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Today the analysis of voltage stability could be divided into several

points of attack. One approach is analytical analysis on small networks with
mathematical bifurcations as the stability criterion. A special case of this
method is the analysis of the smallest singular value or the minimum eigen
value. In Modal analysis, the eigenvectors of the system representation is also
used sometimes. The smallest singular value and modal analysis can be used
on large networks. A second approach is to find the extremes of either the P-V
curve or the Q-V curve by some type of load-flow calculations, where the
“distance” between the current working point and the extremes is a stability
criterion. Time domain simulation is yet another approach for analysis.
Sometimes these different methods are mixed so that two different methods
are presented simultaneously to gain further insight into the phenomenon.

This chapter presents the effectiveness of utilizing the existing solar

farm as PV based STATCOM for voltage stability enhancement. The location
for connecting the PV based STATCOM is identified using modal analysis
technique. Additional loads are connected in the weak bus and the ability of
PV based STATCOM in increasing the voltage stability of the system is
discussed with simulation results.


Voltage stability is concerned with the ability of the power system to

maintain acceptable voltages at all buses in the system under normal
conditions and after being subjected to disturbance. A system enters a state of

voltage instability when a disturbance, increase in load demand, or change in

system condition causes a progressive and uncontrollable decline in voltage.
The main factor causing instability is the inability of the power system to
meet the demand for reactive power.

The following section deals with the various techniques available for
performing voltage stability analysis.


Different methods exist in the literature for carrying out a steady state
voltage stability analysis. The conventional methods can be broadly classified
into the following types.

1. P-V curve method.

2. Q-V curve method and reactive power reserve.

3. Methods based on singularity of power flow Jacobian matrix at the

point of voltage collapse. (Modal analysis)

4. Continuation power flow method.

4.3.1 P-V curve method

This is one of the widely used methods of voltage stability analysis.

This gives the available amount of active power margin before the point of
voltage instability. For radial systems, the voltage of the critical bus is
monitored against the changes in real power consumption. For large meshed
networks, P can be the total active load in the load area and V can be the
voltage of the critical or representative bus. Real power transfer through a
transmission interface or interconnection also can be studied by this method.

4.3.2 Q-V curve method and reactive power reserve

The Q-V curve method is one of the most popular ways to investigate
voltage instability problems in power systems during the post transient period
[18], [21],[29], [30]. Unlike the P-V curve method, it doesn’t require the
system to be represented as two-bus equivalent. Voltage at a test bus or
critical bus is plotted against reactive power at that bus. A fictitious
synchronous generator with zero active power and no reactive power limit is
connected to the test bus. The power-flow program is run for a range of
specified voltages with the test bus treated as the generator bus. Reactive
power at the bus is noted from the power flow solutions and plotted against
the specified voltage. The operating point corresponding to zero reactive
power represents the condition when the fictitious reactive power source is
removed from the test bus.

4.3.3 Method based on singularity of power-flow Jacobian matrix at the

point of voltage collapse

A number of methods have been proposed in the literature that uses the
fact that the power flow Jacobian matrix becomes singular at the point of
voltage collapse. Modal analysis of the Jacobian matrix is one of the most
popular methods.

The proposed project uses Modal analysis to determine the weakest

bus and identify the location of connecting the designed STATCOM and
hence modal analysis is explained more briefly further.

4.3.4 Continuation Powerflow

It is numerically difficult to obtain a powerflow solution near the

voltage collapse point, since the Jacobian matrix becomes singular.
Continuation powerflow is a technique by which the powerflow solutions can

be obtained near or at the voltage collapse point. Normally the loading factor
is the varying parameter; however, as the system gets closer to bifurcation the
classical power flow Jacobian becomes ill-conditioned. A parameterization
makes the power flow Jacobian nonsingular at the voltage collapse point. The
method naturally goes around the collapse point, allowing the user to trace the
unstable side of the branch.


The modal analysis mainly depends on the power-flow Jacobian

matrix. A flowchart for the modal method analysis used in this study is shown
in figure 4.2.

