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CHAPTER 4

BASED STATCOM

4.1 INTRODUCTION

points of attack. One approach is analytical analysis on small networks with

mathematical bifurcations as the stability criterion. A special case of this

method is the analysis of the smallest singular value or the minimum eigen

value. In Modal analysis, the eigenvectors of the system representation is also

used sometimes. The smallest singular value and modal analysis can be used

on large networks. A second approach is to ﬁnd the extremes of either the P-V

curve or the Q-V curve by some type of load-ﬂow calculations, where the

“distance” between the current working point and the extremes is a stability

criterion. Time domain simulation is yet another approach for analysis.

Sometimes these different methods are mixed so that two different methods

are presented simultaneously to gain further insight into the phenomenon.

farm as PV based STATCOM for voltage stability enhancement. The location

for connecting the PV based STATCOM is identified using modal analysis

technique. Additional loads are connected in the weak bus and the ability of

PV based STATCOM in increasing the voltage stability of the system is

discussed with simulation results.

maintain acceptable voltages at all buses in the system under normal

conditions and after being subjected to disturbance. A system enters a state of

81

system condition causes a progressive and uncontrollable decline in voltage.

The main factor causing instability is the inability of the power system to

meet the demand for reactive power.

The following section deals with the various techniques available for

performing voltage stability analysis.

Different methods exist in the literature for carrying out a steady state

voltage stability analysis. The conventional methods can be broadly classified

into the following types.

point of voltage collapse. (Modal analysis)

This gives the available amount of active power margin before the point of

voltage instability. For radial systems, the voltage of the critical bus is

monitored against the changes in real power consumption. For large meshed

networks, P can be the total active load in the load area and V can be the

voltage of the critical or representative bus. Real power transfer through a

transmission interface or interconnection also can be studied by this method.

82

The Q-V curve method is one of the most popular ways to investigate

voltage instability problems in power systems during the post transient period

[18], [21],[29], [30]. Unlike the P-V curve method, it doesn’t require the

system to be represented as two-bus equivalent. Voltage at a test bus or

critical bus is plotted against reactive power at that bus. A fictitious

synchronous generator with zero active power and no reactive power limit is

connected to the test bus. The power-flow program is run for a range of

specified voltages with the test bus treated as the generator bus. Reactive

power at the bus is noted from the power flow solutions and plotted against

the specified voltage. The operating point corresponding to zero reactive

power represents the condition when the fictitious reactive power source is

removed from the test bus.

point of voltage collapse

A number of methods have been proposed in the literature that uses the

fact that the power flow Jacobian matrix becomes singular at the point of

voltage collapse. Modal analysis of the Jacobian matrix is one of the most

popular methods.

bus and identify the location of connecting the designed STATCOM and

hence modal analysis is explained more briefly further.

voltage collapse point, since the Jacobian matrix becomes singular.

Continuation powerflow is a technique by which the powerflow solutions can

83

be obtained near or at the voltage collapse point. Normally the loading factor

is the varying parameter; however, as the system gets closer to bifurcation the

classical power flow Jacobian becomes ill-conditioned. A parameterization

makes the power flow Jacobian nonsingular at the voltage collapse point. The

method naturally goes around the collapse point, allowing the user to trace the

unstable side of the branch.

matrix. A flowchart for the modal method analysis used in this study is shown

in figure 4.2.

bus in the system, bus voltage magnitude increases as reactive power injection

at the same bus is increased. A system is said to be voltage unstable, if the

voltage magnitude decreases at one bus in the system, as the reactive power

injection at the same bus is increased. In other words, a system is voltage

stable if Q-V sensitivity is positive for every bus and unstable if Q-V

sensitivity is negative for at least one bus.

The linearized steady state system power voltage equations are given by.

(4.1)

Where,

84

∆P J Pθ J PV ∆θ

analysis = the Jacobian matrix in (4.1) is the same as

∆Q J Qθ J QV ∆V

the Jacobian matrix used when the powerflow equations are solved using the

Newton-Raphson technique. With enhanced device models included, the

elements of the Jacobian matrix in (4.1) are modified as discussed as follows.

