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Grade 10 Author Team Senior Program Consultant

Christine Adam-Carr Maurice DiGiuseppe, Ph.D.
Ottawa Catholic School Board University of Ontario Institute
of Technology (UOIT)
Martin Gabber
Formerly of Toronto Catholic
Formerly of Durham District
District School Board
School Board
Program Consultants
Christy Hayhoe
Douglas Fraser
Science Writer and Editor
District School Board
Douglas Hayhoe, Ph.D. Ontario North East
Department of Education,
Martin Gabber
Tyndale University College
Formerly of Durham District
Katharine Hayhoe, B.Sc., M.S., School Board
Professor, Department of Geosciences,
Douglas Hayhoe, Ph.D.
Texas Tech University
Department of Education,
Milan Sanader, B.Sc., B.Ed., M.Ed Tyndale University College
Dufferin-Peel Catholic District
Jeffrey Major, M.Ed.
School Board
Thames Valley District
School Board

Nelson Science Perspectives 10

Senior Program Consultant Authors Contributing Authors
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Douglas Fraser Douglas Hayhoe Richard Towler
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Ph. B.Sc. Toronto Sacred Heart Catholic School. B. Dufferin-Peel Catholic DSB William J.. B.. Toronto Durham DSB Aaron Barry. James-Assiniboia School Division Academic Information Communication Thames Valley DSB Technology Consultant Roche Kelly. Ph. University of Waterloo Technology/ICT Consultant York Region DSB Meredith White-McMahon. B..A.. B.Sc. Mike Sipos.D..Sc. Chris Howes. M.Sc. STSE Consultant University of Toronto Durham DSB Joanne Nazir Dr. Ontario Limestone DSB Dermot O’Hara.D.Ed.Ed. Xavier Fazio Jim Young Michael Stubitsch Faculty of Education. Safety Consultant Institute.G.C.B. English/Literacy Facilitator.Ed..D.A. Toronto Formerly of York Region DSB Nelson Education Ltd. B.. Hon. Literacy Consultants Dave Doucette. Greg Dick Toronto Catholic DSB Kortright Centre for Conservation Waterloo Region DSB Mike Pidgeon ESL/Culture Consultant Matthew Di Fiore Toronto DSB Vicki Lucier. Ph.Sc.B. Greater Essex DSB Jill Foster York Region DSB Charles Stewart. M.A. Luciano Lista. Ph...A. M. M.. B. Elizabeth L. B. Trillium Stephen Haberer Chemistry. Former Director of Education. Safety Committee Niagara DSB Professor of Environmental Science. B. O. Ph. B. Ed.Sc. B. B. Catholic DSB Sudbury Catholic DSB Mark Kinoshita Advisory Panel and Teacher Toronto DSB Damian Cooper Nelson Education Author Reviewers Emma Kitchen. Chantal D’Silva. University of Past Chair.F.Ed.A. Limestone DSB Lecturer. Dicks.Ed. Ed. Ph. Andrew P. B. P.. B.Sc. Systems Biology. B.. Justin DeWeerdt Ottawa Catholic DSB Senior Lecturer. M. Prest ESL/Culture Consultant. William Gough.Sc.D. B.Sc.Ed.Ed..Ed.. Wellington Catholic DSB Jeff Crowell Limestone DSB Halton Catholic DSB Environmental Education Doug McCallion. Ricci. Nadine Morrison Working Group on Environmental Lucille Davies Hamilton-Wentworth DSB Education. B.Sc. Department of Cell and Jim Agban Faculty of Education. Assessment Consultants Online Learning Principal.Sc. Science Teachers’ Queen’s University Toronto Association of Ontario (STAO) Shawna Hopkins..Ed. B. Adv..Sc..E.Ed... Cohen St.D.REVIEWERS Accuracy Reviewers Numeracy Consultant Daniel Gajewski.Ed. B. M.Ed. Irving. B.Sc. B. School of Michelle Kane Optometry. Tim Currie Halton Catholic DSB Consultant Bruce Grey Catholic DSB Allan Foster.. Department of Curriculum Consultant. M.. B..E. B.D.Sc. Christopher Bonner Near North DSB Sudbury Catholic DSB Ottawa Catholic DSB Stephanie Lobsinger Charles J.. Simcoe Ed Donato Rainbow DSB County DSB Simcoe Muskoka Catholic DSB Ron M.Ed.Ed. B..Sc..Ed. B. University of Toronto Lakelands DSB Kingston Collegiate and Vocational Michelle French.Ed.. B. University Upper Canada DSB Biology of Toronto Associate Professor.Sc. Clair Catholic DSB Catholicity Reviewer Community Hebrew Academy of Ted Laxton Alistair MacLeod. Ontario Institute for Studies in Janet Johns Canada Research Chair in Animal Education (OISE).Sc. B. M. B. Brock University Limestone DSB Education Consultant NEL Reviewers iii . B. Peel DSB Durham DSB Toronto Catholic DSB Richard Towler Jennette MacKenzie Naomi Epstein Peel DSB National Director of Research Community Hebrew Academy of Carl Twiddy and Teacher In-Service. B.D.Ed. B. Dennis Karasek St.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 and Normal Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Observing Cell Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2. . . . .10 PERFORM AN ACTIVITY: Observing Specialized Cells . 36 Focus on Reading: How to Read Non-Fiction Text .1 Plant and Animal Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Engage in Science: A Breath of Fresh Air! . . . . . . . . . 66 iv Contents NEL . 24 INVESTIGATION SKILLS AND CAREER Key Concepts . . . . 45 1. . . . 28 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii CHAPTER 2 Cells. . . 48 Research This: Cancer Screening and UNIT B: TISSUES. . 13 of Mitosis . . . . 8 What Limits Cell Size? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Key Concepts Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 The Cell Cycle . . . . . .3 The Importance of Cell Division . . . . . . . . . .22 Comparing Cancer Cells Unit Task Preview: Family Health Supporter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Try This: Getting Your Message Across . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Try This: Identify the Phases Try This: Analyzing Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2. . . . . . . . . . 3 Focus on Reading: Making Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 What Do You Think Now? . 21 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 EXPLORATION . . . 29 CHAPTER 1 Tech Connect: Seeing Inside . 56 What Do You Already Know? .6 PERFORM AN ACTIVITY: Working in Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ORGANS. . . .9 Specialized Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.8 PERFORM AN ACTIVITY: Unit B Looking Ahead . . . .2 PERFORM AN ACTIVITY: Key Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cell Division. . . . . . . . . . . 7 2. . . . . . . 26 What Do You Think? . . . . 61 Key Concepts Summary . 40 Making Predictions . . . . . . . . . 63 Chapter 2 Review. 15 Awesome Science: Aging: It Is in Our Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Scientific Literacy for Living and 2. . . . . . . . . . 33 Living and Working with Science . 52 Focus on STSE: Medical Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Engage in Science: You Can Make a Difference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AND Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 SYSTEMS OF LIVING THINGS . . . . . . . . and Cell UNIT A: INTRODUCTION TO SCIENTIFIC Specialization. . 4 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Focus on STSE: Science and Your Life . . . . . . . . . . 5 Observing Plant and Animal Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Skills of Scientific Investigation . . . . .4 CONDUCT AN INVESTIGATION: 1.Contents Discover Your Textbook . . . . . . . . . .7 Cell Division Going Wrong: Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Chapter 2 Self-Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Try This: Identifying Variables and 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Citizen Action: Cancer Education and Research . . . . . . . . . .

. 114 What Do You Think Now? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Tissues Working Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Systems in Plants . . . . . . . . 115 Animal Systems . . .6 Plant Growth . . . . 143 3. 111 Tech Connect: Monitoring the Health Unit B Task: Family Health Supporter . . . . . .12 EXPLORE AN ISSUE CRITICALLY: To Immunize or Not to Immunize? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 of Tissues in a Chicken Wing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 The Royal Botanical Gardens . . . . . . . . . . .10 The Nervous System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Systems Working Together . . . . . . . . . . . .5 PERFORM AN ACTIVITY: 4. . . . . . 152 Try This: Mapping Sensory Receptors . 78 What Do You Think? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 3. . . . . . 122 in Canada . . . . . . . . 118 Engage in Science: Growing a New Trachea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 The Respiratory System . . . . . . . 138 Research This: Canadians in Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Exploring the Structure and Function What Do You Think Now? . . . . 155 Research This: Career Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Plant Tissue Systems . . . . . . 99 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Chapter 4 Review. . . . . .11 Interactions of Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Chapter 4 Self-Quiz . . . . 116 Key Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Engage in Science: Plant Tissues: Research This: Stem Cell Research Something to Chew On . . . . . . . . . 68 Chapter 3 Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Chapter 3 Self-Quiz . . . . . . .3 The Digestive System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 The Hierarchy of Structure in Animals . 120 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The Circulatory System . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Organ Transplantation . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Unit B Review . .CHAPTER 3 Key Concepts Summary . . . . 125 Try This: Examining Blood Vessels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Transgenic Plant Products . . . . . . . 158 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Make a Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Science Works: West Nile Virus . . . . . . . . . . 80 Focus on Reading: Asking Questions . . 87 Get Sick . . . 129 Research This: Problems in the Research This: When Plants Circulatory System. . . . . . 71 CHAPTER 4 Focus on Writing: Writing to Describe and Explain Observations . . 105 Unit B Looking Back . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 The Musculoskeletal System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Plant Cells and Tissues . . . . .3 EXPLORE AN ISSUE CRITICALLY: Studying the Organ Systems of a Frog . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 3. . . 154 Research This: DNA Screening . . . .2 Stem Cells and Cellular Differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 3. . . . . . 154 3. . . . . . . 142 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 of an Unborn Baby . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Try This: Your Own Guard Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 NEL Contents v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 PERFORM AN ACTIVITY: 3. . . . . . . . 107 Key Concepts . 113 Unit B Self-Quiz . . . . 72 Plant Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Research This: The Ethics of Science Works: For the Love of Plants: Xenotransplantation . . . . . . 121 3. . . . . .9 PERFORM AN ACTIVITY: Key Concepts Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Key Concepts . . . . . 70 What Do You Think? . 95 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 4. . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . 194 What Do You Already Know? . . . . . . . . . 191 Unit C Looking Ahead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Properties of Ionic and Molecular Science Works: Processing Hazardous Waste . .5 Atoms and Ions . . . . . . 196 CHAPTER 5 Try This: Two Shades of Iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Research This: Slicks from Ships . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Focus on Writing: Writing a Summary. . . . 173 5. . . 215 Changes . . 182 Research This: Which Bleach Is Best? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Chlorine Conclusions . . .1 Properties and Changes . . . . . . . 166 5. . . 168 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Compounds . . . . 184 5. . . . . . . . 169 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Chapter 5 Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Try This: Molecular Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Ionic Compounds . . .3 Hazardous Products and Workplace Chapter 5 Self-Quiz . . . . . .11 CONDUCT AN INVESTIGATION: Research This: Chemicals for Your Hair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Try This: Ions and the Periodic Table . . . . . . . . . 199 Chemicals and Their Properties . 168 Try This: Testing for Electrolytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Unit Task Preview: Acid Shock . . . . . . . .UNIT C: CHEMICAL REACTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Polyatomic Ions . . . 211 Citizen Action: Cadmium Cleanout . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 EXPLORE AN ISSUE CRITICALLY: Key Concepts . . .4 Patterns and the Periodic Table . . 208 5. 170 5. . . . . 176 5. . . . . . . . . . . . 216 5. . . . . . . . . 183 vi Contents NEL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 What Do You Think? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 5. 172 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Focus on STSE: Aspirin and Heroin . . 201 Engage in Science: Space Elevator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Identifying Physical and Chemical What Do You Think Now? . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 PERFORM AN ACTIVITY: Key Concepts Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Molecules and Covalent Bonding . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 Acids and Bases . 292 6. 256 Unit C Self-Quiz . . . 300 Awesome Science: Poisonous Jewellery . . . . . . . . 302 Key Concepts Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 6. . . . . . .1 PERFORM AN ACTIVITY: 6. . . . . . . . . 293 6. . . . . 239 Awesome Science: Painting Out Pollution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Acid Precipitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 6. . . . . 265 Focus on Reading: Making Inferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Engage in Science: The Greening of Sudbury . . 223 What Do You Think? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 Synthesis and Decomposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Is Mass Gained or Lost During a 7. 230 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Describing Chemical Reactions . 291 Its Glitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 PERFORM AN ACTIVITY: Synthesis and Decomposition Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Key Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Key Concepts Summary . . . . . . . and Formulas . . . 298 Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 Engage in Science: The Mint–Cola Fountain . . . . . . . . . . 264 What Do You Think? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 Try This: Neutralize It . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 7. . . . . . . . . . . 276 Equations. .4 PERFORM AN ACTIVITY: Try This: Modelling Balanced Chemical The pH of Household Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The pH Scale . . . . . . . . 294 Displacement Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Acid Shock: A Silent Killer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 Chapter 7 Self-Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 NEL Contents vii . . . . . . . . 262 Key Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Focus on Writing: Writing a Science Report . . . . . . . . . .CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 7 Chemicals and Their Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299 Detectors . . . . . . . 296 6. 248 Key Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 Research This: Gas Furnace Technician . . . . . . . .10 Corrosion . . . .5 Neutralization Reactions.6 PERFORM AN ACTIVITY: 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 Unit C Review . . 225 7. 236 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Unit C Task: 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 What Do You Think Now? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Chemical Reaction? . .5 Types of Chemical Reactions: Analyzing an Acid Spill . . . . . 273 Reactions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 What Do You Think Now? . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298 Citizen Action: Carbon Monoxide Make a Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299 Research This: Firefighting with an MSDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Information in Chemical Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 Tech Connect: Scrubbers: Antacids for Research This: When Gold Loses Smokestacks . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Conserving Mass in Chemical Try This: Visualize the pH Scale . . . . . . . . . . . 285 Single and Double Displacement. . 258 Chapter 6 Self-Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 Fertilizers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 Chapter 6 Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 EXPLORE AN ISSUE CRITICALLY: Research This: Proposal to Ban Minimizing Risk for a Community . . . . . . . . . . .6 Types of Chemical Reactions: 7. . . . . . 249 Career Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Properties. . . . . . . . . . .9 Types of Chemical Reactions: Unit C Looking Back . . . . . . . Names. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 PERFORM AN ACTIVITY: Chapter 7 Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 CONDUCT AN INVESTIGATION: Classifying Acids and Bases . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 Comparing Canadian Climates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 Try This: Ancient Climates in Arctic Try This: Testing A Model of Lands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 364 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Long-Term and Short-Term Changes Key Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .UNIT D: CLIMATE CHANGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344 Change . . . . . . . . . . . 312 8. . . . 338 Focus on STSE: Who Is to Blame? . 315 in Climate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 Modelling the Greenhouse Effect . . . . . . 313 8. . . . . . 318 Science Works: Lake Agassiz: Studying 8.8 Energy Transfer within the Climate System: Air and Ocean Circulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 Try This: How Tiny Concentrations Can Make a Difference . . . . . . . 316 Try This: Exploring the Sun’s Energy What Do You Think? . . . 319 Past Climate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322 8. . . 361 The Earth−Sun Energy System . 336 viii Contents NEL . . . . . . . . 327 Key Concepts Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348 Engage in Science: Evidence of a Different Research This: El Niño . . . 343 What Do You Already Know? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Feedback Loops and Climate . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Weather and Climate . . . . . . 324 Try This: Testing the Albedo Effect . . . .2 Classifying Climate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332 Chapter 8 Review. . . . . . . 314 8. . . . . . . . 330 What Do You Think Now? . . . . . 