A system is voltage stable at a given operating condition if for every

bus in the system, bus voltage magnitude increases as reactive power injection
at the same bus is increased. A system is said to be voltage unstable, if the
voltage magnitude decreases at one bus in the system, as the reactive power
injection at the same bus is increased. In other words, a system is voltage
stable if Q-V sensitivity is positive for every bus and unstable if Q-V
sensitivity is negative for at least one bus.


The linearized steady state system power voltage equations are given by.



∆P = Incremental Change in Bus Real Power.

∆Q = Incremental Change in Bus Reactive Power.

∆θ = Incremental Change in Bus Voltage Angle.


∆V = Incremental Change in Bus Voltage Magnitude.

If the conventional powerflow model is used for voltage stability

 ∆P   J Pθ J PV   ∆θ 
analysis   =   the Jacobian matrix in (4.1) is the same as
 ∆Q   J Qθ J QV   ∆V 

the Jacobian matrix used when the powerflow equations are solved using the
Newton-Raphson technique. With enhanced device models included, the
elements of the Jacobian matrix in (4.1) are modified as discussed as follows.
System voltage stability is affected by both P and Q. However. at each
operating point P is kept constant and voltage stability is evaluated by
considering the incremental relationship between Q and V. This is analogous
to the Q-V curve approach. Although incremental changes in P are neglected
in the formulation, the effects of changes in system load or power transfer
levels are taken into account by studying the incremental relationship between
Q and Vat different operating conditions.

To reduce [4.1], let ∆P = 0, then,

= J R ∆V (4.2)


∆V = J R -1 ∆Q (4.3)



J R is called the reduced Jacobian matrix of the system. J R is the matrix

which directly relates the bus voltage magnitude and bus reactive power
injection. Eliminating the real power and angle part from the system steady

state equations allows us to focus on the study of the reactive demand and
supply problem of the system as well as minimize computational effort.

The program developed also provides the option of performing eigen-

analysis of the full Jacobian matrix. If the full Jacobian is used, however, the
results represent the relationship between (∆θ, ∆V) and (∆P, ∆Q). Since ∆θ is
included in the formulation, it is difficult to discern the relationship between
∆V and (∆P, ∆Q) which is of primary importance for voltage stability
analysis. Also modal analysis using the full Jacobian matrix is
computationally more expensive than using the reduced Jacobian. For these
reasons the reduced Jacobian approach is chosen.

Modes of Voltage Stability:


JR = ξ∧η (4.5)


ξ = Right Eigenvector Matrix of J R.

∧ = Diagonal Eigen value Matrix of J R.

η = Left Eigenvector Matrix of J R.


J R -1 = ξΛ-1η (4.6)

From [4.3] and [4.6] we have;

∆V = ξΛ-1η ∆Q (4.7)



Where ξ i is the ith column right eigenvector and η i, the ith row left
eigenvector of J R . Similar to the concept used in linear dynamic system
analysis each eigen value A and the corresponding right and left eigenvectors
ξ i and η i are the ith mode of the system.

The ith modal reactive power variation is,

∆Q mi = Ki ξi (4.9)



with Σξji the jth element of ξ i.

The corresponding ith modal voltage variation is.

∆V mi = (1/Λ i) * ∆Q mi (4.11)

It is seen that, when the reactive power variation is along the direction
of ξ ji , the corresponding voltage variation is also along the same direction and
the magnitude is amplified by a factor which is equal to the magnitude of the
inverse of the ith eigen value.

In this sense the magnitude of each eigen value Λ i, determines the

weakness of the corresponding modal voltage. The smaller the magnitude of
Λ I , the weaker is the corresponding modal voltage. If Λ i =0,the i* modal
voltage will collapse because any change in that modal reactive power will
cause infinite modal voltage variation. Let ∆Q= e k where e k has all its
elements zero except the kth one being 1.



with η ik the kth element of η i;

V-Q Sensitivity at Bus k,


A system is voltage stable if the eigen values of the Jacobian are all
positive. The relationship between system voltage stability and eigen values
of the Jacobian J, is best understood by relating the eigen values of J, with the
V-Q sensitivities, (which must be positive for stability), at each bus.

