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# Chapter

1
Rational
Numbers

GOALS
You will be able to
• Relate rational numbers to decimals,
fractions, and integers
• Evaluate expressions involving rational
numbers

? What might the negative values
in the photo represent?

NEL 3

1 Getting Started
WORDS YOU NEED to Know
1. Match each term with the example that most closely represents it.

a) opposite integers d) lowest common denominator g) power
b) numerator e) mixed number h) base of a power
c) denominator f ) improper fraction i) exponent
34 2 10
i) iv) ⫹5 and ⫺5 vii) ⫽
9 3 15
1 3

5 15
2
ii) 1 v) 73 viii) 73
3
5 5
iii) 73 vi) ix)
7 7

Study Aid SKILLS AND CONCEPTS You Need
• For more help and practice, Addition of Fractions
see Appendix A-6 and A-7.
You can add two fractions using fraction strips, number lines, or by using a
common denominator.

EXAMPLE

1 2 Solution: fraction strips

3 5
Solution: common denominator
1⫻5 2⫻3
⫽ ⫹
3⫻5 5⫻3
5 6 Solution: number line
⫽ ⫹ 1
⫽ 155 2
⫽ 156
15 15 3 5

11

15 0
11
15 1

2. Determine each sum.
1 1 3 3
a) ⫹ c) ⫹
2 3 10 5
3 1 2 2
b) ⫹ d) ⫹
4 8 5 3

4 Chapter 1 NEL

Getting Started

Subtraction of Fractions
You can subtract two fractions using fraction strips, number lines, or by
using a common denominator.

EXAMPLE

2 1 Solution: fraction strips
⫺ 2
3 5 3 ⫽ 10
15

1
Solution: common denominator 5 ⫽ 153
2⫻5 1⫻3 10 3
⫽ 157
⫽ ⫺ 15 15
3⫻5 5⫻3
10 3 Solution: number line
⫽ ⫺ 3 10
15 15 15 15

7

15 0 7
1
15

3. Determine each difference.
1 1 3 1 3 3 6 1
a) ⫺ b) ⫺ c) ⫺ d) ⫺
2 3 4 8 5 10 7 2

Multiplication of Fractions
You can use an area model to help you visualize the product of two fractions.

EXAMPLE

5 2 Solution: area model
⫻ 5
8 3 8

2
Solution: multiplying 3
5⫻2

8⫻3
10

24
5

12
4. Determine each product.
1 1 2 3
a) ⫻ c) ⫻
2 4 5 10
2 3 1 4
b) ⫻ d) ⫻
3 4 6 5

NEL Rational Numbers 5

see the Review 7 䊏 5 ⫽6 4 4 ˛ of Essential Skills and Knowledge Appendix. PRACTICE 5.91 d) 24 ⫼ 1.9 c) 0. evaluate. a) 1⫺3 2 ⫹ 7 c) 11 ⫺ 1⫺4 2 b) 1⫺52 ⫹ 1⫺22 d) ⫺3 ⫺ 1⫺82 10. Write an Question Appendix equation to show the 6 and 7 A-6 numbers being added 8 A-7 and their sum. Evaluate.6 ⫻ 1. Evaluate. Numbers Non-examples Examples 6 Chapter 1 NEL .4 ⫺ 3.32 ⫹ 3. Another player finished with a score of two over par. 6. Evaluate. 12 A-9 8. 0 1 2 9 and 10 A-3 1 2 7. Complete the equation. Evaluate. Tiger Woods finished a golf tournament with a score of five under par.2 13. Study Aid • For help. The number line represents the sum of two numbers.23 14. and then.1 b) 15. a) Use a number line to determine how much greater 4 is than 1 . Copy and complete the Definition What do you know chart to show what you about them? know about mixed Mixed numbers. ⫺12 ⫹ 3 a) b) 72 ⫺ 1⫺6 ⫹ 22 ⫻ 4 4⫹5 15. 13 A-1 2 9 3 9 14 A-2 a) ⫻ b) ⫼ 5 8 4 10 9. Express each power as repeated multiplication. How many shots behind Tiger Woods was the other player? 11. a) ⫺4 ⫻ 6 c) 20 ⫼ 1⫺12 b) 1⫺5 2 ⫻ 1⫺32 d) 1⫺122 ⫼ 1⫺6 2 12. a) 0. Follow the order of operations to determine the value of each expression. 11 A-4 3 3 b) Write the subtraction equation that gives the same result as in part a). a) 82 b) 5. Use a diagram to show how you got the answer.