System voltage stability is affected by both P and Q. However. at each

operating point P is kept constant and voltage stability is evaluated by

considering the incremental relationship between Q and V. This is analogous

to the Q-V curve approach. Although incremental changes in P are neglected

in the formulation, the effects of changes in system load or power transfer

levels are taken into account by studying the incremental relationship between

Q and Vat different operating conditions.

= J R ∆V (4.2)

and

∆V = J R -1 ∆Q (4.3)

Where,

(4.4)

which directly relates the bus voltage magnitude and bus reactive power

injection. Eliminating the real power and angle part from the system steady

85

state equations allows us to focus on the study of the reactive demand and

supply problem of the system as well as minimize computational effort.

analysis of the full Jacobian matrix. If the full Jacobian is used, however, the

results represent the relationship between (∆θ, ∆V) and (∆P, ∆Q). Since ∆θ is

included in the formulation, it is difficult to discern the relationship between

∆V and (∆P, ∆Q) which is of primary importance for voltage stability

analysis. Also modal analysis using the full Jacobian matrix is

computationally more expensive than using the reduced Jacobian. For these

reasons the reduced Jacobian approach is chosen.

Let

JR = ξ∧η (4.5)

where;

and

J R -1 = ξΛ-1η (4.6)

∆V = ξΛ-1η ∆Q (4.7)

or

(4.8)

86

Where ξ i is the ith column right eigenvector and η i, the ith row left

eigenvector of J R . Similar to the concept used in linear dynamic system

analysis each eigen value A and the corresponding right and left eigenvectors

ξ i and η i are the ith mode of the system.

∆Q mi = Ki ξi (4.9)

Where,

(4.10)

∆V mi = (1/Λ i) * ∆Q mi (4.11)

It is seen that, when the reactive power variation is along the direction

of ξ ji , the corresponding voltage variation is also along the same direction and

the magnitude is amplified by a factor which is equal to the magnitude of the

inverse of the ith eigen value.

weakness of the corresponding modal voltage. The smaller the magnitude of

Λ I , the weaker is the corresponding modal voltage. If Λ i =0,the i* modal

voltage will collapse because any change in that modal reactive power will

cause infinite modal voltage variation. Let ∆Q= e k where e k has all its

elements zero except the kth one being 1.

Then,

(4.12)

87

(4.13)

A system is voltage stable if the eigen values of the Jacobian are all

positive. The relationship between system voltage stability and eigen values

of the Jacobian J, is best understood by relating the eigen values of J, with the

V-Q sensitivities, (which must be positive for stability), at each bus.

therefore, the eigen values of J R are close to being purely real. If all the eigen

values are positive, J, is positive definite thus V-Q sensitivities are also

positive indicating that the system is voltage stable. As the system is stressed,

the eigen values of J R become smaller at the critical point of system voltage

stability, at least one of the eigen values of J R , becomes zero.

If some of the eigen values of J R are negative, the system has passed

the critical point of voltage stability because the eigen values of J R change

continuously from positive to zero to negative as the system is stressed. While

the magnitude of the eigen values can provide a relative measure of the

proximity to instability, they do not provide an absolute measure because of

the non-linearity problem. This is analogous to the damping factor in small

signal stability analysis, which is indicative of the degree of damping but is

not an absolute measure of stability margin. If a megawatt distance to voltage

instability is required, the system is stressed incrementally until it becomes

unstable and modal analysis applied at each operating point. The application

88

also used to determine the amount of extra load or power transfer level that

should be added, when the system reaches voltage stability critical point. In

addition to that it helps in determining the voltage stability critical areas and

to describe the mechanism of instability by identifying elements which

participate in each mode. By Participations, the participation factor of bus k to

mode is defined as.

P ki = ξ ik * η ik (4.14)

sensitivity at bus k. The bigger the value of P M , the more A, contributes in

determining Q-V sensitivity at bus k. For all the small eigen values, bus

participation factors determine the areas close to voltage instability.

