mercur workings. The Golden Gate mineral ores contained pyrite, sulfur and carbon, as well as silver and gold. This combination of “contaminants” could not be efficiently processed at the Manning mill. In order to overcome this difficulty, Capt. Delamar built a new processing mill in 1897-1898, just outside and upslope of the town of Mercur (Snyder 1937). This mill, the Golden Gate, “was built with an original capacity of 500 daily tons, one of the largest production mills in the United States (Berge 2000); it also became a conspicuous landmark for the town (Figure 7). As mineral extraction became less expensive, many of the smaller prospects were re-opened and worked individually. In 1899, the Mercur group mines of the Mercur Gold and Milling Company and the Golden Gate mines consolidated to form the Consolidated Mercur Gold Mines Company, which became one of the largest gold producers in the area (Snyder 1937; Bringhurst 1994). With the construction of the Golden Gate mill, the town of Mercur also expanded, in order to support the growing mining and processing industry. By 1900, the population of the town had grown to 2,351 (Utah Mining Association 1967). As the town’s population grew, the business district became particularly successful, and supported an expanding variety of both mining and general civic concerns. The town of Mercur seemed poised to become a significant boom town until early on the morning of June

Figure 7. Photo showing town of Mercur, June 1903. (Photo courtesy of Utah State Historical Society, used with permission, all rights reserved. Snipler photo no. 00531). 28

26, 1902, when a fire broke out along the town’s main thoroughfare. This fire was perhaps the most wellknown and widely publicized event in Mercur’s entire history. “William Waterfall, a volunteer fireman, records that he was called to the fire at 9:30 a.m.” As he reported,
From outside the hoist house I could see the flames coming through the roof of the Preble Building. I blew the fire signal and phoned the mine, telling them to turn out as the town was doomed. By the time I reached town, 1,200 ft below the hoist house, the fire was beyond control. By 12 o’clock every business house in town was gone [Blanthorn 1998:146].

Although the town fire was a major setback for Mercur, the town struggled to recover and continued to have some economic success. By 1910, the population of Mercur was estimated at between 8,000 and 12,000 (although the latter figure appears to be a considerable exaggeration). In 1913, when total production had reached $16.5 million, mines and mills began to close with depletion of the ore bodies. The last skip of ore was processed on March 30, 1913, and by 1917, Mercur was deserted (Skillings 1983, reprinted in Miller 1990; Blanthorn 1998). Despite the fact that the town of Mercer had been abandoned, the discovery of newer methods of mineral recovery encouraged the reopening of the Mercur mines. In 1933, W.F. Snyder, together with the Bothwell Group in Salt Lake City leased the old Consolidated Mercur Gold Mines Company properties, reopened the mines and introduced more modern methods of treating both gold ores, and re-treating the tailing dump piles (Millard County Chronicle 1940). During 1934, new ore bodies were discovered, and the price of gold jumped from $20 to $35 per ounce (Snyder 1937). Snyder & Sons Co. and Manning Gold Mines Co. erected a new mill at Manning, and when water became available in Mercur in 1937, the plant was dismantled and reassembled at Mercur” (Skillings 1983, reprinted in Miller 1990:135). However, even though mining at Mercur recommenced at a significant level, few permanent buildings were erected, and the town never again grew to the size or significance it attained during the early 1900’s (Alder and Alder 1959). Perhaps the most important aspect of the improved technology at the new Mercur mill was that it allowed lower-grade ores to be economically processed. Even though many of the mines around Mercur were not individually “rich,” the amount of gold-bearing ore actually being processed was significant. In fact, because of the newer, more economic processing methods, Mercur became the second largest gold producer in Utah. However, “in 1942, when the U.S. entered World War II, gold mines were closed by government order, and gradually the Camp Floyd district became uninhabited, with only abandoned mine portals, mill tailings, and remnants of the Golden Gate mill and a few other buildings dotting the landscape” (Skillings 1983, reprinted in Miller 1990:135). But the mining industry in the Mercur area revived itself once more. Interest in old mining districts, and their mine workings was revived nationwide during the 1980’s, as the need for economically viable, domestic sources of precious minerals was recognized. Once again the Mercur mines were reactivated, this time by the Getty Mining Company, a division of the Getty Oil Company. In May, 1983, Getty re-commenced mining operations at Mercur by opening an open-pit gold mine which was projected to produce 80,000 ounces of gold annually. Production at this level made the Mercur mines second only in production to the Bingham/Kennecott mine (15 miles northeast of Mercur). At the time the Mercur mines were reopened, Getty Mining projections estimated that ore reserves could support mining and milling for a period of 14 years (Skillings 1983, reprinted in Miller 1990), although they initially only worked the mines for five years, drilling approximately 200 test holes during that period. The recovered ores suggested that mineral reserves within the area averaged approximately 0.12 ounces per ton, but even at that small percentage, was still economically viable. In 1981, Getty Mining entered into a joint venture with Gold 29

Standard, a small Salt Lake City based mining company with claims adjacent to the Getty mines. Together, the two corporations received permission to build a new processing plant, and to recommence full-scale mining. The plant was completed in 1983, and ore extraction then proceeded, but in 1984, Getty Oil (Getty Mining’s parent company), merged with Texaco, which then divested all of its non-oil and gas interests. The mines were sold to the American Barrick Resources Corporation for $40 million, which was expected to run the mining operation until depletion of the reserves (Blanthorn 1998). During the early 1990s, the Mercur mines were Utah’s primary source of gold (Blanthorn 1994). Declining profits led Barrick to announce a phased out closure of the mine in 1997. Today the mine is completely closed and has been almost entirely reclaimed. The Ophir Mining District The first mining claim filed in what was to become the Ophir mining district (located near the very mineral-rich Mercur district) was registered in 1863, by Mr. Shelby Lineback, a soldier on furlough from Fort Douglas (Blanthorn 1998; Cartwright 1980). Although Mr. Lineback filed the first mining claim in 1863, the first mineral-bearing ores were not actually discovered within the Ophir district for an additional two years.
Treasure Hill, in East Canyon, . . . had long been a sacred spot where the Indians had gathered each year to hold councils and obtain metal for bullets. Soldiers under General Patrick Edward Connor’s command, attracted by these legends, located a cropping of lead ore at the St. Louis lode, now known as the Hidden Treasure mine (Notarianni 1994). Other locations soon followed, but very little was done until 1870, when the silver excitement in Little Cottonwood Canyon in Salt Lake County stimulated prospectors. In the summer of 1870, A.W. Moore laid out the town of Ophir and a new mining district was organized; in August horn silver was found on Silverado Hill, perhaps by W. T. Barber, and other claims were soon located [Historical Records Survey 1939:24].

The Ophir Mining District was officially organized on August 23, 1870, when the Rush Valley District was divided three ways, the Ophir mining district taking up the lower third of the former larger mining district (Berge 2000). A location claim for the Silveropolis Mine was recorded the same day by Connor’s soldiers. Another important mine within the district was the Antelope Mine, which was located in 1871 by Heber C. Kimball, Harrison Sever, and W.R. Judd (Blanthorn 1998). Although not located within the boundaries of this study, the Dry Canyon/Jacob City area is also contained within the confines of the mining district. The most active and productive mines from this area were the Hidden Treasure, Chicago, Mono, and Kearsage mines. Production from the Hidden Treasure during the years 1876 to 1880 totaled 8,300 tons of lead and 12 tons of silver (Hidden Treasure Mining Company 1880); the mine operated into the 1940’s, eventually producing over 1,167 tons of silver ore. The other mines noted above in combination produced over $3 million in ore (Blanthorn 1998).
Particularly important in the Ophir Mining District were the discoveries of very rich “horn,” or chloride, silver ores. William Barbee found horn silver on Silverdo Hill, where the Silveropolis, Chloride Point, Shamrock, and other claims were located. The Mountain Lion, Liver Chief, Mountain Tiger, Rockwell, and other claims were made on nearby Lion Hill. From the Shamrock Mine came the richest deposit of horn silver in the West – $27,000 per ton. The Treasure Hill mines (where the first ore discovery was made in 1865, and) located near the head of a steep canyon known as Dry Canyon, were at 8,000 feet in elevation. . . The total value of ore produced from mines in the Ophir-Rush Valley area between 1870 and 1927 was more than $43 million [Blanthorn 1998:127].

30

The town of Ophir grew to a significant size during the height of the mining boom in the Ophir mining region. By 1871, the Community Methodist Church owned a building and boasted over 100 members. During the 1880’s, businesses consisted of a hotel, general store, saloon, and stables, as well as other mining suppliers. At the turn of the century, Ophir also supported private homes, small businesses, a fire department and a city hall, but the town gradually declined as mining activities dwindled (Blanthorn 1998). From a high of about 6000 during the boom days of mining in the area, the towns population dropped to 199 persons in 1959 and to only about 25 permanent residents in 1990. Today, a few small businesses continue in the central part of town, and many of the existing dwellings are used as summer homes and for recreation. Summary of Historic Information on Project Mines The Ophir II project area lies in one of the richest mineral resource areas in the state of Utah. Historic mining activity occurred with significant intensity over much of the project area, as is attested to by a wealth of historic records. Between the Camp Floyd and Ophir mining districts, one-hundred fiftynine patented mining claims have been filed on properties that fall within the survey boundaries of the project. A large number of additional claims occur within the district for the surrounding area. Following is a summary of patented mine information for the named mines that could be identified as properties associated with the openings examined during the project. The documentation on these mines was extracted primarily from the Patent Records, which contained the most detailed documentation. Patent records are on file in the Tooele County records for mining claims filed beginning in 1886. The Camp Floyd and Ophir District Location Notices from 1870 onward are incomplete, and were discontinued in 1897. Camp Floyd Mining District Rover Mine #2 No documentation was located for this mine.

31

Nora Mine Documentation Quit Claim Deed

Individual/Entity James H. Carpenter to Angus M. Cannon Edward Hillman to Angus M. Cannon

File Date 09/27/1892 10/03/1892

Record Date 09/30/1892 10/08/1892 12/21/1894 02/06/1899 02/06/1899 03/26/1902 09/04/1907 06/17/1922 02/14/1928 12/18/1935 01/29/1930

Patent Deed Tax Sale Auditors Deed Quit Claim Deed Mortgage Mortgage Release Quit Claim Deed

Angus M. Cannon to Cannon Gold Mining and 05/02/1894 Milling Company U.S.A. to Cannon Gold Mining and Milling Company 08/07/1897 Cannon Gold Mining and Milling Company to 02/01/1899 E.H. Airis E.H. Airis to Tooele County 02/17/1902 Tooele County 03/28/1906 06/16/1922 Tooele County to George A. Jorgenson et al. Sam Jorgenson to Bank of American Fork 02/09/1928 Bank of American Fork to Sam Jorgenson 12/17/1935 Sam Jorgenson to L.D. Brown and H. Miller 08/28/1929

(Annual Quit Claim Deeds were filed on behalf of LD Brown and H Miller in behalf of Glenn R.Bothwell for the years 1930-1935.) Documentation Mortgage Deed Quit Claim Deed Lease Lease Assignment Lease Memo Lease Assignment Individual/Entity Glenn R. Bothwell to Tooele County State Bank Bothwell Estate to Bothwell Corporation Bothwell Corporation to Geyser Marion Gold Mine and Mill Company Geyser Marion to Gold Standard, Inc. Gold Standard, Inc. to Getty Mineral Res. Johnson et al. to Tenneco Minerals Co Tenneco Minerals Co. to Tenneco Minerals Co., Utah File Date Record Date 1935 1938 08/16/1949 11/07/1980 05/18/1981 02/09/1990 06/12/1992

08/13/1949 03/01/1973 05/12/1981 11/28/1989 05/22/1992

*The Nora Mine was one of the properties re-opened by the Getty Minerals Company, Mercur project, as previously discussed. Buena Vista Mine Documentation Location of Claim Quit Claim Deed Individual/Entity R.H. Carr, J.C. Jones, D.P. Meyers and J.C. Weeter J.C. Jones et al. to J.C. Weeter J.C. Weeter to C.D. Rooklidgen C.D. Rooklidge to Mercur Park Gold Mining Co. File Date 01/30/1896 02/08/1896 03/07/1896 03/07/1896 Record Date 02/05/1896 03/07/1896 03/21/1896 03/21/1896

(Series of County Tax Sales, Redemption Certificates and Judgments on a yearly to bi-annual basis, 1899 to 1934. 1934 Court Judgment benefits Sam Jorgenson.)

32

Patent Quit Claim Deed Decree and Deed License Pending Joint Ownership Quit Claim Deed

U.S.A. to Mercur Park Gold Mining Co. Sam Jorgenson to Glenn R. Bothwell Estate of G. Bothwell to Bothwell Corp. Sam Jorgenson from AC Nordell A.C. Nordell and Sam Jorgenson Bothwell Corp. to Geyser Marion Gold Mining Company 1939 to 1973, grazing rights granted to Utah Livestock Production.

07/01/1918 05/24/1934 11/09/1938 02/02/1939 Through 1944 08/13/1949

03/29/1945 05/31/1934 11/09/1938 02/02/1939 08/16/1949

*As part of the Bothwell Corporation group of mines, the Buena Vista was also one of the properties reopened as part of the Mercur project developed by the Getty Minerals Company. Keystone Mine Documentation Location of Claim Quit Claim Deed Individual/Entity John J. Brown and John Bogan J.J. Brown to Joseph Oberndorfer John Bogan to Joseph Oberndorfer J.J. Brown to Joseph Oberndorfer John Bogan to Joseph Oberndorfer John Oberndorfer Tooele County Tooele County to C.P. Burnham C.P. Burnham to Tooele County File Date 1895 11/06/1895 11/03/1895 11/29/1897 11/08/1897 01/26/1899 02/17/1922 12/17/1931 01/21/1932 Record Date 1895 11/20/1895 11/30/1895 12/05/1897 12/01/1897 01/27/1899 04/24/1922 12/19/1931 06/15/1932

Proof of Labor Tax Sale Quit Claim Deed Tax Sale

(The Juno, Primera, Minerva and Gladys mines were also included in the above tax sale.) Individual/Entity Tooele County to H.A. Thompson C.P. Burnham to F. B. Bothwell H.A. Thompson to Globe Mining and Smelting Co. G.F. and Dorothy Cowan to Leo H. and Virginia Ault Leo H. Ault to Floyd Myers Floyd Myers to Leo H. Ault Gretchen R. Duff and Sara R. Henry to Homestake Mining Company Quit Claim Deed Floyd Myers to Leo H. Ault Deed and Assignment Priority Minerals to Rochester Minerals Quit Claim Deed Rochester Minerals to Priority Minerals Documentation Quit Claim Deed Agreement Quit Claim Deed Warranty Deed Warranty Deed Quit Claim Deed Mineral Lease File Date 08/09/1939 09/23/1939 02/13/1940 04/15/1959 10/19/1961 09/14/1981 10/30/1980 Record Date 08/09/1939 09/30/1939 02/13/1940 04/29/1959 10/24/1961 09/18/1981 02/16/1982

09/14/1982 03/29/1982 11/30/1990 02/11/1991 06/14/1991 10/15/1991

*The Keystone Mine Group included the Juno, Primera, Minerva and Gladys mines as of 1931. There is no record of the Keystone Mine Patent in the County Records. Timing between documents seems to indicate that no regular labor was being conducted in the mine proper, particularly since the Keystone appears to have remained mostly under the ownership of private individuals. 33

Summit Mine Documentation Location of Claim Proof of Labor Individual/Entity Not located William Lambert et al. File Date 12/29/1897 Record Date 12/31/1897

(During the period 1910 to 1922, a series of tax liens were placed against the Summit mine. These liens were redeemed by the Little Pittsburgh Mining Company until 1922.) Documentation Quit Claim Deed Mortgage Release Quit Claim Deed Individual/Entity Tooele County to G.A. Jorgenson et al. Sam Jorgenson to Bank of American Fork Bank of American Fork to Sam Jorgenson Sam Jorgenson to H. Miller and C.D. Brown (Consolidated with the Nora Mine) H. Miller et al. to G.H. Melville File Date 06/16/1922 02/09/1928 12/17/1935 08/28/1929 06/11/1931 Record Date 06//17/1922 02/14/1928 12/18/1935 01/29/1930 07/28/1931

(Annual Quit Claim Deeds were filed on behalf of LD Brown and H Miller in behalf of Glenn R. Bothwell for the years 1930-1935.) Documentation Mortgage Deed Quit Claim Deed Lease Lease Assignment Lease Memo Lease Assignment Individual/Entity Glenn R. Bothwell to Tooele CountyState Bank Bothwell Estate to Bothwell Corporation Bothwell Corporation to Geyser Marion Gold Mine and Mill Company Geyser Marion to Gold Standard, Inc. Gold Standard, Inc. to Getty Mineral Res. Johnson et al. to Tenneco Minerals Co. Tenneco Minerals Co. to Tenneco Minerals Co., Utah File Date Record Date 1935 1938 08/16/1949 11/07/1980 05/18/1981 02/09/1990 06/12/1992

08/13/1949 03/01/1973 05/12/1981 11/28/1989 05/22/1992

*The Summit Mine was one of the properties re-opened by the Getty Mineral Group. Eagle Mine Documentation Location of Claim Quit Claim Deed Proof of Labor Individual/Entity Not located John P. Taylor to Little Pittsburgh Mine Co. Little Pittsburgh Mine Co. File Date 10/24/1895 Record Date 10/31/1895

1910 through 1912

(A series of tax liens was brought by Tooele County against the Eagle Mine and the Little Pittsburgh Mine Co. Between 1912 and 1922. There are no redemption certificates on file.) Documentation Quit Claim Deed Mortgage Individual/Entity Tooele County to G.A. Jorgenson, et al.. Sam Jorgenson to Bank of American Fork File Date 06/16/1922 02/02/1928 Record Date 06/17/1922 02/14/1928

(In 1929, a merger was formed between the Robert 1, Little Pittsburgh, Junction, American Eagle and Spar mines.) 34

Mortgage Release

Bank of American Fork to Sam Jorgenson

12/17/1935

12/18/1935

(Annual Quit Claim Deeds were filed on behalf of LD Brown and H Miller in behalf of Glenn R. Bothwell for the years 1930-1935.) Documentation Mortgage Deed Quit Claim Deed Lease Lease Assignment Lease Memo Lease Assignment Individual/Entity Glenn R. Bothwell to Tooele County State Bank Bothwell Estate to Bothwell Corporation Bothwell Corporation to Geyser Marion Gold Mine and Mill Company Geyser Marion to Gold Standard, Inc. Gold Standard, Inc. to Getty Mineral Res. Johnson et al. to Tenneco Minerals Co. Tenneco Minerals Co. to Tenneco Minerals Co., Utah File Date Record Date 1935 1938 08/16/1949 11/07/1980 05/18/1981 02/09/1990 06/12/1992

08/13/1949 03/01/1973 05/12/1981 11/28/1989 05/22/1992

*The Eagle Mine was one of the properties re-opened by the Getty Mineral Group. Ophir Mining District Mollie Mine Documentation Location of Claim Proof of Labor Patent Individual/Entity No information available. James Veitch James Veitch U.S.A. to J. O. Veitch File Date 12/27/1897 10/05/1898 04/04/1899 Record Date 12/29/1897 10/10/1898 06/28/1899

*Similar documents were filed for the Francis Mine. Jersey Mine Documentation Location of Claim Quit Claim Deed Individual/Entity S.J. Pollack, S.W. Clark S.W. Clark et al. to W.E. Hubbard W.E. Hubbard to Northern Light Mining and Milling Company S.W. Clark et al. to W.E. Hubbard U.S.A. to Northern Light Mining and Milling Company Tooele County File Date 09/30/1895 01/17/1896 06/03/1896 12/26/1896 12/07/1897 02/15/1904 Record Date 10/11/1895 12/17/1896 12/29/1896 12/291896 08/14/1930 04/14/1904

Patent Tax Sale

(A series of liens filed by Tooele County, and redemption certificates in behalf of Northern Lights Mining and Milling Company and Lion Hill Consolidated Mining and Milling Company were filed on a yearly to bi-annual basis until 1925).