etc. Describe the pattern and use it to predict the 20th sum. E. Copy Andrew and Kim’s original fraction sequence. Add consecutive terms (pairs of neighbouring fractions) until five sums 1 1 3 1 1 5 have been calculated. 1 2 2 2 3 6 C. Describe the pattern in Andrew and Kim’s original sequence of fractions. B. I. F. difference. + + + + + 3 — 5 — 2 6 ? How can you use patterns to predict the 20th sum. Repeat parts D and E using division. product. Getting Started APPLYING What You Know Fraction Patterns Andrew and Kim are exploring a sequence of fractions. Repeat parts D and E using multiplication.. For example: ⫹ ⫽ . Explain why the values in the pattern decrease for each operation. H.. D. and quotient using these fractions? A. Which patterns do you think were the easiest to predict? Why? NEL Rational Numbers 7 . G. 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 — 1 2 3 4 5 6 . Describe the pattern and use it to predict the 20th difference. ⫹ ⫽ . Subtract consecutive terms instead of adding them.

According to a travel website. LEARN ABOUT the Math London. Dawn is driving to her aunt’s in Ottawa for March break. Ontario Rome. ? How many hours longer is Alisa and Greg’s trip than Dawn’s trip? EXAMPLE 1 Selecting a strategy to add mixed numbers Calculate the time to travel from Toronto to Rome by plane. 8 Chapter 1 NEL . Italy Alisa and Greg plan to travel from Canada to Italy for March break. Alisa’s Solution: Using a strategy involving equivalent fractions 3 1 5 ⫹2 I estimated the answer to be 4 3 between 8 h and 9 h because 3 1 5 ⫹ 2 ⫽ 7 and ⫹ is greater 4 3 than 1 but less than 2.1 Addition and Subtraction of Mixed Numbers YOU WILL NEED GOAL • fraction strips Add and subtract mixed numbers using a variety of methods. Dawn’s trip should take 4 h 36 min. England 3 1 2— 5— 4 h 3 h Toronto. 1.

1.1

9 4 I knew that I needed a common
12 12
fractions. I chose 12 since it is
1 the least common multiple (LCM) least common multiple (LCM)
1 of 4 and 3. the least whole number that
1 has all given numbers as factors
1 (e.g., 12 is the least common
1
multiple of 4 and 6)
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 4 I used fraction strips to determine
3 9 1 4
that ⫽ and ⫽ .
1 4 12 3 12
1
1 1 1 1 1 1
12 12 12 12 3 3

13 I added the whole parts, and
⫽7
12 then, I added the twelfths.

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12
1 13 twelfths was the same as
12
1 whole and 1 twelfth, so I had
8 wholes and 1 twelfth.
1
⫽7⫹1
12
1 1
⫽8 8 was between my estimate
12 12
of 8 h and 9 h, so I thought that
1
So, our trip will take 8 h. my answer was reasonable.
12

NEL Rational Numbers 9

Greg used a different strategy from Alisa. He changed the mixed numbers
into improper fractions in order to add them.
Greg’s Solution: Using a strategy involving improper fractions

3 1 1 1
5 ⫹2 is a bit more than .
4 3 3 4
3 1
That meant that 5 ⫹ 2 had to
4 3
be a bit more than
3 1
5 ⫹ 2 ⫹ ⫹ ⫽ 8.
4 4
I estimated our trip would take a
bit longer than 8 h.
23 7 I renamed the mixed numbers as
⫽ ⫹
4 3 improper fractions.
23 ⫻ 3 7⫻4 I used a common denominator of
⫽ ⫹
4⫻3 3⫻4 12 to add the fractions. I changed
69 28 the numerators so that the
⫽ ⫹ fractions would be equivalent,
12 12
69 ⫹ 28 and then, I added them.

