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Submitted By: Guided By:

Anupama Das Mr. Nibaran

2nd year. B.B.A. (Faculty of BBA
Enrollment No: 12BAOO7
This is to certify that the project entitled on “CAUSE & EFFECT
OF AIR POLLUTION” has been completed by:-

Anupama Das
Enrollment No.: 12BA007
It embodies data collected and analysis made by the candidate
under guidance of Mr. Nibaran Sathpati faculty member of F.M.
Autonomous Colleges, Balasore.

This is hereby approved as indicating the proficiency of the


Mr. Nibaran sathpati


Dept. of B.B.A.

F.M. Autonomous College,

Certified that Anupama Das in 2nd year B.B.A., A student of
F.M. Autonomous College, Balasore, has done this project Report
entitled “Air Pollution”.

Further it is certified that the project work is original & to the

best of my knowledge.

Date: Nibaran Sathpati

Place: Faculty of B.B.A. dept.

It gives me a unique pleasure in preparing the project work “Air
Pollution” I would to thank my guide who has induced me this idea
regarding doing the project on survey of an Industry.

I also sincerely convey my thanks to our Lecture Mr. Nibaran

Satpathy under whose guidance and immense help I have been able to
proceed in this project with full inspiration.

(Anupama Das)

2nd Year B.B.A.

Enrollment No. 12BA007

I, Anupama Das of 2nd year B.B.A., Enrollment No. 12BA007
do here by declare that this piece of project Report submitted by me
and is of my own creation and this work has not been submitted to any
other institution or published at any time before.

(Anupama Das)

2nd year B.B.A.

Enrollment No. 12BA007

Class Roll No : BA12-030
Enrollment No. : 12BA - 007
Session : 2013-2014

I credit for submitting this project report

as an evidence of my work in

practical B.B.A. 2nd year

Department of Business Administration

And Marketing Management




 Introduction

 Causes Of Air Pollution

 Sources Of Air Pollution

 Effects Of Air Pollution

 Health Impact Of Specific Air pollutants

 Control Devices

 Conclusion
Air is a mixture of some gases, some insert particles and
moisture. When we breathe, all these substances enter into our lungs.
It is never possible by the nose to pick up only needed for our body.
Now there is so much pollutant in the atmosphere that it now almost
impossible to breathe clean air at any part of the globe.

Air pollutants are the materials existing in such

concentrations that it causes harmful effects. It may be noted that
even if pollutants are constantly removed by the process of self
purification process of air. When the addition of pollutants far exceeds
the rate of self purification, accumulation of pollutants leads to serious
threat to public health. Any undesirable substance present in the
atmosphere i.e. in the air, water and soil those cause serious damage
to plants, animals and man are called pollutants unwanted gases and
particles emitted into air are known as air pollutants.
Air pollutants:

Pollutants may be categorised into two

categories i.e. natural and man-made.