OF J R

system with several thousand buses. An algorithm has been developed for

calculating the minimum singular value and the corresponding left and right

singular vectors for both the full Jacobian and the reduced Jacobian. The

problem in using the minimum singular value or the minimum eigen value as

voltage stability index, lies in the fact that for a large complex system there

are usually more than one weak mode associated with different parts of the

system. As a system is stressed, the mode associated with the minimum

singular value or the minimum eigen value of the base case system may no

longer be the most troublesome mode. If the m smallest eigen values of J, are

determined. If the biggest of the m eigen values, say mode m. is deemed a

strong enough mode, the modes which are not calculated can be neglected

because they are known to be stronger than mode m. An Implicit Inverse Lop-

89

smallest eigen values of J R and associated right and left eigenvectors. The

IILSI algorithm can be viewed as a combination of the simultaneous iteration

method and implicit inverse iteration method. Lop-sided simultaneous

iteration method for calculating m eigen values with the largest magnitudes

and the associated right eigenvectors for a general real matrix A can be

summarized as follows,

2. Premultiply R by A. S = AR.

4. Solve GB = H for B.

5. Do full eigen-solution of B.

7. Set R = W', where W' is W normalized such that all the vectors have

their largest element equal to unity.

converged, stop.

9. Otherwise go back to 2.

values of A. and R contains the corresponding right eigenvectors. The same

procedure applied to AT provides the m largest eigen values of A and the

associated left eigenvectors. To calculate the smallest eigen values of J R -1,

90

which correspond to the largest eigen values of J R -l, the simultaneous iteration

algorithm has to be applied to J R -l. At each iteration, the premultiplication is,

S = J R -1R (4.15)

To fully exploit the sparsity of the Jacobian matrix S in (4.15) is obtained by

solving the following sparse linear equations,

J Pθ J PV Z 0 J Pθ J PV Z 0

= = (4.16)

J Qθ J QV S R J Qθ J QV S R

eigen values and the corresponding right and left eigenvectors. An alternative

approach is to solve for the right and left eigenvectors simultaneously. It

requires in each iteration loop the solutions of J R , S= R and [J R ]T S'= R'.

Because J R is very close to being symmetric, the iteration for left eigenvectors

converges very fast starting with the right eigenvectors as trial vectors. Also,

there may exist cases where only the right eigenvectors are of interest.

Therefore, the lop-sided approach is more efficient and flexible than iterating

on the right and left eigenvectors simultaneously.

1. If Λ i = 0, the ith modal voltage will collapse because any change in that

modal reactive power will cause infinite modal voltage variation.

2. If Λ i >0, the ith modal voltage and ith reactive power variation are along

the same direction, indicating that the system is voltage stable.

3. If Λ i <0, the ith modal voltage and the ith reactive power variation are

along the opposite directions, indicating that the system is voltage

unstable.

91

values of J R are all positive. This is different from dynamic systems where

eigen values with negative real parts are stable. The relationship between

system voltage stability and eigen values of the J R matrix is best understood

by relating the eigen values with the V-Q sensitivities of each bus (which

must be positive for stability). J R can be taken as a symmetric matrix and

therefore the eigen values of J R are close to being purely real. If all the eigen

values are positive, J R is positive definite and the V-Q sensitivities are also

positive, indicating that the system is voltage stable. The system is considered

voltage unstable if at least one of the eigen values is negative. A zero eigen

value of J R means that the system is on the verge of voltage instability.

Furthermore, small eigen values of J R determine the proximity of the system

to being voltage unstable [21]. There is no need to evaluate all the eigen

values of J R of a large power system because it is known that once the

minimum eigen values becomes zeros, the system Jacobian matrix becomes

singular and voltage instability occurs. So the eigen values of importance are

the critical eigen values of the reduced Jacobian matrix J R . Thus, the smallest

eigen values of J R are taken to be the least stable modes of the system. The

rest of the eigen values are neglected because they are considered to be strong

enough modes. Once the minimum eigen values and the corresponding left

and right eigenvectors have been calculated, the participation factor can be

used to identify the weakest node or bus in the system.

of the N modes.

determines an exponentially increasing behavior.

behavior.