35

Documentation Lease Option Option Release

Individual/Entity Tintic Ophir Mining to F.E. Porter F.E. Porter to Tintic Ophir Mining Warranty Deed F & S Co. to Mann Enterprises Mann Enterprises to Mervin J. and Georgia Russel

File Date 06/28/1941 05/20/1942 09/08/1980 09/25/1981

Record Date 02/15/1941 12/06/1947 09/09/1980 03/29/1984

*Similar documents were filed for the Boston Mine. Lakes of Killarney Mine Documentation Individual/Entity Location of Claim Not located Warranty Deed A.A. and Clarice A. Britin to Gold Note Mining Company Certified Sale Tooele County to Edward Dalton Quit Claim Deed Alfred Slineback to Gold Note Mining Co Proof of Labor Gold Note Mining Company

File Date 04/06/1892

Record Date 04/11/1892

12/23/1896 01/23/1897 11/04/1899 11/13/1899 1899 through 1902

(For the period 1907 through 1927, documentation consists of multiple Tax Liens on behalf of Tooele County, and Redemption Certificates for the credit of Gold Note Mining Company.) Documentation Quit Claim Deed Lease Quit Claim Deed Deed Quit Claim Deed Assignment Quit Claim Deed Tax Sale Tax Deed Individual/Entity Gold Note Mining Company to Lakes of Killarney, Inc. Lakes of Killarney, Inc., to W.D. Yager and G.M. Cuther Tooele County to June Cannon Orme June Cannon Orme to A.L. Hansen A.L. Hansen to Silver Standard Mining Co. A.L. Hansen to Lewis N. Ellsworth A.L. Hansen to Dr. Ernell Jensen A.L. Hansen to Russel Cashin Wallace Peck to Silver Standard Mining Co. Tooele County Tooele County to Lynn S. Ellsworth File Date 02/11/1927 04/02/1934 06/02/1944 02/18/1946 05/28/1946 12/03/1945 05/28/1947 11/28/1949 03/08/1957 05/–/1969 07/10/1969 Record Date 02/11/1927 06/21/1934 06/02/1944 02/18/1946 06/28/1946 05/07/1948 05/07/1948 02/15/1957 05/06/1957 07/11/1969 07/11/1969

*Although the Lakes of Killarney Mine is included in the Patented Mining Claims records, no actual Patent was ever filed or recorded.

36

Nyanza Mine Documentation Proof of Labor Patent Individual/Entity A. Shelby Lineback et al. Certificates filed annually 1898 through 1901. U.S.A. to A. Shelby Lineback File Date 01/03/1898 05/13/1903 Record Date 01/04/1898 10/13/1903

(Series of Tax Sales in behalf of Tooele County and Redemption Certificates from A. Shelby Lineback filed 1924, 1931, 1937. No Redemption Certificate recorded following 1937 tax lien.) *A. Shelby Lineback was the first miner to file a claim in the Rush Valley Mining District, later the Ophir Mining District. Wachusett Mine Documentation Location of Claim Quit Claim Deed Patent Proof of Labor Quit Claim Deed Individual/Entity Not located August L. Dimondi et al. to Olga Dimondi Olga C. Dimondi et al. to E.A. Clark U.S.A. to C.E. Aumond and A.L. Simond L.J. Clark August L. Dimondi et al. to E.A. Clark C.E. Aumond to E.A. Clark E.A. Clark and wife to Wachusett Mining Company Wachusett Mining Company to Chloride Point Consolidated Mining Company Wachusett Mining Company Thomas Mathmiliale and Telluride Power V. Chloride Point Mining Tooele County Tooele County to Hubbarah Investment Co. File Date 02/12/1895 01/02/1896 03/20/1896 12/24/1897 03/09/1894 03/09/1894 01/28/1898 03/08/1898 04/14/1899 01/14/1901 02/20/1905 01/04/1906 Record Date 0/1/08/1896 01/08/1896 03/08/1897 12/30/1897 01/31/1898 01/31/1898 01/31/1898 03/15/1898 04/15/1899 02/15/1901 02/25/1905 01/20/1906

Proof of Labor Judgments Tax Sale Redemption Cert.

(Upon recording the Redemption Certificate, the Wachusett Mine formally became part of a very large mining group which included mines such as Chloride Point, Red Bird among others. These mines were consolidated with the mines of the Lion Hill Mining Company, Ophir Metals, and Three Metals Mining Company. These mines were all part of a consolidated group until 1923. No further documents were filed until 1980, when Mann Enterprises started to manage all the mines. Proofs of labor were filed by Mann Enterprises for the period 1981 to 1986.) Notice of Default Robert W. Hughes Vs. Mann Enterprises 06/22/1994 06/27/1994

37

Chloride Point Mine Documentation Location of Claim Quit Claim Deed (Undecipherable) Mortgage Redemption Individual/Entity Not located B.P. Oliver to P.E. Connor Connor Estate to George St. Clair Maurice J. Connor to J.F. Connor J.F. Connor to Maurice J. Connor File Date 03/14/1891 10/01/1895 03/01/1896 01/16/1897 Record Date 05/12/1892 11/29/1895 03/01/1896 11/25/1897

(Series of Tax Liens and Judgments placed against the mine by Tooele County and several mining suppliers during the period 1900-1901. After 1901, the Chloride Point mine was placed into receivership, and sold to various entities such as the Lion Hill Mining Company and Elizabeth Goldthwaite in order to satisfy the liens. In 1921, the mine was consolidated into the group which also owned the Red Bird and Wachusett mines. Liens continued to be placed against the property until 1923, when Three Metals Mining Company filed a Redemption Certificate. No other documentation is available until 1980, when the Chloride Point was absorbed into the group run by Mann Enterprises, who filed Proofs of Labor for the period 1981 to 1986, as with the Wachusett mine, above.) Notice of Default Buffalo Mine Documentation Location of Claim Proof of Labor Quit Claim Deed Proof of Labor Individual/Entity Samuel J. Pollock Samuel J. Pollock Samuel J. Pollock to Buffalo Consolidated N. and G. St. Clair for Buffalo Consol. File Date Record Date 01/01/1903 02/13/1903 1904 through 1907 10/01/1908 03/12/1909 1914 through 1947 Robert W. Hughes Vs. Mann Enterprises 06/22/1994 06/27/1994

(The Fair Day Number 2, McClellan and Baltimore Number 2 mines were consolidated into one working group in 1937 by Buffalo Consolidated.) Documentation Lease and Option Notice to Hold Deed Proof of Labor Merger Certificate Quit Claim Deed Proof of Labor Quit Claim Individual/Entity Buffalo Consol. to International Smelting International Smelting Buffalo Consolidated to Tintic Ophir Tintic Ophir Tintic Ophir to Jewelteck International, Inc. Jewelteck International, Inc. to U. Beva Mines U. Beva Mines Deed U. Beva Mines to Delvin T. Pond Delvin T. Pond to Silver Age Industries Silver Age Industries to F. & S. Co., Inc. F. & S. Co., Inc. File Date Record Date 11/21/1947 03/16/1948 1948 through 1950 06/26/1953 06/27/1953 1953 through 1969 10/14/1969 01/21/1970 12/31/1969 01/21/1970 08/31/1970 08/31/1970 10/25/1970 11/05/1970 11/03/1970 11/05/1970 11/06/1970 06/17/1971 1971 though 1973

Proof of Labor

*No patent was recorded for the Buffalo Mine. 38

Empire Mine Documentation Location of Claim Proof of Labor Tax Liens/Sales Warranty Deed Trust Deed Redemption Cert Tax Sale Individual/Entity Northern Light Mineral and Mining Co. Northern Light Mineral and Mining Co. Tooele County Northern Light Mineral and Mining Co. to Lion Hill Mining Co Lion Hill Mining to Salt Lake Security Trust Salt Lake Security to Lion Hill Mining Tooele County File Date Record Date 10/13/1896 05/19/1897 1897 through 1904 1904 through 1907 02/18/1907 12/11/1908 06/15/1908 05/17/1912 02/09/1914 12/11/1908 05/29/1912 04/08/1914

(In 1914, the Empire Mine was consolidated with the Lion Hill Fraction, CLC, MHC, AGC, Mountain View 14, Winter Quarters, Mint, Rosa 1-2, Boston, Jersey, Surprise, Swansea and Swansea Fraction mines, among others, which were owned by International Smelting and Refining Company. At least 80 mines were consolidated into the International group.) Documentation Redemption Cert. Proof of Labor Merger Certificate Quit Claim Deed Proof of Labor Patent Proof of Labor Notice of Default Chance Mine Documentation Location of Claim Quit Claim Deed Proof of Labor Tax Sale Individual/Entity George St. Clair Henry W. Lawrence et al. to W.E. Hubbard W.E. Hubbard to Northern Light Mining Northern Light Mining Tooele County File Date Record Date 06/05/1882 05/19/1894 02/03/1896 02/03/1896 02/03/1896 04/25/1896 1896 through 1899 02/15/1904 04/14/1904 Individual/Entity Tooele County to International Smelting Ophir Mining Company Ophir Mining to Jewelteck International Jewelteck International to F. &. S. Co. Tintic Ophir and F. & C. Co. U.S.A. to Henry W. Lawrence Mann Enterprises Robert W. Hughes Vs. Mann Enterprises File Date Record Date 12/15/1947 12/15/1947 1953 through 1970 10/14/1969 01/21/1970 10/14/1969 01/21/1970 1971 through 1980 10/28/1980 09/18/1981 1981 through 1994 06/22/1994 06/27/1994

(The Northern Light mining group entered into a Joint Trust Deed with Lion Hill Mining in 1904. The terms of the deed were not met, and the mine was sold at Sheriff’s Auction on 03/12/1918 to Elizabeth Goldthwaite, who also owned the Columbus mining group. E. Goldthwaite held title to the Chance mine until 1925, when it was deeded by Walter B. Farmer to Three Metals Mining.) *Duplicate documentary history as the Empire, Buffalo, Chloride Point and Wachusett mines after 1970.

39

Documentation Proof of Labor Tax Sale Quit Claim Deed Warranty Deed Proof of Labor

Individual/Entity Three Metals Mining Tooele County to G. L. Peters G.L. Peters to J.R. Walker J.R. Walker to Tintic Ophir Mines Tintic Ophir Mines

File Date Record Date 1922 through 1925 01/12/1926 11/30/1926 12/17/1926 01/29/1927 02/08/1927 1928 through 1947

Merger Certificate Tintic Ophir Mines with Jewelteck Int’l.
The Old Sweetwater Mine No documentation was located for this mine. Ophir Mine Documentation Location of Claim Mortgage Patent Right of Way Warranty Deed Distribution Decree Mining Easement Lease Agreement Release Little Pittsburgh Mine

10/14/1969

01/21/1970

Individual/Entity W.A. Kelley, M. Shaughnessey M. Shaughnessey to Daniel Eyre U.S.A. to Clesson S. Kenney C.S. Kenney to St. John and Ophir Railroad Antoinette Kenney to S.P. Kenney Ned Warnok to S.P. Kenney R.F. Kenney to Utah Power and Light R.F. and Verona Kenney to Centurion Mines Centurion Mines to R.F. and Verona Kenney

File Date 05/15/1891 10/03/1891 03/18/1899 05/06/1912 11/16/1915 11/22/1977 11/29/1982 12/31/1991 01/25/1994

Record Date 05/16/1891 10/05/1891 04/17/1899 05/06/1912 11/16/1916 12/07/1977 03/04/1983 03/04/1992 11/16/1994

No documentation was located for these two related mines except for references to mergers with other mining entities. Survey Results Site Designations The specific mine openings examined during the project were selected in advance by the Division of Oil, Gas and Mining as potential sites of mine closure and/or reclamation activity. The mine openings were grouped by DOGM into seven named groups: Foothills, Ophir Canyon, Dry Canyon, South Fork Ophir Canyon/Meadow Canyon, Silveropolois Hill, Rover Hill, and Mercur Canyon. A total of 165 openings were identified by DOGM for examination and were grouped by us into 23 defined sites and 52 isolated features. The occurrence of sites by Mine Group is summarized in Table 3 and the legal description of the mine locations is presented in Table 4. Other basic data on each of the archaeological sites, including associated DOGM tag numbers, is summarized in Appendix A. One non-mine site was also recorded because of its proximity to one of the mines. That site was the historic Ophir Canyon Road.

40

Table 3. Site Locations by Group
Group Foothills Area State Site Number 42TO2181 42TO2358 42TO2182 42TO2359 42TO2360 42TO2183 42TO2184 42TO2185 42TO2186 42TO2187 42TO2188 42TO2189 42TO2190 42TO2191 42TO2192 42TO1772 42TO2193 42TO2194 42TO2195 42TO2357 42TO2196 42TO2197 42TO2198 Map Reference Stockton Ophir & Stockton Stockton

Dry Canyon

Ophir

Ophir Canyon

Ophir

Silveropolis Rover Hill South Fork Ophir Canyon/ Meadow Canyon Mercur Canyon

Mercur Mercur Mercur Mercur

The openings were grouped on the basis of proximity into 23 sites which were assigned archaeological site numbers using standardized state designations obtained through the Utah Division of State History. These site numbers follow the uniform Smithsonian trinomial numbering system that combines a state and county designation with a sequential identifying number. Seventy-three other mine openings were situated in isolated locations that lacked any significant cultural associations, and they were therefore assigned Isolated Feature designations. Due to their limited nature, these openings were not recorded using IMACS forms, but were instead documented using an Isolate Form that gathered standardized information at a less detailed level. Although some mine names appear on the USGS topographic maps of the area, and named mines were identified in the historic research, it was not always possible to associate a given opening with a specific known mine name. Archaeological site boundaries were drawn primarily on the basis of topography and proximity between openings, and therefore they do not correlate well with the historic designations suggested by written records. Some archaeological sites include more than one named mine. However, we do not know of any instances where openings clearly related as a single named mine have been split between two defined archaeological sites. A separate numbering system is employed by the Division of Oil, Gas and Mining to designate each opening. In their system, mining features identified for inclusion in the Utah Abandoned Mine Reclamation Program are designated by tag numbers which provide a short-hand reference for each opening. This reference number is unique and is descriptive of the feature and its location. The documentation of the 41