For practical purposes, J, can be taken as a symmetric matrix and

therefore, the eigen values of J R are close to being purely real. If all the eigen
values are positive, J, is positive definite thus V-Q sensitivities are also
positive indicating that the system is voltage stable. As the system is stressed,
the eigen values of J R become smaller at the critical point of system voltage
stability, at least one of the eigen values of J R , becomes zero.

If some of the eigen values of J R are negative, the system has passed
the critical point of voltage stability because the eigen values of J R change
continuously from positive to zero to negative as the system is stressed. While
the magnitude of the eigen values can provide a relative measure of the
proximity to instability, they do not provide an absolute measure because of
the non-linearity problem. This is analogous to the damping factor in small
signal stability analysis, which is indicative of the degree of damping but is
not an absolute measure of stability margin. If a megawatt distance to voltage
instability is required, the system is stressed incrementally until it becomes
unstable and modal analysis applied at each operating point. The application

of modal analysis is to help in determining the stability of the system. It is

also used to determine the amount of extra load or power transfer level that
should be added, when the system reaches voltage stability critical point. In
addition to that it helps in determining the voltage stability critical areas and
to describe the mechanism of instability by identifying elements which
participate in each mode. By Participations, the participation factor of bus k to
mode is defined as.

P ki = ξ ik * η ik (4.14)

P ki indicates the contribution of the ith eigen value to the Q-V

sensitivity at bus k. The bigger the value of P M , the more A, contributes in
determining Q-V sensitivity at bus k. For all the small eigen values, bus
participation factors determine the areas close to voltage instability.



It is impractical and unnecessary to calculate all the eigen values of a

system with several thousand buses. An algorithm has been developed for
calculating the minimum singular value and the corresponding left and right
singular vectors for both the full Jacobian and the reduced Jacobian. The
problem in using the minimum singular value or the minimum eigen value as
voltage stability index, lies in the fact that for a large complex system there
are usually more than one weak mode associated with different parts of the
system. As a system is stressed, the mode associated with the minimum
singular value or the minimum eigen value of the base case system may no
longer be the most troublesome mode. If the m smallest eigen values of J, are
determined. If the biggest of the m eigen values, say mode m. is deemed a
strong enough mode, the modes which are not calculated can be neglected
because they are known to be stronger than mode m. An Implicit Inverse Lop-

sided Simultaneous Iteration (IILSI) technique is used to calculate the m

smallest eigen values of J R and associated right and left eigenvectors. The
IILSI algorithm can be viewed as a combination of the simultaneous iteration
method and implicit inverse iteration method. Lop-sided simultaneous
iteration method for calculating m eigen values with the largest magnitudes
and the associated right eigenvectors for a general real matrix A can be
summarized as follows,

1. Select m initial trial vectors R=[R 1 , R2…… &R m ].

2. Premultiply R by A. S = AR.

3. Determine G = RHR, H = RHS.

4. Solve GB = H for B.

5. Do full eigen-solution of B.

6. Determine W = ST. with T the right eigenvector matrix of B.

7. Set R = W', where W' is W normalized such that all the vectors have
their largest element equal to unity.

8. Check convergence by comparing the last two solutions of R. If

converged, stop.

9. Otherwise go back to 2.

Upon convergence the eigen values of B give the m largest eigen

values of A. and R contains the corresponding right eigenvectors. The same
procedure applied to AT provides the m largest eigen values of A and the
associated left eigenvectors. To calculate the smallest eigen values of J R -1,

which correspond to the largest eigen values of J R -l, the simultaneous iteration
algorithm has to be applied to J R -l. At each iteration, the premultiplication is,

S = J R -1R (4.15)

Since J R = J Q v - J Qθ J Pθ -lJ Q v, which is not sparse due to the reduction.