12
97
⫽ I renamed the improper fraction
12
as a mixed number so that I
1
⫽8 could see how many hours the
12 trip would take.

This was close to my estimate,
1 so I thought that it was a
So, our trip will take 8 h. reasonable answer.
12

Both Greg and Alisa have determined the time it will take to fly from
Toronto to Rome. Now, they must calculate how much longer this is than
Dawn’s trip to Ottawa.

10 Chapter 1 NEL

1.1

EXAMPLE 2 Selecting a strategy to subtract
mixed numbers
Calculate the difference in time between the trip to Rome and the trip
to Ottawa.
Alisa’s Solution: Using a strategy involving equivalent
fractions

Dawn’s travel time: Since there are 60 min in an
4 h 36 min hour,
36 36
⫽4 h 36 min ⫽ h.
60 60
3 I subtracted to determine the
⫽4 h
5 difference in travel times.
3
1 3 8 ⫺ 4 ⫽ 4, and is more than
5
8 ⫺4 1
12 5 , so I estimated the difference
2
to be between 3 h and 4 h.

1⫻5 3 ⫻ 12 I chose 60 as the common
⫽8 ⫺4 Communication Tip
12 ⫻ 5 5 ⫻ 12 denominator since it is the
LCM is an abbreviation for
LCM of 12 and 5.
5 36 Least Common Multiple.
⫽8 ⫺4
60 60
60 ⫹ 5 36 I noticed that if I subtracted
⫽7 ⫺4 5 36
60 60 ⫺ , the numerator would
60 60
65 36 5
⫽7 ⫺4 be negative. I renamed 8 to
60 60 60
make the first numerator greater
⫽ 17 ⫺ 4 2 ⫹ a b
65 36 than the second.

60 60
165 ⫺ 36 2 I subtracted the whole numbers,
⫽3 and then, the fractions.
60
29
⫽3 29
60 3 h was within my estimate of
60
between 3 h and 4 h, so I
29
So, we will take 3 h longer than thought that my answer was
60 reasonable.
Dawn will to arrive at our destination.

NEL Rational Numbers 11

I subtracted the 60 60 numerators. and created 97 ⫻ 5 23 ⫻ 12 ⫽ ⫺ equivalent fractions using a 12 ⫻ 5 5 ⫻ 12 common denominator of 60. 485 ⫺ 276 ⫽ 60 209 ⫽ I renamed the improper fraction 60 as a mixed number so that I 29 ⫽3 would know the number of hours. Which of Alisa’s or Greg’s subtraction strategies would you choose? Why? C. 2 97 23 ⫽ ⫺ I renamed the mixed numbers as 12 5 improper fractions. so 1 3 5 2 8 ⫺4 1 1 12 5 4 ⫺ ⫽ 3 . 60 29 29 3 h was really close to my So. ⫽4 h 60 8⫺4⫽4 3 1 ⫽4 h I knew that was close to 5 12 3 1 zero and was close to . Which of Alisa’s or Greg’s addition strategies would you choose? Why? B. since Dawn will to arrive at our destination. Reflecting A. I estimated the 2 2 1 answer to be around 3 h. How else might you calculate the difference in trip times? 12 Chapter 1 NEL . Greg used a different strategy from Alisa. He changed the travel times for each trip into improper fractions in order to subtract them. so my answer 2 60 seemed reasonable. 2 1 30 3 ⫽ 3 . 485 276 ⫽ ⫺ Then. Greg’s Solution: Using a strategy involving improper fractions Dawn’s travel time: I decided to express Dawn’s 4 h 36 min travel time as a mixed number 36 measured in hours. we will take 3 h longer than 60 60 1 estimate of 3 h.

