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Hemp BioDiesel

Feliciana Ra’oof

TAF Academy

Abstract
(200 words max) - describes and summarizes your research/study

A good abstract serves the function of “selling you work. It is critical that you can write a
complete and concise description of your work to entice potential readers (and judges) into
learning more about your project. As you work on writing an abstract for your project, use the
following checklist to ensure the following points:

Categories Questions to consider Check-off

Motivation Why do we care about the problem and the results? x

Describe the importance of your work, the difficulty of the area, and the impact it
might have if successful.
The future of hemp biodiesel is crucial with its ability to replace gasoline and diesel
fuels that release harmful chemicals that harm our environment causing animals to
become endangered species, loss of natural habitats, rising of sea levels, and melting
of icebergs.

Problem What problem are you trying to solve? x


statement
What is the scope of your work (a generalized approach, or for a specific situation)?

***Be careful not to use too much jargon. In some cases it is appropriate to put the
problem statement before the motivation, but usually this only works if most readers
already understand why the problem is important.

In 2017, concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere reached record speed and
is affecting Earth’s animals and their habitats.

Approach How did you go about solving or making progress on the problem? x

Did you use simulation, analytic models, prototype construction, or analysis of field
data for an actual product?

What was the extent of your work (did you look at one application program or a
hundred programs in twenty different programming languages?)

What important variables did you control, ignore, or measure?


To tackle this problem, I created a project that would decrease how much fossil fuels
are burned by using extracted oil from hemp seeds to create biodiesel. I measured the
quality of the fuel with a test kit testing for catalysts, glycerins, soaps, and acids are in
the fuel and quantitative tests testing for water and the level of the fuel’s ph.

Results What's the result of the project? x

Briefly describe the data collected from doing the project. Put the result there, in
numbers. Avoid vague, hand-waving results such as "very", "small", or "significant."
Doing this project I found out the biodiesel would work in diesel engines, with 0
traces of water, ph level averaged at 6.23, and phLIp test results look identical to the
manual.

Conclusions What are the implications of your results/project? x


- Is it going to change the world, be a significant "win", be a nice hack, or
simply serve as a road sign indicating that this path is a waste of time (all of
the previous results are useful).
- Are your results general, potentially generalizable, or specific to a particular
case?
- What might have affected the progress/results of your project?
- Moving forward, how would you expand on your current project? What
would you do differently? What would be a good follow-up study based on
your project results?
.My biodiesel has the potential to change the way people get from one place to
another without having to burn fossil fuels into the atmosphere. The hemp seed
biodiesel produced at least 74% less carbon dioxide compared to petroleum diesel.
Next thing to do with the biodiesel, is to find out exactly how many ppm of soap is in
the fuel

Abstract
The future of hemp biodiesel is crucial with its ability to replace gasoline and diesel fuels that release
harmful chemicals that harm our environment causing animals to become endangered species, loss of
natural habitats, and melting of icebergs. The problem is the concentration of carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere reached record speed and is affecting Earth’s animals and their habitats. I created fuel that
would decrease how much co2 is released by using extracted oil from hemp seeds to create biodiesel. I
measured the quality of the fuel with a test kit testing for catalysts, glycerins, soaps, and acids are in the
fuel and quantitative tests testing for water and the level of the fuel’s ph. I found out the biodiesel would
work in diesel engines, with 0 traces of water, ph level averaged at 6.23, and phLIp test results look
identical to the manual. My biodiesel has the potential to change the way people get from one place to
another. The hemp seed biodiesel produced at least 74% less carbon dioxide compared to petroleum
diesel. Next I would find out exactly how many ppm of soap is in the fuel and get it to ASTM standards.

Literature Review
Research is before project was changed from gasoline to diesel.
INTRODUCTION
Imagine a fuel created to reduce the amount of fossil fuels humans burn to slow down climate
change. Instead using gasoline that releases CO2 in the air causing the endangerment of animals
and layout of the earth, a biofuel made of hemp. A plant that is gentle on the Earth and easy to
grow substituted for gasoline. I think that this topic is important because species are dying out do
to climate change caused by the high amounts of CO2 in the air making the Earth warmer than
its supposed to. I know that hemp is already used to make a variety of things such as paper,
shoes, milk, and clothes. In order to do this project, I need to find out how to turn hemp into
ethanol and a alternative for the harmful oils in gasoline using natural materials that don’t harm
the earth for the gasoline portion of fuel.