317 Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The Sun Powers Earth’s Climate 8. 358 System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 8. . 356 8. . . . . . . . . . .11 Studying Clues to Past Climates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353 Focus on Reading: Finding the Main Idea . . . . 354 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 PERFORM AN ACTIVITY: Chapter 8 Self-Quiz . 310 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355 Research This: Classify Your Climate . . . . . . . . . . 352 Climate . . . . . . . . . . 341 Unit D Looking Ahead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 Research This: Smog Days . . . . . . 344 CHAPTER 8 Try This: Examine Air and Earth’s Climate System and Natural Water Currents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 PERFORM AN ACTIVITY: Unit Task Preview: Global Climate Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Components of Earth’s Climate System .6 The Greenhouse Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . 423 Analyzing Sea Ice Extent for Evidence Research This: Greenhouse Gas of Climate Change . . . . . . . .CHAPTER 9 10. . . . . . . 404 Unit D Self-Quiz . . . . . . . . . 414 Key Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 NEL Contents ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431 Global Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452 What Do You Think? . . . . . . . 387 10. . . . . 378 Ontario . . .2 Global Impacts of Climate Change . . .1 Climate Models and Clean Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418 Research This: Is Climate Change 10. . . 379 10. . . . 434 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 Make a Summary . . . . . . . . 403 Engage in Science: Green Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371 Citizen Action: How Can We Protect Focus on Reading: Summarizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Climate . . . . 419 Tech Connect: Using Satellites to Monitor Earth . . . . . . . . . 446 Key Concepts . . . . 375 Combat Climate Change? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 PERFORM AN ACTIVITY: Change . . . . .4 Taking Action to Limit Climate 9. . . . . . 368 Climate Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402 Unit D Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416 What Do You Think? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 Try This: Comparing Carbon Citizen Action: Everyone Can Make a Dioxide Concentrations with Difference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 Thermal Expansion and Sea Level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 393 Chapter 10 Review. . . .3 PERFORM AN ACTIVITY: 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 Research This: Controversy about Earth’s Climate: Out of Balance . . . . . . . . . 437 Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Greenhouse Gases: Changing the Appliances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Canadian Emissions of Greenhouse Taking Action on Climate Change Gases . . . . . . .6 EXPLORE AN ISSUE CRITICALLY: 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 Focus on Reading: Synthesizing . . . . . . 436 Human Activity Is Causing Current What Do You Think Now? . . . . . . . . . . . 400 Key Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382 Research This: Buying ENERGY STAR® 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 Chapter 9 Self-Quiz . . . . . . 426 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 What Do You Think Now? . . . . . . 398 Unit D Looking Back . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372 the Arctic? . . . . .5 What Can Individuals Do? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 Research This: Competition for the Engage in Science: Changing Our Lives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 384 Research This: Eating Local. . . . . 438 Key Concepts Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Evidence of a Changing Climate . . . . . . . 373 Awesome Science: Geoengineering to Try This: Calculate Sea Level Rise . . . .3 Impacts of Climate Change on Always Bad? . . . . . 397 Chapter 9 Review. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406 10. . . . . . .6 Computer Modelling: Evidence that Key Concepts Summary . . . . . 444 Change . . . . . . . . . . . . 407 Try This: Estimate Ontario’s Future Climate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 390 Now or Later? . . . . . . . . . . . 443 CHAPTER 10 Career Links . . . . . . 370 Arctic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 396 Chapter 10 Self-Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380 Emissions in Your Community . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443 Assessing and Responding to Climate Unit D Task: Global Climate Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462 What Do You Think? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Total Internal Reflection . .7 Images in Plane Mirrors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488 What Do You Think Now? . . . . 456 Locating Images in Curved Mirrors . . . . . . . 514 Research This: Protecting Yourself 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522 Research This: Lasers for Different Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 Device . . . . . . . . . 487 Research This: Other Atmospheric Optical Phenomena . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 540 Try This: Writing Reflectively . . . 524 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The Ray Model of Light . . . and More Images … . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Phenomena Related to Refraction . .1 What Is Light? . . .2 How Is Light Produced? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502 Unit Task Preview: Building an Optical Key Concepts Summary . . . . . . . . . 484 Science Works: Hiding in Plain Sight— Try This: Reflecting Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542 Chapter 12 Self-Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526 Try This: Seeing the Light . . . . 511 Engage in Science: The LASER . . . . . . 515 from the Sun . . . . . . . 496 Focus on STSE: Window on the World . . . . . . . . . . 512 Focus on Writing: Writing Persuasive Text. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 The Laser—A Special Type of Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541 Try This: Producing Images. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508 CHAPTER 11 The Production and Reflection CHAPTER 12 of Light . . . . . . . .3 PERFORM AN ACTIVITY: of Science . . . . . . 484 The Invisibility Cloak . . . .10 CONDUCT AN INVESTIGATION: Unit E Looking Ahead . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494 OPTICS . .2 PERFORM AN ACTIVITY: Citizen Action: Thinking for the Future . . 480 12. . 520 Try This: Eating Candy for the Sake 12. 465 Try This: Exploring with Light . . . . . . . . . . . . 539 11. . . . . . . . 457 Chapter 11 Review. . . . . . 482 Various Media . . . . . . . . 456 What Do You Think Now? . . . 477 Different Media . . . . . . . . . . . 461 and Back! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459 Key Concepts . . . . . 532 11. . . . . 513 11. . . . . . . .8 CONDUCT AN INVESTIGATION: Locating Images in a Plane Mirror . . . . . . . . .6 The Laws of Reflection . . . . . . . . . 467 Try This: Examining Light in a Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 PERFORM AN ACTIVITY: 11. . 489 Chapter 12 Review. . . . . . 458 The Refraction of Light . . . .9 Images in Curved Mirrors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475 The Refraction of Light through 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506 Chapter 11 Self-Quiz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 What Is Refraction? . . . . . 535 Tech Connect: Cleaning with Light . . . . . . . . . . . 470 12. 534 Try This: Retro-Reflectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 544 x Contents NEL . . . . 510 Key Concepts . . . . . . . . 454 11. . 479 12. . . . . . . . . . . 486 12. . . . . . . . . . . . 463 Focus on Reading: Evaluating . . 474 Acrylic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and More Images. . . . . . . .4 The Index of Refraction . . 460 Engage in Science: From Earth to the Moon What Do You Think? . . . 505 What Do You Already Know? . . . . . . . . . . . .5 PERFORM AN ACTIVITY: Measuring the Critical Angle for Reflecting Light Off a Plane Mirror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488 Key Concepts Summary . . . . . . . . . .UNIT E: LIGHT AND GEOMETRIC 11. . . . . . . . . . . 473 The Path of Light—From Air into Try This: Glowing with Light . . . . . . 515 Try This: Viewing the Visible Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . 667 13. . . . . . . . . 648 Try This: Discovering Your Blind Spot . . . . . . . . . . . . . 590 Try This: Exploring the Rectangular Prism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548 Unit E Looking Back . . 587 13. 658 Research This: Other Vision Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 549 Key Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586 What Do You Think? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 598 Awesome Science: The Einstein Ring . . . . .1 Lenses and the Formation of Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 588 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 596 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 683 NEL Contents xi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586 Focus on Writing: Writing a Critical Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . 562 13. . . . . . . 571 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . 674 Key Concepts Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 The Lens Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567 Appendix A: Skills Handbook . . . . . . . . . . 578 Index . . 551 Career Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581 Chapter 13 Review. . . . . . . . . . 550 Make a Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 577 Glossary . . 580 Credits . . . . . . . 556 Unit E Self-Quiz . . . . 587 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 PERFORM AN ACTIVITY: Unit E Task: Building an Optical Locating Images in Lenses . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Images in Lenses . . . .5 Lens Applications . . .6 The Human Eye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554 Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 584 Key Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 572 Appendix B: What Is Science? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 547 Engage in Science: Checking the Facts in Fiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CHAPTER 13 What Do You Think Now? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 556 Unit E Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582 Lenses and Optical Devices .7 EXPLORE AN ISSUE CRITICALLY: Laser Eye Surgery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573 Numerical and Short Answers . . . . . . . . . . 546 Chapter 13 Self-Quiz .

charge. but they can also be used to address environmental challenges. you may turn analyze a variety of to Aspirin for quick relief. What safety precautions are being taken in Figure 3? K/U The Unit Task is described in detail on page 300. OVERALL ASPIRIN AND HEROIN Expectations Got a headache? Like millions of other pain sufferers around the world. However. T / I majority of the particles passed through the foil. write the chemical formula (selected from The atom is a hard The atom is a The atom has a the list on the right) of each of these substances. Heroin medications are no longer available. Ernest Rutherford fired positively charged alpha containing regular cola sinks to the bottom of the tank and particles at a very thin sheet of gold foil. It also shows how the chemicals we produce through general principles of able to do after completing chemical reactions can have both costs and benefits. Which Chemicals and Chemicals and Acids and Bases of the following models of the atom best explains these of the cans of cola with the density of water. WRAP IT UP shows you the features at the end of each chapter and unit. it made the patient feel wonderful! Bayer environmental challenges had invented heroin. reports about heroin addiction began to appear. you will use the knowledge and skills acquired in this unit to In this unit. C A each other in predictable (a) What other costs and benefits could you add to your table? ways. However. for the “hair-raising experience” shown in Figure 2? UNIT TASK Preview Acid Shock In the Unit Task. think about how the the properties of the materials used in new products. sometimes react in surprising ways. As you tadpoles and frogs in a local stream. Unit Task Preview UNIT LOOKING AHEAD Find out about the Unit Task C UNIT C What Do You Already Know? that you will complete at the Chemical PREREQUISITES Concepts Skills Reactions end of each unit. and location. a (a) Using the provided observations. Concept Map developed in previous grades. On the following pages is a tour of important features that you will find inside. K / U Assessment In the Unit Task. In your notebook. dense positive billiard balls. look for this bookmark and see how (a) lithium the population of these organisms crashes and then recovers. you will explore the chemical reactions that • use a model to test whether the amount of acid released chemicals undergo. the CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 7 the can containing diet cola floats to the surface. Tests on the new product were impressive: it was a good pain can be applied to address reliever and an even better cough remedy. Soon. Draw Bohr-Rutherford diagrams to represent the following respect to size. like those involved in by a melting solid varies as the solid melts the formation of acid rain. issues associated with chemical reactions. When you see the Unit Task (c) table salt (d) hydrogen chloride (e) water CO2 H2 O2                 Scientists and engineers think about Chemicals are all around us. (f) oxygen HCl 3. Some reactions. As he expected. K / U section relates to the Unit Task. but officials initially ignored the Overall Expectations including the ways in new product. What Do You Already Know? This feature lists the concepts and skills. The can 5. • Density and buoyancy • Writing chemical formulas • Models of the atom • Observing properties of substances • Classification of matter • Following safety precautions in the lab 1. You will also suggest ways to prevent the loss • communicate the results of your test of the tadpoles each spring. (b) Why might some chemical companies be willing to introduce new chemicals Chemical reactions may into society and the environment without thoroughly testing them first? have a negative impact (c) How can we maximize the benefits of chemicals and minimize the costs? Big Ideas on the environment. UNIT TASK Bookmark 4. compare the densities small number of alpha particles rebounded off the foil. and so on) as you think about the unit. The Big Ideas summarize the concepts you need to 166 Unit C • Chemical Reactions NEL NEL Focus on STSE 167 remember after you complete the unit. demonstrate an The history of Aspirin and heroin teaches us the importance of thoroughly testing a new understanding of the product before making it available. that you will The Concept Map is a description of the need to be successful as you work through the topics. Why? K / U (b) Why might there be a difference in the densities of the two colas? Model A Model B Model C Unit Task Bookmark 2. Their Properties Their Reactions observations. Discuss the following questions with your partner. T / I A (a) cleaning products (c) explosives (e) plastic BIG Ideas (b) salt (d) fuels (f) pesticides Chemicals react with 2. what remains a mystery is the sudden drop in the population followed by a gradual recovery. economical. connected to picture clues. know before you start the unit. In 1898. Consider represent them various perspectives (environmental. Focus on STSE Get Ready These articles introduce real-world connections to the science topics you will be Unit Opener C learning in the unit. Bayer eventually recognized Aspirin’s describe what you should be chemical reactions potential. and it is now widely used around the world as a painkiller. GET READY includes all of the features of the introductory material that come before you begin each unit and chapter. with embedded core orbited by (a) hydrogen H2O electrons—like electrons—like (b) carbon dioxide NaCl raisins in a muffin. Public pressure forced Bayer to stop producing their heroin-laced cough syrup in 1913. Use the photo Reactions to help you predict what you Focus on STSE might be learning in the unit. List some of the properties of the substances shown in 6. Surprisingly. Chemical reactions can also be used to undo some (b) Compare the three fundamental particles in an atom with of the environmental damage caused by human activity. chemical reactions. xii Discover Your Textbook NEL . (b) carbon Preliminary research shows that the cause of their death is (c) chlorine The Assessment box tells you the acidity of the melting snow. mass. Shortly thereafter. Two cans of cola are placed in a tank of water. List some costs and some benefits for each of the following substances. the section relates to the Unit Task. Aspirin was first made using the same chemical safety and environmental reaction that produced heroin—a highly addictive and illegal narcotic. and various ways to 1. • evaluate your model • justify your suggestion for preventing acid shock Figure 3 you have learned by the end of 168 Unit C • Chemical Reactions NEL NEL Looking Ahead 169 the unit.Discover Your Textbook This textbook will be your guide to the exciting world of science. and can Acids and bases are important Bookmark. K / U sphere—like these positive sphere small. social. to help you unit. With each spring thaw. substances in our lives and in the environment. In 1909. have a negative impact on the • suggest how chemical reactions can be used to prevent the (a) (b) Figure 2 environment. The Bayer drug company first made Aspirin in the 1890s. But there is a good side to chemical reactions loss of tadpoles in the stream during the first thaw of spring Figure 1 (a) the gold in a ring (b) the water in a kettle as well. through inquiry. ASSESSMENT You will be assessed on how well you (d) argon • plan and conduct a test of the model how you will demonstrate what Your task is to find the reason for this dip by using a model of the situation. Use the questions to see what you already predict what you will be learning in the unit. Each of the five units has a UNIT Chemical letter and a title. (a) What fundamental particle inside the atom is responsible Figure 1. planets orbit a star. a new Bayer cough syrup called “Heroin” was in drug stores The Overall Expectations investigate. you are part of a research team investigating atoms: C 7. the characteristics of around the world. the costs and benefits. a well-known which chemical reactions pain reliever at the time. work through the unit. Plus. Bayer chemists used the same reaction on morphine. GET INTO IT shows you all the features within each chapter. Finally.