Table 4. Site Locations and Legal Descriptions
Site No. 42TO2181 42TO2182 42TO2183 42TO2184 42TO2185 42TO2186 42TO2187 42TO2188 42TO2189 42TO2190 42TO2191 42TO2192 42TO2193 42TO2194 42TO2195 42TO2196 42TO2197 42TO2198 42TO2357 42TO2358 42TO2359 42TO2360 42TO2361 42TO1772 (PR Site) Mine Name Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Nyanza; Lakes of Killarney; Unknown Unknown Ophir Mine; Unknown Unknown The Old Sweetwater; Unknown Unknown Buffalo; Unknown Wachusett; Keystone; Chloride Point; Unknown Little Pittsburg Mine; Unknown Unknown Geyser-Marion Ophir Mine Unknown Unknown Unknown (Historic Road) Lion Hill Mining Totals Legal Location T 5 S, R 4 W, Section 5 T 5 S, R 4 W, Section 21 T 5 S, R 4 W, Section 21 T 5 S, R 4 W, Section 15 T 5 S, R 4 W, Section 22 T 5 S, R 4 W, Section 21 T 5 S, R 4 W, Section 21 T 5 S, R 4 W, Section 21 T 5 S, R 4 W, Section 22 T 5 S, R 4 W, Section 28 T 5 S, R 4 W, Section 27 T 5 S,R 4 W, Section 26 T 5 S, R 4 W, Section 24 T 5 S, R 4 W, Section 25 T 5 S, R 4 W, Section 25 T 5 S, R 4 W, Section 36 T 5 S, R 3 W, Section 32 T 6 S, R 3 W, Sections 6 and 7 T 5 S, R 4 W, Section 28 T 5 S, R 4 W, Section 8 T 5 S, R 4 W, Section 21 T 5 S, R 4 W, Section 21 T 5 S, R 4 W, Section 27 T 5 S, R 4 W, Sections 24 - 26 Acres 0.68 2.99 0.36 1.70 6.99 0.01 0.41 12.58 2.13 1.75 0.49 1.98 1.90 2.90 76.41 1.77 0.44 1.71 0.08 0.23 1.05 1.01 0.15 158 (incl. 15 add’l acres) 277.72 No. of Tagged Mine Openings 1 7 1 1 2 2 1 7 2 6 1 6 1 2 45 3 1 3 1 2 3 6 0 9 113

mines was undertaken through the completion of an Intermountain Antiquities Computer System (IMACS) site form tied to the Division of State History site number, but careful attention was paid to also link all documentation to the state tag designations employed by DOGM as well. The DOGM state tag number system is briefly explained here since the numbers are used throughout the documentation to refer to specific features. In this numbering system, each mine opening or feature is identified by a unique site identification number which follows a standardized format. The identification number (ID or state tag number) is a three part designation consisting of seven digits followed by two letters followed by three final digits. The first digit indicates the mine location in relation to four quadrants formed by the Salt Lake baseline and meridian (SLBM). Townships north and east of the SLBM are coded A1.@ The other three quadrants are numbered in counter clockwise order (NE= 1, NW= 2, SW= 3, SE= 4). The second and third digits indicate the township, the third and fourth digits indicate the range, and the sixth and seventh digits indicate the section. These numbers are followed by letters indicating the type of 42

mine opening (H= horizontal adit, I= inclined adit, V= vertical shaft, SH= subsidence hole, PR= Prospect, PT= open pit, TA= tailings). In the case of shafts and adits, the final letter designates whether the mine is open (O) or closed (C). These letters are followed by numbers that are sequential numbers assigned as the openings were encountered during the field inventory. Thus, site number 4060318HO003 is located in the southeast quadrant of the state and is the third open adit (horizontal opening) inventoried in Township 6 South, Range 3 East, Section 18. A cross-reference of all DOGM numbers and their associated State History archaeological site numbers is included in Appendix B. Site Assessment Categories The mining properties assessed during this project were evaluated on the basis of cultural integrity, cultural sensitivity, and potential to yield additional data. A ranking system was developed which combined these factors in order to allow each mine to be assigned to one of four categories expressive of the site’s significance and sensitivity. The categories are designated 1, 2, and 3, with category 3 being the most significant. A fourth category – Isolated Feature – was extensively employed on this survey, and was used to designate openings that did not even rise to the level of integrity necessary to qualify them as an archaeological site requiring formal IMACS documentation. Sites are defined as locations containing remains of past human activity that are at least 50 years old and contain at least one of the following criteria: ten artifacts of a single class within a tenmeter diameter area except when all the pieces appear to originate from a single source; at least fifteen artifacts which include at least two classes of artifact types within a ten-meter diameter area; one or more archaeological features in temporal association with any number of artifacts; or two or more temporally associated archaeological features without artifacts. Isolated Finds are openings that are extremely modest in nature and are not associated with any other cultural features or artifacts. Most consist only of a single isolated shallow prospect or completely closed adit that will probably not be the subject of any further remediation activities. The openings themselves are small, with little depth or integrity and occur as isolated features unrelated to any other archaeological materials with the exception of very minor waste materials. These openings are so limited in nature that they were not assigned archaeological site numbers and were not documented using IMACS forms. These openings are not classified as “historical sites” as defined by preservation law, and can be closed or reclaimed without any further consideration. Category 1 mines are characterized by sites of a very modest character. They typically include adits or prospects that possess few or no other additional cultural elements other than the opening itself and some limited tailings or waste. These sites may include a small range of associated artifacts, but there are no additional features or structures. Most category 1 sites could be closed with little impact to anything other than the actual adit itself. Category 2 mines are characterized by more extensive archaeological remains that typically consist of one or more adits associated with additional limited features, such as ore chutes, retaining walls, timber framing, or other mining related developments of a limited nature. These sites may posses a more extensive range of associated artifacts. These mines are typically eligible under criterion A of the National Register of Historic Places and reclamation efforts pose some risk to the features associated with the mine openings.

43

Category 3 mines represent the most extensive type of property identified in the Ophir II Abandoned Mine Project. They include sites which posses more complex structural elements, such as associated buildings, extensive ore handling features, walls, timber bracing, or extensive quantities of related artifacts. These sites are likely eligible under criteria A and D and have potential to yield additional information and may be suitable for interpretation. Closure activities would definitely have to accommodate adjacent cultural materials that might be impacted by rehabilitation efforts. National Register Evaluation Summary Thirteen of the 24 mines evaluated are recommended as eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) under criteria A and/or D. Although many of these properties are limited in both size and scope, each contributes to the overall understanding of mining activities in the Oquirrh Mountains. Most of the mines in the project area resulted from exploration and extraction activities associated with the hard rock base metal and precious metal mining boom in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the western United States. Although most of the sites are relatively modest in scope, those that retain integrity and have the ability to convey aspects significant to the regional mining history or which have the potential to yield additional archaeological and historic information are recommended as contributing resources to a regional historic context associated with the theme of hard rock mining as a facet of American frontier settlement and exploration. At a local level, hard rock mining played an important role in Tooele County from the 1860s through the 1940s, and substantially influenced the course of local history and economic development. The significance of the sites has been assessed within this broader regional and national context. Site Descriptions and Evaluations Twenty-four sites were examined and evaluated and are described below in outline format. Summary information on each site, including National Register status recommendations is presented in Appendix A. Site sketch plan maps identifying the archaeological features are included as Appendix C. The site locations and legal descriptions are summarized in Table 4 and are shown in Figures 8-12. Thirteen of the 24 sites are recommended as eligible for the National Register of Historic Places. These 13 eligible sites include a total of 74 numbered openings (44.8% of all openings surveyed). However, 45 of those 74 openings (60.8% of all eligible openings) are part of the single site 42TO2195 which incorporates the extremely complex collection of openings situated on Silveropolis Hill. The remainder of the eligible sites are much smaller, consisting of only 1-9 openings per site. The discussion of the sites is organized by archaeological site numbers, which were assigned from east to west and north to south across the project area. State tag number(s) are also noted for each site. Each site designated by a specific archaeological site number may include one, or more than one, numbered opening as identified on the DOGM inventory. In addition to the 24 sites, 52 mine openings were recorded as isolated features. Data on these is summarized below following the discussion of the archaeological sites.

44

PRIVATE

STATE TRUST LANDS

IF45 IF47

42TO2359
IF46 IF28

42TO2185

42TO2360
IF49

PROJECT: DOGM Ophir II 2003

COUNTY: TOOELE
0 1 mi 0 1 Km

QUAD: OPHIR / STOCKTON

PR

IF50

42TO2183 42TO2184
IF30 IF29

TE IVA

42TO2182 42TO2186
IF44

42TO2187
IF48

PRIVATE
42TO2189

BLM
42TO2188

42TO2192

PRIVATE
42TO2190

42TO2191
IF2

BLM
42TO2361

IF1

OFFICE OF PUBLIC ARCHAEOLOGY
BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY

N

Figure 8. Topographic map showing 42TO2182 - 42TO2192 and isolated features. 45

IF52

IF51

42TO2193
Additional Acreage

BLM 42TO2194

42TO1772

Additional Acreage

BLM

PRIVATE
IF3 IF5 IF4

42TO2195
IF43 IF42
IF26

IF11

42TO2357
IF6

IF41

IF27 IF25 IF39 IF40 IF9 IF10 IF38 IF7 IF8

42TO2196

PRIVATE

IF14 IF16 IF15 IF12

BLM

IF13

IF34

IF33

PRIVATE

IF22
IF23
IF37

IF24
IF36
IF35

PROJECT: DOGM Ophir II 2003

OFFICE OF PUBLIC ARCHAEOLOGY
BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY

N
1 mi

COUNTY: TOOELE
0

QUAD: MERCUR/OPHIR

0

1 Km

Figure 9. Topographic map showing 42TO2193 - 42TO2196 and isolated features. 46

BLM

IF3

IF5 IF4

42TO2357
IF6
IF7

IF20

IF21

BLM
IF10

IF8 IF9 IF19

42TO2197
IF34

IF32

PRIVATE
IF33 IF31

IF37

IF36

IF35

PROJECT: DOGM Ophir II 2003

OFFICE OF PUBLIC ARCHAEOLOGY
BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY

N
1 mi

COUNTY: TOOELE
0

QUAD: MERCUR

0

1 Km

Figure 10. Topographic map showing 42TO2197 and isolated features. 47

42TO2181

IF17
IF18

BLM

42TO2358

PROJECT: DOGM Ophir II 2003

OFFICE OF PUBLIC ARCHAEOLOGY
BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY

N
1 mi

COUNTY: TOOELE
0

QUAD: STOCKTON

0

1 Km

Figure 11. Topographic map showing 42TO2188 and isolated features. 48

PRIVATE

42TO2198

PROJECT: DOGM Ophir II 2003

OFFICE OF PUBLIC ARCHAEOLOGY
BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY

N
1 mi

COUNTY: TOOELE
0

QUAD: MERCUR

0

1 Km

Figure 12. Topographic map showing 42TO2198 49

Site Number: 42TO2181 Mine Name(s): Unknown State Tag Numbers: 3050405VC002 Map Reference: Stockton, Utah Quadrangle 7.5’ Series Topographic, 1980 Assessment Category: 1 Setting: The site is situated on the northwest slope and top of a small ridge. Site Description: The site consists of the remains of a small cluster of mine openings and an associated trash scatter covering an area about 50 by 70 meters in size. A single tagged vertical opening is present near the southeast side of the site. Approximately 10 meters north of the mine opening is a scatter of wood debris that appears to the remains of a completely collapsed and partially demolished wood frame structure. A small depression on the south end of the site associated with several scattered board fragments may be the remains of an outhouse. The closed vertical shaft 3050405VC002 appears as a shallow irregularly shaped depression approximately 15 ft by 8 ft in size, and no more than 3½ ft deep. It is excavated into loose gravelly soils. It is flanked on the west side by a low waste pile about 16 ft long and 3-6 ft wide. To the north and west of the tagged opening are two very substantial and potentially dangerous openings. One is an inclined shaft with an opening measuring approximately 2 ft high and 4 ft wide. The adit goes in at least 20 feet, but the end is not visible. Movement of cold air out of the opening suggests that it might be quite deep and is probably tied to at least one other opening allowing air to circulate. It is flanked on the west side by a waste rock pile that is about 25 ft by 30 ft in size. The second untagged opening is a deep vertical shaft approximately 5 ft by 6 ft in size and at least 20 ft deep. It is flanked on the northwest side by a large spoil pile about 25 ft in diameter. To the southwest of the tagged vertical opening on the site are four small shallow prospects. These range from 2 to 8 ft across and 3 to 10 ft long. The artifacts at the site consist of a mix of recent trash and some slightly older historic debris. Both sanitary and post-and-cap style cans are present, as well as fragments of milled lumber, plate glass fragments and nails. Features: Shafts, adits, outhouse, structural debris, waste dump National Register Assessment: Not Eligible. Site Number: 42TO2182 Mine Name(s): Unknown State Tag Numbers: 3050421HC008, 3050421HO005, 3050421HO006, 3050421HO007, 3050421IO002, 3050421VO007, 3050421VC008 Map Reference: Stockton, Utah Quadrangle 7.5’ Series Topographic, 1980, and Ophir, Utah Quadrangle 7.5’ Series Topographic, 1980 Assessment Category: 1 Setting: The site is located on the side of a steeply sloped ridge line on the north side of Dry Canyon. 50

Site Description: The site consists of a cluster of seven mine openings situated along an ephemeral drainage on the side of a steeply sloped ridge overlooking Dry Canyon, in about a 140 by 110 m area. Four of the openings are grouped around a very large waste dump in a rocky and ledgy area of the drainage. The other openings are located on the slope of the ridge above this central cluster and on both sides. Two small dry-laid masonry retaining walls are present on the site, as is a small terrace area but otherwise there are no other associated features and the artifactual remains are extremely limited. Four open and one closed horizontal adits are present on the site. Two vertical openings are present at the site. The most obvious mine opening at the site is 3050421VO007, located near the center of the site. The opening measures about 23 ft by 13 ft in size and is at least 65 ft deep. Most of its waste is probably in the large waste dump in the site center. Vertical closed opening 3050421VC008 is situated at the northern end of the site, on the west side of the drainage. It currently appears as an opening about 12 ft by 20 ft in size and about 8 ft deep. The opening is partially filled by natural erosion. A waste pile about 65 ft by 80 ft in size occurs down slope and mostly on the opposite side of the drainage from the opening. Opening 3050421HO005 is a horizontal adit. The portal measures 6 ½ ft by 3 ft in size and extends back at least 65 ft. A large waste pile measuring about 25 ft by 30 ft partially surrounds the opening and merges into the larger waste dump in the drainage bottom. 3050421HO006 actually appears closer to a vertical opening than a horizontal. The shaft measures approximately 3 ft by 6 ½ ft in size. A waste pile is situated to the south of the opening, again merging with the larger waste dump. Opening 3050421HO007 is an open horizontal adit. The tunnel is excavated into rock and appears stable. The original opening is about 5 ½ ft high and 6 ½ ft wide with a regular square cross section. The portal is nearly closed by debris which has collapsed in front of it so that the actual opening now measures only about 3 ft wide and 1 ½ ft high. A fairly large but poorly defined waste pile is present at the mouth of the portal and continues down slope to the souteast. The single closed horizontal opening, 3050421HC008, consists of a shallow trench and depression in the side of the hill left from the collapse of a horizontal adit. The depression measures about 23 ft long and 6 ½ ft wide. It is relatively shallow, and has mostly filled in with slope wash. About 6 ft of sloughing face-up is exposed on the uphill end of the depression, but otherwise the depression is only about 3 ft deep at maximum. A single inclined opening, 3050421IO002 is located at the northeast edge of the site. The feature is a deep inclined adit. The portal measures about 6 ½ feet by 9 ft and the tunnel goes back at least 65 ft. A dump about 65 ft by 65 ft in size extends from the opening down slope to the southwest. Artifacts at the site are limited to a few small fragments of salt glazed ceramics, a few nondiagnostic can fragments, and a metal spike. Features: Adits, shafts, wall, waste dump National Register Assessment: Not Eligible Site Number: 42TO2183 Mine Name(s): Unknown State Tag Numbers: 3050421IO001 Map Reference: Stockton, Utah Quadrangle 7.5’ Series Topographic, 1980 Assessment Category: 2 51

Setting: The site is located on the south facing slope of a finger ridge on the north side of Dry Canyon. Site Description: The site consists of a single inclined mine adit and a shallow prospect. The inclined opening, 3050421IO001, is a relatively stable adit excavated into rock. The portal measures 5 ft high by 10 ft wide. A large piece of sheet metal about 4 ft in size has been propped up to partially cover the opening. About 6 ft into the adit the tunnel splits into two separate inclined tunnels which continue down for at least another 65 ft. Some crude timber supports made of unmilled wood posts are visible inside the right hand tunnel. The left side of the portal is shored up by a dry-laid wall of crude masonry. The wall is about 6 ft long and a maximum of 2 ft high. It is made of unshaped, roughly coursed, dry-laid stone. Directly to the south and down hill from the opening is a waste pile that measures about 32 ft by 65 ft in size. At the mouth of the portal is a scatter of milled lumber, including some boards still in place from some sort of a small rectangular enclosed feature. About 10 m above the tagged opening is a small untagged prospect. It measures about 12 ft by 12 ft in size and is about 2 ½ ft deep. Two small rock alignments of dry-laid masonry occur between the two openings. One is an L-shaped feature about 4 ½ ft on each side and about 3 ft high. Below this L-shaped wall is a second small dry-laid masonry retaining wall about 6 ½ ft long and 3 ft high. To the east of the inclined adit was the remains of some railroad ties denoting where a trackway had been. Artifacts at the site consist of wire nails, milled timbers, a metal ring, a badly rusted metal frying pan, and a fragment of a single glass bottle. Features: Prospect, adit, rock walls, waste dumps National Register Assessment: Eligible Site Number: 42TO2184 Mine Name(s): Unknown State Tag Numbers: 3050415HC001 Map Reference: Ophir, Utah Quadrangle 7.5’ Series Topographic, 1980 Assessment Category: 2 Setting: The site is located on the east side of Dry Canyon. The mine lies in a drainage while the structures lie just to the northwest. Site Description: The site consists of a single mine opening associated with the remains of at least two structures - a dugout and a collapsed wooden structure - as well as a concrete water tank, and other smaller features. The single opening, 3050415HC001, consists of a collapsed horizontal opening which now measures about 15 ft long by 7 ft wide and about 2 ft deep. The nearby waste dump measures about 15 ft by 20 ft. There are no artifacts immediately associated with the collapsed opening. The structural features are situated in the northwestern part of the site, and appear to represent habitation structures and are associated with a light scatter of domestic refuse. The two structures include the remains of a collapsed wood frame structure and a dugout. The frame structure measures about 15 ft by 30 ft in size, and is constructed of milled timber walls formerly situated on a coarse stone foundation. The walls have fallen over, but are still partially intact on the ground. The dugout structure measures approximately 12 ft wide and 15 ft long. The feature was excavated into the hill slope and still retains some stacked masonry walls standing to a height of about 5 ft. Artifacts found in the area of the structures include bottle glass, nails, window glass, bedsprings, shingles, and rusted cans from food products. On the slope above the structures is a square concrete unroofed water tank measuring ca. 10.5 by 10.5 ft and 6 ft deep. Nearby are two 4x4” 52

posts approximately 5 ft long, one 2 by12” wooden plank broken into two pieces, and a long metal cable on the ground. On the slope below the water tank is a flattened terrace area ca. 60 by 12 ft. To the south of the water tank, near the mine, is a skid trail that stretches from a drainage above the water tank, down to near the mine, for about 180 ft. It is 8 ft wide. Features: Adit, building, dugout structure, waste dump National Register Assessment: Eligible. Site Number: 42TO2185 Mine Name(s): Unknown State Tag Numbers: 3050422HO004, 3050422HO005 Map Reference: Stockton, Utah Quadrangle 7.5’ Series Topographic, 1980 Assessment Category: 2 Setting: The site is located on the north side of Dry Canyon. Site Description: The site consists of three mine openings and the remains of two small structures. The openings consist of two horizontal adits excavated into stable rock outcrops. The first opening, 3050422HO004, measures approximately 7 ft by 5 ft. A metal door frame has been cemented into the portal, but the door is missing. The tunnel goes back at least 50 ft. Some air duct pipes are present suspended from the ceiling above the door. A large waste dump about 120 by 120 ft in size occurs outside the opening and spills down slope towards the bottom of the canyon. The second opening, 3050422HO005 is located to the east and consists of a shallow tunnel that is only about 8 ft deep. The portal measures 5 ft by 5 ft in size and is excavated into a rock outcrop. Inside the opening are the remains of a small wooden platform or table. A third, untagged opening designated as Feature 3 is situated about 50 m to the SE of the second opening, where the access road for these two openings intersects the dirt road in the bottom of the canyon. This opening is rather informal and measures about 3 ft diameter, and goes back into the hillslope 10-15 ft. The remains of three structures are present at the site. Two appear to have been constructed of corrugated tin over a wood frame. The first, Feature 1, is located on the east side of the large waste pile outside of 3050422HO004. It is completely collapsed, but appears to have been about 25 ft wide and 20 ft long. The second structure, Feature 2, is located southeast of the access road to the site. It is the remains of a small dugout that also appears to have been covered with a superstructure of milled lumber and corrugated tin. Artifacts associated with this feature include hole-in-top cans, five gallon cans and stove parts. Across the road to the north of the dugout is a large rock pile, and to the north of that is Feature 3, which is a small rock-lined structure cut into the hillside that may be a powder magazine. There is also a segment of the old canyon road and an associated rock retaining wall, and two platform areas, as well as two old dozer roads in the north canyon wall. Scattered across the site are a relativley small number of artifacts, consisting of metal pipe fragments, metal drums, sanitary cans, ammunition casings, and miscellaneous wood and metal fragments. Features: Adits, building, dugout structure, waste dump National Register Assessment: Eligible.