RESEARCH PROCESS
I started my research with figuring out what hemp is. Seeing what the plant was and why it is
such a sustainable plant for humans. Then I created search terms and keywords to look up using
ProQuest to find find peer reviewed full academic text that is reliable. First, I searched for
articles with benefits, sustainable hemp, hemp materials, and hemp contents search terms. I read
through the abstract to see if it is useful to the project and something can be gained from reading
it. From there, I created some more search terms and keywords to find out more about biofuel
and green renewable energy sources. Terms that were used were biofuel, green energy,
renewable energy, gasoline alternatives, and bio-ethanol. I used these terms in Proquest. Lastly, I
search again on ProQuest for more information on gasoline and its alternatives. Good sources
were found using terms such as gasoline alternatives, hydrocarbon plants, gasoline contents,
green gasoline, and hemp bio-fuel, and gasoline creation process. The two sources I ended up
with were "New Renewable Energy Sources Green Energy Development and Climate Change"
by, Mohmty Manoranjan and "Considerations On The World Wide Use Of Bio-Ethanol As A
Contribution For Sustainability" by, Cortez Luis, Griffin, Micheal, and Scaramucci, Jose.

FINDINGS
Biofuels are a better source of fuel compared to using traditional gasoline that burns fossil fuels
releasing high amounts of CO2 in the air. According to Cortez (2003), “Fiber is the most
abundant raw material available worldwide for ethanol production”. Using bio-ethanol can
replace using gasoline which burns fossil fuels that is harmful to the Earth and increases climate
change and air pollution. Bio-ethanol can be made with fiber from plants such as hemp or
sugarcane which is available worldwide and are easily grown. According to Mohmty
Manornagan (2012) “sugarcane, cassava, jatropha, coconut and oil palm as biofuel feedstocks
have high proportions of CO2 reduction (60-80 per cent)”. Plants high in fiber, sugar, and starch
are great alternatives for gasoline because they have high proportions of CO2 reductions.
Sugarcane contains large amounts of hydrocarbons and sugars, and cassava is starchy allowing
both plants great biofuel feedstocks. According to Mohmty Manornagan (2012) “They are also
inexpensive source of energy, have high-energy value, and the most efficient and clean energy
sources”. Bio-fuels have the potential for reducing GHG emissions and have the ability to
substitute fossil fuels. Sources for biofuels such as plants contain high values of energy and are
inexpensive energy sources.

REFLECTION
I thought finding search terms and sources that would improve my project was a challenge
because most of the sources was telling about how biofuel is good for the environment rather
than the production of it. What I have learned while doing this research will positively impact
my STEM Expo project. I can apply the different feed stocks that reduce amounts of CO2 being
let out in my product or compare those feed stocks to hemp to see which feed stocks are more
effective for replacing the burning of fossil fuels. Doing this research has also given me more
insight on the impacts bio-fuel has on the environment weather its good or bad so that when I get
questions from judges or other audiences I will be able to answer them with reliable information.

Driving Question
How can hemp seed oil be used to produce biodiesel to reduce the amount of co2 being emitted
into the air?

Purpose
For 18 years, U.S scientists have been analyzing satellite photos of Antarctica’s icebergs. In their
studies, they have found that the were icebergs were losing 29,791,000km of ice each year. With
concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere increasing at record speed, the global
warming of the Earth is affecting it’s species and their habitats. Sea levels are rising and
endangerment of animals and insects are appearing. The burning of fossil fuels in transportation
such as cars and airplanes is the top pollutant releasing carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.

Criteria:
- Soap content is under 61
- In order for biodiesel to work in an engine, it the soap content needs to be under
61 or else combustion may occur. Anything under 42 meets ASTM D975
standards.
- Water content needs to be under .2
- Too much water in fuel causes trouble in an engine.
- Passes the phLIp test
- If the biodiesel passes the phLIp test, it means that the fuel can be used in an
engine.