pressing the button for the chapter to the 12 millionth floor. and where must it operate? What physical and chemical properties should the cable have? Are there any common substances that have at least some of these properties? Do these common substances have any properties that make them unsuitable? Could the substances be changed to overcome this problem? And. probably from exploded propane storage tanks. KCl test tube rack NaHCO3 water Making Inferences in Action Procedure Reading Tips suggest reading Authors often tell you more than they say directly through their words. • think about what you already know about the circumstance. perhaps most importantly. dangerous. Present all observations. Imagine stepping onto an elevator. or in the world around you. personal knowledge. Within an hour or two. This would allow a “space-proof” elevator car to climb the 2 Recycling used motor oil is common practice. but all they Equipment and Materials dramatic combustion reaction in north Toronto. Each test tube will filled about half full with water. hydrogen carbonate. The melting point of each substance will be researched. They will help strategies to make inferences: improve your report-writing skills. Here is how one student made inferences as she read the paragraph 4. They will help you develop literacy strategies. at home. The conductivity tester was dipped into each liquid . C12H24O2 glucose. and a Key Question which KEY QUESTION: How do the properties of Key Concepts CHAPTER 5 CHAPTER 6 CHAPTER 7 compounds influence the technologies we develop. A small amount of each solid was placed in its own test tube. a conclusion or form an opinion State your purpose. 2008. and findings from the text. It is a form of problem-solving using evidence organizational headings to explain the purpose. what does this cable have to do. Firefighters rushed to the scene. Substance Dissolves in water? Conductive Melting point (oC) explosion is in a most homes are heated by a cracked natural gas Evaluate the extent to residential area natural gas pipe might have caused which your evidence lauric acid no no 45 the text. comprehension strategies inference. apron lauric acid. a north Toronto neighbourhood Sodium hydrogen carbonate is also ionic because it contains the hydrogen carbonate ion. how would this device impact our lives and our planetary home? 3 Pool water is a much better conductor of electricity than pure water. The melting point of each solid was researched in a reference book. about combustion. 7. 2. feature outlines the KEY CONCEPTS main ideas and skills you will learn in the A substance’s chemical Changes can be classified We can classify pure chapter. and effects. (a) Sodium hydrogen carbonate and potassium chloride are the only ionic suggestions to help you 224 Chapter 6 • Chemicals and Their Reactions NEL 266 Chapter 7 • Acids and Bases compounds because they conducted electricity when dissolved in water. the cable connecting it to Earth remains taut. of your investigation. As long as this mass orbits Earth at the same rate as Earth is rotating. C6H12O6. attached to a point on Earth’s equator. For example. the warmth of the Sun are replaced by the cold darkness Agree/disagree? Agree/disagree? interesting real-world of space. We would require materials with very special properties if we ever actually designed and built it. potassium chloride. At the other end. Experimental Design Why? A nearby propane storage depot was on fire (Figure 1)! Large Each substance will be mixed with water to see if it dissolves. Observations were recorded for whether each liquid conducts electricity. sodium • revise your inference if you find new information or clues that challenge it and hypothesis concisely. was rocked by a loud explosion. 4 small test tubes & stoppers sodium hydrogen carbonate. Types of Chemical Reactions: Combustion Lauric acid and glucose are molecular compounds because they only have non-metallic elements in them. 4 Elements are more reactive and more hazardous than the compounds that they form. 6 Adding manufactured chemicals to the environment is a bad thing. would be a large mass. 170 Chapter 5 • Chemicals and Their Properties NEL NEL Looking Ahead 171 ENGAGE IN WHAT DO YOU Engage in SCIENCE THINK? What Do You Think? Science Many of the ideas you will explore in this chapter are ideas that you have already encountered. littered conductivity. Some believe that a space elevator may be the answer. firefighters let fireball firefighters usually use water maybe water cannot be used Analyze and Evaluate Revise your drafts to improve burn out to extinguish a fire to put out a propane fire organization and completeness. you develop literacy strategies. 3. chunks of metal. Use the following As you work through the chapter. Observations were recorded for how well the solids dissolved. CHAPTER Chapter Opener 5 Chemicals and UNIT C Chemical Reactions Their Properties Each chapter has a number. text. molecules. You may have encountered these ideas in school. Chemicals and Chemicals and Acids you should be able to answer the products we buy. about 40 000 km straight up. C12H24O2. Each solutions will be tested for Briefly describe the investigation. • look for context clues such as significant words. Startled residents stared out their windows in disbelief as a giant fireball rose high into the night sky. to help you understand the Clues from Text explosion happened + Prior Knowledge • fire causes explosions = Inference an arsonist might have Write in the third person using an objective tone. and inverted to mix. Shockwaves from the explosion shattered windows and ripped Figure 1 Propane was the fuel in this doors off their hinges. Getting people and cargo into space the old-fashioned way—by using rockets—is expensive. and physical properties as chemical or physical. a title. Writing Tips provide the explosion supports your hypothesis. glucose. potassium chloride. The space elevator would consist of a long cable—more than three times as long as the diameter of Earth—firmly science. you use a standard format with strategies help you learn but not stating explicitly. and the world we live in? Their Properties Their Reactions and Bases The Key Concepts by the end of the chapter. petrochemicals. statement and decide whether you agree or disagree with it. stoppered. issue. and going for the ride of your life. the land beneath your feet and 1 The label on a chemical product provides all the information you need to use the product safely. This is an artist’s impression of a space elevator. substances by observing determine its usefulness their properties. NEL improve your writing skills. the area. at night caused this explosion • arsonists usually work Observations science concepts presented in whether they support your at night prediction or not. 6. Not all of the following statements are true. C6H12O6 Reading/Writing Tip conduct the investigation. 5. Potassium chloride is an ionic compound because it contains a metal and a non-metal. Are the following substances molecular or ionic compounds: lauric acid. Agree/disagree? 5 Bottled water is better for your health than tap water. or effect Properties of Ionic and Molecular Compounds Question • combine the clues and your prior knowledge or experience to draw literacy skills in preparation for look for tips like this. cause. procedure. These articles form an opinion by agreeing or Na connect the topics disagreeing with statements you will learn in that connect to ideas that will be introduced in the chapter. Consider each Using what you already know. Inferences help you to have a deeper understanding of the step of the procedure. comparisons. question. you make sense of what an author is implying WRITING TIP When you write a science report. Agree/disagree? Agree/disagree? 172 Chapter 5 • Chemicals and Their Properties NEL NEL What Do You Think? 173 Focus on Reading/ FOCUS ON FOCUS ON Focus on Writing READING WRITING Making Inferences Writing a Science Report These reading and writing When you make inferences. Use the clues in the text and what you already know to make an Use a numbered list of directions to describe each 1. 8. and developments in unreliable. In the early hours of August 2. Use the strategies listed next to the report to look for tips like this. KCl ? Hypothesis/Prediction the OSSLT. or contrasts science concepts and develop READING TIP As you work through the chapter. problem. and reasoning. A small amount of each liquid was poured into its own well in the well plate. so NASA engineers are looking for a better way. Agree/disagree? cable. NEL Discover Your Textbook xiii . could do was cool the remaining propane tanks with water and wait for eye protection conductivity tester well plate Outline what is required to the fireball to burn itself out. But plenty of questions need to be answered before we start putting this plan into action. Ionic compounds are Molecular compounds Many consumer products made up of positive and are made up of distinct are developed from negative ions. Eye protection and an apron were obtained. NaHCO3.

These key terms are in conditions can you describe? Learning Tips are useful a week Describing the Weather bold print. such as the Crisscross SAMPLE PROBLEM 3 Using the Crisscross Method the metal so that you can include it in the name. Their definitions can be found in the Scientists who study the weather are called meteorologists. For example. 3. wind from the west at 20 km/h. These ions are named like other cations. Note that copper could have either of two ionic Mg 2+ Cl − charges (Table 3). wind. MgCl2 understand concepts and Step 1 As you do not know whether the charge on the copper ion is +1 or +2. Describe today’s weather to a classmate. Mn2+ manganese(II) manganese Mn Mn4+ manganese(IV) 2. Naming compounds containing elements with multiple ionic charges involves LEARNING TIP Sometimes a text describes a process the same procedure as before. and humidity. 7. For example. 30 %. The Fe2+ ion is called “iron(II) ion. Remember that Roman numerals are formula of aluminum nitride appears to be Al3N3.0 g iron(II) sulfate Fe2+ iron(II) solution. Swirling the solution allows oxygen from the atmosphere copper Cu Cu2+ copper(II) to enter the solution and react with the chemicals in the iron(III) chloride solution. the vapour mixes with • relative humidity (the amount of water vapour in the air relative to the air. GO TO NELSON SCIENCE In some parts of the world. In this activity. FeCl3 is chloride. 4. Several other metals. 5. In your summary. Add about 100 mL of distilled water to the 250 mL flask.0 g of iron(II) sulfate to the water in the flask. Suggest a possible explanation for the evidence you Pb4+ lead(IV) cold water. The weather may be warm and sunny today. Similarly. mist.B. however. there are two different SKILLS: Observing. Follow your teacher’s instructions for the disposal of the potential safety hazards in Equipment and Materials: eye protection. you are describing the weather. To do this. that there are two stable cations of iron: Fe2+ and Fe3+. you are reading. Warm air can hold more water book. in a particular location over a short period of time. so the total charge of Practice bromide ions is 2(–1). so Al3N3 must be simplified to AlN. called iron(III) chloride because the ionic charge of iron is +3. You know that the included only if the metal has more than one ionic charge. Practice Elements with Multiple Ionic Charges What is the chemical name of PbO2? Chemists have discovered. gives you an answer with two identical subscripts.” and the Fe3+ ion is called “iron(III) ion. Write the chemical name of CuBr2. the Sahara desert in Africa is usually hot and dry during the day. Each compound has its own Figure 3 Because iron has two different ionic charges. but it could become cool and rainy tomorrow.” This is read as “copper two ideas and information in the same order chloride. 6. Look for these warnings about different compounds with chlorine: ions are colourless and do not react with oxygen. distilled water. What evidence of a chemical change did you They will be in red print with a iron Fe Both iron compounds are irritants. maximum amount of water that it is possible for the air to hold at that vapour than cold air. 100 mL investigations and activities. first check whether the metal has more than one ionic charge. 1. graduated cylinder. However. laboratory scoop. For example. NEL 8. This is why temperature) warm air is often more humid • atmospheric pressure (the force exerted on a surface by the weight of the than cold air. When water • wind speed evaporates. try using a shortcut known as the “crisscross” method. two or more compounds can be formed with the same anion (Table 3). Put on your eye protection and lab apron. Get Into It Vocabulary Weather and Climate 8. not to the number of ions of copper in Mg2+ Cl− designed to help you SAMPLE PROBLEM 4 Considering Multiple Ionic Charges the compound. such as a day or Learning Tip through the chapter. the weather can change dramatically from one day to the next (Figure 1). fun activities What is the chemical formula of magnesium chloride? iron(II) chloride because the ionic charge of iron is +2. in the eyes. Add the 1. Each bromide ion has a charge of –1. Compare the colour of your solution with that of the iron(III) chloride solution. using as much detail as you can. iron may form two different T RY THIS TWO SHADES OF IRON compounds with a particular anion. Record your observations.. Clean up your work area and wash your hands. it makes two distinct properties: solid FeCl2 is light green. through experiments. hours. Remember that the charge on all the ions must total zero. Continue swirling gently for about 1 min. form multiple cations. Step 2 Crisscross the numbers of the ionic charges so that they now become subscripts. Meteorologists usually provide the following information when they describe the weather: • temperature LEARNING TIP Humidity and Temperature Water vapour (the gaseous state strategies to help you learn new margins and in the Glossary at the back of the ideas and make sense of what • type and amount of precipitation of water) forms when liquid water evaporates. Observe the solution of iron(III) chloride that your teacher has Sn2+ tin(II) prepared. Record your observations. air above it) • presence of fog. Include the temperature and precipitation (if present). Career Link The Career icon lets you know that you can visit the Nelson Science website to learn about Figure 1 The weather in an area can change dramatically in a matter of science-related careers. This means iron(II) chloride (left) and iron(III) chloride (right). tin Sn Sn4+ tin(IV) 198 Chapter 5 • Chemicals and Their Properties NEL NEL 5. sunny day or is it cold and rainy? When you describe the You will learn many new terms as you work conditions outside on a particular day. probability of precipitation a meteorologist. this method of finding the chemical formula of a compound The ionic charge of copper in this compound is +2. 500 mL Erlenmeyer flask containing A. safety icon.” Because of this. Metal of element of ions Names of ions solutions. Cu+ copper(I) scale. What other weather atmospheric conditions. In each case.1 Is today a warm. the weather stays more or less the same from day to day. chemical formula of an ionic compound is always the simplest possible ratio The name of CuBr2 is copper(II) bromide. For example. Swirl to dissolve the solid.B. Table 3 Names and Multiple Ionic Charges for Common Metals Chemical symbol Chemical symbols that the iron ions alone are responsible for all observable colour differences/changes. and relative humidity of 40 %. FeCl2 is called The name of CuCl2 is written “copper(II) Method. while FeCl3 is yellowish-brown (Figure 3). Report any spills to your teacher. lab apron. Step 1 Write the symbols of the elements and their ionic charges. 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask. refers to the charge on the copper ion. the chemical Step 2 Write the name of the compound. besides iron. or on clothing immediately with plenty of lead Pb B. use The chemical formula of magnesium chloride is MgCl2. The Crisscross Method for Determining Formulas Naming Compounds Involving Elements with Multiple Now that you understand the meaning of the symbols and numbers in Ionic Charges Try This WRITING TIP Writing a Summary chemical formulas. sunny with cloudy periods. you will use two different compounds of iron: iron(III) chloride and iron(II) sulfate. compounds of iron and chlorine: FeCl2 and FeCl3. weighing paper. Analyzing SKILLS HANDBOOK 1. observed.7 Names and Formulas of Ionic Compounds 199 xiv Discover Your Textbook NEL . Occasionally. including temperature. Make sure to check your learning by completing Practice problems. or cloud cover A typical description of the weather on a summer day might be like this: To learn more about the work of a high of 28 °C today.” Remember that the “two” as in the original text. you will compare the properties of the two ionic forms of iron. x to represent this unknown value. of the ions. except Whenever you have to write the chemical name of a compound containing that Roman numerals in rounded brackets are used to indicate the ionic charge a metal. You must also determine the ionic charge of Specifying the Charge or procedure. you would not expect snow in Ontario in August or a temperature of 30 °C in Nova Scotia in February. The chloride and sulfate 3. In Canada. What is the chemical formula of aluminum sulfide? CuBr2 x + 2(–1) = 0 x = +2 improve your science skills. C 1. organize These are quick. Safety Precautions (not the number of ions) of the metal.1 Weather and Climate 319 Sample Problems This feature shows you how to solve numerical problems using the GRASS method. precipitation. Wash any spills on the Fe3+ iron(III) observe? K/U Pb2+ lead(II) skin.