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Site Number: 42TO2186 Mine Name(s): Unknown State Tag Numbers: 3050421HO003, 3050421VO004 Map Reference: Ophir, Utah Quadrangle 7.5’ Series Topographic, 1980 Assessment Category: 1 Setting: The site is located on the steep lower west face of Dry Mountain. Site Description: The site is a very small, inconspicuous property consisting of a single horizontal and a single vertical opening that originate at a common portal. Other than a small dry-laid masonry wall just outside the portal, there were no other associated features. The single artifact noted on the site appears to be a fragment of a metal barrel hoop. Opening 3050421VO004 measures approximately 4 ft by 6 ft in size, and has a framework of large log timbers at ground level. The open vertical shaft is situated directly in front of 3050421HO003, which extends into the hillside behind the opening. The portal for the horizontal tunnel measures about 6 ft by 5 ft in size. A small waste pile about 20 ft by 30 ft in size is located just to the west of the openings. Features: Adit, shaft, waste dumps National Register Assessment: Not Eligible. Site Number: 42TO2187 Mine Name(s): Unknown State Tag Numbers: 3050421VO001 Map Reference: Ophir, Utah Quadrangle 7.5’ Series Topographic, 1980 Assessment Category: 2 Setting: The site is located near the western base of Dry Mountain, where the topography starts getting less steep. Site Description: The site is comprised of a deep vertical mine shaft with an associated scatter of tin cans. The single vertical opening, 3050421VO001, is located near the center of the site. It is flanked on the west side by a pronounced waste pile of light colored material measuring about 60 ft by 30 ft in size. The opening to the shaft measures 15 ft by 20 ft in size and has been enclosed by a chain link fence for safety. The depth of the shaft is unknown, but it could be 100+ ft. A small flat area designated as Feature 1 is located in a small drainage bottom northeast of the shaft. It measures 12 by 4 ft in size, and is associated with some small metal fragments, a brown bottle top, a hole-in-top can fragment, white ceramic fragments, purple glass and a barrel hoop. Slope wash is covering the uphill portion. Feature 2 is a possible collapsed, rock-lined, U-shaped feature south of the shaft, with a 3-sided rectangular alignment of rocks visible, but no associated artifacts. This is about 6 by 4 ft in size. This was probably a powder magazine. Feature 3 is an excavated terrace on the east (upslope) edge of the shaft, measuring 30 by 25 ft and 5-8 feet deep. It probably was a staging area for the mine work. A small number of cans and glass fragments are found surrounding the opening and the waste pile and continuing s short distance into the drainage, but the majority of the associated artifacts occur as a distinct concentration occurring as single 54

trash scatter to the northeast of the opening, just off to the side of the waste pile. Artifacts consist of 50-60 hole-in-top cans and post-and-cap cans, wire, glass fragments, ceramic fragments, and wire nails. Crossdating of the evaporated milk cans found at the site suggest a use date ca. 1900-1910. Ceramics consist of small fragments of decal decorated whitewares. Features: Adit, waste dump National Register Assessment: Eligible Site Number: 42TO2188 Mine Name(s): Nyanza, Lakes of Killarny, State Tag Numbers: 3050421HC001, 3050421HO001, 3050421HO002, 3050421VC001, 3050421VC002, 3050421VO002, 3050421VO003 Map Reference: Ophir, Utah Quadrangle 7.5’ Series Topographic, 1980 Assessment Category: 3 Setting: The site is at the southwestern base of Dry Mountain, where the topography starts getting less steep. Site Description: The site consists of a rather complex system of mine openings, prospects, access roads, and associated mining structures. The site includes seven tagged openings that appear on the AMRP inventory, and 12 additional prospects or collapsed horizontal openings that are not tagged. Four identifiable structures are present on the site. The first is a collapsed wood frame building with a corrugated tin roof located adjacent to 3050421HO002. The structure appears to be the remains of a mine related plant of some kind. The building probably originally measured about 10 ft by 16 ft in size with a partial stone foundation. The walls were formed of milled wood framing covered with both vertical and horizontal plank siding. The exterior walls may have originally stood about 12 ft high, but are now almost totally collapsed. The roof was a simple gable type of framed construction covered with corrugated tin. The interior of the structure exhibits several concrete foundations that appear to have supported equipment. A large galvanized metal tank is still in place at the rear of the building. The second structure is a large ore bin and load out structure located near 3050421HC001. It measures 12 ft by 12 square and stands about 30 ft high. It is mounted on 8 large upright posts and is constructed of 6 in by 12 in milled lumber. The top of the ore bin was serviced by an ore cart track that connects to the nearby mine opening, and which allowed ore to be brought to the structure in narrow gauge ore carts. The final two structures consist only of foundations located to the northeast of the ore bin. One is indicated by an L-shaped rock alignment 12 ft by 12 ft in size. The second is marked by a 20 ft long alignment of foundation stones and the remnants of a framed wall. Artifacts are generally sparse over most of the site, although some are concentrated around the first structure, and include, nails, brick fragments, glass fragments, some cans and mechanical debris. Opening 3050421HC001 is a large depression left from the collapse of a horizontal opening. It measures 70 ft by 50 ft in size and close to 40 ft deep. Closely associated are a large waste pile and the ore bin and loadout feature discussed above. Adit 3050421HO001 is a 4 by 2 ft hole cut into the hill slope facing the southwest. The opening was originally larger but has since filled in from collapse. Leading to the opening is a 15 by 15 ft cut into the hillside. This opening is located in the side of a drainage, and an associated waste dump extends 40’ into that drainage. Artifacts scattered around the opening include a couple of sanitary cans and small scraps of metal that are in the waste dump. Opening 3050421HO002 is a horizontal 55

opening measuring 12 ft by 10 ft set into unstable and badly eroding sediments in the hillside. The tunnel is partially caved in, but has a depth of about 7 ft. A waste pile extends southwest of the opening for approximately 65 ft to the current dirt road which cuts through the middle of the site and has bisected the waste from this opening. Two closed vertical openings are present on the site, and include 3050421VC001, which measures approximately 30 ft by 20 ft and is about 12 ft deep and is associated with a small 6 ½ ft by 12 ft waste pile, and 3050421VC002, which 20 ft by 12 ft in size and 7 ft deep. To the west of this second opening is a short retaining wall of dry-laid, unshaped masonry measuring about 8 ft long and 3 ft high. A small 12 ft diameter waste pile is also associated with the opening. A single open vertical shaft is present on the site. This opening, 3050421VO003, is somewhat elongated in shape and measures 10 ft by 6 ½ ft in size, tapering slightly to the south. There is still a wood ladder in place going down into the opening. Two shallow collapsed horizontal adits are also present. One measures 50 ft long 16 ft wide and about 5 ft deep, while the second measures 33 ft long 10 ft wide and 3 ft deep. Ten unnumbered prospects dot the hill slope between the openings and structures on the upper east end of the site and the ore bin at the west end. These small prospects are mostly shallow, pit shaped depressions from 5 to 30 ft in diameter and usually less than 4-5 ft deep. Features: Shafts, adits, prospects, loading chute, building, ore bin National Register Assessment: Eligible. Site Number: 42TO2189 Mine Name(s): Unknown State Tag Numbers: 3050422HO001, 3050422HO002 Map Reference: Ophir, Utah Quadrangle 7.5’ Series Topographic, 1980 Assessment Category: 2 Setting: The site is located at the southwestern base of Dry Mountain, where the topography starts getting less steep. Site Description: The site is the remains of a small mining complex consisting of three openings, two mine openings and the third a probable powder magazine, as well as a foundation from one small structure. The main opening is a horizontal adit which opens onto a well maintained dirt road giving access to the valley below. Opening 3050421HO001 is an open and stable adit excavated into a southwest facing slope. The portal of the tunnel measures 8 ft high and 7 ft wide and retains a timber framed entryway. The timbering at the portal measures 15 ft long by 6 wide and 6 ft high and is built of 2 by 7 in and 2 by 9 in milled lumber combined with 7 by 7 in square posts. The framing around the entryway has been partially torn apart and the upper roof portion is missing. A large conical waste pile is located on the west side of the access road opposite the opening. It measures about 150 ft by 70 ft. A second opening is located about 40 m to the south of the first opening. This small adit (3050421HO002) is not quite as large or substantial as the first opening. It measures 8 ft by 7 ft in size and is excavated into a rocky outcrop. It goes back only about 8 ft where the opening ends and there is a wooden platform constructed of milled lumber utilizing 2 by 4 in wood for legs and 2 by 9 in planks for the balance. This platform measures 6 ft long by 4 ft wide and 3 ft high. The opening clearly was most likely used for storage, possibly as a powder magazine. A third, unnumbered opening is located on the steep hillslope above the main mine opening. It is an inclined opening that is partially collapsed, and measures ca. 3 by 6 ft and 3 ft deep. A small pile of waste is in front of it, and going down the slope to the road. Associated wiith it are 5 scraps of milled lumber. A large 56

quantity of modern trash is scattered about the site, nearly obliterating the few historic artifacts present. The historic artifacts present include some glass fragments, wire nails probably originally associated with construction at the mine, and a few post-and-cap cans. A single concrete slab foundation measuring 12 ft wide and 20 ft long is located just outside the main mine. Anchor bolts ringing the perimeter of the slab suggest that it may have once supported a wood frame superstructure. Features: Adits, foundation, waste dumps National Register Assessment: Eligible. Site Number: 42TO2190 Mine Name(s): Ophir Mine State Tag Numbers: 3050428HC002, 3050428HC003, 3050428HO001, 3050428HO002, 3050428HO003, 3050428VC001 Map Reference: Ophir, Utah Quadrangle 7.5’ Series Topographic, 1980 Assessment Category: 1 Setting: The site is on a north-northwest facing slope on the south side of Ophir Canyon, and on the south side of the highway. Site Description: The site consists of a cluster of relatively modest openings located on the south side of Ophir Canyon. The site contains six tagged openings, half of which are closed and mostly obliterated, and two untagged openings. Other than a few crude access roads, there are no other features present at the site and there are very few associated artifacts. Opening 3050428HC002 has completely collapsed leaving no real visible opening. The remains of the feature consist of a shallow trench about 16 ft long and 6 to 8 feet deep. 3050428HC003 has also collapsed nearly completely, leaving a small collapsed opening at the east end of a sloping 15 ft by 20 ft face up about 6 ft deep at the shallow end and deepening to about 15 ft deep on the uphill side. The first of three open horizontal adits on the site, 3050428HO001, has a portal measuring 6 ft high and 4 ft wide. Intact narrow gauge ore cart tracks run into the opening. A 20 ft deep vertical shaft is located immediately in front of the opening. A waste dump about 60 by 80 ft in size is located in front of the opening. The second horizontal opening, 3050428HO002, currently measures about 8 ft by 8 ft at the existing opening. A large vertical opening occurs in front of the current opening, and appears to have resulted from collapse of the first 20-25 ft of the tunnel. 3050428HO003 is a small, mostly collapsed opening measuring about 6 ft wide and only 1½ ft high. A single closed vertical opening, 3050428VC001, is listed on the AMRP inventory for this site. It consists of the remains of a collapsed vertical shaft. The existing opening measures about 20 ft deep on the uphill side, and 7 ft deep on the downhill side and is about 15 ft across. A 30 ft by 20 ft waste pile is located on the west side of the opening. Two partially collapsed shallow untagged horizontal openings occur on the hill slope above 3050428HO003. Artifacts on the site are quite sparse, consisting only of scattered milled lumber fragments, scrap metal, barbed wire, brick fragments, wire nails, two tin cans, a metal drum, an insulator fragment, sheet metal fragments, and the remains of a duct of some kind for carrying air or water which consists of remains of a wood frame and metal piping located below 3050428HC002. Features: Adits, shaft, waste dumps National Register Assessment: Not Eligible.

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Site Number: 42TO2191 Mine Name(s): Unknown State Tag Numbers: 3050427VC002 Map Reference: Ophir, Utah Quadrangle 7.5’ Series Topographic, 1980 Assessment Category: 2 Setting: The site is not far inside and on the north side of Ophir Canyon, just north of the highway. Site Description: The site consists of the remains of a possible habitation site. The feature (Feature 1) on this site that was given a tag number as a possible vertical mine shaft (3050427VC002) may actually be a dugout, or possibly an outhouse or small storage building. It has partially intact milled wood walls. The opening appears as a shallow slight linear depression with a horseshoe shaped collar of fill on three sides. At the deepest point it is 3’ deep. The framed opening appears to have been about 8x6’, the wood wall bracing is still intact on the west and north sides and collapsed everywhere else. The wall bracing has 2 upright corner posts (3 1/2 x 3 1/2 “) of milled lumber and planking of 1” thick milled wood ranging from 5-11” wide assembled using wire nails. Associated artifacts are metal fragments,9” notched post with attached wire, and wire nails. Feature 2 is a short rock-lined wall in a U-shape and about 3 by 3 ft, and at least 2 ft high. It is about 12 by 6 ft, 4 ft deep, and has the appearance of an adit, although there is not waste material around so we think it is more likely a dugout or storage building. An 8 ft. tongue and groove plank is stuck into the rock wall. Otherwise the feature is caved in. Feature 3 is a possible structural foundation, consisting of 15 ft long 4 by 8 in timbers and 7 ft long 4 by 8 in and 2 by 4 in board nailed to it. Associated debris includes other miscellaneous boards, tin cans, metal, asphalt shingles, a purple glass bottle top, and a few bricks. Feature 4 is a 9 ft diameter, 3 ft deep depression at the eastern end of the site, associated with some tin cans. Feature 5 is a wood post/stump alignment along with two vertical standing posts in a 12 by 18 ft flattened area at the western side of the site. There are wood planks on the ground and a few metal fragments. This looks like it might have been a corral or other fenced feature. The site is located next to an old road which is probably the original Ophir road. Artifacts across the site area are sparse, but include some short wire fragments, and some badly rusted sheet metal fragments, some badly deteriorating and crushed tin cans, one metal strap 1 1/2 x 1/8 x25”, several short pieces of barbed wire, bricks, and a bedspring, glass, asphalt shingles, along with various pieces of wood. Features: Dugout, buildings, possible adit National Register Assessment: Eligible. Site Number: 42TO2192 Mine Name(s): The Old Sweetwater State Tag Numbers: 3050426HC014, 3050426HC015, 3050427IO001, 3050427VC0016, 3050426VO018, 3050426VO019 Map Reference: Stockton, Utah Quadrangle 7.5’ Series Topographic, 1980 Assessment Category: 1 58

Setting: The site is located quite high up on the south side of a very steep mountain ridge overlooking Ophir Canyon. Site Description: The site is located in a very high, steeply sloped area above Ophir Canyon. The mining features consist of six openings, most of which have collapsed and are mostly closed. Associated with the openings is what appears to be the remains of a structural location, probably a small frame cabin, but very little is left of the feature. Two very small fully collapsed horizontal openings are present on the site. The first, 3050426HC014, is so fully filled in as to almost appear as a natural depression. It appears as a long shallow depression measuring 10 ft long and 6 ft wide. The second opening, 3050426HC015, is also a linear depression measuring approximately 10 ft by 6 ft. A small waste pile is present to the south of the depression. A single partially intact inclined opening is also located on the site. It consists of a 6 ft by 5 ft 8 in opening on a steep west facing slope. A small 25 ft diameter waste pile is located adjacent to the opening. 3050427VC0016 consists of a fully closed vertical shaft at the base of a rocky slope below a 6 ft ledge of stone. Nothing remains of the shaft except a shallow depression. Two open vertical shafts are present on the site. Both appear as slightly inclined openings. Opening 3050426VO018 measures about 6 ft by 8 ft in size and is partially covered by several large wooden posts and planks. These do not appear to be support timbers, but rather expedient closures. A small waste pile flanks the opening downhill to the west. The second vertical opening measures 5 ft by 4 ft in size. A possible structural location is indicated at the lower end of the site by a small oval shaped level area measuring about 6 m by 4.5 m. The southwest edge of the leveled area is built up and supported by a small alignment of stacked stones. The leveled area is littered with several scraps of milled lumber consisting mostly of 2 x 4 boards and 1 in thick planks. Major portions of a cast iron stove were noted down slope from the feature. Artifacts are quite spares, but consist of one tin can fragment, and 8-10 small domed metal disks perforated at the center by a thin nail which appear to be for holding tar paper to the exterior of the structure. The feature is consistent with the remains of a small frame cabin, although there is little left of the building to confirm that. Features: Adits, shafts, terrace, waste dumps National Register Assessment: Not Eligible. Site Number: 42TO2193 Mine Name(s): Unknown State Tag Numbers: 3050424HO001 Map Reference: Mercur, Utah Quadrangle 7.5’ Series Topographic, 1968 Assessment Category: 2 Setting: The site is located in a side canyon of Ophir Canyon on the northeast facing slope of a ridge. Site Description: The site consists of one mine opening and the remains of two associated structures. The opening, 3050424HO001, is the remains of a horizontal adit which has partially collapsed. The opening currently measures about 3 ft by 3 ft and extends back into the hill slope about 15 ft, although given the size of the waste pile it clearly went in for some considerable distance. Some timber and lumber supports are present at the portal. The waste dump in front of the mine is about 25’ by 50’ at the top but spreading outward to about 100’ by 40’ in size. The two large, connected and collapsed structures are at the bottom of the waste dump. These each measure ca. 28’ by 20’ in size but were probably connected by a walled area, making the two combined structures a total of 65’ by 20’ in size. They were made of milled and unmilled 59