To fully exploit the sparsity of the Jacobian matrix S in (4.15) is obtained by
solving the following sparse linear equations,

 J Pθ J PV   Z   0   J Pθ J PV   Z   0 
  =   = (4.16)
 J Qθ J QV   S   R   J Qθ J QV   S   R 

The method is applied to J R and [J R ] T in turn to calculate the smallest

eigen values and the corresponding right and left eigenvectors. An alternative
approach is to solve for the right and left eigenvectors simultaneously. It
requires in each iteration loop the solutions of J R , S= R and [J R ]T S'= R'.
Because J R is very close to being symmetric, the iteration for left eigenvectors
converges very fast starting with the right eigenvectors as trial vectors. Also,
there may exist cases where only the right eigenvectors are of interest.
Therefore, the lop-sided approach is more efficient and flexible than iterating
on the right and left eigenvectors simultaneously.

1. If Λ i = 0, the ith modal voltage will collapse because any change in that
modal reactive power will cause infinite modal voltage variation.

2. If Λ i >0, the ith modal voltage and ith reactive power variation are along
the same direction, indicating that the system is voltage stable.

3. If Λ i <0, the ith modal voltage and the ith reactive power variation are
along the opposite directions, indicating that the system is voltage

In general it can be said that, a system is voltage stable if the eigen

values of J R are all positive. This is different from dynamic systems where
eigen values with negative real parts are stable. The relationship between
system voltage stability and eigen values of the J R matrix is best understood
by relating the eigen values with the V-Q sensitivities of each bus (which
must be positive for stability). J R can be taken as a symmetric matrix and
therefore the eigen values of J R are close to being purely real. If all the eigen
values are positive, J R is positive definite and the V-Q sensitivities are also
positive, indicating that the system is voltage stable. The system is considered
voltage unstable if at least one of the eigen values is negative. A zero eigen
value of J R means that the system is on the verge of voltage instability.
Furthermore, small eigen values of J R determine the proximity of the system
to being voltage unstable [21]. There is no need to evaluate all the eigen
values of J R of a large power system because it is known that once the
minimum eigen values becomes zeros, the system Jacobian matrix becomes
singular and voltage instability occurs. So the eigen values of importance are
the critical eigen values of the reduced Jacobian matrix J R . Thus, the smallest
eigen values of J R are taken to be the least stable modes of the system. The
rest of the eigen values are neglected because they are considered to be strong
enough modes. Once the minimum eigen values and the corresponding left
and right eigenvectors have been calculated, the participation factor can be
used to identify the weakest node or bus in the system.

The system response is the combination of the system response to each

of the N modes.

1. The eigen values determine the system stability. A real eigenvalue

determines an exponentially increasing behavior.

2. A complex eigenvalue of positive real part results in an oscillatory


3. The components of the right eigenvector measure the relative activity

of each variable in the ith mode.

4. The components of the left eigenvector weight the initial conditions in

the ith mode.


Parameters based on measurement of system conditions are useful for

planning and operating purposes to avoid the situation where a system
collapse might occur. The problem with P-V and Q-V curves is that, although
reliable, they are rather time consuming to be computed. Hence other indices
that do not require exhaustive calculations and derivation of parameters in
real time have been sought and proposed. Rapid derivation and analysis of
these parameters is important to initiate automatic corrective actions fast
enough to avoid collapse under emergency conditions which arise due to
topological or very fast load changes.

Appropriate effective indicators could be based on reduced load flow

Jacobian matrix. The general load flow analysis can be formulated as

 ∆P   ∆θ 
 ∆Q  = [ J ]  ∆V  (4.17)
   

J J2 
[ J ] =  J1  (4.18)
 3 J4 

∂P ∂P ∂Q ∂Q
=J1 = , J2 = , J3 = , J4 (4.19)
∂θ ∂V ∂θ ∂θ

where J represents the load flow Jacobian matrix. It contains the first
derivatives of active and reactive power mismatch equations, ∆P=∆P(θ,V)
and ∆Q=∆Q(θ,V), with respect to the voltage magnitude V and angles θ. It is

proposed to reduce the Jacobian to the first derivative of reactive power

equations in relation to voltage magnitude by assuming that the generator and
load buses present no active power variation, i.e. ∆P=0. Jacobian matrix J can
be reduced as follows:

∆Q = J R .∆V (4.20)

R J 4 − J 3 J1−1 J 2 (4.21)

where J R is reduced Jacobian matrix. The singular value of this reduced

matrix can be used to determine proximity to voltage collapse [21].