Teller Iqaluit orbiting Earth. permafrost in Canada. At those times. Do you think they would work? Agassiz probably held more fresh water than all the lakes in the world do today. Rich natural resources may be available to resources found in the Arctic? Explain why. Passage. Ocean currents • increased spread of diseases climate change. Changes in Lake Agassiz could have caused abrupt Artificial satellites provide service for telephones. When the ice age ended. the section will help you to through the Panama Canal. new routes for shipping gases that we have already emitted will affect Earth’s climate B. The levels are expected to rise. name a country that might suffer severely. Communicating. Fresh • navigational satellites that help airplanes and ships navigate There are many ways of using technology to counter climate history (Figure 3). However. plants capture carbon dioxide from the • The projects may not work out as expected. Using a globe. it would take 55 000 mirrors University of Manitoba (Figure 2). Describe Arctic. may the Sun’s energy and absorb more. Put your suggestions the concepts you learned in political or economic interest in the Arctic.A. reduce transportation costs and energy use. For example. It was launched in 1995. How could the melting polar ice affect shipping and This icon lets you know that may open up across the Arctic Ocean. land-based ice in the Arctic is beginning to melt. Teller is a geologist at the decreased. During photosynthesis. In addition. climate will change over the next century. for many years to come. Explain how the albedo effect of polar ice means that the • albedo effect and ice • sea level rise Figure 10 The Arctic is an important largest climate change in Canada will occur in the Arctic • release of carbon dioxide • biodiversity habitat for many species of migratory locations. Measure the distance for a ship to travel from St. this quick summary • Ocean currents: Fresh water flowing into the Arctic Ocean from • rising sea level climate scientists regarding climate change? A • changes to agriculture 5. The Canadian Radio Detection and Ranging Satellite 1 effects and cause great harm. Scientists are investigating the effects of adding research shows that dumping fertilizer into the ocean may not are used to measure the flow of glacier ice into oceans. this could affect species around 2. Manitoba. Alternatively. raising concerns about future sea level rise. This change in water flow would have interrupted the volcanic eruptions received the Michael J. Choose one of the six areas below. was Canada’s first satellite. Today. and permafrost. Internet out the effect of climate change. on • Albedo effect: As Arctic ice melts. 2. RADARSAT is an official mark of the Canadian Space Agency. Sea • weather satellites that take photographs and radar images of change. and Russia melt. atmosphere. TV. This fresh water may have hindered atmosphere. A rest of the world. First Nation legends. used instead of the Panama Canal route? into a short article for your local newspaper or for an e-zine. RESEARCH THIS COMPETITION FOR THE ARCTIC CITIZEN ACTION SKILLS: Researching. K/U 416 Chapter 10 • Assessing and Responding to Climate Change NEL NEL 10. humans have been launching artificial satellites to orbit monitoring the environment and natural resources. sulfate droplets in (RADARSAT-1) is one of the Canadian satellites used to conduct Figure 1 Mirrors in space the atmosphere are known to damage the ozone layer and to scientific research. T/I • Changes in shipping and transportation: As the polar ice cap melts. and navigation. For example. Alaska. and other from Lake Agassiz may help scientists determine how Earth’s RADARSAT-1 Earth mirrors climate. or how science relates OSSLT Icon to your everyday life. However. Assume that the ship can travel Canada and Russia? T/I A protected. environmental conditions. absorbing carbon dioxide. As a result. If the Arctic ecosystems change. Explain why the melting of permafrost in the Arctic may start melting ice may slow or even stop ocean currents that transport thermal • changes to ecosystems another positive feedback loop that further contributes to energy around the globe (thermohaline circulation). cool new technology. circles Earth every 100 minutes with a different circle each time SCIENCE SA SK Agassiz after the Soviet Union and the United States (Figure 1). 0 150 300 km Figure 3 Devil’s Crater in northern Ontario is just one of the features to modify Earth’s environment. just as they did when Lake Agassiz weather systems could be a very bad idea. If large amounts of carbon dioxide and methane are and ecological repercussions worldwide. The port faster than it would otherwise. released by melting permafrost. • Sea level rise: More water will flow into the oceans as the Greenland ice sheet and glaciers in Canada. This kind of Bags. How Can We Protect the Arctic? As polar ice melts. T/I A Climate change cannot be stopped entirely. water is pouring into the Atlantic Ocean as this ice melts. Explain why so many explorers in the past attempted to find 3. What impacts might development of the Northwest Passage 4. The largest of these lakes. question 1. The shorter route will save thousands of kilometres and and not in southern Ontario. For each of the four climate change impact areas listed in in several sentences why it will be negative or positive (or review what you learned. NL. polar ice caps. we could changes in Earth’s climate. the world (Figure 10). John’s to the Northwest Passage. Research the history of the Northwest Passage. and other parts of the world has already patterns. Some examples include the following: imitate a volcano by spraying millions of tonnes of sulfur into the the history of Lake Agassiz by examining into the North Atlantic Ocean. To balance James T. (a) How much shorter would the shipping route be between Think about things you can do in your own community to 1. However. Energy absorbed by the Arctic surface (IPCC) has summarized the latest scientific and the natural environment. Since In December 2007. each 100 km2 in size. the ocean and land will reflect less of the west coast of Hudson’s Bay. Lake caused by water draining from Lake Agassiz thousands of years ago. Read interesting facts How Can Changes in the Arctic Affect the Rest UNIT TASK Bookmark Think about the impacts of climate change that are mentioned in this section as you work about real-world of the World? on the Unit Task. A geoengineering project could have enormous side ancient stories. In 2004. (2008) Fertilizing the Oceans cause acid rain. Climate Change Boomtown IN SUMMARY events that relate to The port of Churchill. research which countries are likely to have a Vancouver and Magadan if the Arctic route could be protect the Arctic from climate change. TECH ConnEct OSSLT Hudson Bay Using Satellites to Monitor Earth EW AN Any object that orbits a larger object is called a satellite. many countries are beginning to see A. the Arctic will warm up • The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change • Impacts of climate change will affect human society benefit from climate change. Lake Agassiz and Climate Change Mirrors in Space Research suggests that large changes in the volume of Lake Mirrors could be used to reflect some of the Sun’s radiation back Lake Agassiz and Global Flooding Agassiz happened at about the same time as Earth’s temperature Figure 1 The Alouette 1. geoengineering ideas out there. Scientists want to know whether the flow of fresh water why geoengineering is a big risk: Teller believes flooding from Lake Agassiz may be the source of will interrupt ocean currents and affect world climate. Why? Here are just a few of the reasons additional water caused sea levels around the world to rise slightly. learning. Keen medal from northward transfer of thermal energy. radio. the topics you are the possible opening of the Northwest research on climate change. RADARSAT-2 Lake Earth. How could changes in a lake’s size access. shifting precipitation Arctic than anywhere else.2 Global Impacts of Climate Change 417 Check Your Learning Complete these questions at the end of each content section to make sure you understand Magazine Features the concepts you have just learned. E. Research This Citizen Action These research-based activities These activities encourage will help you relate science and you to be a good citizen and technology to the world around you a steward of the environment and improve your critical thinking by taking action in the world and decision-making skills. This will make it easier for scientists to monitor changes in Earth’s ice cover Geoengineering to Combat Climate Change? over time. algae would then absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. CHECK C YOUR LEARNING 1. thoughts with your peers. GO TO NELSON SCIENCE Figure 2 Fertilizing the oceans OSSLT 418 NEL NEL Discover Your Textbook xv . measuring tape C. These next to Frobisher Bay. or tubes of algae can be used to absorb the carbon problem-solving is called geoengineering : the use of technology dioxide produced by power plants and other factories (Figure 3). And as images have helped scientists determine that Earth’s ice is melting airport runway to the north of the city. and Earth’s climate could change much faster than expected. Russia. Unfortunately. Evaluating Unit Task Bookmark SKILLS HANDBOOK 4. • Earth observation satellites that monitor environmental ancient beaches and sediments from the flow of warm water north from the equator to the North conditions such as temperature. careers involving science. The suggestions should be practical actions that the average citizen can do. Teller his research on Lake Agassiz. Teller Atlantic. Figure 1 Lake Agassiz. soon as you stop putting in the fertilizer. • broadcasting satellites that broadcast radio and television Scientists believe that the volume Connections to Today’s Climate programs Risks of Geoengineering of water in Lake Agassiz changed abruptly several times during its Today. 4. including agriculture. the reduced • Release of carbon dioxide: Earth’s permafrost may contain more stored • Changes expected around the world include • Climate change is occurring more rapidly in the ice also means that polar bears carbon dioxide and methane than exists in the atmosphere today. have on traditional ways of life? A GO TO NELSON SCIENCE complete the Unit Task. page 444. DID YOU KNOW? Climate change in the Arctic will have major impacts for the rest of the world. Why is it important to have a strong consensus among At the end of each content section. Analyzing the Issue. Equipment and Materials: globe. the impacts of climate transportation for Canada and other countries ? T/I change can be reduced. which is mostly covered by ice. Look for these special features in each unit to learn about exciting developments in science. D. Measure the distance for a ship to travel from St. formed across south-central Canada and into the United States (Figure 1). many different types of artificial and other scientists have reconstructed affect climate? Fresh water from Lake Agassiz would have poured satellites are orbiting Earth. RADARSAT-1 RADARSAT-2 Data and Products © MacDonald. You may need to refer back to • ocean currents • navigation birds. and revisits the same spot on Earth every 24 days. K/U of the main ideas will help you affect the climate in many countries. The sulfate droplets would act like tiny mirrors. A Did You Know? Magadan if there were no polar ice. into space to decrease Earth’s temperature (Figure 1). Note the Iqaluit fertilizers to the ocean to increase algal growth (Figure 2). Section 8. 354 NEL monitors glaciers. The result in as much carbon dioxide removal as hoped. Which countries do you think could claim rights to natural possibilities for profit. Choose one of the following impact areas of climate change. as mapped by Teller and colleagues. Alaska. Briefly both) for the rest of the world. This icon lets you know that the material will help you develop literacy skills in preparation for SCI ENCE OSSLT Lake Agassiz: Studying Past Climate the Ontario Secondary School Huge sheets of ice covered much of North America during the last ice age. The resolution is 8 m. among other . most of this ice gradually melted as Earth’s temperature began to rise. ecosystems. and the ancient lake bottom. • Geoengineering might cause people to assume that climate change is “being taken care of. increased temperatures. around you. the ocean stops at an increasing rate. images from RADARSAT-1 Figure 2 This RADARSAT-2 image shows the community of Iqaluit. along the southern edge of the ice sheet as it melted. A ships will be able to travel through the Arctic en route to other 3. These events could have • communication satellites that transmit telephone Sun the Geological Association of Canada for triggered a period of cooling in Europe and North America. the Moon is a natural satellite that orbits Earth.10. ice cover. is likely to see increased shipping with will be spread around the world by the climate system. Climate change in the Arctic will have major impacts on the • Biodiversity: Many migratory species have breeding grounds in the people over the next century. The greenhouse Aboriginal peoples to claim. For RADARSAT-2 example. the greenhouse effect would be further enhanced. Describe how your chosen impact could affect Earth and its 6. intentionally changing Earth’s climate system allowing huge quantities of water to drain into the ocean. Information Satellites Monitoring Climate Change • We cannot predict all the consequences of changing Earth’s flood stories found in the Bible. (b) What would be the potential impact on trade between Your article should persuade others that the Arctic should be Canada. The In Summary wander into town looking for food. Dettwiler and Associates Ltd. launched in 1962. Several large lakes formed Literacy Test. • Climate change in the Arctic will have economic started to melt. and the spread of pests and diseases. drained. and a rise in sea level. conversations Figure 3 Farming algae Figure 2 James T. Canada was the third country to launch an artificial satellite.” People might stop reducing their emissions of greenhouse gases. Lake Agassiz. John’s. vats. OSSLT ONTARIO Images from RADARSAT-2 show a difference between open water and various types of ice (Figure 2). NEL 379 Geoengineering cannot fix the problems of climate change all by itself.All Rights Reserved. it could provide us with a backup plan if Earth’s climate begins to change even more suddenly than expected. Here are just three of the many The algae can be processed into fuel. to Magadan. RADARSAT-2 was launched to continue AT CH MANITOBA 1957. Be prepared to share your describe how each country would be affected. NORTH Su pe r i or ke Some scientists are trying to figure out ways to use technology on Farming Algae DAKOTA MINNESOTA La GO TO NELSON SCIENCE a global scale to address the issue of climate change. For example. the ice around the lake broke. forests.