lumber. These structures appear to possibly have been part of the mining plant as two large concrete pillons are situated inside, and the possible remains of one or two more are also present. The connected structures are constructed into a terrace that is 6’ deep on the uphill southwest side, below the waste dump. Timbers were used for walls, planks for the roof, and tar paper was found on the roof. The walls and roof, however, have now collapsed, much of it to the northeast and now partially covered by vegetation. Portions of the floor boards are present, consisting of 2” by 8” planks on top of 2” by 4” flooring. The two structures are orientd in a northwest to southeast direction, with doorways evident in those two sides, and a door and windows at least evident in the downslope northeast wall of the western structure (may have been in the northeast wall of the other structure as well, but that wall has totally collapsed). The two large concrete pillons are in the southeast wall of the western structure, and the northwest wall of the eastern structure, respectively, and associated with piping. We infer there was some machinery held up by these pillons and that the space between the two buildings where the machinery was situated, was at least partially walled in as well, making the two structures appear as one long structure. The wall logs on the structurs were connected by square notching, and various roof and floor boards are found with round head cut nails and threaded bolts. There are also bolted iron rods, sheet metal flasking for stove pipes, pieces of stove pipe, insulators, 2” and 3” diameter pipe, and some square head nails. Other than these structure-related materials there are very few artifacts associated with the site, consisting of a single clear glass bottle base fragment, cut round and square head nails, a barrel ring, and other assorted small miscellaneous metal fragments. Features: Adit, building, waste dumps National Register Assessment: Eligible. Site Number: 42TO2194 Mine Name(s): Buffalo State Tag Numbers: 3050425VC014, 3050425HO041 Map Reference: Mercur, Utah Quadrangle 7.5’ Series Topographic, 1968 Assessment Category: 3 Setting: The site is situated in a very steep side canyon to the south of Ophir Canyon. Site Description: The site consists of a relatively well preserved assemblage of two mine openings and associated features, including ore car tracks, buildings and a large waste dump. The site is perhaps one of the better examples of mining features in the Ophir project area. The site covers an area about 130 m by 115 m in size, situated on a slope above a small drainage. The openings include an open horizontal shaft and a closed vertical shaft. The horizontal shaft (3050425HO041) has a portal measuring 6 ft by 6 ½ ft in size which is covered with timbered enclosure. The portal is covered with a wood enclosure constructed of 8 in square posts supporting 3 in thick planks which form the walls and roof. An intact set of ore cart tracks runs out of the mine and onto the nearby waste pile. A waterline also runs out of the opening. The second opening, 3050425VC014, has completely collapsed, and now consists only of a shallow depression filled with rocky debris and some timbers. The feature measures about 4 ft by 4 ft in size. Associated with the two openings are two structures. The first is a frame structure made of milled lumber with a simple gabled roof. The structure measures 14 ft by 12 ft and could be the remains of a bunk house or other habitation structure. The second building appears to be more recent and consists of a metal shed. The structure measures 15 ft by 28 ft in size, and is constructed with corrugated metal sheeting on a milled 60

lumber frame. Ore cart tracks run into the structure, which is also equipped with other types of equipment. The waste dump is large and shows three levels, the upper most level being held in place on the south and east sides by railroad tie walls. The bottom most level is clearly old, being partially overgrown, while the upper two levels suggest more continuous mining effort but are split by a bulldozer cut. Artifacts at the site are relatively limited, consisting of scrap metal, nuts, bolts and nails, a few tin cans, wire, and milled lumber fragments. Much of the debris at the site appears to be more recent, and is probably modern rather than historic. Features: Shaft, adit, bunk house, shed, railroad bed, waste dumps National Register Assessment: Eligible. Site Number: 42TO2195 Mine Name(s): Wachusett, Key Stone, Chloride Point State Tag Numbers: 3050425HC018, 3050425HC019, 3050425HC020, 3050425HC021, 3050425HC022, 3050425HC023, 3050425HC024, 3050425HC025, 3050425HC026, 3050425HC027, 3050425HC028, 3050425HC029, 3050425HC030, 3050425HC031, 3050425HC032, 3050425HC033, 3050425HC034, 3050425HC035, 3050425HC036, 3050425HO025, 3050425HO026, 3050425HO027, 3050425HO028, 3050425HO029, 3050425HO030, 3050425HO031, 3050425HO032, 3050425HO033, 3050425HO034, 3050425HO035, 3050425HO036, 3050425HO037, 3050425HO038, 3050425HO039, 3050425HO046, 3050425P001A, 3050425P002, 3050425P003, 3050425P004, 3050425VC011, 3050425VC012, 3050425VO008, 3050425VO009, 3050425VO010, 3050425VO011 Map Reference: Mercur, Utah Quadrangle 7.5’ Series Topographic, 1968 Assessment Category: 3 Setting: The site is located on the top and southern slopes of Silveropolis Hill, on the slope overlooking Silverado Canyon. Site Description: This site designation has been assigned to a large cluster of mining related features located on Silveropolis Hill, and the slopes of Silverado Canyon. Although many of the features included in the site have some distinction as separate named mines during the historic period (Chloride Point, Key Stone, Wachusett), the close proximity of the numerous openings and the density of cultural materials argued for a relatively broad site definition that takes in a large area of several mines under a single archaeological site number. There are several main roads that access these mines, and several additional poorly defined, overgrown road cuts throughout the site area. The mine features at the site include 16 horizontal open openings, 19 horizontal closed openings, 4 vertical open openings, 2 vertical closed openings, and four pits (Table 5). In addition to the mine openings, there are 6 structural features at the site. Feature 1 is a collapsed wood frame building closely associated with 3050425HO033. It is constructed of 1x6 in planks over a wood frame superstructure and measures about 15 ft square. Feature 2 is located about 6 m west of 3050425HO029. It consists of the remains of a collapsed wood frame structure which appears to have measured about 15 ft by 15 ft in size. Feature 3 is a small partially collapsed wood frame structure measuring 10 ft by 10 ft in size. The building consists of a wood frame superstructure covered with milled planks of mixed sizes. Feature 4 is a leveled area and pile of wood debris that probably also represents a collapsed structure. The flattened area is located on the slope just above a massive waste pile measuring approximately 60 by 300 ft in size. The flattened area measures about 15 ft by 15 ft in size and is associated with a large pile of milled planks, metal fragments, nails, and wire. Feature 5 is the possible 61

Table 5. Summary of Openings at 42TO2195
Opening Number 3050425HC018 3050425HC019 3050425HC020 3050425HC021 3050425HC022 3050425HC023 3050425HC024 3050425HC025 3050425HC026 3050425HC027 3050425HC028 3050425HC029 3050425HC030 3050425HC031 3050425HC032 3050425HC033 3050425HC034 3050425HC035 3050425HC036 3050425HO025 3050425HO026 3050425HO027 3050425HO028 3050425HO029 3050425HO030 3050425HO031 3050425HO032 Description Size LxWxD 7x8 ft 3x3x6 ft 7x7x10 ft 5x6x5 ft 40x20x10 ft 4x8 ft 6x6x6 ft 10x7 ft 16x16x16 ft 30x13x10 ft 7x2 ft 5x3 ft 33x66 ft 7x7x7 ft 26x30x13 ft 13x10 ft 16x26 ft 7x3 ft 3x3x66 ft 8x6x10 ft 3x3x66 ft 3x1 ft 8x5 ft 20fx20x50 ft 7x4x165 ft Waste pile 15x40 ft 15x10 ft 33x26 ft 33x132 ft 15x20 ft 10 ft in diameter 20x20 ft 15x29 ft 15 ft in diameter 73x100 ft 33x20 ft 33x33 ft 50x100 ft Completely collapsed horizontal opening Partially open horizontal closed opening Opening is oval in shape, partially collapsed Partially collapsed horizontal opening Partially collapsed horizontal opening No opening Partially collapsed horizontal opening Horizontal opening is completely closed Partially collapsed horizontal opening Partially collapsed horizontal opening Partially collapsed horizontal opening Partially collapsed horizontal opening Partially collapsed horizontal opening Completely collapsed horizontal opening Horizontal opening is completely collapsed Partially collapsed horizontal opening Partially collapsed horizontal opening Horizontal opening is completely collapsed Partially collapsed Horizontal opening Horizontal opening is mostly collapsed Horizontal Opening is completely open Horizontal opening is completely open Horizontal opening is completely open Horizontal opening is completely open Horizontal opening partially filled with talus Horizontal opening is completely open Horizontal opening is completely open Horizontal opening is completely collapsed, framed by a 3050425HO033 wooden structure 3050425HO034 3050425HO035 3050425HO036 3050425HO037 3050425HO038 3050425HO039 3050425HO046 3050425VC011 3050425VC012 3050425VO008 3050425VO009 3050425VO010 Complex vertical and horizontal opening are completely open Associated Artifacts Yes No No No No Yes No No Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes No 10x10 ft 50ft horizontal depth 33ft vertical opening 4x4x70 ft 25x8x26 ft 4x2 ft 7x4 ft 4x2 ft 10x10 ft 10x5 ft 26x20 ft 13x10x10 ft 12x8 ft 10x10x50 ft 5x5x33 ft 20x20x8 ft 20x8x7 ft 10x6x6 ft 8x4x4 ft 66x50 ft 165x66 ft 165x70 ft 50x132 ft 50x132 ft 30x25 ft 30x40 ft 40x40 ft 33x45 ft 66x132 ft 20x15 ft 26x26 ft 23x26 ft 30x15 ft 30x15 ft 9x13 ft 20x3 ft Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No No Yes No No No No No Yes No

30x26 ft 26x26 ft 118x66 ft 83x 115 ft 66x132 ft 40x30 ft 33x33 ft 40x60 ft 40x40 ft 150x100 ft 165x33 ft

Horizontal opening is completely open Horizontal opening is completely open Horizontal opening is partially collapsed Horizontal opening, partially collapsed Horizontal opening is partially collapsed by rock debris Horizontal opening, depth is unknown. Completely open Vertical opening is completely collapsed Vertical opening is completely collapsed Vertical opening is partially collapsed Vertical opening slopes downward to another opening. Vertical opening is completely open Vertical opening is completely open, surrounded by 3050425VO011 prospects 3050425P01A Open prospect 3050425P002 Open trench feature 3050425P003 Collapsed prospect 3050425P004 Open prospect

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remains of a loading chute on a platform near the center of the very large waste dump. It measures about 15 ft by 15 ft and is constructed of milled lumber. Feature 6 is associated with 3050425HC023, and is a small pile of milled lumber with cut wire nails that also appears to be the remains of a collapsed structure. The debris is scattered over an area about 5 meters in size, but it is impossible to say anything more definite about the original size of the structure. One of the tagged openings, 3050425HC033 appears to have never functioned as a mine opening, but rather a small excavated opening in the hill slope that was probably used for powder storage. The excavated area measures about 6 ½ ft high and 6 ½ feet wide and about 6 to 7 ft deep. There are two timbers set in the back of the feature and additional lumber out in front. There is no waste pile associated with the feature. There are a relatively large number of artifacts associated with the site. They are broadly scattered and are present in small quantities in association with many of the openings. There was no identifiable trash dump or trash concentrations in association with any of the buildings. Artifacts include sanitary type cans, hole-in-top cans, hinged lid tobacco cans, wire, nails, coffee cans, glass container fragments, metal fragments, ceramic fragments, and various small fragments of sheet metal and mechanical parts. Some ore cart rails are present on the site, but the tracks have all been removed and are no longer intact. Features: Prospects, adits, shafts, building, loading chute, waste dumps National Register Assessment: Eligible. Site Number: 42TO2196 Mine Name(s): Little Pittsburg State Tag Numbers: 3050436HC001, 3050436HO001, 3050436HO002 Map Reference: Mercur, Utah Quadrangle 7.5’ Series Topographic, 1968 Assessment Category: 1 Setting: The site is located on the south side of Silverado Canyon below Rover Hill Site Description: The site consists of three horizontal openings situated on a very steep slope overlooking Silverado Canyon. Other than the openings and associated waste piles, there is little left at the site. Opening 3050436HO001 is a horizontal adit excavated into stable rock. The portal measures about 6 ½ ft high by 5 ft wide and about 65 feet deep. A set of intact ore cart tracks exit the tunnel and run out onto a large cone shaped waste pile that lies in front of the opening. The waste pile measures about 100 ft in maximum width and length, and covers a considerable area below the opening. The two other tagged horizontal openings at the site share a common portal. The openings 3050436HC001 and 3050436HO002, are located uphill to the north of the first opening, and are excavated into a rocky outcrop. The primary opening measures about 6 ½ ft by 6 ½ ft and opens up just inside the portal into two separate tunnels that go back at least 65 ft. A few milled timbers are associated with the openings, but no other artifacts. Other than a few milled timbers, and some isolated fragments of clear glass, a few nails, and some small metal fragments, there are no other artifacts at the site. Features: Adits, waste dumps National Register Assessment: Not Eligible.

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Site Number: 42TO2197 Mine Name(s): Unknown State Tag Numbers: 3050332VC002 Map Reference: Mercur, Utah Quadrangle 7.5’ Series Topographic, 1968 Assessment Category: 1 Setting: The site is located just above the drainage in the bottom of Meadow Canyon Site Description: The site is relatively modest, and consists only of a single collapsed vertical opening and an associated waste pile with a dry-laid masonry retaining wall. The opening, 3050332VC002, presently measures about 3 ft by 4 ft in size and no more than 3 ft deep, and is located at the bottom of a deep depression about 25 ft by 50 ft in size caused by collapse of the shaft. Two distinct areas of waste are present, one located to the southeast of the opening and a second to the west. The waste pile to the southeast is dominated by heavy clay-like sediments, and measures about 25 ft by 50 ft in size. The waste pile to the west of the opening is about 65 ft by 80 ft in size, and is much more rocky. A dry-laid masonry retaining wall is present at the base of the slope below the opening and at the north end of the waste pile. It is made of coarse, unshaped dry-laid stone, and may have originally been about 80 ft long. It supports the northwest corner of the waste pile and continues along the west edge of the flat area surrounding the shaft. Artifacts consist only of some metal pipe and a few very sparse fragments of clear plate glass. Features: Shaft, retaining wall, waste dumps National Register Assessment: Not Eligible. Site Number: 42TO2198 Mine Name(s): Geyser-Marion State Tag Numbers: 3060306HO009, 3060306HO010, 3060306VO004 Map Reference: Mercur, Utah Quadrangle 7.5’ Series Topographic, 1968 Assessment Category: 3 Setting: The site is located near the bottom of Mercur Canyon on the north side of the canyon near one of the modern open pit mines in the Barrick-Mercur operation Site Description: The site consists of two horizontal mine openings, and one vertical opening associated with a possible loading chute and a stone foundation. Artifacts are relatively scarce, and consist only of scattered scrap metal, limited debris from mining equipment, cable and some lumber fragments. Two parallel horizontal tunnels (306030HO010 and 306030HO009) run back into a rocky outcrop, where they intersect. Upslope behind the two horizontal tunnels is a partially collapsed vertical opening (3060306VO001), which may partially connect to the horizontal openings. The portals of both horizontal openings measure about 10 ft by 9 ft in size. An ore cart trackway still extends about 25 ft into the opening for 3060306HO009. At the back of both horizontal openings are concrete foundations which support loading chutes and the remains of a conveyor system. The vertical opening (3060306VO010) presently appears as a deep roughly oval shaped depression measuring about 75 ft by 50 ft in size and almost 25 ft deep. There appear to be two collapsed vertical shafts which may have connected with the horizontal shafts below. A short concrete retaining wall about 2 ft high and 10 in thick surrounds the opening on three 64

sides. A small wood loading chute is located just to the north of the horizontal openings. It measures about 9 ft by 8 ft in size, and is constructed of milled lumber. Located about 40 m south of the horizontal adits is a large stone foundation. The foundation measures 15 ft by 25 ft in size and is constructed of coarse, unshaped, dry-laid, blocky native stone. On the down slope side the foundation is approximately 5 ft high, but both sidewalls are considerably shorter, and there is no stone on the uphill side of the feature. Features: Adits, shaft, loading chute, stone foundation, waste dump National Register Assessment: Eligible. Site Number: 42TO2357 Mine Name(s): Unknown State Tag Numbers: 3050330VC001 Map Reference: Mercur, Utah Quadrangle 7.5’ Series Topographic, 1968 Assessment Category: 1 Setting: The site is located on the west slope of a high mountain ridge. Site Description: The site is a very small, inconspicuous property consisting of a single vertical opening - 3050330VC001 - which is situated near the top of a high ridge line, facing west. The opening has collapsed, leaving a hole 20 by 15 ft in size, and 10 ft deep. Next to it just to the south are two possible prospects or long cuts in the hill slope. A waste pile is located immediately west of the opening, and is actually cut a bit by the two-track road that comes into the site from the north. The waste pile is not large, only ca. 25 ft diameter and not high at all, suggesting that comparitively little waste was removed. On top of the waste pile is the remains of an A-frame with an attached pulley. A fragment of a white insulator probably from the nearby Mercur to Chloride Point Mine power line was found, as was a can handle Features: Adit, prospects, waste dump National Register Assessment: Not Eligible Site Number: 42TO2358 Mine Name(s): Unknown State Tag Numbers: 3050408HC001, 3050408VO001 Map Reference: Stockton, Utah Quadrangle 7.5’ Series Topographic, 1968 Assessment Category: 1 Setting: The site is located at the base of the Oquirrh Mountains, at the southeast end of Tooele Valley. Site Description: The site consists of two relatively isolated mine openings, situated near the base of the Oquirrh Mountains and about 50 meters apart from each other, with total site size of about 60 by 20 meters. These appear to be very limited use openings, one moreso than the other. Opening 3050408HC001 is in the northeastern part of the site, consists of a 15 by 20 ft depression 8 ft deep, on the west slope of the ridge. A 30x25 ft waste pile 6 ft high is on the west side of the depression. Opening 3050408VO001 is on the southwest part of the site, and consists of a large open vertical shaft measuring approximately 15 by 20 ft 65

in size at the opening but tapering rather rapidly to approximately 6 by 5 ft in size. The bottom of the shaft is not visible, but it goes down 50+ ft. The portal is flanked on the west side by a rather substantial spoil pile measuring ca. 45 by 60 ft. There are no artifacts associated with this site. Features: Shaft, adit, waste dumps National Register Assessment: Not Eligible Site Number: 42TO2359 Mine Name(s): Unknown State Tag Numbers: 3050421HC007, 3050421VO006, 3050421HC006 Map Reference: Stockton, Utah Quadrangle 7.5’ Series Topographic, 1968 Assessment Category: 1 Setting: The site is located on a southerly slope just outside and north of Dry Canyon. Site Description: This site is a small cluster of mines located on a generally south-facing slope north of the mouth of Dry Canyon. The site includes three small openings scattered over a ca. 90 by 60 meter area. 3050421HC007 is a very small horizontal opening remaining from a adit that is in a drainage bottom. It is next to and on the north side of a maintained road that comes up from the southeast and makes a sharp turn, at the location of the opening, back to the southwest. The portal measures 90 cm by 4 ft wide and only goes back 8 1/2 ft the portal is framed by a shallow pit 26 ft by 20 ft in size. There are no associated artifacts and no apparent associated waste pile (probably destroyed by the road). 3050421VO006 is located just above the HC007 opening, and consists of an opening 3 by 6 ft. There is a small waste pile to the south side of the opening going down hill about 25 ft to the road. The shaft has a depth of 10-13 ft and then branches to the west sloping downward with an unknown depth. There is a possibility of an eastern shaft inside the opening but it has collapsed. No artifacts were found associated with this opening. 3050421HC006 is a shallow inclined trench left from the collapse of a horizontal adit. It measures about 33 ft by 10 ft and is no more than 75 cm deep. A relatively large conical waste pile is located immediately in front and down slope of the opening. The waste pile measures about 30 by 25 ft. The only associated artifacts with this opening were one fragment of milled lumber (possibly a claim stake), and a badly rusted steel canteen fragment with a threaded spout. Features: Adits, waste dumps National Register Assessment: Not Eligible Site Number: 42TO2360 Mine Name(s): Unknown State Tag Numbers: 3050421VC001, 3050421VO005, 3050421HC002, 3050421HC003, 3050421VC004, 3050421HC004 Map Reference: Stockton, Utah Quadrangle 7.5’ Series Topographic, 1968 Assessment Category: 1 Setting: The site is located on a westerly slope north of the mouth of Dry Canyon. 66