4.5.1 Participation factors

The participation factor of the jth variable in the ith mode is defined as
the product of the jth´s components of the right and left eigenvectors
corresponding to the ith mode

Participation factors are dimensionless magnitudes. In other words,

they are independent on the units of the state variables. In addition, both the
sum of the participation factors of all variables in a mode and the sum of the
participation of all modes in a variable are equal to one [26].

The minimum Eigenvalues, which become close to instability, need to

be observed more closely. The appropriate definition and determination as to
which node or load bus participates in the selected modes become very
important. This necessitates a tool, called the participation factor, for
identifying the weakest nodes or load buses that are making significant
contribution to the selected modes. If ξ i and η i represent the right- and left-
hand eigenvectors, respectively, for the eigenvalue Λi of the matrix J R , then

the participation factor measuring the participation of the kth bus in ith mode is
defined as

P ki = ξkiη ki

Note that for all the small eigenvalues, bus participation factors
determine the area close to voltage instability. The node or bus k with highest
P ki is the most contributing factor in determining the V-Q sensitivity at ith
mode. Therefore, the bus participation factor determines the area close to
voltage instability provided by the smallest eigenvalue of J R. A Matlab m-file
is developed to compute the participating factor at i th mode.

Figure 4.1 Flowchart Representation of Modal Analysis




The location of the STATCOM by Modal analysis technique can be

found out by the following steps.

• Determination of Voltage profile (Base case) using N-R method in


• Modal analysis for predicting the voltage collapse.

• Calculation of Participation factor.

• Remedial Measure:- Incorporating the designed PV STATCOM into

the affected area.


Figure 4.2 Single line diagram of test system


The test system as shown in figure 4.2 consists of two similar areas
connected by a weak tie [21]. Each area consists of two coupling units each
having a rating of 900MVA and 20kv. The system parameters are listed as


(base MVA = 900 and KV = 20/230)

X = 0.15 p.u


(base MVA = 100 and KV = 230)

r = 0.0001p.u/km

X L = 0.001p.u/km

Bc= 0.00175 p.u/km


The data’s of the coupling units specified in the system are tabulated in
table 4.1


Synchronous Angle
P [MW] Q [MVAr] Et [ p.u]
machine [Deg]
G1 700 185 1.03 20.2
G2 700 235 1.01 10.5
G3 719 176 1.03 -6.8
G4 700 202 1.01 -17.0


The load that is connected to the system is shown in table 4.2.

Table 4.2 LOAD DATA

Bus Number P L [MW] Q L [MVAr] Q C [MVAr]

7 967 100 200

9 1767 100 350


For the load flow analysis the respective datas are specified in table
4.3. The load flow analysis is calculated by the Newton Raphson’s Method.

Table 4.3 INPUT DATA

Bus Voltage Angle Gen. Gen. Load Load Bus

No. (pu) (Degree) (MW) (Mvar) (MW) (Mvar) Type
1 1.03 20.20 0.7778 0.2055 0.0000 0.0000 1
2 1.01 10.50 0.7778 0.2611 0.0000 0.0000 2
3 1.03 -6.80 0.7890 0.1955 0.0000 0.0000 2
4 1.01 -17.00 0.7778 0.2244 0.0000 0.0000 2
5 1.00 0.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 3
6 1.00 0.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 3
7 1.00 0.00 0.0000 0.0000 1.0744 0.1111 3
8 1.00 0.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 3
9 1.00 0.00 0.0000 0.0000 1.9633 0.1111 3
10 1.00 0.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 3
11 1.00 0.00 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 3


The output data which is obtained after the performance of the load
flow analysis by Newton Raphson’s load flow program is shown in table 4.4


BUS VOLTAGE Angle Load (p.u)
NUMBER (p.u) (p.u)
Real Reactive Real Reactive

1 1.030 20.200 0.704 0.074 0.000 0.000

2 1.010 19.987 0.778 -0.037 0.000 0.000

3 1.030 16.239 0.789 0.109 0.000 0.000

4 1.010 15.210 0.778 -0.009 0.000 0.000

5 1.024 14.457 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

6 1.022 13.498 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

7 1.022 12.681 0.000 0.000 1.074 0.111

8 1.029 10.197 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

9 1.017 7.825 0.000 0.000 1.963 0.111

10 1.018 8.693 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

11 1.021 9.776 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000


The Voltage Profile graph which shows the voltages of all the buses in
the system after the load flow analysis is represented in the graph as shown in
figure 4.3.