occur when magnesium and copper are heated? K/U test tube (b) Write the word and chemical equations for • lab apron Part A: Reaction of Metals test tube the reactions that occur when magnesium • Bunsen burner clamp The Skills Menu in each activity • retort stand with clamps • spark lighter with Oxygen 2. your inference. C A 200 km away. Assume • copper(II) carbonate. 244 Chapter 6 • Chemicals and Their Reactions NEL NEL 6. predict an answer to the Testable Question. Measure 5 mL of sodium hydroxide solution in the 10 mL graduated cylinder. you will measure the total mass of teacher for disposal. Design a Copper(II) carbonate is toxic if swallowed. T/I Figure 2 (d) Write the word and chemical equation for the to solve the problem or achieve • test-tube rack 4. Gather Information skills. 228 Chapter 6 • Chemicals and Their Reactions NEL NEL 6. NEL 7. solution. Put on your eye protection and lab apron.. Reaction 1 Reaction 2 (d) Compare your results from Part B with • iron(III) nitrate.2. Increased production requires more raw materials. a quiz. Create • 10 mL graduated cylinder there is sodium hydroxide solution in the bottom of the flask. Part B: Antacid Tablet in Water 11. This will create 25 new jobs—great news for the nearby town with high You have been asked to present both options to examine social and unemployment. Provide a possible explanation for your Prediction. hydrogen peroxide. Place the tablet and the cup of water on the scale. Practise holding the empty test tube with tongs C For each reaction. what molecular K/U • tongs lists the skills that you will use spark lighter.B. 3. which is a waste product from the smelting of nickel ore. to the unit. or an increase in mass. that allow you to observe the Predicting Analyzing burning splint at the mouth of a test tube containing hydrogen gas? You Planning Evaluating were hearing evidence of a synthesis reaction: Controlling Variables Communicating 9. decision-making community. including safety precautions. The raw material Make a Decision for manufacturing sulfuric acid is sulfur. the two best options are as follows: icon. Add the tablet to the water. including substances in tuck in loose clothing. Planning Evaluating it. When the visible reaction has stopped.7 Explore an Issue Critically 283 6. Word and chemical equations describe the chemical 14. when you held a tube to a depth of about 2 cm. Record your observations. Tilt the flask and carefully slide the test tube into 13. speed up the Hydrogen Peroxide decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. You will that the stopper forms a tight seal. Clean a 5 cm length of copper wire with steel carbonate is heated? What ionic compound • 3 test tubes wool until the copper is shiny. Add a small amount of iron(III) nitrate (enough to cover the end of a wooden splint) to the approved your proposal. 15. K/U Record your observations. Look for evidence of a chemical change and record your 12. Test the gas produced by holding a glowing Copper(II) Carbonate splint at the mouth of the test tube (Figure 3). (Assume that the most common ionic charge for copper is +2. T/I • plastic cup and its contents. 1. K/U • sodium hydroxide.E. T/I change. NaOH(aq) mix (Figure 2). Record your changes that occur during a chemical reaction. CuCO3(s) of the wire from Part A with the contents of the that one of the two products of this reaction is • dilute hydrogen peroxide. Report any spills to your teacher. liquid water. Your teacher will assign each lab group a different volume of iron(III) nitrate solution. 6. reaction were carried out in a sealed container? observed class results: decrease. Once the Complete a report that will be presented to the factory is in full production. detergent company.7 Perform an Activity 245 Skills Handbook Icon This icon directs you to the section of the Skills Handbook that contains helpful Explore an Issue EXPLORE AN ISSUE CRITICALLY 7. Account for any • 100 mL graduated cylinder 7. Pour this solution into the flask. (Figure 2) Fortunately. Seal the flask to check that the test tube fits and A the total mass of products after the reaction. Put on your eye protection and lab apron. change in mass for your class. These experimental Controlling Variables Communicating (Figure 1). Look for evidence of chemical change in the Apply and Extend SKILLS HANDBOOK • wooden splint limewater. Account for any predicted mass change: decrease. or take • Increase the current train shipments of sulfuric acid to the factory from the supplier located recommendation. and iron(III) nitrate are hydrogen peroxide solution into the test tube substances affect the reaction.B. Pour controlled experiment that compares how these Limewater. Is Mass Gained or Lost During Pour your assigned volume of solution into the Investigation SKILLS MENU 12. Save the wire for Part B. remains? Justify your inference. Part C: Decomposition of liver. The company could recoup its initial C A investment in about five years. Carefully light the Bunsen burner with a Bunsen retort stand and clamp and copper are heated. Measure and record the total mass of the flask discrepancies. and tablet.2 Conduct an Investigation 229 xvi Discover Your Textbook NEL . 14. Measure and record the total mass of the flask sealed container? T/I Experimental Design and Sodium Hydroxide and its contents. Questioning Performing small test tube. compare the total mass of reactants with the total mass of products. Slowly tip the flask to allow the two solutions to change in mass for your class. or increase? 1. calculate and record the average Table 1 Predictions and Observations • dilute solutions of 8.C. other students’ results. In your GO TO NELSON SCIENCE opinion. When you see this weblink • ways to minimize the risks of each option You are a member of an independent consulting firm hired to investigate possible solutions. Wash any spills on skin or (f) For Part B. Remove the wire from the flame and allow produced to flow into the limewater.B. test tube being heated. and the president of the environmental issues related while minimizing the risk to the local environment. Note any changes that occur. Doing so could Figure 3 Glowing splint test to help hydrogen peroxide decompose. Seal the flask with the stopper.. molecules. 3. and irritants. 10. K/U • steel wool it to cool on the heat-resistant pad. 3. Work in pairs or small groups to learn more about • the manufacture of sulfuric acid Weblink • the hazards involved in storing and transporting Figure 1 What is the best way to transport sulfuric acid? sulfuric acid and sulfur SKILLS HANDBOOK • rail accidents involving hazardous chemicals The Issue 4. wash the affected area with a lot of cool water. a table similar to Table 1. • 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask and stopper Figure 1 The test tube contains iron(III) nitrate solution. the local Member of Parliament. meeting. The second one—the 10. If splashed in the eyes. Do not allow the test tube’s contents to spill water. calculate and record the average change in mass (final − initial) (g) clothing immediately with plenty of cold water. In this activity. Add copper(II) carbonate crystals to another test Do you remember hearing a loud “pop” in Activity 5.7 Perform an Activity PERFORM AN ACTIVITY Part B: Decomposition of 16. you will consider two such reactions. watch a video. potatoes. You will also look at two decomposition reactions. sodium in Part B. a Chemical Reaction? Hypothesizing Observing 5. glowing splint Hypothesizing Observing 8. You should outline the risks and benefits of each option and then recommend one of them. comparing the risks and • Build a small sulfuric acid production plant next benefits of each. Compare the appearance decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. atoms. T/I change. including concentrated sulfuric acid. cause the contents to be ejected from the test tube. bring the mouth of the decomposition of copper(II) carbonate. As the reaction begins. or increase? initial mass of reactants + container (g) Iron(III) nitrate and sodium hydroxide are both corrosive. 2. burner compound is produced when copper(II) • heat-resistant pad 3. Record your observations. Note whether each change resulted in a science process skills. (j) Compare your answer in (i) with your and sliding it into the empty Erlenmeyer flask. Place a third test tube in the test-tube rack. and communication. Avoid skin and eye contact. Hold the test tube in a test-tube holder at an angle so that the copper(II) carbonate is spread 2 H2(g) + O2(g) → 2 H2O(g) + energy gas along the inside of the test tube. no • antacid tablet discrepancies. A nearby nickel company can supply the sulfur Which proposal do you recommend for supplying the detergent factory with sulfuric acid? What criteria did Science website to learn more you use to decide? about the topic. Gently heat the underside of the test tube in the Bunsen burner flame. K/U observed change in mass: decrease. opportunity for you to develop chemical reaction compare with the total mass of • lab apron the reactants? • test tube Analyze and Evaluate (a) Calculate and record the change in mass for each • tongs Prediction reaction. Predicting Analyzing Measure and record the total mass of the cup. T/I C to the detergent plant. table.B. carbonate crystals • eye protection 1.2 CONDUCT AN INVESTIGATION Conduct an 4. sodium hydroxide solution in the flask. and the environment and to recommend this decision at the meeting. In the first row of your (b) Compare your results from Part A with • balance 6. Secure a Bunsen burner to a lab stand with a clamp. Procedure. at no cost.7 information and tips. no Figure 2 The iron(III) nitrate solution is now mixed with the Explain. the heat. Continue heating the test tube until no further (f) Write the word and chemical equations for the • limewater. large quantities of sulfuric acid would be produced and stored on site. You will also measure Prediction. or increase? Procedure SKILLS HANDBOOK 1. hot test tube. do not allow one part of the test being consumed themselves. Hold one end of the wire with tongs. rearrange. In case of skin contact. Add 50 mL of tap water to the plastic cup. and decrease. Return the flask and all its contents to your this investigation. there are substances that speed up this reaction without When heating the test tube. 2. The initial construction and setup costs will be significant. Fe(NO3)3(aq) other students’ results. Record your observations. The report should outline the benefits and risks of each option and how those risks could be minimized. T/I final mass of products + container (g) hydroxide can cause blindness. This will allow any gases decomposed into simpler substances? Justify the purpose of the activity. changes are observed. Move the test tube back and forth above the flame to evenly distribute decomposition of hydrogen peroxide—normally occurs very slowly. science that you are learning.. Tie back long hair and (g) Many natural chemicals. In this activity you will use iron(III) nitrate tube to heat up more than any other part. Many metals also undergo synthesis reactions with oxygen to form oxides. Take an antacid tablet out of its package. Insert the • scoopula 11. Place the test Synthesis and Decomposition Reactions SKILLS MENU Questioning Performing tube in the test-tube rack. T/I C A Figure 1 Magnesium burns in air. • iron(III) nitrate. (c) For Part A. It should conclude with a do an online activity. Write your irritants. you can visit the Nelson Discuss the two options. or ions collide. no change. • copper wire 5. observations. The rail line runs near the river that is the town’s main source of drinking water. Half-fill a test tube with limewater. Ca(OH)2(aq) observations. During a chemical reaction.) (c) Based on your evidence. K/U Read the Experimental Design and Procedure. Record your observations. They often involve Goal To decide which proposal best meets the needs of the research. (h) Why would it be unsafe to conduct Part B in a Part A: Iron(III) Nitrate 9. the company. Suggest a reason for the differences. Proceed until it is one-third full. and strawberries. and form products. wire into the hottest part of a Bunsen burner K/U limewater test tube close to the mouth of the (e) What evidence suggests that hydrogen peroxide • test-tube holder flame for 20 to 30 s. Fe(NO3)3(s) 13. (g) Would the class results for Part B differ if the no change.B.. 3. Look at the burning magnesium in Figure 1. H2O2(aq) 6. The to a meeting involving the town mayor. reactants before the reaction. The sulfur would have to be transported from the nickel smelter Communicate by truck along the road through town. a representative from an challenge is how to supply the additional sulfuric acid environmental group. measure investigations are an Testable Question How does the total mass of the products of a Equipment and Materials • eye protection and record the total mass of the cup and its contents. with the experiment once your teacher has 15. Analyze and Evaluate Equipment and Materials Procedure SKILLS HANDBOOK copper(II) (a) What evidence suggests that chemical changes Skills Menu 1. Critically Minimizing Risk for a SKILLS MENU Community Defining the Issue Defending a Researching Decision Identifying Communicating These activities allow you An Ontario detergent manufacturer is considering Alternatives Evaluating Analyzing the Issue adding another shift to its production schedule at its central Ontario plant (Figure 1). This activity involves open flames.D. Account for any differences. (e) Compare your results in Part A with your results toxic. (i) Answer the Question posed at the beginning of You will investigate two different chemical reactions. These are hands-on activities 7.

