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Muhd Haikal Iskandar Bin Fakhrul Azman


1. Mole
 A mole is a fixed number of molecules found in a mass of an element
or molecule equal to its atomic or molecular weight
 g-mole = 6.022 x 1023 molecules
 lb-mole = 2.7 x 1026 molecules
 # moles = mass/molecular weight
 for CE 280 use g-mole -- units are g/mol
 e.g. 12.01 g C = 1 mole
2. Molarity
In chemistry, molarity is a concentration unit, defined to be the number of
moles of solute divided by the number of liters of solution.

Units of Molarity

Molarity is expressed in units of moles per liter (mol/L). It's such a common
unit, it has its own symbol, which is a capital letter M. A solution that has the
concentration 5 mol/L would be called a 5 M solution or said to have a
concentration value of 5 molar.

Molarity Examples

 There are 6 moles of HCl in one liter of 6 molar HCl or 6 M HCl.

 There are 0.05 moles of NaCl in 500 ml of a 0.1 M NaCl solution. (The
calculation of moles of ions depends on their solubility.)
 There are 0.1 moles of Na+ ions in one liter of a 0.1 M NaCl solution

3. Normality

Normality is a measure of concentration equal to the gram equivalent weight

per liter of solution. Gram equivalent weight is the measure of the reactive
capacity of a molecule. The solute's role in the reaction determines the
solution's normality. Normality is also known as the equivalent concentration
of a solution.
Normality Equation

Normality (N) is the molar concentration ci divided by an equivalence factor


N = ci / feq

Another common equation is normality (N) equal to the gram equivalent

weight divided by liters of solution:

N = gram equivalent weight / liters of solution (often expressed in g/L)

or it may be the molarity multiplied by the number of equivalents:

N = molarity x equivalents

Units of Normality

The capital letter N is used to indicate concentration in terms of normality. It

may also be expressed as eq/L (equivalent per liter) or meq/L (milliequivalent
per liter of 0.001 N, typically reserved for medical reporting).
Examples of Normality

For acid reactions, a 1 M H2SO4 solution will have a normality (N) of 2 N

because 2 moles of H+ ions are present per liter of solution.

For sulfide precipitation reactions, where the SO4- ion is the important part,
the same 1 M H2SO4 solution will have a normality of 1 N.