92

of each variable in the ith mode.

the ith mode.

planning and operating purposes to avoid the situation where a system

collapse might occur. The problem with P-V and Q-V curves is that, although

reliable, they are rather time consuming to be computed. Hence other indices

that do not require exhaustive calculations and derivation of parameters in

real time have been sought and proposed. Rapid derivation and analysis of

these parameters is important to initiate automatic corrective actions fast

enough to avoid collapse under emergency conditions which arise due to

topological or very fast load changes.

Jacobian matrix. The general load flow analysis can be formulated as

∆P ∆θ

∆Q = [ J ] ∆V (4.17)

J J2

[ J ] = J1 (4.18)

3 J4

∂P ∂P ∂Q ∂Q

=J1 = , J2 = , J3 = , J4 (4.19)

∂θ ∂V ∂θ ∂θ

where J represents the load flow Jacobian matrix. It contains the first

derivatives of active and reactive power mismatch equations, ∆P=∆P(θ,V)

and ∆Q=∆Q(θ,V), with respect to the voltage magnitude V and angles θ. It is

93

equations in relation to voltage magnitude by assuming that the generator and

load buses present no active power variation, i.e. ∆P=0. Jacobian matrix J can

be reduced as follows:

∆Q = J R .∆V (4.20)

J=

R J 4 − J 3 J1−1 J 2 (4.21)

matrix can be used to determine proximity to voltage collapse [21].

The participation factor of the jth variable in the ith mode is defined as

the product of the jth´s components of the right and left eigenvectors

corresponding to the ith mode

they are independent on the units of the state variables. In addition, both the

sum of the participation factors of all variables in a mode and the sum of the

participation of all modes in a variable are equal to one [26].

be observed more closely. The appropriate definition and determination as to

which node or load bus participates in the selected modes become very

important. This necessitates a tool, called the participation factor, for

identifying the weakest nodes or load buses that are making significant

contribution to the selected modes. If ξ i and η i represent the right- and left-

hand eigenvectors, respectively, for the eigenvalue Λi of the matrix J R , then

94

the participation factor measuring the participation of the kth bus in ith mode is

defined as

P ki = ξkiη ki

Note that for all the small eigenvalues, bus participation factors

determine the area close to voltage instability. The node or bus k with highest

P ki is the most contributing factor in determining the V-Q sensitivity at ith

mode. Therefore, the bus participation factor determines the area close to

voltage instability provided by the smallest eigenvalue of J R. A Matlab m-file

is developed to compute the participating factor at i th mode.

95

96

TECHNIQUE

found out by the following steps.

MATLAB.

the affected area.

97

The test system as shown in figure 4.2 consists of two similar areas

connected by a weak tie [21]. Each area consists of two coupling units each

having a rating of 900MVA and 20kv. The system parameters are listed as

follows:

TRANSFORMER DATA

X = 0.15 p.u

LINE DATA

r = 0.0001p.u/km

X L = 0.001p.u/km

GENERATOR DATA

The data’s of the coupling units specified in the system are tabulated in

table 4.1

Synchronous Angle

P [MW] Q [MVAr] Et [ p.u]

machine [Deg]