melting of these glaciers. 185) compound (p. The writers of this report concluded climate change? 8. Year 18.10) to perform specific functions • Positively charged ions are cations. (5. The ___________ has summarized the latest 22. Summarize Earth’s temperature increased continuously over the Chart Icons this chapter you learned about a different aspect change is happening. Looking at the (a) Is snow cover increasing or decreasing in the other? Explain. (9. (9. Since human use of fossil fuel increased of nitrous oxide. develop ___________ which specify the amount businesses that advertise themselves as “green.4) K/U will occur. Scientists today are concerned (b) Find an approximate trend line for other time method the scientist could use. problem for Canada.1) ionic and molecular. 184) and physical properties chemical or physical. such as average world 6.1) T/I A GO TO NELSON SCIENCE the yellow line? answer the question. • Chemical changes involve new their properties. The greenhouse effect is natural and important knowledge? Belief? Values? tagged with icons concentrations in the atmosphere. 23. In Chapter 5 you learned that nitrous oxide is a that since the line of best fit had a positive slope.5) C decrease rainfall. (9. at home. three of these other gases.1) • less sea ice understand all the K/U 2. Wrap It Up What Do You Think Now? Think about what you learned in the chapter and consider CHAPTER LOOKING BACK whether you have changed Key Concepts 5 KEY CONCEPTS SUMMARY W HAT DO Y O U Vocabulary your opinion by agreeing Summary THINK NOW? You thought about the following statements at the beginning of physical property (p.2) T/I trees and the effect on climate. Imagine you are planning a survey of local properties you would need to know in order to everywhere. The rate of climate change can be reduced by 17. Examine Figure 1. a 20-year period (1986–2006). if any.1. how the change reduces emissions.1 (Figure 2). Agree/disagree? Agree/disagree? Ionic compounds are made up Molecular compounds Many consumer products of positive and negative ions. (5. result of rising global temperatures? (10.10) ✓ Chemicals react with • Ionic compounds consist of cations and • Covalent bonds form when atoms 3 Pool water is a much better 6 Adding manufactured chemicals to each other in predictable Big Ideas anions linked by ionic bonds. stop rising. colour. Which of these has been proposed as a way (b) species loss (ii) Pacific islands spent its summers in southern Ontario has not In each case. List three different purposes for burning fossil atmosphere. 184) group (p.5) compounds are molecular. Science website. Carbon dioxide and methane will be released into the atmosphere by melting ___________ in the Arctic.6 your learning and environment we live in. (a) forest fires (i) Canada 19. own. 0.5) K/U following reports: Average Global Temperature cause increases in global temperatures. Describe the relationship between global population and climate change. you learned that increases in in Section 9. (b) more forest fires (d) more biodiversity • growth of trees farther north 9. (9.2) • more open water for shipping ice is decreasing at an accelerating rate because K/U how climate change may affect precipitation? • lowering of heating costs in the chapter.1) K/U (b) 30 % (d) 85 % 14.4) • Metals and non-metals combine to (p. –0. Name chapter. (5.4) K/U T/I C (d) How is this an example of a feedback loop in What Do You Understand? (yellow line).1) K/U 440 Chapter 10 • Assessing and Responding to Climate Change NEL NEL Chapter 10 Self-Quiz 441 NEL Discover Your Textbook xvii .4) K/U supporting one of these viewpoints. (a) Distinguish between the anthropogenic (1996–2006). is defined. (9.9) 214 Chapter 5 • Chemicals and Their Properties NEL NEL Looking Back 215 Big Ideas were developed in the chapter. select the best answer from the four 6.5) A atmosphere? (10.2) K/U T/I same time. (5. Summarize your findings. Describe the role of the Intergovernmental Panel (a) 10 % (c) 75 % a roof can reduce greenhouse gases. and more on nuclear power plants. a line between the temperature data points for Canada in the future. Describe a series of global events that connect 20. 192) The label on a chemical product Elements are more reactive and more substance’s behaviour (for example. substances by observing noble gases (p. (5. they form.10) Agree/disagree? Chemical reactions may conduct electricity. 9. (10.4 you for this concept? gases. This feature lists all the key as it becomes a completely different • Physical properties distinguish Agree/disagree? Agree/disagree? polyatomic ion (p.5) covalent bond. state) but not that can be broken down into their 1 provides all the information you need 4 hazardous than the compounds that ionic bond (p. green their businesses are. A certain species of migratory songbird that once activities leads to the release of greenhouse gases. scientists 18. (c) Outline what kind of research you could do above? to find out if extreme events have increased skills you must use to in frequency and/or intensity over the past (d) If you were asked to draw your own line of best To do an online self-quiz or for all fit. electrical conductivity) substances being produced. Describe one in this book. 5. 194) to use the product safely. 184) alkali metals (p. Describe the feedback loops illustrating the connection between each variable below and climate change: (9. Chapter Review CHAPTER REVIEW 9 The following icons indicate the Achievement Chart K/U Knowledge/Understanding T/I Thinking/Investigation Complete these category addressed by each question. support this concept was reasonable and 3.2) • Evidence of chemical change includes colour change. (9.6) share electrons. Describe two physical (b) Climate change will increase precipitation 11.11) chapter. Which of the following is most likely to be a direct (a) Describe how climate change is likely to • habitat loss for some species Copy each of the following statements into your notebook.7) they can also be used to What new understanding do you have? • The names of compounds that address environmental include polyatomic ions usually end challenges. an independent researcher drew might happen to the extent of snow over temperature and sea level. (10.10) anion (p. (5. would it be more similar to the orange line or other Nelson Web Connections. release or absorption of form different kinds of compounds: cation (p. change at the (b) Give an example of a carbon sink. Communication Application Create and Evaluate Reflect on Your Learning C A 16. He concluded (b) How does snow help keep Earth cool? evidence that strongly suggests that these forests act as a source or a sink for greenhouse that we do not have anything to worry about. Consider the two carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere questions to check What Do You Remember? 1. 192) you learned in the reactivity with acids.4) electrolyte (p. Draw a diagram that summarizes the relationship present that disagree with the IPCC’s All questions are between using fossil fuels for transportation and Solve a Problem (a) For each report.1) TI C A (a) Research three common arguments skeptics 9. (10. • Atoms gain or lose electrons resulting in a stable electron arrangement.1) (a) Raising the temperature of the ocean results (b) How did your learning in Chapter 8 prepare K/U Temperature anomaly (°C) 2. thus • The majority of all known • Product chemists select chemicals becoming ions. (a) Did you find this concept difficult to understand? Why or why not? 0.10) conductor of electricity than the environment is a bad thing.10) negatively charged ions are anions. Figure 1 shows glaciers on the sides of 1. based on the information 10. Explain how each of these 12. and another 30-year additional examples.2 apply your new evaporation of moisture from the soil. write a sentence or two findings. (5. (10. 10.” (5. gases while at home. Write a short paragraph sources.5) K/U 13. (10. (10. (10. state. Summary feature alkaline earth metals (p. are made up of distinct have been developed from concepts were taught. 9.1) K/U Make a list of three questions you would ask the everywhere. Agree/disagree? electrolytes: the solutions they form named using prefixes. 175) element (p. (9. (9. change experts. To make climate ___________. The numbers covalent bond (p. ways. and formation of a gas. Imagine you are a climatologist beginning to create a computer model that will predict precipitation to vary. 186) ion (p. 184) or disagreeing with the The Key Concepts the chapter. Online T/I C A conclusion. (9.2) Self-Quiz 16. You saw this previously 17. 202) substance(s).3) K/U (c) longer growing season greenhouse gases. K/U C 14. to life on Earth.4) 15. (5.” (9. (10.1) T/I (c) Climate change will decrease precipitation of greenhouse gases produced.6) K/U continuously over the past century.6. explain 5.4) describing a possible bias behind the report. List three Canadian sources of greenhouse in more melting of the ice. think that developing nations should not have to (c) It is difficult to predict how quickly people 7.1) molecular compounds from ionic molecular compound (p.2) K/U Write a short paragraph explaining whether you think these changes will be an overall benefit or open water absorbs more solar energy than ice does. change the appearance of these glaciers. If nations drastically reduce greenhouse gas change their energy usage as much as the more will switch from fossil fuels to other energy emissions. 0. List three factors that affect whether Canadian Earth stopped warming after 1998. explain how you could reduce the to absorb excess carbon dioxide from the (c) sea level rise (iii) northern Africa been seen there for several years.2) K/U • rising sea level Fill in the blanks with a word or phrase that correctly (b) Describe one global effect produced by the (a) more sea ice (c) more freshwater • melting permafrost concepts you learned completes the sentence. 207) terms you have learned and the molecule (p. is a helpful tool for radiated by the Sun varies over time. Scientists believe that today’s climate change is 13. harmless gas administered to dental patients.5) K/U A alternatives. Be sure to include the the rise of sea level that could flood low-lying cause-and-effect steps between the act of planting For each question. in form (for example.” (5. (5. 207) diatomic molecule (p. The term “anthropogenic greenhouse gases” (c) Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide raises the temperature of the ocean. greenhouse gas emissions. does this mean that one causes (c) Explain why carbon sinks are 1998 and for 2006 (orange line). combustibility) in chemical identity. a Ask your parents and other people for (d) Compare the experts’ responses with your study tool for each greenhouse effect and the natural 30-year period (1976–2006). In 19. given that switching to alternative Indicate whether each of the statements is true or false. 188) ideas and skills that involve a description of the production. (5. (5.2) shopping habits and dietary choices to reduce K/U understanding of climate change. 206) compounds. (9. in “ate. Quiz Icon Earth’s global temperature. 207) in brackets indicate the page number where the term 2 Recycling used motor oil is common 5 Bottled water is better for your health section in which the practice. The warming of Canada’s far north and the Arctic dioxide is produced by the burning of fossil relying less on power plants that burn fossil fuels Ocean may lead to the following changes: Figure 1 fuels. (5.0 greenhouse gases? (9. 184) A substance’s chemical Changes can be classified as We can classify pure halogens (p. (5. Comment on the description of mainly negative. petrochemicals. 190) Vocabulary substance as it is. Approximately what fraction of Ontario’s (b) How would you go about testing this Write a short answer to each of these questions.4) T/I to consider any other factors. 4.5) K/U several sentences that you can use to convince • Another 2007 report drew a trend line through the have on Earth’s climate? annual temperature data points from 1996 to 2006 Achievement friends and family members. (5. Place a straight greenhouse effect. than tap water.2) A scientists have trouble making exact projections (b) higher lake levels convert to energy sources that do not emit about the rate of climate change? (10.2) K/U (a) Climate change will cause the patterns of 10. Consider them again and decide whether you agree or disagree with each one. 184) statements. (5.1) individual elements. we do not have nitrous oxide as a “harmless” gas. or in the world around you. (10.” begin calculations for your model. Some people think all nations The Chapter Self-Quiz (d) less spread of tropical diseases should cut back emissions by the same percentage. Explain how the planting of trees can reduce the Chapter fossil-fuel-driven transportation activities to impact of climate change.5) K/U (d) expanding deserts (iv) Amazon rainforest (a) State a hypothesis that could explain (a) fish farms (c) cattle herds (e) increasing storm (v) United States Gulf 24. (5.4) you to make sure you K/U C (d) It is difficult to calculate how much carbon 8. (10. of the events on your list had from the experts’ responses? of knowledge and (b) Explain why scientists consider the each time period? anthropogenic greenhouse effect to be positive impacts? chapter on the Nelson (c) How would you interpret the reports summarized a problem. A scientist wants to examine the relationship (b) Come up with your own replies to these How might the bias be related to the editor’s between sea level rise and carbon dioxide three arguments. 184) determine its usefulness and effects.4. (10. Write an argument of gases. Which of the following projections best describes research on climate change. Identify two ways in which you add to Match each effect of climate change on the left with the business owners to help you evaluate just how (d) Climate change will increase snowfall and atmospheric carbon dioxide or other greenhouse region most likely to be affected on the right. non-metal atoms linked by a BIG Ideas (5. but by two elements end in “ide. • Molecules consist of two or more in a product. (a) Brainstorm with some friends to create a list arguments that have been written by climate K/U edge over the data points for a 10-year period that identify the types of extreme natural events related to climate. • Many ionic compounds are • Molecular compounds are often pure water.6) have a negative impact The checkmark indicates which • The names of ionic compounds formed How have your answers changed since then? on the environment. (9. 9. 398 Chapter 9 • Earth’s Climate: Out of Balance NEL NEL Chapter 9 Review 399 CHAPTER SELF-QUIZ 10 The following icons indicate the Achievement Chart K/U Knowledge/Understanding T/I Thinking/Investigation category addressed by each question.4. (10. (10.5) K/U on Climate Change (IPCC). Most scientists agree that humans must rapidly K/U 21.2) T/I changes in Arctic sea ice. (a) In your own words. Summarize your findings. In Chapter 9. or that its effects will be the evidence that leads scientists to this past century. (10. Describe two ways in which planting grass on 25. 175) chemical property (p. In each case.5) K/U (b) Higher temperatures result in increased (c) Did you find that the evidence used to 0. effect of rising global temperatures? (10. Describe three ways that people can change their the birds’ disappearance based on your (b) large reservoirs (d) reforestation intensity Coast (10.1) energy.3) T/I amount of greenhouse gas emissions. define “carbon sink. global temperatures will immediately industrialized nations. reducing the amount of carbon dioxide that can be –0.5) K/U 5. (10. If (b) It is difficult to measure how the energy energy sources will be expensive. (10. other people you think the statement is false. The area of the Arctic Ocean covered by sea 3. (c) What effect might a reduction in snow cover two things are related. precipitate • Elements can be grouped according to their properties. Na Bohr–Rutherford diagram outlines the main • Physical properties (for example. (a) It is difficult to determine the relative amounts of atmospheric gases. (10. (9. (10.4) K/U Figure 1 Annual mean Water website provides projections of what 12. (a) When two variables. the researcher concluded that Canada? (b) Think about several reasons or a piece of 7. What do you conclude about (b) Which. What is one reason that that explains why (a) fewer crop pests reduce their dependence on fossil fuels and mountains in the Canadian Rockies.4 1880 1910 1940 1970 2000 Web Connect includes carbon dioxide and other gases. rewrite it to make it true. Describe five different signs that indicate that climate change is already affecting the 11. period (p. adding carbon dioxide to the (d) What further research can you do to help 4.” • In a 2007 report. What is the connection between fossil fuels and making it more likely that forest fires convincing? Explain.3) There is an online (c) Research responses to these three common K/U C about something called the “anthropogenic periods besides the ones above.5) K/U C horizontal line. (9. (9. 50 years where you live.2 yourself understand this concept? knowledge from the fuels in Canada. What new information did you learn greenhouse effect. You may have encountered these ideas in school.4. (5. However.5) A greenhouse gas emissions are caused by the hypothesis? activities of individuals? (10. 190) • Chemical properties describe a • Physical change involves changes • Compounds are pure substances ionic compound (p. (10. The National Snow Information System for absorbed by the ocean. Which of the following is likely to be a positive islands and coastal areas. C Communication A Application 15. important. molecules. period (1940–1970). Some people refuse to believe that climate very likely caused by human activity.