Site Description: The site consists of a small cluster of six relatively minor openings spread down a westerly sloping ridge slope, all apparent contemporaneous explorations of the potential of that location. Site size is ca. 130 by 40 meters. 3050421VC001 is a 8 by 7 ft opening cut into the hill slope, with a 15 by 10 ft cut in front of the opening. The opening only goes back a maximum of 20 ft and then ends. The opening is nearly filled in with rock and slump from above. There is a small 15 by 30 ft waste dump down the north side and another 15 by 20 ft dump down the northeast side. Associated artifacts include a couple of pieces of light green glass fragments. 3050421VO005 is a 10 by 8 ft vertical shaft opening going down 15ft. There is a large tree root in the bottom of the shaft. The waste pile is down hill on the northwest side that is 25 by 15 ft in size. There are 3 prospects above the mine opening. Associated artifacts include 1 metal spike and one can lid. 3050421HC002 is a 20 by 10 ft opening cut into the hill side and is 28 ft deep. The waste pile is 40 by 20 ft in size. A small prospect is found to the east of the opening and another is found to the south above the opening. There are no associated artifacts. 3050421HC003 is a 40 by 15 ft opening cut into the hill side and is 10 ft deep; one can barely see the horizontal aspect of the opening in the bottom. There is light waste on the down hill side. No artifacts are associated. 3050421VC004 is a 12 by 10 ft opening dropping vertically 8-10 ft. There is a small waste dump on the down hill side 10 by 10 ft in size, and a second larger 20 by 20 ft waste pile between this opening and the two next closest openings. Associated artifacts include one small glass fragment light green in color. 3050421HC004 is a 20 by 20 ft depression in the hill slope and is 6 ft deep. The waste pile is 10 by 10 ft and is located down the hill slope on the northwest side. Associated artifacts include one can lid (baking powder?). Features: Adits, shaft, prospects, waste dumps National Register Assessment: Not Eligible Site Number: 42TO2361 Mine Name(s): N/A State Tag Numbers: N/A Map Reference: Ophir Utah Quadrangle 7.5’ Series Topographic, 1968 Assessment Category: N/A Setting: The site is located about a mile into Ophir Canyon, near a major northeasterly turn in the canyon bottom. Site Description: This site is a small portion of what was probably an earlier, possibly the original, Ophir Canyon road which connected the Ophir mining region and the town of Ophir itself with the settlements and transportation facilities of Rush and Tooele valleys. This small portion shows up where a bend in the current road occurs, with the current road on the south side of Ophir Creek and the old road on the north side. The road segment is ca. 4 m wide and the recorded stretch is ca. 190 meters, although the eastern 60-70 m or so is more inferred than actually intact, because of erosion along the stream channel and overgrowth. The road consists of a gravel strip that is quickly being overgrown and covered by soils. It does not appear to have been very thick, perhaps 6 inches or so. It crossed Ophir Creek as evidenced by the remnants of a bridge. This is defined by pieces of concrete bridge support pillons or foundation blocks that are set into bottom of Ophir Creek, and fragments found down stream a little. That is, the road on the west side of the stream disappears into the eroded channel at the same location where these concrete blocks are, 67

and can be seen in profile in the opposite side of the stream bank on the east, but otherwise is overgrown or destroyed in the eastern portion. The site has a few sparse artifacts, mostly glass and more recent trash, scattered along it, but these are more likely associated with nearby site 42TO2191, a habitation site. Features: Road Bed National Register Assessment: Eligible Site Number: 42TO1772 (previously recorded) Mine Name(s): Lion Hill Mining Properties State Tag Numbers: 3050425VC009, 3050425VC010, 3050425HC038, 3050425HC039, 3050425HC040, 3050425HO042, 3050425HO043, 3050425HO044, 3050425HO045 Map Reference: Ophir Utah Quadrangle 7.5’ Series Topographic, 1968 Assessment Category: 3 Setting: These properties are located on the upper eastern and northeastern slope of Lion Hill, south of the town of Ophir. Site Description: This site was previously recorded for DOGM by Everett Bassett and includes a very large portion of the upper slopes and top of Lion Hill, with many mining facilities contained within the site. For the current project, we found that nine additional openings were within or very close to the site boundaries for the that site, and here we include them as part of that site. 3050425VC009 is a vertical opening measuring approximately 10 by 16 ft with a depth of 3 ft. There is a tin can at the bottom of the opening. The waste pile is small and surrounds the vertical opening. The waste pile extends 10 ft to the northeast. 3050425VC010 is a 20 ft diameter hole ranging from 5-15 ft deep. There is a 100 ft long and 10 ft wide trench on the east side. The waste pile is 30 by 15 ft and is on the east side of the trench. 3050425HC038 is a collapsed opening. At the widest point of what remains, the opening is 8 by 3 ft and is 5 ft deep. The waste dump for the opening is down the slope from the opening facing the northeast and is 200 by 200 ft in size. The dump pile is cut through by the road. There is a small powder storage structure 15 ft to the east of the opening. There is a small retaining wall to the right of the opening, 4 by1 ft in dimension and partially overgrown and is being covered by slope wash. There are the remains of a small structure on a steep slope near the two-track road, 150 ft south of the opening. Only two wall sections remain. The northern wall consists of an 8 in post on one end and a 9 ft long wall composed of several courses of dry-laid blocky limestone rocks stacked 3 ft high. The southern wall is 5 ft to the south and is about 4 ft high and 4 ft long. Several building stones from the northern wall that have fallen are lying on the slope. Artifacts associated with this opening include scrap metal, 1 piece of track, 1 four inch diameter metal ring, milled lumber, and wire nails. 3050425HC039 is a completely closed category opening. There are no associated artifacts. The waste pile is 65 by 131 ft in size. 3050425HC040 is a 10 by 15 ft gouge about 9 ft deep on the west end, on an east facing mountain slope. A 20 by 50 ft waste pile is on the slope 50 ft east of the adit. Some scrap metal is present. 3050425HO042 is a horizontal opening. The portal is approximately 3 by 2 ft. The waste dump is situated northeast of the opening and is approximately 25 by 35 ft in size. Two metal spikes were found in association. 3050425HO043 is a partially collapsed horizontal opening. The entrance measures 3 by 3 ft and is circular. There is a slight incline inside of the opening. The waste pile measures approximately 15 by 25 ft. 3050425HO044 is a horizontal opening. The portal is approximately 6 by 3 ft. The waste 68

dump is situated to the north of the opening and is approximately 15 by 2 ft in size. 3050425HO045 is a horizontal opening. The entrance measures approximately 5 by 5 ft. The entrance is facing the northeast. The waste pile is approximately 15 by 35 ft. There are 12 pieces of 6 by 4” or 1 by 9” lumber associated with the opening, and some wire cut nails. Features: Adits, shafts, waste piles National Register Assessment: Eligible Isolated Feature Descriptions Temp Site No. : IF-1 AMR Site No. : 3050428HC001 USGS Quad: Ophir Northing (m): 4467686 Easting (m): 390155 Narrative Description: Small opening, 10 by 4 ft maximum and 10 ft deep, located on the northeast facing slope . Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-2 AMR Site No. : 3050427VC001 USGS Quad: Ophir Northing (m): 4468159 Easting (m): 392208 Narrative Description: Collapsed vertical opening measuring approximately 8 by10 ft and reaching 10 ft deep. No waste pile or vehicle access. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-3 AMR Site No. : 3050330VC002 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4467580 Easting (m): 396387 Narrative Description: Collapsed vertical opening measuring approximately 15 by12 ft and 5 ft deep. No waste pile was noted. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-4 AMR Site No. : 3050330HO002 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4467519 Easting (m): 396277 Narrative Description: Open horizontal adit measuring 5 by 4 ft and having unknown depth. The waste pile is located approximately 33 ft (10 m) northeast of the opening. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-5 AMR Site No. : 3050330HO001 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4467482 Easting (m): 396129 Narrative Description: Mostly collapsed open horizontal adit measuring 2 ft by 1 ft and having unknown depth. Associated Artifacts: None 69

Temp Site No. : IF-6 AMR Site No. : 3050330HC003 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4466910 Easting (m): 396080 Narrative Description: Completely collapsed opening consisting of a 40 ft long trench which extends to the waste pile, located to the west. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-7 AMR Site No. : 3050331VC002 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4466725 Easting (m): 396152 Narrative Description: Collapsed vertical opening measuring 20 by 20 ft and 10 ft deep. A waste pile is located down slope to the northwest. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-8 AMR Site No. : 3050331HC003 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4466674 Easting (m): 396120 Narrative Description: Horizontal opening is completely collapsed, forming a 49 ft trench leading to a waste pile located to the southwest. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-9 AMR Site No. : 3050331HC004 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4466566 Easting (m): 396000 Narrative Description: Completely collapsed horizontal opening forming a 33 ft trench. The trench runs to the sothwest, towards a waste pile. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-10 AMR Site No. : 3050331IO001 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4466498 Easting (m): 395953 Narrative Description: Inclined opening covered by heavy vegetation and overgrowth. The opening measures 5.5 by 3 ft. The depth of the opening is unknown. A waste dump is located southwest of the opening. Just to the south of the waste dump is a small ledge of natural stone, but it is not a cultural feature. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-11 AMR Site No. : 3050425VC013 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4467077 Easting (m): 395389 Narrative Description: Completely collapsed vertical shaft measuring 15 by 15 ft. Depth of the shaft measures about 30 ft deep from the topsoil, but it is only 10 ft deep from the level of the road. The mine waste pile lies to the southeast and southwest of the collapsed opening. Associated Artifacts: None 70

Temp Site No. : IF-12 AMR Site No. : 3050436VO003 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4466171 Easting (m): 394742 Narrative Description: The vertical opening is surrounded by a barbed-wire fence. The opening measures approximately 20 by 20 ft and is 30 ft deep. It appears that the opening has caved in, as the hole is quite large and the surrounding sediment is eroding into the opening. Associated Artifacts: Barbed wire fence around enclosure Temp Site No. : IF-13 AMR Site No. : 3050436VC005 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4465960 Easting (m): 394632 Narrative Description: Collapsed vertical mine shaft opening measuring 6 by 4 ft and 4 ft deep. A small waste pile is located to the southwest. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-14 AMR Site No. : 3050436VC002 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4466221 Easting (m): 394333 Narrative Description: Collapsed mine shaft depression measuring 20 by 10 ft and having a depth of 6-8 ft. A small debris pile is located on the west edge of the adit. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-15 AMR Site No. : 3050436VC003 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4466150 Easting (m): 394313 Narrative Description: Collapsed mine shaft now measuring 8 by 6 ft at the opening and 6 ft deep. A small waste pile is located on the south edge of the opening. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-16 AMR Site No. : 3050436VC004 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4466175 Easting (m): 394348 Narrative Description: Mine shaft remains measuring 4 ft in diameter by 4 ft deep. The opening is located on a ridge top. A very small debris pile is found on the west edge of hole. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-17 AMR Site No. : 3050405VO001 USGS Quad: Stockton Northing (m): 4474355 Easting (m): 388669 Narrative Description: Vertical mine opening measuring 12 by 4 ft in diameter and 9 ft deep, three 3 inch thick planks across the top of the opening. There is a small waste pile on the north edge of the adit and below in the drainage. The adit is on the north slope of a ridge near the base next to an east-west trenching drainage. Associated Artifacts: None 71

Temp Site No. : IF-18 AMR Site No. : 3050405VO001 USGS Quad: Stockton Northing (m): 4474222 Easting (m): 388868 Narrative Description: A very shallow depression about 10 by 4 ft in diameter and 2.5 ft deep. The depression is flanked on the west side by a very small low mound of spoil and should be classified as a very small prospect. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-19 AMR Site No. : 3050332HC001 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4466471 Easting (m): 397822 Narrative Description: The opening is a shallow linear depression apparently resulting from the collapse of a horizontal adit. The depression is about 49 ft by 13 ft in size and has a max depth of 7 ft. It is slightly inclined uphill to the east. A very small, low waste pile about 16 ft by 10 ft in size is located to the southwest of the opening. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-20 AMR Site No. : 3050332VC001 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4466658 Easting (m): 397948 Narrative Description: A large steep sided depression about 26 by 13 ft in size and about 6.5 ft deep. Flanked on the south, west and east sides by a large apron of waste debris about 82 ft by 131 ft in size. Associated Artifacts: Four fragments of milled timbers, approximately 8x8 in by3to 6 ft long, and one piece of round bar ¾ in diameter and 5 ½ ft long. Temp Site No. : IF-21 AMR Site No. : 3050332HC002 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4466667 Easting (m): 398114 Narrative Description: A shallow linear depression approximately 49 ft by 15 ft and 2.5 ft deep caused by the collapse of the horizontal opening. A relatively extensive cone-shaped debris pile occurrs on the southwest side of the opening. The waste pile measures about 82 ft by 82 ft in size. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-22 AMR Site No. : 3050436VO004 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4465761 Easting (m): 394758 Narrative Description: This opening consists of a caved-in vertical opening measuring 10 ft by 13 ft and still reaching a depth of approximately 13 ft. A waste pile situated to the south of the opening measures approximately 66 by 39 ft. Associated Artifacts: None

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Temp Site No. : IF-23 AMR Site No. : 3050436VC006 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4465630 Easting (m): 394761 Narrative Description: A vertical opening measuring 20 ft by 20 ft which has a depth of approximately 10 ft. A waste pile situated to the southeast of the opening measures 13 ft by 6.5 ft. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-24 AMR Site No. : 3050436VC007 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4465607 Easting (m): 394942 Narrative Description: A large roughly circular depression approximately 33 ft by 30 ft in size and about 5 ft deep due to the collapse of the vertical shaft. A cone shaped waste pile is present to the southeast side of the opening measuring 16 ft at the top and 50 ft wide at the bottom. The pile extends for about 50 ft. Associated Artifacts: Two fragments of a brown beverage bottle of uncertain age. Temp Site No. : IF-25 AMR Site No. : 3050436VC001 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4466829 Easting (m): 395011 Narrative Description: A deep, steep sided conical depression remaining from the collapse of a vertical shaft. The opening measures about 16 ft in diameter and about 13 ft deep. It is flanked on the northwest side (down slope) by a small waste pile about 33 ft by 33 ft in size. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-26 AMR Site No. : 3050436HC003 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4466947 Easting (m): 394913 Narrative Description: A shallow trench like opening remaining from a collapsed horizontal opening. The opening measures about 10 ft by 16 ft in size and reaches a maximum of 8 ft at its very deepest point. A small conical waste pile about 33 ft by 50 ft in size is located down slope to the southwest. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-27 AMR Site No. : 3050436VO002 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4466859 Easting (m): 395090 Narrative Description: A collapsed vertical shaft with an unstable loose collar with its maximum opening 50 ft by 50 ft in diameter. The shaft width measures 20 ft by 10 ft and reaches depths of about 33 to 50 ft. It is flanked on the north by a debris pile measuring 26 by 33 ft. Associated Artifacts: 1 square nail, and 1 wire nail Temp Site No. : IF-28 AMR Site No. : 3050421HC005 USGS Quad: Stockton 73