Constraints:
- Fuel washing was messy
- Since the washing was so messy, biodiesel spilled causing the decrease in the
amount of fuel left to be tested
- Soap left in washing jars
- By not washing the jars thoroughly, it added extra soap to biodiesel during
washing creating soapy fuel that does not meet constraints
- Crushed lye after it was added to the methyl alcohol
- By crushing the lye after it was added to the lye resulted in 50 ml of methyl
alcohol to evaporate before the lye could fully dissolve
- Time
- With the little time given, materials got here last minute, mistakes were made
needing to restart, and the creation and separation took up lots of time
- Bromophenol blue turned yellow in isopropyl alcohol
- While testing for soap content, the bromophenol blue was turning yellow when
added to the isopropyl alcohol when it needs to be blue. If it’s already yellow then
when the hydrochloric acid is added, there is no color change.

Experiment Design

Materials Quantity (unit)


- Hot Plate 1

- 300ml beaker 2

- Thermometer 1

- Stand 1

- Clamp 1
- 1000ml jar 2

- Pippet 1

- Hemp Seed Oil 1000ml/2x 16ml

- Funnel 1

- Methyl alcohol 200ml

- Granular Lye 3.5g

- Mixer 1

- 500ml jar 1

- Water 375ml

- Grams Scale 1

- Bromophenol blue 1

- Hydrochloric Acid 1 ml

- Isopropyl alcohol 100 ml

- ml measuring pipette 1

- Magnetic Mixer 1

Phase 1- Creating the Fuel:


1. Measure 3.5g of lye on a grams scale, 200 ml of methyl alcohol in a beaker, and 1,000 ml
of hemp seed oil in a beaker.
2. Crush lye into grains.
3. Combine 200ml of methyl alcohol and 3.5g of granular lye in the mixer. Turn on mixer
to the lowest setting for two minutes.
4. After 2 minutes, add 1000 ml of hemp seed oil to the solution of lye and methyl alcohol.
5. Mix on the lowest setting for 40 minutes.
6. Transfer the solution of lye, methyl alcohol, and hemp seed oil into a glass jar using a
funnel.
7. Let the mixture set for at least 8 hours for separation of biodiesel and glycerin.

Phase 2- Separation:
1. After 8 hours, transfer the top layer of solution into a seperate glass jar using a funnel.
2. Label the glass jar “Unwashed Biodiesel.”
Phase 3- Washing:
1. Measure 125 ml of water in a beaker.

2. Place 125 ml of water on top of hot plate at level 3.


3. Secure the thermometer onto a stand using a clamp.
4. Measure 250 ml of the unwashed biodiesel into a beaker for test trial.
5. Pour 250 ml of biodiesel into a 500 ml jar.
6. When water gets to 90 degrees fahrenheit or 32 degrees celsius, pour water into 500 ml
jar.

7. GENTLY rotate jar from end to end for 30 seconds.


8. Wait for the biodiesel and the water to seperate.
9. Transfer biodiesel into a beaker.
10. Get rid of water.
11. Repeat steps 1-10 4 more times. Each time step 7 is repeated shake the solution a little
more vigorously and for a little 10 seconds longer.
12. By the 5th washing, shake the mixture very harshly and for a minute and 30 seconds.

Phase 4 - Testing:
Quality Test
1. Measure 30 ml methyl alcohol.
2. Measure 4 ml of biodiesel.
3. Heat both 30 ml of methyl alcohol and 4 ml of biodiesel on a hot plate on low till they
both reach 70 degrees fahrenheit or 21 degrees celsius.
4. Add 30 ml of methyl alcohol in a small jar.
5. Add 4 ml of biodiesel to the methyl alcohol.
6. Shake jar for 30 seconds. Allow solution to set for 5 minutes.
7. Record if fallout is visible. If visible, fuel failed.

Soap Content Test


1. Measure 100 ml of isopropyl alcohol into a beaker
2. Turn on magnetic mixer.
3. Add bromophenol blue into isopropyl until it is a deep blue.
4. Measure 12 ml of biodiesel in a pipette
5. Add 12 ml of biodiesel to the solution.
6. Measure 1 ml of hydrochloric acid in a pipette.
7. Drop small drips carefully into solution waiting 2-3 seconds between each drop.
8. Once solution turns a definite yellow color, record how much hydrochloric acid was
added.
9. Multiply 304 and how much hydrochloric acid was added.
10. Record the product

Water Content Test


1. Place jar on a grams scale.
2. Set grams scale to 0.
3. Measure 25ml of biodiesel in a beaker.
4. Pour biodiesel into jar.
5. Record the weight of the biodiesel.
6. Place jar on hot plate.
7. Secure the thermometer onto a stand using a clamp.
8. Heat the biodiesel to 270 degrees fahrenheit, or 132 degrees celsius.
9. Let biodiesel cool for 10 minutes.
10. Reweigh the biodiesel.
11. Subtract weight of current biodiesel to biodiesel before heated to find the the amount of
water in the fuel.