(8. hurricanes.. For each question. causing them to warm up. from about 50 years ago) on the research in Step 5. yearly monsoons.. and the most in the have been changing lately. • a comparison of the climate 50 years ago and • changes in the occurrence of insect-borne Checklist to use the information collected to identify any today impacts of climate change. My sea level has been rising for at least a hundred years—and it’s been rising 2. whereas half of this radiation back toward Earth’s Indicate whether each of the statements is TRUE or FALSE. (d) Earth’s oceans absorb about half of the total whereas climate refers to the temperature of 7.g. • average monthly and yearly temperatures 8. • Uganda (Figure 2) (e. What is the most likely cause of current climate that carry disease may move farther north.4) K/U 13. Which of the following is an example of thermal ocean. If climate is the average of weather over long (a) changes in the total amount of ice and water surface. a poster presentation. Your brochure should compare your two chosen careers and explain how they connect to climate change. As you can imagine. 23. • an estimate of how much precipitation falls as ✔ Record the data in an organized fashion.8) K/U 10. water. and use public transit more frequently 446 Unit D • Climate Change NEL NEL Unit D Review 447 xviii Discover Your Textbook NEL .4) K/U (d) the Gulf Stream (a) support international treaties to reduce temporarily switch direction and push warm water east. heat waves) Brainstorm a list of practical steps that people in the region can take to mitigate or adapt to climate-related changes. (a) melting ice at the poles Niño event? (8. (b) Greenhouse gases keep Earth cool by energy back to space. the atmosphere. Are any of your projected Knowledge/Understanding following: impacts already occurring? the Unit Task. Which list includes all the key components of K/U (a) Water increases in volume as its temperature Earth’s climate system? (8.A. The anthropogenic summers. (For example. Is that new? system includes have increased and society.C. methane walk.1) K/U (b) More salt dissolves in sea water as the water than it releases. (d) decreasing Arctic ice cover warmer than it would otherwise be. (c) the thermohaline circulation in the ocean government of Canada? (10. Read this list carefully before completing the • amounts of permanent ice or frozen soil your suggestions for the region: ✔ Prepare and present your current and projected climate- • Vancouver. you think the statement is false. Deforestation is a problem because cutting significant in transferring thermal energy across supercontinent. radiation from the Sun. have any symptoms been missed? What is causing the rise in temperature? Why is this cause happening? What can be done about Earth’s have learned in the unit faster in the last few years.4) K/U 2.g. Earth’s climate changes naturally over very long (b) all land on Earth’s surface. Step 4 with the impacts you identified from your evaluated according to how well you are able to evaluate your work if possible. a The Skills Menu identifies the • access to scientific information and/or video. or the types of energy from the Sun. Choose a location such as one of the following locations to research: • relative wealth or poverty of people in the adaptation for local government. Yukon. hurricanes. What is the difference between weather and (c) oceanic temperature measurements. climates. Dan Piraro. changes quickly.. thermal energy greenhouse effect. dengue fever. What impacts of climate government. Nunavut.B. greenhouse gases. thermal expansion—that would explain the sea level rise. We have evidence that our climate is changing. Earth absorbs much more energy from the Sun (a) water. ice cover.4) K/U (c) volcanic eruptions produced today’s continents from one large 4. (8. and the criteria that your region individuals • Churchill. Here is how a doctor–patient conversation might go: [DOCTOR] So.C. the most serious post-secondary) • salary Scientists use impacts. removing moisture from the atmosphere (c) Earth’s forests absorb about half of the total climate? (8. 8.6) K/U trap thermal energy near Earth’s surface. Research the climate of the location you technologies in the region 7. 442 Unit D • Climate Change NEL NEL Looking Back 443 Unit Task Demonstrate the skills and knowledge you developed in UNIT D UNIT TASK 4. Long-term natural changes in Earth’s climate (c) Greenhouse gases absorb infrared radiation energy. whereas (c) a decrease in the number of animals on and nearby bodies of water. change will be felt [DOCTOR] It says here in your medical history that your seasons the lithosphere. individuals adapt to coming changes in climate? challenge described in the The Issue The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Researching Identifying Alternatives Decision Communicating Evaluating 5. in the troposphere. K/U [EARTH] I just don’t feel right. Manitoba.7. monsoons) Present your research at an international conference Assessment • a different location (with the permission of • unusual heat waves or droughts (i. and land (a) rising average world temperatures travels to the poles.3. The impacts of climate change will affect our [DOCTOR] but they seem to be getting worse. seasonal floods. converting it into chemical energy. 9. What would be the most practical solution(s) for the Unit Task.4) K/U (b) heat conduction through land masses municipality. businesses. • skill/personality/aptitude requirements • duties/responsibilities natural ice cores. • Whitehorse. 9. KEY CONCEPTS KEY CONCEPTS KEY CONCEPTS [EARTH] Speaking of oceans. select the best answer from the four Review questions to alternatives. look for the following factors: • the most appropriate steps for mitigation and Skills Menu 1. a dramatic presentation. (8.. and individuals to adapt the unit by completing the Global Climate Change SKILLS MENU change do you expect to occur in this region over the next 100 years? Make a list of projected to climate change? • How can the local government. I’ve together the Key CHAPTER 8 CHAPTER 9 CHAPTER 10 [DOCTOR] had quite a lot of flooding. climate happens over both the land and the Earth. with Earth waiting its turn. atmospheric levels of Impacts of climate the hydrosphere. periods of time. Which of the following correctly describes an El periods of time. Do you think it’s connected? Very likely.1) K/U (d) satellite observations of polar ice cover. Can you describe 1. West Nile virus. temperature. flooding. Scientists use climate sediment layers. Present your completed dialogue in the form of a cartoon. For example. and tree rings to study past models to figure out how different factors affect our climate. ✔ Plan and develop a clear search strategy for climate data. look for changes in any of Make a Decision SKILLS HANDBOOK 4. I have noticed that my oceans seem to be Natural Changes Climate Change expanding. 3. or an FAQ on a web page. winters and hotter radiated by Earth. (8. 16. (b) Earth’s atmosphere reflects about half of the (b) atmospheric weather records.3) K/U What Do You Remember? 6. the movement of Earth’s landmass damage to the ozone layer. UNIT LOOKING BACK Master D MAKE A SUMMARY Make a Summary UNIT D Concept Map Climate Change Imagine a doctor’s waiting room. on Earth. © 2007. methane. The panel’s findings will be • Southeastern coast of Australia • changes in severe weather patterns 4. burning of fossil by 2050 to avoid • educational requirements (secondary and • potential employers fuels.4) K/U 8. presented at an international conference. organisms (a) all living things and their habitats. and emit almost all of this (d) Weather happens only over land. Earth’s climate experiences long- The largest sources of greenhouse gases in Canada are the change. Which of the following is NOT evidence of increases. Gases in Earth’s atmosphere trap infrared (c) Human activity has increased the amount of (d) air..C. bicycle. storms.. Collect data (both current and.4. In your presentation. businesses. less precipitation than the windward side of the (b) carbon dioxide. Which of the following mechanisms is NOT (d) human emissions of greenhouse gases 21. Lyme disease) • climate-related changes that are already occurring steps toward mitigation. GHG emissions. fossils.9) K/U 20. and living things (b) rising sea levels 18.C. ice.9) K/U (c) all frozen water on Earth. The hydrosphere is made up of (d) As global temperatures increase. 19. • United Kingdom you observe. (c) air. reports on global climate change. • average monthly and yearly precipitation observations from Steps 5 to 7. Warmer ocean waters can increase the strength of hurricanes. 17. or a written submission.5. GO TO NELSON SCIENCE completing the Career Links activity.11) that would otherwise increase Earth’s energy. British Columbia. 1. Are you feeling any thermal expansion? System and Out of Balance Responding to [EARTH] Yes. Increases in global temperatures are caused by (d) all water on Earth. ✔ Compare projected impacts with actual impacts. Which of the following actions is mainly (b) The vibration of atoms in certain molecules atmosphere and prevents the absorption of (a) air convection currents your responsibility and NOT that of your allows these molecules to absorb different carbon dioxide. Analyze and present your data using tables and • France graphs. permafrost) • What major aspects of life in that region would related impacts in an organized manner. height above sea level. carbon dioxide. increasing Earth’s temperature. Most greenhouse gases in Canada are produced carbon dioxide emissions 5.6. Figure 1 Churchhill. Canada • extent and duration of ice cover on lakes in be affected by climate change? Application • Baffin Island. Consider these questions when generating ✔ Identify potential solutions. What else? Plants and The increase in animals migrating toward the poles—I think I know living things. all the main ideas in Earth’s climate system is powered by the Sun. and Defining the Issue Defending a changes for the region. Review the information about global climate • What steps have already been taken by local change in this unit. (9. 6. effects from climate CAREER LINKS and ocean currents. it is.4) K/U (c) carbon dioxide. (8. Greenhouse gas emissions must be List the careers mentioned in this unit. oxygen (d) change transportation habits so that we (d) argon. ice. Let me examine you. Scientists use proxy records to help them study (a) Greenhouse gases act as a protective layer in (a) Earth’s surface absorbs about half of the total past climates.6) K/U Earth? (8. (IPCC) is preparing an update to its previous Analyzing the Issue the following factors. with your classmates). ✔ Make recommendations on how to limit and prepare for • Tuvalu emissions of greenhouse gases and/or reduce local and global climate change. Communication ✔ Clearly present data in a table or graph. 4. Switching to clean energy sources is essential to reduce Use the information you have assembled to create a brochure. energy 24.5) K/U (c) The prevailing winds in the Pacific Ocean 22.3. what’s happening here. Identify Solutions SKILLS HANDBOOK snow versus rain 4. Canada winter • How can people in the region reduce their task. Write some more dialogue. yes. (8. greenhouse gases Arctic. The update will include recommendations for actions. C Communication A Application 11. List the evidence for climate change contained in the Summarize what you This feature brings your symptoms for me? dialogue between Earth and the doctor. (8. I’m The greenhouse is causing the Climate change in just going to take your temperature. the province of Ontario. ✔ Thoroughly research and analyze the data. its axis. Here’s a thermometer. Canada (glaciers. (8. King Features Syndicate Make connections between Thermal energy is greenhouse effect Current initiatives transferred within is the main cause will not prevent Earth’s climate of today’s climate serious negative system through air change. rewrite it to make it true. water vapour (c) change the power source of electricity. and/or rainfall people in this region. C by completing the Make a Earth’s Climate Earth’s Climate: Assessing and Concepts from each Summary activity. I always have hurricanes. Figure 2 Uganda 2.C.3) K/U (b) air. (8. water. change? (9. I hear you’re not feeling well.A. Write a one-page summary of your report of Thinking/Inquiry on the Unit Task. Which of the following statements correctly 14. Your temperature is rising. businesses. Ozone is harmful to life on Earth when it is high (d) a decrease in the amount of oxygen in Earth’s 12. whereas climate (b) changes in Earth’s orbit and in the angle of 15.3) K/U 3. You are • Peru • Bangladesh • changes in river flow. down forests releases carbon dioxide into the Earth’s surface? (8. region. water vapour. I’ve been having a lot of trouble with hurricanes. and to suggest specific diseases (such as malaria. and living things (c) increasing water pollution radiation from Earth and thus keep our climate greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. More of my ice has been melting than usual. 6. CFCs are greenhouse gases. over the past 400 000 years have most likely been emitted by Earth’s surface and emit about caused by all the concepts and (b) Weather happens on a daily basis. Manitoba • severe weather patterns (e. (a) tree rings. 4. check your learning of K/U (a) Weather refers to wind and precipitation.4) K/U radiation back into space. Ice melting. Compare your list of projected impacts from ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST teacher will use to skills you will use to complete Your completed Performance Task will be have chosen. up in the stratosphere and helpful when it is at atmosphere. droughts. Note any recent changes in climate that deforestation in the region? ✔ Demonstrate an understanding of natural and human factors that influence climate in this region. and living things current climate change? (9.. land. water. Choose two of the careers that interest you or choose two other careers that relate to climate change. Career Links effect keeps Earth anthropogenic Ontario is expected [DOCTOR EXAMINES THERMOMETER] warm by trapping (human-caused) to bring warmer Just as I thought. convert it to infrared distance from the equator.e. 444 Unit D • Climate Change NEL NEL Unit D Task 445 Unit Review UNIT REVIEW D The following icons indicate the Achievement Chart K/U Knowledge/Understanding T/ I Thinking/Investigation category addressed by each question. (d) Greenhouse gases absorb ultraviolet (c) Weather changes slowly. Research social and economic data for the • a projection of expected climate-related impacts This checklist lists SKILLS HANDBOOK in the region over the next 100 years Gather Information 4. of course.9) expansion? (9. Do you have any swelling in your oceans? problem? What is already being done?) T/I C 3. what you learned in the research the following information: unit and future careers by term and short-term production and reduced by 80 % changes. I see a patch of the unit. Canada (Figure 1) • traditional or cultural activities in the region Your presentation could be an in-person speech. a region.4) K/U (b) changes in solar radiation (a) Over time. A location’s climate is affected by factors such as skills in the unit. 4. (9. given what you have learned about the region? volunteering your expertise to contribute to these • changes to local ecosystems and/or species Communicate SKILLS HANDBOOK recommendations. Earth’s climate Human activities environment desert forming here.1. Goal your teacher) • changes in agricultural land include the following: To collect climate information about a specific region. ice.3) K/U ground level. (9. Which gases are the principal contributors to the (d) Clouds form at low altitudes where they can by household electricity use. The leeward side of a mountain range receives (a) carbon dioxide. [EARTH] Yes. incoming solar radiation. Proxy records include Earth’s atmosphere by reflecting most of the energy and re-radiates it as infrared energy. methane.5) K/U (b) collect methane from landfills for use as natural greenhouse effect? (8. For each of these careers. (8. land. For example. toward South America. Which statement correctly describes what explains how greenhouse gases affect Earth’s happens to energy from the Sun once it reaches Complete the Unit temperature? (8. radiation. Research impacts of climate change in the region. oxygen generating stations away from coal mountain range. chapter to summarize [DOCTOR] Hmm.