1. Natural pollutants:-
The harmful gaseous substances
produced during forest fire, earthquake,
volcanic eruption etc.

2. Man-made pollutants:-
These pollutants are off two types, i.e. a) Gaseous pollutants, b)
Particulate pollutants.

a) Gaseous pollutants & Their sources:-

 Primary pollutant:-
They are never formed in the atmosphere. They are
directly added into the atmospheric air straight from their
sources. Common primary pollutants are:
(i) Carbon Dioxide:-
Most abundant pollutant in the atmosphere ,It is
released from industries and chemical factories like, sugar
factory, steel plant, oil refineries, paper pulp industry etc.
(ii) Carbon Monoxide:-
It is next to carbon dioxide is abundance. It’s main
source is automobile exhaust. During daytime its concentration
is maximum due to heavy vehicular traffic and gradually
decreases at late night.
(iii) Sulphur Dioxide:-
It is one of the principal pollutants of air. It is produced
by the burning of fuel containing sulphur. A large quantity of
these pollutants is produced burning of coal in thermal plants,
from smelter plants for copper
(iv) Hydrogen sulphur and Organic sulphides:-
They are released from natural gas industry, coke and
paper industry, distillation plants for coal-tar, petroleum, rayon.
(v)Oxides of Nitrogen:-
It is next to carbon monoxide in abundance, but much
more dangerous. It is emitted from automobiles, nitric-acid
industry, nylon industry etc.
(vi) Hydrogen Fluoride:-
This is a volatile substances released from aluminium
smelting industry, phosphate fertilizer plants and ceramic
industries. It is dangerous pollutants when its concentration
remains above 0.001 ppm.
(vii) Aldenydes and Organic Acids:-
It is present in a law concentration in the atmosphere.
 Secondary pollutants:-
Secondary pollutants are produced in the atmosphere
from the primary pollutants are mostly formed from the primary
pollutants emitted through automobile exhaust.
b) Particulate pollution and their sources:-
Both solid and liquid particles are present in
atmospheric air. Their ranges from 0.1 micron to 20 micron (1
micron=1000th of a millimetre).Suspension of very small sized
particulates in a gas in called aerosol. Depending on nature and
size, particulate are as follows;
 Dust:
Solid particles with a size ranging from 1 micron to 100
micron from dust. Common examples are sand dust from wood
works, coals dust from collieries, sand particles from sand blasting
 Fume:
The size of particulate is less than 1 micron. They are
produced when metallic vapours and vapour f metallic oxides
 Mist:
The size of these particulates is less than 10 micron. They
are liquid particles produced by condensation of vapours. For
examples, sulphur dioxide gas gets condensed into liquid sulphur
dioxide at a temperature of 22°c.
 Spary:
Liquid particles under atomisation through mechanical
disintegration from spary.Common example in our body sprays and
room sprays.
 Smoke:
Solid or liquid particles ranging from 0.05 to 1.0 micron
from smoke. They are produced due to in complete burning of
hydrocarbon containing compounds. Lead is added to petrol as an
anti-knock substance.
 Nuclear Materials:
Nuclear materials like Carbon-14, Krypton-85, Strontium-
90, Iodine-131, and Calcium-137 etc.are released from nuclear
reactors, chemical processing plants, hospitals and research
laboratories, nuclear weapon testing in the atmosphere and they
are potentially most hazardous.

Common atmospheric pollution source and their pollutants

Category Source Emitting pollutants

Agriculture Open burning Suspended participate
Matter, Carbon monoxide,
Volatile organic compounds.
Mining and Coal mining, crude Suspended participate
Quarrying Oil and gas Matter, sulphur dioxide,
Production Oxides of nitrogen,
Stone quarrying Volatile organic compounds.
Power Electricity, gas Suspended participate
generation Steam Matter, sulphur dioxide.
Oxides of nitrogen, Carbon
Monoxides, Volatile organic
Transport Combustion Suspended participate
engines Matter, sulphur dioxide.
Oxides of nitrogen, carbon
Monoxides, Volatile organic
Compounds. Sulphur
Trioxides lead.
a)Effects on Human:-

All the air pollutants directly affects the respiratory system.

Haemoglobin which transports oxygen to all the tissues in the body
has 240 times more affinity carbon monoxides.

Low levels of sulphur dioxides cause irritation in respiratory

tract causing coughing and sneezing. Still higher concentration causes
profuse secretion of mucas.

(b)Effects on animals:-
When plants are affects with pollutants like fluoride,
arsenic, molybdenum, lead etc.It enters into the body of the grazing
cattle. However, horse and chicken have high resistance to fluorides.
Excess of fluoride leads to abnormal growth of bones. Fluorosis leads
to diarrhoea, bone lesions, weight loss, lower fertility and lower milk
production in farm animals. Ozone causes bleeding in lungs of cats,
dog and rabbit.

(c) Effects on plants:-

Sulphur dioxide is absorbed through the small pores
(stomata) present on the leaves. Fluoride affects wheat, apple, apricot,
fig, peach, lemon, orange etc...Smog damages lettuce, petunia, beans,
ozone bleaches and develops patches on the leaves to tobacco, grape,
spinach and citrus plants(Orange, lemon group).
(d)Effects on House-hold Articles:
Sulphur dioxides get changed to sulphuric acid and
sulphurous acid, when mixed with moisture. These acids are corrosive
in nature. Iron, aluminium and copper get corroded by these acids.

(e)Effects on Atmosphere:

(i) Photochemical Smog:-

This effect was reported for the first time Los Angeles, hence
popularly called as Los Angeles smog.

Smoke and fog together form smog.

Nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons are
the pollutants from the automobile
exhaust. In the presence of sunlight,
oxides of nitrogen and hydrocarbons
react with one another to from ozone and
peroxyl acetyl nitrate (PAN).Nitrogen
dioxide with ozone and PAN appear in
the form of yellowish, brown smog, called
photochemical smog.

Oxides of Nitrogen + Hydrocarbon → Ozone + PAN.

Nitrogen dioxide + Ozone + PAN → Photochemical Smog

(Automobile exhaust) (Yellowish brown in colour)

(ii)Greenhouse Effects:-
Greenhouse is an outdoor laboratory in the form of glass
walls and grass roof for maintaining controlled environment to carry
out experiments on plants. The glass walls of green house allow the
sunlight to enter into the house and do not allow the heat to come out
of it..Another example of this phenomenon.

(iii)Ozone Hole:-
The atmosphere surrounding the earth is divided into many
layers. The layers just over our head is the troposphere, which is 10-15
kilometres in thickness containing several gases, Water vapour and
dust particles. The layer above the troposphere is called the
stratosphere which is above the clouds and having a thickness of 50-55
kms in thickness.

Causes Of Depletion Of Ozone

The villain behind this depletion drama is
chlorofluorocarbons, popularly known as CFCs. Most common
example of CFCs is a gas called Freon which is used as freezing
agent in refrigerator and air condition. CFCs are also used in
perfumes and body sprays. Chlorine is present in CFCs.. One
chlorine atom could destroy 1, 00,000 molecules of ozone before
itself getting converted into hydrochloric acid.

The reactions are as follows:

Ozone + chlorine → Chlorine monoxide + Oxygen
Ozone + Chlorine monoxide → chloride + Oxygen
Chloride + Water vapour in atmosphere → Hydrochloric Acid
Hence, each chlorine atom before getting converted into
Hydrochloric acid damages about 1, 00,000 molecules of Ozone.

Each year 6000 people are drying of skin cancer in U.S.A. In
Australia and Newzeland cases of skin cancer are rising by 7% every
year. Unchecked ultraviolet rays could cause DNA disorder and
mutation in cells.

(iv) Acid Rain:

We have already known that sulphur dioxide and Nitrogen
oxides are the common air pollutants. These two gases react with the
react with the water vapour present in the atmosphere and get
converted into sulphuric and nitric acids.

The reactions are as follows:

Sulphur dioxide + Water vapour → Sulphuric acid

Nitrogen oxides +Water vapour → Nitric acid

These acids come down to earth along with rainfall.

Leaves of plants turn brown and yellow due to acid rain. When
green pigments are lost from the leaves they fail to carry out
photosynthesis. Acid deposition on metals, marbles, stones causes
corrosion. Acid rain caused due to the exhaust from Mathura oil
refinery is corroding the Tajmahal and discolouring its white marbles
into yellow.
Some of these gases can seriously
and adversely affect the health of
the.Population and should be
given due attention by the
concerned authority. The gases
mentioned below are mainly
outdoor air pollutants but some of
them can and do occur indoor
depending on the source and the

 Tobacco smoke:
Tobacco smoke generates a wide range of harmful chemicals
and is a major cause of ill health. It is well-known that smoking
affects the passive smoker (the person who is in the vicinity of a
smoker and is not himself/herself a smoker) ranging from burning
sensation in the eyes of nose and throat irritation to cancer,
bronchitis, severe asthma, and a decrease lung function.

 Biological Pollutant:
These are mostly allergens that can cause asthma, hay fever
and other allergic diseases.
 Volatile organic compounds:
Volatile compounds can cause initiation of the eye, nose and
throat. In severe cases there may be headaches, nausea, and loss of
coordination. In the longer run, some of them are suspected to
cause damage to the liver and other parts of the body.
 Formaldehyde:
Exposure causes irritation to the eyes, nose and may cause
allergies in some people.
 Lead:
Prolonged exposure can cause damage to the nervous
system. Digestive problems and in some cases cause cancer. It is
especially hazardous to small children.
 Radon:
A radioactive gas that can accumulate inside the house, It
originated from the rocks and soil under the house and its level is
dominated by the outdoor air and also to some extent the other
gases being emitted indoors.
 Ozone:
Exposure to this gas makes our eyes itch, burn and water
and it is has also been associated with increase in respiratory
disorders such as asthma. It lowers our resistance to colds and
 Oxides of Nitrogen:
This gas can make children susceptible disease in the winters.
 Carbon Monoxide:
CO (Carbon Monoxide) combines with haemoglobin to lessen the
amount of oxygen that enters our blood through our lungs.
 Sulphur dioxide:
SO2 (Sulphur dioxide) in the air is caused due to the rise in
combustion of fossil fules.It can oxidize and form sulphuric acid
mist in leads to disease of the lung and other lung siorders such as
wheezing and shortness of breath long-term effects are more
difficult to ascertain as SO2 exposure is often combined with that of
 SPM (Suspended particulate matter):
Suspended matter consists of dust, fames, mist and smoke.
The main chemical component of SPM that is of major concern is
lead. Other being nickel, arsenic, and those present in diesel