No preliminary designs were made in the process of the project.

Results

Soap Content Test Results

0.01 HCl (ml) Soap (ppm)

.10

.15

.20

● Soap Content formula:


- 304 x hydrochloric acid used = soap content ppm
- 304 is the conversion factor used when reacting the biodiesel with lye

Using ph strips, the ph levels were determined using the color guid provided with the ph
strips. Finding the exact ph was found using a ph probe where we first calibrated it with distilled
water till it went to neutral.
PH Levels Test Results

Trial # PH Level

Trial 1 6

Trial 2 6.2

Trial 3 6.5
Figure 1 shows the ph test strip results. All three came out
as 6.

Water Content Test Results

Trial # Weight of Fuel Weight of Fuel Difference in Fuel Before


Before (g) After (g) & After (g)

Trial 1 17.7 17.7 0

Trial 2 15.69 15.69 0

Trial 3 16.14 16.14 0

● Water Content Formula


- Weight of Fuel Before (g) - Weight of Fuel After (g) = Amount of
Water (g)
As seen in the table, in all three trials the weight of the fuel stayed the same each time.
Since the gram scale often changes its last digit, every number the scale stops on for 3 seconds is
recorded see any of them are the same as the begining weight.
This is where the biodiesel was heated to 90 degrees
fahrenheit for 10 minutes after it was already weighed on a gram scale.

Data Analysis
After doing this project, I found out that hemp seed oil can be used to make fuel that can
produce less carbon dioxide than petroleum diesel. Looking back at my research, I needed to
make a successful biodiesel to produce at least 74% less carbon dioxide compared to petroleum
diesel, and since I was able to according to the 3 different tests I did, the biodiesel did come out
to be a success. There is no presence of water in the fuel so when used in a engine, the car won’t
hesitate when car starts to accelerate. Thanks to the drying of the fuel after it being washed, the
thin white layer (water residue after being washed) on top of the biodiesel evaporated leaving no
water in the biodiesel allowing it to pass the water content test. Since bromophenol blue wasn’t
coming out the way wanted in the isopropyl alcohol, the actual number of soap per million could
not be identified. Thus the amount of soap in the fuel had to be determined using the ph level.
All three ph strips came out to average at 6.23 representing the low amount of sodium hydroxide
in the biodiesel. Since soap is basic in nature, if the fuel’s ph came out to be 8 + tells that there is
too much soap in the biodiesel. The ph level came out to be more acidic than basic because the
fuel was washed several times taking out most of the soap in the biodiesel. With the low amount
of soap in the fuel, when the biodiesel is burned there won't be a ash residue that builds up in
combustion chambers and fuel injectors. Since I washed out the lye with water 5 times, there was
barely any soap in the biodiesel. The phLIp test passed the biodiesel as a successful fuel as well.
There was a clearly two different layers topped off with a mirror finish and the fuel stayed clear
and bright. With all tests coming out successful the fuel is proven that the biodiesel was made
correctly and produces less carbon dioxide than petroleum diesel. In the future, to make this fuel
better, I would find out how to measure the soap quantity and wash the biodiesel down to ASTM
standards at 41 ppm.

References
Cortez, L.A.B., Griffin, M.W, Scaramaucci, J.A, Scandiffio, M.I.G, Braunbeck, O.A, (2003)
Considerations on the worldwide use of bioethanol as a contribution for sustainability.
Management of Environmental Equality, 14.

search.proquest.com/docview/204614970/EBD895BC3FE4442APQ/5?accountid=2057https://se
arch.proquest.com/docview/204614970/EBD895BC3FE4442APQ/5?accountid=2057

Mohanty, M (2012) New renewable energy sources, green energy development and climate
change. Management of Environmental Quality, 23.

https://search.proquest.com/docview/971705337/3738D5B53B5D4F47PQ/1?accountid=2057se
arch.proquest.com/docview/971705337/3738D5B53B5D4F47PQ/1?accountid=2057