. . . Which of the following is an example of a proxy 16. . . . . 387) apical meristem [AY-puh-kuhl MEH- of an atom (p. . (10. This unit introduced many new concepts about (c) a graph showing rainfall amounts in 1990 (d) climate long period of time in daily life. . . . in which the sister chromatids separate into daughter chromosomes.602 5. . 8. 10.g. 475) along with their acid precipitation any precipitation (e.. . . hail) with a pH less than the normal pH of rain. Why would you expect a cloudy. Having a Safe Attitude . You also learned future temperature and preparing for the impacts of climate change. . . This unit suggested several ways to conserve 12.619 4. Grass has a higher albedo than dark-coloured weeks. .620 10. Scientific Notation . 92) are genetically identical to the parent carcinogen [kahr-SIN-uh-juhn] any (p. . Do you think that Canada should have agreed to record? (8. . . Data Tables and Graphs 2.A.C. 330) NEL Glossary 667 NEL Discover Your Textbook xix . periodic table (Group 1) (p. . (b) methane rivers evaporate. but the anthropogenic greenhouse effect Indicate whether each of the statements is TRUE or FALSE. How 2. Thinking as a Scientist . 42) litmus blue (p. . and neutralizes bases angle of reflection the angle between (p. .4) K/U you better understand this concept? things will impact your life.3. . . 10.B. . .5) A 1.D. Using Mathematics in Whenever you see a Skills 1. . (9. 288) absorbed by Earth’s surface. . . (10. Therefore. 143) apparent depth the depth that an object appears to be at. . Using the Internet . Explain two reasons why the climate (b) Choose another region of Canada. 190) anthropogenic [AN-thruh-puh-JEN- ik] resulting from a human influence in living organisms as the result of a chemical reaction with little or no heat produced (p. Accidents Can Happen . .601 1. (a) carbon (i) A gas that forms in the at least three questions you will ask the official dioxide atmosphere as lakes and during the interview. . . . that absorbs carbon in the lungs that is surrounded by of producing offspring from only one dioxide from the atmosphere and stores a network of capillaries. .636 2.E. . 384) anthropogenic greenhouse effect the increase in the amount of lower-energy biophotonics [BYE-o-fo-TAW- niks] the technology of using light energy to diagnose. UNIT Unit Self-Quiz D SELF-QUIZ The following icons indicate the Achievement Chart Knowledge/Understanding Thinking/Investigation K/U T/I category addressed by each question. you have (8. . 11. . 49) surrounding Earth (p. Scientific Inquiry Skills 7. . Uncertainty in Measurement . enabling the plant to grow (p. .C. Using the pH Meter . .C. 574) acid an aqueous solution that conducts electricity.624 5. (8.640 4. . To (d) photosynthesis in plants that the greenhouse effect is essential to life on precipitation conditions collect information for your article. . . . . Explain how the disappearance of glaciers would newspaper produced by the interactions (a) Which concept in this unit did you find affect some people in China. . Scientific Inquiry . . 55) albedo [al-BEE-do] a measure of how atmosphere as a result of higher levels Bohr−Rutherford diagram a model much of the Sun’s radiation is reflected of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere representing the arrangement of by a surface (p. and living 19. 274) charged ion (p. . it will direct you 1. 481) benign tumour a tumour that does not affect surrounding tissues other than by physically crowding them the key terms in the textbook in blue litmus red. The Sun radiates energy onto all areas of Earth’s you live. . . . (9. Working with Angles . . It is divided into numbered sections. What kind of research could you do to we can undertake. . 626 5. . 6. . land. . 8. . the production of offspring that the carbon in another form (p. . . . . . where gas parent. 9. . rewrite it to make it true. 21. . . . CONTENTS 1. . .11) change if Earth had no atmosphere.A.4) K/U 452 Unit D • Climate Change NEL NEL Unit D Self-Quiz 453 Skills Handbook The Skills Handbook is your Skills APPENDIX A Handbook resource for useful science skills and information. 631 to the relevant section of the Equipment 5. . .A.605 6. such as an alveoli [al-vee-O-lye]) tiny sac of air asexual reproduction the process ocean or a forest. . Using the Microscope . . The natural greenhouse effect is necessary for life (e) ozone fertilizers. . . . . dew. . 285) infrared radiation trapped by the living cells and organisms (p.A. . select the best answer from the four Copy each of the following statements into your notebook. Using the Calculator .A. turns angle of incidence the angle between the incident ray and the normal (p. 36) environmental factor that causes cancer atmosphere the layers of gases (p. Explain your K/U profile location join the Kyoto Protocol? Write a short argument prediction. .8) K/U (d) ozone in the stratosphere land than water. . C Communication A Application Write a short answer to each of these questions. .2.2. .B.F. . . Predict at least two ways in which climate change (b) What further research can you do to help emissions? (8. . Graphing Data . . summer night? emissions. 270) on the retina (p. . . Explain how the processes of evaporation and description on the right.4.634 Conductivity . Using Computers for 2. . . Reading Strategies . . . which is electrons in orbits around the nucleus albedo effect [al-BEE-do uh-fekt] the positive feedback loop in which leading to an increase in Earth’s average global temperature (p.1) K/U T/I climate in your region affects the way (c) air 9.9) K/U two things you described in part (a)? equator. . . Predict how Earth’s average temperature would (b) bioclimate conditions at a specific 25.636 2. Earth’s surface is made up of more water than (b) volcanic eruptions 15. (10. Safety Conventions and Using the GRASS Method . . Setting Goals and Monitoring 3. . .618 8. Exploring an Issue 9. .B.8) K/U you could add to these suggestions. . General Research 8. .4. 184) that carries blood away from the heart blood and the body tissues (p. Prevailing winds that come from the North Pole pattern contained in this information. T/I (d) the weather forecast from yesterday’s (iii) global conditions 18. . . Research Skills 8. .641 Skills . .4) A C (b) a recent photo of a glacier in the Arctic system weather in a region over a 17. (d) ice considered clean energy sources because they do surface. . . . (a) climate (i) graphs showing another. . . (8. . . (v) A gas produced by cattle during their digestive process. . .4.8) K/U anywhere else in real life? vapour the stratosphere. leading to the tips of plant roots and shoots. . ice. 84) carbon sink a reservoir.610 7. C (a) Write a general statement describing the 5. . Good Study Habits. Working Together . (10. Geothermal energy and hydroelectric power are 14. which is (p. 356) longer and develop specialized tissues C alkali metals the elements (except hydrogen) in the first column of the (p. 8. . .642 4. Describe how the shrinking of Arctic ice could will tend to make the regions they pass over (b) Have you ever observed a similar pattern (c) water (ii) A gas that exists naturally in affect receive large amounts of precipitation. . . Write down at least two other items For each question. grass ________ more sunlight find how the local temperatures from 50 years (a) Describe at least two ways in which the (b) rock than does dark soil. . Working with Dissecting Equipment . . . 22.6.1) K/U scheduled an interview with a local official. . 8. .6 (p. .628 2. . so more radiation is ruh-stem] undifferentiated cells at (p. and wastes between the (Group 2) (p. 6. . 535) vessel that enables the exchange of the second column of the periodic table artery a thick-walled blood vessel gases. . . . . .4) T/I (a) data collected from tree rings (c) climate (ii) average of the explaining your opinion. 626 Symbols . . .C.10) A climate change. . Explain why alternatives. 633 2. If may be harmful. Safe Science 5. Graphic Organizers . . Fill (8. . . Predict what influence it would have on (c) the shape of Earth’s orbit condensation move energy from one place to Earth’s climate if Earth’s surface contained more 10. Using Other Scientific Equipment .C. . . List Earth. . . . Solving Numerical Problems Handbook Icon. . . 185) buffering capacity the ability of a understanding of any an increase in Earth’s temperature substance to resist changes in pH key terms you may causes ice to melt. . . 13. . 48) (p. .608 7. . . . liquid water. .2) T/I 7. . . you learned that ozone can be (iv) reasonable scientific 20. Scientific Tools and 5.1) live there K/U oxide atmosphere from certain (b) global climate (10.C. 84) alveolus [al-vee-O-luhs] (plural: (p.8) K/U 8. Study Skills 7.B. (8. . . SI Units . 268) the reflected ray and the normal (p. . . . 270) the refracted ray and the normal (p. Which of the following is a source of methane between Earth’s air.A.A. in the blanks with a word or phrase that correctly completes these items should be included. changes colour depending on whether climate data from a specific location it is in an acid or a base (p.638 3. monitor.610 Progress . and each moves toward base an aqueous solution that conducts electricity and turns red This is a list of all allow a sharply focused image to form opposite ends of the cells (p. Specific Safety Hazards . . due to the cancer a broad group of diseases that result in uncontrolled cell division (p. . . . .D. . (8. . . .1) would the climate in that region affect the main ideas from the unit. . Periodic Table 598 Skills Handbook NEL NEL NEL NEL Contents 599 Glossary Glossary A anaphase [AN-uh-fayz] the third B accommodation the changing of shape of the eye lens by eye muscles to phase of mitosis. . . (8. In this unit. . at Earth’s poles is colder than the climate at the K/U short-term variations in climate? (8. Melting icebergs will cause a great rise in sea (a) animals such as polar bears and seals that (d) nitrous (iii) A gas released into the levels. . tastes sour. Climate affects how we live and what activities convection currents to form? (8. .604 6. . Latin and Greek Root Words Critically . Which of the following is a factor in causing not produce ________ .3) T/I (a) nitrogen fertilizers 27. . . .B. 323) (p.6) K/U (iv) A gas given off when fossil fuels are burned. (8.604 6. Literacy 4. 355) due to human activities. . . .B. (8.637 3. (8. .A. . 516) acid leaching the process of removing bioluminescence [BYE-o-loo-muh- heavy metals from contaminated soils anion [AN-eye-awn] a negatively NES-ens] the production of light by adding an acid solution to the soil and catching the solution that drains through (p. . cells further increases in temperature that divide. Describe an example of a positive feedback loop 26. . .604 Graphing . Testing for Electrical Skills Handbook. . Interpreting Graphs . . . . . . to exist on Earth. 48) need to review. nutrients. . . . (8. . K/U A you think the statement is false. .B.10) sure that you understand all the K/U ago compare to the data you collect? (8. .1) T/I (a) soil soil. . (10. . You decide to keep a record of the high and opportunity for you to make low temperatures in your town for the next two 23. .600 1. summer night energy and reduce your greenhouse gas The Unit Self-Quiz is an to be warmer than a cloudless. You are writing an article for your school (b) aerosol spray cans helpful or harmful to life on Earth. 339) exchange takes place between air and blood (p. rain. Use the Glossary to check your approximately 5. thin-walled blood alkaline earth metals the elements in medium (p. .9) T/I projection temperature and moisture 3.B. . and treat definitions. land. 481) bioclimate profile a graphical acid−base indicator a substance that representation of current and future angle of refraction the angle between alphabetical order. 184) refraction of light in a transparent capillary a tiny. . . .2) T/I difficult to understand? Why? 4. . . .D. . depending on estimate of a region’s newspaper about how your community is (c) cattle ranching its location in the atmosphere.4) K/U (a) continental drift Match each term on the left with the most appropriate 24. . . In which of the following would you expect the sentence.E. .602 Science 5.

or start an activity or investigation on your own. investigation. drinking. in loose clothing. or sparks. will catch fire easily if exposed to heat. touch. • Know the location of MSDS (Material • Tell your teacher about any allergies • Listen to your teacher’s directions. biohazardous combustible infectious material material Corrosive poisonous and This product will burn skin or eyes on contact. • Clean up and put away any equipment after you are finished. • Never change anything. or sometimes smelling. CSH-F01-SHOS10SB. fire • Keep yourself and your work area tidy extinguisher. • Stand while handling equipment and materials. Remove any loose jewellery. Follow instructions. and eyewash station. • Do not enter a laboratory unless • Pay attention to your own safety and notebook. oxidizing causing immediate material Flammable and serious toxic effects This product. as the first aid kit. tuck • Wear eye protection or other safety glass. • Avoid sudden or rapid motion in the • Do not wear contact lenses while without your teacher’s approval. Practise Safe Science in the Classroom Be science ready. and tie back loose equipment when instructed by your hair. Act responsibly. you need. laboratory. such them carefully. . • Get your teacher’s approval before • Read all written instructions carefully you start an investigation that you • Never eat. eating. or medical problems. Keep aisles clear. • Ask your teacher for directions if you are not sure what to do. • Wash your hands with soap and water at the end of each activity or investigation. and all safety equipment. Safety Data Sheet) information. teacher.ai permission to do so. infectious material or throat and stomach if swallowed. • Alert your teacher immediately if you • Keep your clothing and hair out of see a safety hazard. or you have the safety of others. a spill. Follow exits. drink. pencil. especially near chemicals doing investigations. • Wear closed shoes (not sandals). laboratory. Roll up your sleeves. or smell any substance in the laboratory unless your teacher asks you to do so. or unsafe behaviour. fire blanket. or its fumes. • Do not taste.Safe Science Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) Hazardous Household Product Symbols (HHPS) compressed dangerously Symbol Danger gas reactive material Explosive This container can explode if it is flammable and heated or punctured. and clean. flames. and anything else a teacher is present. such as broken the way. toxic effects this product is likely to cause illness or death. • Come prepared with your textbook. Read written instructions. or sharp instruments. or chew gum in the before you start an activity or have designed yourself. poisonous and corrosive infectious material Poisonous material causing other Licking.