Figure 4.3 Voltage profile


Using MATLAB programming the eigen value and participation factor

for the respective buses are calculated. The Eigen value and the Participation
factor tabulation are shown in table 4.5 and 4.6


Load Buses

5 239.8881

6 62.5475

7 7.4293

8 3.39553

9 21.0177

10 61.3194

11 238.8125




5 0.110

6 0.129

7 0.146

8 0.224

9 0.148

10 0.131

11 0.112

The graphical representation of the Participation factor for the buses in

the test system is represented in figure 4.4



From the modal analysis calculation and the load flow analysis it is
found that the participation factor is more for the Bus 8, (Participation value
=0.224) hence the bus is more sensitive to voltage collapse.


The test system is modelled as a three phase system. It consists of two

similar areas connected by the weak tie. Each area consists of 2 coupling units
each having a rating of 900MVA and 20KV. The PV based STATCOM is
interfaced to the system at the weak bus as in figure 4.5.

Figure 4.5 Test System with PV based STATCOM connected to weak bus

The weakest bus of the system is analysed and the bus is subjected to
an additional load so as to create a further voltage collapse to the system. It is
then tested whether the STATCOM is able to provide compensation for the
system at that bus to which it is connected.


Under normal operating conditions the voltage waveform obtained for

the test system is as shown in the figure 4.6. It is found to be present within
the predefined voltage limits.

The simulation of the test system is conducted for the period of 1 second.

Figure 4.6 Voltage Waveform for Normal Condition


As the system is operated at standard condition, a load P L = 10MW,

Q L =500MVAr is connected to the weakest bus in the system at the instant
0.25sec. The voltage is observed to decrease after the inclusion of the load
and propagates till the complete simulation period as shown in the figure 4.7.

Figure 4.7 Voltage waveform after inclusion of Load


4.8.3 CASE 3

In this case the load is added to the weakest bus at 0.25sec and is
allowed to be connected till the end of the simulation. At 0.5 sec PV array
STATCOM is brought into action and after 0.52 sec system is compensated
and system is restored to normal condition after 0.52 sec as shown in figure

Figure 4.8 Voltage waveform after STATCOM compensation


Condition Voltage profile
Case1 Under normal condition Voltage is maintained at 1 pu
Case2 Load is connected at 0.25sec and Voltage profile finds a dip below
sustains till the complete 1pu value
Case3 Load is connected at 0.25sec and Voltage falls below 1pu and after
the STATCOM is acted at 0.5sec inclusion of STATCOM the
and system is restored to normal profile is restored at 0.52 sec
condition at about 0.52sec within limits


This chapter has highlighted on voltage stability enhancement of the

proposed PV based STATCOM. The voltage stability analysis and
identification of point of voltage collapse using modal analysis has been
described in brief. It deals with the approach of locating the weakest bus and
providing reactive power compensation to it. The ability of the PV based
STATCOM in voltage stability enhancement is analysed using a test system.

The weak bus in the test system is identified using modal analysis
method. Further the PV array based STATCOM is implemented and
interfaced with the test system. A load of fixed value is connected to the weak
bus of test system to create a voltage dip and PV based STATCOM acts upon
the system to provide the required compensation. The system voltage is
restored to normal condition.

Thus, this work demonstrates the optimal utilization of PV array as

STATCOM for voltage stability enhancement. With such functionality, PV
arrays can improve the voltage stability while continuing to generate revenues
from sale of real power during the day. Further, depending upon the size of
the PV solar system, the utility bus voltage can also be effectively regulated
resulting in improved operating conditions of the network.