G1 700 185 1.03 20.2

G2 700 235 1.01 10.5

G3 719 176 1.03 -6.8

G4 700 202 1.01 -17.0

98

LOAD DATA

For the load flow analysis the respective datas are specified in table

4.3. The load flow analysis is calculated by the Newton Raphson’s Method.

No. (pu) (Degree) (MW) (Mvar) (MW) (Mvar) Type

1 1.03 20.20 0.7778 0.2055 0.0000 0.0000 1

2 1.01 10.50 0.7778 0.2611 0.0000 0.0000 2

3 1.03 -6.80 0.7890 0.1955 0.0000 0.0000 2

4 1.01 -17.00 0.7778 0.2244 0.0000 0.0000 2

5 1.00 0.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 3

6 1.00 0.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 3

7 1.00 0.00 0.0000 0.0000 1.0744 0.1111 3

8 1.00 0.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 3

9 1.00 0.00 0.0000 0.0000 1.9633 0.1111 3

10 1.00 0.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 3

11 1.00 0.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 3

99

The output data which is obtained after the performance of the load

flow analysis by Newton Raphson’s load flow program is shown in table 4.4

Generation

BUS VOLTAGE Angle Load (p.u)

(p.u)

NUMBER (p.u) (p.u)

Real Reactive Real Reactive

The Voltage Profile graph which shows the voltages of all the buses in

the system after the load flow analysis is represented in the graph as shown in

figure 4.3.

100

for the respective buses are calculated. The Eigen value and the Participation

factor tabulation are shown in table 4.5 and 4.6

EIGEN

Load Buses

VALUE

5 239.8881

6 62.5475

7 7.4293

8 3.39553

9 21.0177

10 61.3194

11 238.8125

101

NUMBERS FACTOR

5 0.110

6 0.129

7 0.146

8 0.224

9 0.148

10 0.131

11 0.112

the test system is represented in figure 4.4

102

From the modal analysis calculation and the load flow analysis it is

found that the participation factor is more for the Bus 8, (Participation value

=0.224) hence the bus is more sensitive to voltage collapse.

similar areas connected by the weak tie. Each area consists of 2 coupling units

each having a rating of 900MVA and 20KV. The PV based STATCOM is

interfaced to the system at the weak bus as in figure 4.5.

Figure 4.5 Test System with PV based STATCOM connected to weak bus

The weakest bus of the system is analysed and the bus is subjected to

an additional load so as to create a further voltage collapse to the system. It is

then tested whether the STATCOM is able to provide compensation for the

system at that bus to which it is connected.

the test system is as shown in the figure 4.6. It is found to be present within

the predefined voltage limits.

103

The simulation of the test system is conducted for the period of 1 second.

Q L =500MVAr is connected to the weakest bus in the system at the instant

0.25sec. The voltage is observed to decrease after the inclusion of the load

and propagates till the complete simulation period as shown in the figure 4.7.

104

4.8.3 CASE 3

In this case the load is added to the weakest bus at 0.25sec and is

allowed to be connected till the end of the simulation. At 0.5 sec PV array

STATCOM is brought into action and after 0.52 sec system is compensated

and system is restored to normal condition after 0.52 sec as shown in figure

4.8

TABULATED RESULTS

Case

Condition Voltage profile

No

Case1 Under normal condition Voltage is maintained at 1 pu

constraint

Case2 Load is connected at 0.25sec and Voltage profile finds a dip below

sustains till the complete 1pu value

simulation

Case3 Load is connected at 0.25sec and Voltage falls below 1pu and after

the STATCOM is acted at 0.5sec inclusion of STATCOM the

and system is restored to normal profile is restored at 0.52 sec

condition at about 0.52sec within limits

105

4.9 SUMMARY

proposed PV based STATCOM. The voltage stability analysis and

identification of point of voltage collapse using modal analysis has been

described in brief. It deals with the approach of locating the weakest bus and

providing reactive power compensation to it. The ability of the PV based

STATCOM in voltage stability enhancement is analysed using a test system.

The weak bus in the test system is identified using modal analysis

method. Further the PV array based STATCOM is implemented and

interfaced with the test system. A load of fixed value is connected to the weak

bus of test system to create a voltage dip and PV based STATCOM acts upon

the system to provide the required compensation. The system voltage is

restored to normal condition.

STATCOM for voltage stability enhancement. With such functionality, PV

arrays can improve the voltage stability while continuing to generate revenues

from sale of real power during the day. Further, depending upon the size of

the PV solar system, the utility bus voltage can also be effectively regulated

resulting in improved operating conditions of the network.

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