Northing (m): 4470215 Easting (m): 390456 Narrative Description: No opening was found. An area of faced up-slope occurs on the north side of the road, but no clear opening could be found. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-29 AMR Site No. : 3050421HC010 USGS Quad: Ophir Northing (m): 4469711 Easting (m): 389946 Narrative Description: A nearly completely collapsed horizontal opening consisting of a shallow face up trench about 20 ft long leading to a very small adit about 2 ft tall and 2.5 ft wide that extends back about 5 ft. There is a small waste dump located down hill. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-30 AMR Site No. : 3050421HC009 USGS Quad: Ophir Northing (m): 4469776 Easting (m): 389945 Narrative Description: The very shallow remains of a collapsed prospect. It presently appears as a shallow linear depression about 16 by 8 ft and is no more than 2 - 2.5 ft deep. A very small waste pile flows down the slope to the south for about 10 to 16 ft and is comprised of fine pink colored clay. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-31 AMR Site No. : 3050332VO001 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4465707 Easting (m): 398241 Narrative Description: The feature is a 15 by 20 ft square opening that drops vertically about 20 ft and then inclines downward to the west for another 20 ft. A waste dump about 30 by 30 ft in size extends downhill on the west slope. Associated Artifacts: One small (12 in diameter) metal pan Temp Site No. : IF-32 AMR Site No. : 3050332HC003 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4466010 Easting (m): 398756 Narrative Description: The feature is a 15 by 10 ft slight depression of 3 to 4 ft deep that looks like a little drainage. There is a 30 by 40 ft waste dump in front of the opening to the southeast going down the drainage. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-33 AMR Site No. : 3050331VC001 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4465800 Easting (m): 396079 Narrative Description: This opening consists of a 30 by 30 ft semi-circular pit at the top narrowing down to 10 by 10 ft at approximately 15 ft down and tapering out by 20 ft deep. There are two large waste dumps 74

on the south and southwest of the opening. The south side dump measures 60 by 20 ft; the southwest measures 100 by 40 ft. Associated Artifacts: 2 pieces of pipe Temp Site No. : IF-34 AMR Site No. : 3050331VO001 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4465918 Easting (m): 395752 Narrative Description: The feature consists of a 15 by 15 ft opening at the top which reaches at least 50 ft deep. Downhill and to the east, a fence surrounds a waste dump which measures 25 by 25 ft in size. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-35 AMR Site No. : 3050331VO002 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4465469 Easting (m): 396001 Narrative Description: The feature consists of a fenced 15 by 15 ft opening with a vertical drop off of at least 75-100 ft. There is a waste dump on the south side of the hill measuring 40 by 80 ft. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-36 AMR Site No. : 3050331HC001 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4465482 Easting (m): 395721 Narrative Description: The feature measures 50 by 10 ft and is 4 ft deep. It appears more like a prospect than a formal horizontal opening. There is a very small 10 by 10 ft waste dump pile down hill on the east side. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-37 AMR Site No. : 3050331HC002 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4465654 Easting (m): 395555 Narrative Description: The feature consists of a 20 by 40 ft depression which is 5 or 6 ft deep and almost completely filled in. The waste dump begins down slope 60 ft (18 m) and is 30 by 30 ft in size. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-38 AMR Site No. : 3050436HC002 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4466298 Easting (m): 395281 Narrative Description: The feature measires 6 by 6 ft and is a 3 ft deep depression. If this was a horizontal opening, there is little spoil left. It seems more likely that it was just a small prospect. A second possible opening even smaller than the first is located 33 ft (10 m) to the west. Associated Artifacts: None

75

Temp Site No. : IF-39 AMR Site No. : 3050436HO003 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4466639 Easting (m): 395006 Narrative Description: The feature measures 6 by 6 ft and is slightly inclined downward. Depth is unknown but is at least 50-60 ft. Some timbers are partially visible in the shaft. The waste pile is located in front of and downslope of the opening and measures 40 by 40 ft. There is a small prospect 66 ft (20 m) above it which measures 20 by 6 ft and is 3-4 ft deep. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-40 AMR Site No. : 3050436VO001 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4466751 Easting (m): 395220 Narrative Description: The feature consists of a 10 by 10 ft opening of unknown depth but reaches at least 20+ meters. The waste dump is located on the northeast side of the feature and measures 30 by 50 ft. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-41 AMR Site No. : 3050436HO004 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4466970 Easting (m): 394836 Narrative Description: The feature is a 7 by 4 ft opening in the hill slope with a10 by 15 ft cut in front. The front is almost completely covered with erosion pile, but the top of the opening is still visible. The opening extends to an unknown distance back. There is a large waste pile in front of the opening, but the area is heavily vegetated and the size is undeterminable. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-42 AMR Site No. : 3050425HO040 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4467159 Easting (m): 394827 Narrative Description: The feature consists of an opening now measuring approximately 3 by 4 ft, but was at one time probably 4 by 6-8 ft. The feature is inclined down to flat area, extends back a total of 40 ft and then drops into a vertical shaft. A 40 by 40 ft waste pile is located down slope. Associated Artifacts: One metal spike Temp Site No. : IF-43 AMR Site No. : 3050425HC037 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4467186 Easting (m): 394840 Narrative Description: The feature consists of a 15 by 20 ft depression which is 6-8 ft deep and obviously closed. The downslope waste pile measures 30 by 30 ft in size. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-44 AMR Site No. : 3050422HC001 USGS Quad: Ophir 76

Northing (m): 4469340 Easting (m): 390573 Narrative Description: The feature consists of a 40 by 20 ft depression cut into rock. There is little eveidence of a waste pile near the opening but there is a burned pile 130 ft (40 m) down slope with a few cans (5-6) associated with it. Associated Artifacts: some thin sheets of wood w/nails Temp Site No. : IF-45 AMR Site No. : 3050422HO003 USGS Quad: Stockton Northing (m): 4470586 Easting (m): 391683 Narrative Description: The feature is just a small 15 by 7 by 2 foot cut into hill slope with nothing else but a small 20 by 15 ft waste dump in the drainage bottom immediately below the closed pit. Associated Artifacts: Bed springs, piece of pipe, a piece of a washing machine, a couple of cans. Temp Site No. : IF-46 AMR Site No. : 3050421VC003 USGS Quad: Stockton Northing (m): 4470270 Easting (m): 390094 Narrative Description: The feature consists of a mostly filled-in 20 by 20 ft hole which is 5-6 ft deep. A 20 by 30 ft shallow waste pile is located on the western down hill slope. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-47 AMR Site No. : 3050416VC001 USGS Quad: Stockton Northing (m): 4470318 Easting (m): 389917 Narrative Description: The feature is a vertical opening of 15 by 15 ft. associated with a waste pile approximately 20 by 30 ft in size. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-48 AMR Site No. : 3050421VC005 USGS Quad: Ophir Northing (m): 4469483 Easting (m): 389555 Narrative Description: The feature consists of a 15 by 15 ft opening that is 4 ft deep. There is a small waste dump surrounding the mouth of the opening. To the southwest of the vertical shaft is a numbered hole that is 10 ft deet and has a 25 by 25 ft diameter. A 20 by 20 ft waste dump is associated with the hole. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-49 AMR Site No. : 3050421VC007 USGS Quad: Stockton Northing (m): 4470123 Easting (m): 389191 Corrected Easting (m): Narrative Description: This feature is a 25 by 25 ft hole that is 15-18 ft deep. A waste dump located on the west side down the hill measures 20 by 20 ft in size. Associated Artifacts: Two boots 77

Temp Site No. : IF-50 AMR Site No. : 3050421VC006 USGS Quad: Stockton Northing (m): 4470063 Easting (m): 389290 Narrative Description: This feature consists of a 25 by 25 ft hole which reaches up to 20 ft deep. A 20 by 20 ft waste dump is located down hill and west of the feature. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-51 AMR Site No. : 3050424HC001 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4468848 Easting (m): 394683 Narrative Description: The feature consists of a 22 by 8-10 ft trench extending out into the hill slope with a low timber framework made of 10 in milled lumber posts. A large piece of metal is set up against it. Associated Artifacts: None Temp Site No. : IF-52 AMR Site No. : 3050424HC002 USGS Quad: Mercur Northing (m): 4468818 Easting (m): 394552 Narrative Description: This opening consists of a slight depression with a tree growing in it which measures 3 by 3 by 1.5 ft deep. The associated waste dump extends down the hill in front of the opening toward the northeast and measures approximately 20 by 6.5 ft in size. There are 5 small timbers are located on the ground in front of the site. Associated Artifacts: 5 Timbers Discussion Ophir Mining Landscape The research associated with the Ophir II Abandoned Mines Project was able to document a rather typical pattern of cultural resources associated with the exploration and exploitation of precious and base metals in the Oquirrh Mountains in the eastern Great Basin. The archaeological resources encountered in this survey appear to be mainly associated with mining activity in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, during the mining boom when the numerous mining districts of the Oquirrh Mountains were formed. The mines in the survey area are relatively modest in scale. The general lack of features found for processing of milling ore suggests that ore was transported from the area in raw form, a fact generally confirmed by the historic record. The closest railroads to the district, the Utah Western, with a terminus at Stockton, and later the Salt Lake & Western Railway at Tintic Junction and Los Angeles & Salt Lake Railroad at Jericho were all located some distance from the active mines in the district. Despite the remote locality of the area, however, a substantial amount of ore appears to have been mined from these openings, as is evidenced by the large waste piles visible from miles away at many of these sites. Later, as the mines around Mercur boomed, a rail line, the Salt Lake and Mercur Railroad, was built right to the site of the mines and a large mill was constructed, along with other mills at Stockton and Bauer. Most of the sites in the survey area are composed of several mine openings (horizontal adits, inclined adits and vertical shafts), often accompanied with open pits and prospect holes. Many sites in 78

the survey area contain complexes of multiple structures and considerable quantities of domestic refuse (see 42TO2182, 42TO2188, 42TO2190, 42TO2192, 42TO2195 and 42TO2198). This is congruent with hard rock mining, where residential and even commercial activity was often closely associated with the mines themselves. The classic example of this pattern is Ophir, where the town site developed in the steep canyon area immediately adjacent to the mines being worked. The largest newly recorded site, 42TO2195, consists of over 40 openings that were actually originally associated with several different known historic mines. The various features cover much of the south side of Silveropolis Hill and the slopes into Silverado Canyon. However, even that organization of openings under a single number does not accurately reflect the nature of the archaeological resources in this part of the project area, as a large number of adjacent openings on Lion Hill would probably also have been included in this site except for the fact that they were excluded from this project and were previously examined during another survey. The Silveropolis Hill locality represents the heaviest concentration of mines recorded during the project. The survey area is similar to other hard rock mining districts elsewhere in the state, characterized by densely packed claims, adits, prospects, habitation features, etc. Because the sites found in the survey area are all linked by a common theme and contain similar cultural resources associated with hard rock precious and base metal mining in western Utah, we feel that they should be considered in association with sites found during other surveys in the area (Bassett 2000; Bassett and Edwards 1999; Skinner and Helton 1998) for inclusion in a National Register District. The mining related resources in the Oquirrh Mountains represent one of the most significant nineteenth and early-twentieth century mining districts in the state, and the resources deserve protection and additional research. Assessment of Impacts and Proposed Closure Techniques The Division of Oil, Gas and Mining proposes to close part or all of the historic mine openings assessed during the project. Closure can be affected in several ways, including: backfilling, gating with rigid or flexible barriers, or plugging with masonry, polyurethane, or rock or concrete barriers. Probably the most commonly used and most economical technique is backfilling. This can be accomplished using adjacent spoil or fill brought in from other locations. Open portals can also be closed through demolition using explosives or heavy equipment to collapse the adit. These various techniques vary considerably in their potential to impact the historic qualities of the properties. The preferred closure technique from the perspective of cultural resource protection is usually the construction of a bulkhead barrier. Native stone or tinted concrete can be used to construct a barrier which is slightly recessed a short distance inside the portal. This effectively closes the mine and yet retains the historic feel and character of the visible portion of the portal. Gated openings may be required at some of the Ophir sites due to the presence of bats noted by the engineering consultant. These can also be constructed inside of adits with minimal impact to the feature. These two techniques are also advantageous in that they posses relatively low potential for causing secondary impacts to surrounding cultural features. Less favorable from a cultural perspective, but generally the preferred alternative in terms of economics, is backfilling. This approach obliterates the adit itself, and can leave significant secondary visual impacts to the site. The Office of Public Archaeology did not make any attempt to assess the hazard potential of any of the mines recorded in the Ophir Project area. This has been deferred to the DOGM and other engineering consultants. However, it should be noted that the hazards at these sites are consistent with those frequently encountered at other hard rock mining properties (vertical shafts, unstable headframes, flooded adits, etc.). 79

Specific protection measures and mitigation recommendations are specified below for each of the mines. None of the constructed features associated with the properties examined during this project are substantial enough to require additional work in the form of Historic American Building Survey (HABS) or Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) documentation. Determination of Eligibility and Finding of Effect The Utah Division of Oil, Gas and Mining proposes closure work at all 24 of the archaeological sites examined during the project. Each site was considered independently in regards to the determination of eligibility, definition of area of potential effect (APE) and the finding of effect. Inventory parcels for nine of the sites (42To2182, 42To2183, 42To2186, 42To2192, 42To2193, 42To2196, 42To2357, 42To2358, and 42To2360 -- Appendix A) do not intersect a maintained road. Further inventory would be needed if mechanical closure is chosen as the preferred method of site closure. Because the sites are all linked by a common theme and contain similar cultural resources associated with hard rock precious and base metal mining in western Utah, we recommend that they should be considered in association with other sites from the region identified in previous surveys (Bassett 2000, Bassett and Edwards 1999, Skinner and Helton 1998) for inclusion in a National Register District focused on hard rock mining in western Utah. Determinations of eligibility were made on the basis of standards recommended by the National Park Service for evaluating properties for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) pursuant to the requirements of 36 CFR part 63 and 36 CFR 800.4(c). The NRHP criteria are established as the appropriate standards for determining the significance of archaeological sites for compliance with the requirements of the Section 106 process (36 CFR 800.4[c]). The significance assessments for the sites examined for the Ophir II Abandoned Mine Project are presented below. The criteria used follow the published guidelines, and the appropriate criteria for each site recommended as eligible are noted. “The quality of significance in American history, architecture, archeology, engineering, and culture is present in districts, sites, buildings, structures and objects that possess integrity of location, design, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling, and association and: (a) that are associated with events that have made a contribution to the broad patterns of our history; or (b) that are associated with the lives of persons significant in our past; or (c) that embody the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction, or that represent the work of a master, or that possess high artistic values, or that represent a significant and distinguishable entity whose components may lack individual distinction; or (d) that have yielded, or may be likely to yield, information important in prehistory or history.” (36 CFR 60.4) Historic mining properties constitute a unique type of archaeological site that is distinct from many of the other kinds of historic sites that are typically the topic of identification and assessment actions pursuant to the National Historic Preservation Act. Historic mining locations are typically comprised of multiple mine openings which may be relatively widely scattered and yet interrelated. The surface manifestations frequently represent only a small visible indicator of what may be much more extensive underground workings. Yet for the purposes of Section 106 matters, only the surface manifestations of mining related activities are usually considered when making determinations of eligibility. The extent, condition, and nature of underground workings can not usually be considered due to the dangers and difficulties of accessing abandoned mine properties for the purposes of documenting and studying them. 80

Mining properties are subject to a wide range of impacts that can alter their appearance and impact integrity. These include abandonment, exposure to harsh environmental conditions, vandalism, and historic salvage operations, all of which can affect mining properties and often result in sites that are composed of rather modest manifestations which only partially reflect the original character of the site. Common examples of these impacts include collapse of buildings and mine openings, removal and salvage of equipment and machinery, and salvage of railroad and ore car tracks. It is important therefore to recognize that the NRHP eligibility criteria allow consideration and acceptance of “significant and distinguishable entities whose components may lack individual distinction” (Noble and Spude 1992:19). In order to help determine the eligibility of this type of site, which may be composed of a number of widely scattered elements of various quality and importance, several criteria were employed. These criteria consist of the significance categories previously described as well as the more generalized criteria required by the NRHP guidelines. The sites that have been recommended as being eligible for the National Register of Historic Places are believed to qualify under either NRHP Criterion A or Criterion D or both. Generally speaking, we have considered sites to be eligible if they include associated structural remains of any kind (i.e. shacks, cabins, rock retaining walls, foundations, ore handling facilities, etc.), or have openings that are associated with intact timbering, ore cart systems, or other mining equipment; or are associated with significant quantities of historic artifacts (cf. Crosland and Thompson 1994:26). Sites that are not eligible generally lack any of these features, and are frequently located in steep topographic settings that limited the historic development and preservation of mining features beyond the openings themselves. Those sites recommended as eligible under Criterion A are associated with the historic theme of Hard Rock Mining in Western Utah, ca. 1860 to 1945. The precious metal and base metal mining activities that occurred during this period constitute a major pattern of economic activity that led to the development of the local region. Mining related activities served as a stimulus for the settlement of communities and the development of the transportation infrastructure, particularly the railroads. The infusion of capital from the successful mines played a major role in the economics of the region. Those sites recommended as eligible under Criterion D possess resources which have potential to yield additional data relative to the history of the region and research questions regarding hard rock mining technologies, site structure, and socioeconomic patterns associated with the mine, miners, and support communities. This data is often represented by artifacts, structures and ancillary features associated with the mine openings themselves. Of the 24 archaeological sites examined, 13 (54%) are recommended as eligible for the NRHP. These 13 sites include 74 numbered mine openings. The 11 sites (46%) recommended as not eligible fail in most cases to meet minimum standards of integrity. The non-eligible sites are mostly Category 1 properties that lack significance due to their extremely limited nature and the loss of most elements that would allow them to convey any quality of significance. The non-eligible sites incorporate an additional 39 numbered mine openings. No finding of effect is necessary for these sites, as the determination that they are not significant means that they are not “historic properties” as defined in the regulations (National Register Bulletin 15). Accordingly, the proposed closure and rehabilitation undertakings at these locations do not have the potential to affect any historic properties. The same is true for the 52 mine openings which were documented as isolated features. These are also not eligible for the NRHP, and reclamation activity at these sites does not have the potential to affect any historic properties. The finding of effect for each of the 13 sites recommended as eligible/significant is that the proposed undertakings should result in “No Adverse Effect” or “No Effect” at each of these sites. The 81

proposed undertakings at the majority of the eligible sites consist only of closure of the mine openings. Since the openings are intrinsic features of the sites, a no adverse effect finding can be achieved by careful selection of appropriate closure methods that minimize changes to the external appearance of portals which are judged to be contributing features of the site. Most of the sites are considered to be eligible under Criteria A and/or Criteria D, and in many cases the individual openings lack distinction, but together they enable the properties to convey the collective image of a historically significant mining operation. Some of the sites are significant primarily for features and artifacts other than the mines themselves, which may play a more secondary role in expressing the site’s significance. A “No Action” alternative is not feasible with this particular project, as the objective of the mining reclamation program is to close abandoned mines that present public hazards. This will require alteration of all of the identified mine openings in order to meet the objectives of the project. A finding of “No Adverse Effect” or “No Effect” is also contingent upon a careful approach to rehabilitation that avoids visual impacts to other characteristic features which convey the significance of the sites, including abandoned railroad grades, tram towers, and other landscape features associated with the mining activities at these sites. Closure recommendations for NRHP eligible sites are discussed in Appendix A. 42TO2181 This site is designated as a Category 1, which sites have the least integrity and significance as far as additional research potential. While this particular site does contain several openings, and produced a fair amount of waste material, we found no historic records to indicate its ownership or specific period of use, and the site characteristics are modest compared to the norm in this area. That is, this is a very minor and comparitively insignificant mining operation for the general Ophir/Mercur region. Though there was probably a temporary structure here, it is nearly demolished and there is limited cultural debris. The site does not offer significant potential for contributing any new or important information about area history, especially given the fact that there are an abundance of more impressive and better historically documented mine sites in the area. Since the site is not eligible, the rehabilitation or closure of mining related features at this site does not have potential to affect any historic properties. 42TO2182 This site is designated as a Category 1, which sites have the least integrity and significance as far as additional research potential. This particular site does contain several openings, and produced a fair amount of waste material. Otherwise the site characteristics are modest, and we found no historic records to indicate its ownership or specific period of use. It appears that this is a very minor and comparitively insignificant mining operation for the general Ophir/Mercur region. There are few additional cultural elements to the site, with the exception of the retaining wall, and and limited cultural debris. The site does not offer significant potential for contributing any new or important information about area history, especially given the fact that there are an abundance of more impressive and better historically documented mine sites in the area. Since the site is not eligible, the rehabilitation or closure of mining related features at this site does not have potential to affect any historic properties.