Durgapur Steel Plant

Set up in the late 50’s with an

annual of one million tonnes

of crude steel per year, the

capacity of Durgapur Steel Plant (DSP) was later expanded to 1.6

million tonnes in the 70’s.A massive modernization programme was
undertaken in the plant in early 90’s, which, while bringing numerous
technological developments’ in the plant, enhanced the capacity of the
plant to 2.008 million tonnes of hot meals, 1.8 million tonnes crude
steel and 1.586 million tonnes saleable steel. The entire plant is
covered under ISO 9001:2000 quality management system.

The modernized DSP now has state-of-the-art technology for

quality steel making. The modernized units have brought improved
productivity, substantial improvement in energy conversation and
better quality products. DSP’s Steel Making complex and the entire
mills zone, comprising its Blooming & Billet Mill, Merchant Mill,
Skelp Mill, Section Mill and Wheel & Axel Plant, are covered under
ISO: 9002 quality assurance certification.

Merchant Products 2,80,000
Structural 2,07,000
Skelp 1,80,000
Wheels &Axles 58,000
Semis 8,61,000
Totals Saleable steel 15,86,000

Situated at a distances of 158 km from Kolkata, its
geographical location is defined as 230 27’ North and 880 29’ East.
It is situated on the banks of the Damodar river. The Grand Trunk
Road and main Kolkata-Delhi railway line pass
through Durgapur.
Environment Control:
Durgapur Steel plant has always made relentless efforts
to maintaining a healthy and clean environment. The units in DSP
are provided with necessary pollution Control facilities and the
liquid effluents and chimney emissions from the plant are well
within norms.
DURGAPUR – The Happening City
Durgapur, which is on the main Kolkata – Delhi line,
is fast turning into the most happening city in the region. Form a
sleepy settlement, the town today boasts of a variety of educational
institutions, posh shopping malls/complexes with eateries and a
multiplex; etc. With the change in the mindset of the people has
come a change in the lifestyle also. Quality consciousness has
steeped in, accompanied with quality brands making their presence
felt in the market. DEATHS

The world health organization estimates that 4.6 million

people die each year from causes directly attributable to air
pollution. Research published in 2005 suggests that 310000
Europeans die from air pollutions annually. Direct caused of air
pollution related deaths include aggravated asthma, bronchitis,
emphysema, lung and heart disease, and reparatory allergies. The
US EPA estimates that a proposed set of changes in diesel engine
technology (Tier 2) could result in 12,000 fewer premature,
mortalities 15,000 fewer heart attacks.
 Catalytic converter (also for VOC control)
VOC abatement
 Adsorption systems, such as activated carbon
 Flares
 Thermal oxidizers
 Biofilters
 Absorption (scrubbing)
 Cryogenic condensers

Mercury Control
 Sorbent injection technology
 Electro-Catalytic Oxidation (ECO)
 K-Fuel
 Dioxin and furan control
 Ambient clearing system

There are many available air pollution control technologies

And urban planning strategies available to reduce air pollution:
however, worldwide costs of addressing the issue are high. Enforced
air quality standard like the Clean Air Act, have programs to or are
debating how to reduce dependence on fossil fuels for energy
production and shift toward renewable energy technologies or
nuclear power plants.

Efforts to reduce pollution from mobile sources include

primary regulation. Expanding regulation to new sources, increased,
fuel efficiency, conversation to cleaner fuels (such as bio ethanol,
biodiesel), or conversion to electric vehicles with renewable energy