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42TO2183 This site is designated as a Category 2, which sites typically are one or more adits associated with additional limited features. This particular site has the main opening, a prospect, and a couple of associated walls, as well as the remains of a trackway. The walls could have supported some type of structure. The trackway and depth of the mine, and the dump itself all suggest significant effort. Thus the site has significance and could contribute to our understanding of area history, and on mines and mining technology of the region. It is eligible to the NRHP under Criterion A. 42TO2184 This site is designated as a Category 2, which sites typically are one or more adits associated with additional limited features. This particular site only has the main opening, but also includes at least two structures, and a water tank, all of which gives it more integrity than many similarly sized sites in the area. The structures clearly indicate that this location was inhabited at least periodically, and this could have been the base residential setting for mining throughout this canyon. Thus the site has significance and could contribute to our understanding of area history, and on mines and mining technology of the region. It is eligible to the NRHP under Criterion A. 42TO2185 This site is similar to others designated as a Category 2, which sites typically are one or more adits associated with additional limited features. This particular site only has the main opening, but also two smaller openings, a dugout and various smaller features, including a portion of the old canyon road that has since been bypassed by a newer road at the base of the main waste dump. This mine and associated facilities were clearly a primary of mining in this canyon, and the location was inhabited at least periodically, and may relate to other mines in the canyon as well. Thus the site has significance and could contribute to our understanding of area history, and on mines and mining technology of the region. It is eligible to the NRHP under Criterion A. 42TO2186 This site is designated as a Category 1, which sites have the least integrity and significance as far as additional research potential. While this particular site does contain two openings, there is not a lot of waste material to indicate significant mining, we found no historic records to indicate its ownership or specific period of use, and the site characteristics are modest compared to the norm in this area. That is, this is a very minor and comparitively insignificant mining operation for the general Ophir/Mercur region. The site does not offer significant potential for contributing any new or important information about area history, especially given the fact that there are an abundance of more impressive and better historically documented mine sites in the area. Since the site is not eligible, the proposed undertaking does not have any potential to affect any historic properties. 42TO2187 This site is designated as a Category 2, which sites typically are one or more adits associated with additional limited features. This particular site only has the main opening, but also a couple of associated features suggestive of some limited, possible temporary habitation at the site. The mine opening is very deep and 83

the associated waste dump large, suggesting a significant amount of effort went into this mine, and so there may be more of importance here that can be gleaned from the site surface. As such it has significance and could contribute to our understanding of area history, and on mines and mining technology of the region. It is eligible to the NRHP under Criterion A. 42TO2188 This site is designated as a Category 3, which sites typically contain significant evidence of mining activities, residential use, and an abundance of related features and artifacts. According to historic records, different elements of this site were originally part of the Lakes of Killarney and Nyanza historic mines. It appears that these were used first in 1899 and 1898, respectively, and that work at each site had ceased by 1902. The Lakes of Killarney mine appears to have been worked for gold. This particular site has several openings and most impressively the ore bin and loading chute and structural features in the southwest part of the site. There is clearly a significant amount of effort went that went into the mining of this hillslope, and this is unquestionably one of the more important mining operations in this area. It can contribute to our understanding of area history, and on mines and mining technology of the region. It is eligible to the NRHP under criteria A and D. 42TO2189 This site is designated as a Category 2, which sites typically are one or more adits associated with additional limited features. This particular site has the main opening, but also a smaller opening above it, a probably storage adit or powder magazine, and the foundation of a structure. The mine opening is very deep and the associated waste dump large, suggesting a significant amount of effort went into this mine, and so there may be more of importance here that can be gleaned from the site. As such it has significance and could contribute to our understanding of area history, and on mines and mining technology of the region. It is eligible to the NRHP under Criterion A. 42TO2190 This site is designated as a Category 1, which sites have the least integrity and significance as far as additional research potential. While this particular site does contain several openings, these have been badly impacted and are associated with only minimal waste material, and the site characteristics are modest compared to the norm in this area. The site does not offer significant potential for contributing any new or important information about area history, especially given the fact that there are an abundance of more impressive, better preserved, and better historically documented mine sites in the area. Since the site is not eligible, the rehabilitation or closure of mining related features at this site does not have potential to affect any historic properties. 42TO2191 This site is not directly a mining property as we have no firm evidence for an on-site mine, but rather some habitation facilities. We still designated it as a Category 2, which sites typically are modestly complex. This particular site has at least three and possibly more features suggestive of some habitation at the site. We don’t’ think there is a mine here because there is no waste material, although this could have been hauled away. In any case, further research could be gleaned from the site. As such it has significance and 84

could contribute to our understanding of area history, and on mines and mining technology of the region. It is eligible to the NRHP under Criterion D. 42TO2192 This site is designated as a Category 1, which sites have the least integrity and significance as far as additional research potential. While this particular site does contain several openings, these have been badly impacted and are associated with only minimal waste material, and the site characteristics are modest compared to the norm in this area. There may have been a structure here but it is since completely destroyed. The site does not offer significant potential for contributing any new or important information about area history, especially given the fact that there are an abundance of more impressive, better preserved, and better historically documented mine sites in the area. Since the site is not eligible, the rehabilitation or closure of mining related features at this site does not have potential to affect any historic properties. 42TO2193 This site is designated as a Category 2, which sites typically are one or more adits associated with additional limited features. This particular site only has the main opening, but also includes a large waste pile and at least two connected structures that appear to have been a processing facility for the mine. Though badly deteriorated, the structure is still in better condition than many structures in the area associated with specific mines. Thus the site has significance and could contribute to our understanding of area history, and on mines and mining technology of the region. It is eligible to the NRHP under Criterion A. 42TO2194 This site is designated as a Category 3, which sites represent the most extensive type of property identified in the Ophir II Abandoned Mine Project. This particular site is part of the Buffalo Mine, dating from ca. 1903 to the 1960s. It contains complex structural elements, including associated buildings, tracks, a large and complex waste pile, and a variety of artifacts and other features that indicate significant mining operations and offer the potential for contributions to our understanding of area history, and on mines and mining technology of the region. It is eligible to the NRHP under criteria A and D. 42TO2195 This site is designated as a Category 3, which sites represent the most extensive type of property identified in the Ophir II Abandoned Mine Project. This particular site is huge, and includes portions of the Chloride Point, Key Stone, and Wachusett mines, as well as many as yet unknown/unnamed mines. The area has been mined since the 1890s and up to the ca. 1980s. There are many complex structural elements, including associated buildings, loading chutes, many large and complex waste piles, and a variety of artifacts and other features that indicate significant mining operations and offer the potential for contributions to our understanding of area history, and on mines and mining technology of the region. It is eligible to the NRHP under criteria A and D.

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42TO2196 This site is designated as a Category 1, which sites typically are one or more adits associated with additional limited features. This particular site only has the main openings, one with ore cart rails coming out of one, but otherwise the artifacts are sparse, and there are not other facilities that could justify bumping it up into a Category 2. The site has little potential to contribute to our understanding of area history, and on mines and mining technology of the region, especially since there are so many better examples in the surrounding hills. Since the site is not eligible, the proposed undertaking does not have any potential to affect any historic properties. 42TO2197 This site is designated as a Category 1, which sites have the least integrity and significance as far as additional research potential. This site is limited in extent, with just a single opening, and the retaining wall is not associated with any features other than the mine. Artifacts are also very sparse. There is not a lot of waste material to indicate significant mining, we found no historic records to indicate its ownership or specific period of use, and the site characteristics are modest compared to the norm in this area. That is, this is a very minor and comparitively insignificant mining operation for the general Ophir/Mercur region. The site does not offer significant potential for contributing any new or important information about area history, especially given the fact that there are an abundance of more impressive and better historically documented mine sites in the area. Since the site is not eligible, the rehabilitation or closure of mining related features at this site does not have potential to affect any historic properties. 42TO2198 This site is designated as a Category 3, which sites represent the most extensive type of property identified in the Ophir II Abandoned Mine Project. This particular site is part of the Geyser-Marion Mine. It contains complex structural elements, including two horizontal mine openings, and one vertical opening associated with a possible loading chute and a stone foundation. Though sparse, there are a variety of artifacts and other features that indicate significant mining operations and offer the potential for contributions to our understanding of area history, and on mines and mining technology of the region. It is eligible to the NRHP under criteria A and D. 42TO2357 This site is designated as a Category 1, which sites have the least integrity and significance as far as additional research potential. This particular site only has the single main opening, and the size of the waste pile indicates its depth and use were very limited. Likewise the sparse artifact assemblage agrees with this. The site characteristics are modest, and we found no historic records to indicate its ownership or specific period of use. It appears that this is a very minor and comparitively insignificant mining operation for the general Ophir/Mercur region. The site does not offer significant potential for contributing any new or important information about area history, especially given the fact that there are an abundance of more impressive and better historically documented mine sites in the area. Since the site is not eligible, the rehabilitation or closure of mining related features at this site does not have potential to affect any historic properties.

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42TO2358 This site is designated as a Category 1, which sites have the least integrity and significance as far as additional research potential. This particular site only has two openings that are 50 meters apart, and though one is moderately deep, there are no associated features or artifacts. The site characteristics are therefore extremely minimal, and we found no historic records to indicate its ownership or specific period of use. It appears that this is a very minor and comparitively insignificant mining operation for the general Ophir/Mercur region. The site does not offer significant potential for contributing any new or important information about area history, especially given the fact that there are an abundance of more impressive and better historically documented mine sites in the area. Since the site is not eligible, the rehabilitation or closure of mining related features at this site does not have potential to affect any historic properties. 42TO2359 This site is designated as a Category 1, which sites have the least integrity and significance as far as additional research potential. This particular site only has three relatively minor openings on a steep hillslope. There are practically no associated features or artifacts. The site characteristics are therefore extremely minimal, and we found no historic records to indicate its ownership or specific period of use. It appears that this is a very minor and comparitively insignificant mining operation for the general Ophir/Mercur region. The site does not offer significant potential for contributing any new or important information about area history, especially given the fact that there are an abundance of more impressive and better historically documented mine sites in the area. Since the site is not eligible, the rehabilitation or closure of mining related features at this site does not have potential to affect any historic properties. 42TO2360 This site is designated as a Category 1, which sites have the least integrity and significance as far as additional research potential. This particular site only has six relatively minor openings on a steep hillslope. There are practically no associated features or artifacts. The site characteristics are therefore extremely minimal, and we found no historic records to indicate its ownership or specific period of use. It appears that this is a very minor and comparitively insignificant mining operation for the general Ophir/Mercur region. The site does not offer significant potential for contributing any new or important information about area history, especially given the fact that there are an abundance of more impressive and better historically documented mine sites in the area. Since the site is not eligible, the rehabilitation or closure of mining related features at this site does not have potential to affect any historic properties. 42TO2361 This site appears to be a small portion of an early road through Ophir Canyon, possibly the same road and route as the original canyon road that connected Ophir Town with Tooele and Rush valleys. As such it was integral to the development of the mining district and to the town itself. This is the only segment we noted, though up and down the canyon there may be minor traces of the original route still present. The site is eligible for the NRHP under Criterion A. 42TO1772 During inventory of the Ophir II project we located nine additional mine openings and associated features that are proximal to the boundary of 42TO1772, and should be added to that site form, thus expanding the 87

northeast boundary of that site an additional ca. 300 meters, and the southeast boundary an additional 100+ meters on the Ophir 7.5” Quad. The added features include nine tagged openings with multiple associated artifacts and structures. The site is part of a Category 3 intact mining landscape reflecting hard rock mining activities dating to between the 1870s and 1910s which has been previously recorded as an NHRP eligible site under criteria A and D.

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References Alder, Douglas and Elaine Alder 1959 The Three Lives of Mercur. Newspaper article dated August 30, 1959. On file at Utah Division of State History archives. Name of newspaper, publisher and page not included with document. Alexander, Thomas G. 1995 Utah: The Right Place: The Official Centennial History. Richard W. Sadler, General Editor. Gibbs-Smith Publisher, Salt Lake City, Utah. Arrington, Lenoard J. 1963 Abundance from the Earth: The Beginnings of Commercial Mining in Utah. Utah Historical Quarterly 31(3): 192-219. Atkin, Claude F., T. Allan Comp, S.E. Craig, Larry Deppe, Frank C. Dunlavy, Bill Kelsey, Christ Weyland and Orrin P. Miller 1986 Mining, Smelting and Railroading in Tooele County. Tooele County Historical Society, Tooele, Utah. Balsley, Howard W. n.d. Paper presented Utah Chapter of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, Moab, Utah. Undated manuscript copy provided to Eric Redd. Manuscript in collections of Utah State Historical Society, Manuscript number A2312. Salt Lake City, Utah. Bassett, Everett 2000 Jacob City Abandoned Mine Project: Cultural Resource Evaluation. Dames and Moore, Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah. Submitted to Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining, Salt Lake City. 1987 Silver Reef Abandoned Mines Cultural Survey. Dames & Moore, Inc., Salt Lake City. Submitted to Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining, Salt Lake City. Bassett, Everett, and Douglas Edwards 1999 Fivemile Pass/West Dip Abandoned Mine Project: Cultural ResourceEvaluation, Report Addendum. Dames & Moore, Inc. Salt Lake City, Utah. Submitted to Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining, Salt Lake City. Bassett, Everett, and Shannon. A. Novak 1993 Park City Area Abandoned Mines Cultural Survey. Dames & Moore, Inc., Salt Lake City. Submitted to Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining, Salt Lake City. Berge, Dale L. 1994 Mercur. In, Utah History Encyclopedia, edited by Allan Kent Powell, pp. 360-361. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, Utah 2000 Mercur Census Reports: 1880, 1900, and 1910. Brigham Young University Museum of Peoples and Cultures Technical Series No. 00-2, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah. 89

Bergendahl, Max, C. F. Erskine, Clinton S. Ferris, Jr., Charles Frush, Warren Longley, James R., Muhm, Blair Roberts, Ted Schassberger, Ed Warren, Burch Winder and Robert C. Moore 1981 Metals, Minerals, Mining. Special Issue, AIPG Colorado Section. Edited by Patricia Curtis Petty. American Institute of Professional Geologists, Golden, Colorado. Blanthorn, Ouida 1998 A History of Tooele County. Utah State Historical Society, Salt Lake City, Utah, and the Tooele County Commission, Tooele, Utah.

1994 Tooele City. In, Utah History Encyclopedia, edited by Allan Kent Powell, pp. 558-559. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, Utah

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1905 Economic Geology of the Bingham Mining District, Utah. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 38. Department of the Interior, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

Brewster, Melvin G. 1995 Hidden Treasure Mineral Notices. BLM Summary Report of Cultural Resources Inspection. Bureau of Land Management, Pony Express Resources Area, Salt Lake City, Utah. Copy available at Division of State History, Salt Lake City, Utah. Bringhurst, Newell G. 1994 George Henry Dern. In, Utah History Encyclopedia, edited by Allan Kent Powell, p. 138. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, Utah Brown, Ronald C. 1979 Hard Rock Miners: The Intermountain West, 1860-1920. Texas A & M University Press, College Station, Texas. Butler, B.S. 1920 Oquirrh Range. In The Ore Deposits of Utah, edited by B.S. Butler, G.F. Loughlin and V.C. Heikes, pp. 335-395. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 111. Department of the Interior, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Butler, B. S., G. F. Loughlin, and V. C. Heikes 1920 The Ore Deposits of Utah. United States Geological Survey Professional Paper 111, Department of the Interior, Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. Carr, Stephen L, and Robert W. Edwards 1989 Utah Ghost Rails. Western Epics, Salt Lake City, Utah. Carter, Kate B. 1939 Mining In The West. Historical Pamphlet. Daughters of Utah Pioneers, State Central Company, Salt Lake City, Utah.

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Cartwright, Charles 1980 Cultural Resource Investigation, Electronic Testing Site, Ophir, Tooele County, Utah. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Salt Lake City, Utah. Christensen, Diana 1990 Centurion Lion Hill Project. BLM Summary Report of Cultural Resources Inspection. Bureau of Land Management, Pony Express Resource Area, Salt Lake City, Utah. Copy available at Division of State History, Salt Lake City, Utah. 1989 Ophir Canyon Mining Survey. BLM Summary Report of Cultural Resources Inspection. Bureau of Land Management, Pony Express Resource Area, Salt Lake City, Utah. Copy available at Division of State History, Salt Lake City, Utah. Christy, Howard A. 1981 Metals. In Atlas of Utah, edited by Wayne L. Wahlquist, pp. 198-200. Brigham Young University Press, Provo, Utah. Christy, Howard A., and Carlton H. Stowe 1981 Utah’s Mineral Industry. In Atlas of Utah, edited by Wayne L. Wahlquist, p. 197. Brigham Young University Press, Provo, Utah. Cook, D.R. (editor) 1961 Geology of the Bingham Mining District and Northern Oquirrh Mountains, Utah. Geological Society Guidebook to the Geology of Utah, Vol. 16. Salt Lake City, Utah. Utah

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