using the LCD of 8.1 APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 3 Using a number line to represent addition and subtraction Evaluate. 1 I used intervals of on the number line to match 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 the lowest common denominator (LCD) of the 4 4 1 1— 6 6 56 4— — fractions. and electricians still use the imperial system: yards. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 1— 8 4—8 6 1 The sum of the “jumps” between 1 and 4 on 1 6 3 8 8 3 4 ⫺1 ⫽2 my number line was 2 . 4 3 1— 6 3 — 6 I used a number line to help me visualize the sum. 6 6 6 6 1 3 1 6 I created equivalent fraction parts for the mixed b) 4 ⫺1 ⫽4 ⫺1 numbers. Construction materials are also sold in imperial units. 1. and inches. feet. 8 8 8 8 Measurements of length made by carpenters. This leads to calculations involving mixed numbers. 2 1 1 3 a) 1 ⫹ 3 b) 4 ⫺1 3 2 8 4 Olecia’s Solution 2 1 4 3 I created equivalent fractions for the mixed a) 1 ⫹ 3 ⫽ 1 ⫹ 3 3 2 6 6 numbers because it used smaller numbers than renaming the mixed numbers as improper fractions. plumbers. 8 4 8 8 2 — 1 — 8 2 8 1 I used a number line with intervals of to help me 8 visualize the difference. 4 3 1 1 1 ⫹3 ⫽5 I determined that the answer was 5 . NEL Rational Numbers 13 .

Doug’s Solution: Using technology 1 3 2 ⫺1 2 8 1 2 ⫺ 1 ⫽ 1 and is a little bit 2 I estimate the answer to be 3 greater than . EXAMPLE 4 Solving a problem involving mixed numbers 1 3" 1— Communication Tip If a 2 in. so I thought into the support beam. thick and into a support beam. beam does the nail extend? Stefan’s Solution: Using equivalent fractions 1 3 To determine the length of the 2 ⫺1 nail in the support beam. 14 Chapter 1 NEL . ⫽1 4 3 1 8 2 ⫺ 1 ⫽ 1 and ⫺ ⫽ 8 8 8 1 The nail will extend 1 in. between 1 and 2. 8 I used a calculator with a Tech Support fraction key: A⁄bc Not all calculators with fraction I used this sequence of keystrokes: operations use this exact set of keystrokes. that my answer was reasonable. nail is hammered through a 1" 8 2 2— ? In the imperial number 2 system. ⫽2 ⫺1 8 8 1 I created equivalent fraction parts. I 2 8 subtracted the thickness of the 4 3 board from the nail’s length. Doug used a calculator that can perform fractional operations. Check your user 2 A⁄ bc 1 A⁄bc 2 – manual to see how to enter 1 A⁄c 3 A⁄c 8 = b b ENTER fractions in your calculator. the nail will extend 1 in. the symbol " 3 board 1 in. how far into the support represents inches while the 8 symbol ' represents feet. 8 8 between 1 and 2. 1 1 1 was within my estimate of Therefore. into the 8 support beam.

Need to Know • Sometimes. You can rename the mixed number with its whole number part reduced by one and its fraction part increased accordingly. or by renaming them first as improper fractions. You can rename the fraction part as a mixed number and add once more. begin at the location on the number line of one of the fractions. NEL Rational Numbers 15 . Draw a number line with intervals that correspond to the LCD of the fractions. 2 2 4 For example: 1 ⫹ 5 ⫽ 6 3 3 3 1 ⫽6⫹1 3 1 ⫽7 3 • Sometimes.1 In Summary Key Idea • You can add or subtract mixed numbers by dealing with the whole number and fraction parts separately. • Rename each fraction using the lowest common denominator (LCD). • For addition. 1. • Most strategies used to add or subtract two mixed numbers with different denominators require you to use equivalent fractions with a common denominator. the sum of the fraction parts of two mixed numbers is an improper fraction. Use the number line to “add on” an amount equal to the second fraction. a mixed number has a lesser fraction part than the number being subtracted. • For subtraction. mark the location of each fraction on the number line and count the intervals between the numbers. 1 2 4 2 For example: 3 ⫺ 1 ⫽ 2 ⫺ 1 3 3 3 3 2 ⫽1 3 • You may use a number line to visualize the sum or difference of two mixed numbers.

What is the value of each expression? 5 1 a) 3 ⫹ 7 6 2 1 3 b) 9 ⫺ 6 8 4 PRACTISING 3. Use fraction strips to explain how to evaluate each expression. K 3 1 2 2 a) 7 ⫹4 c) 6 ⫹ 5 8 8 3 3 3 1 2 4 b) 7 ⫺ 4 d) 3 ⫺ 1 8 8 5 5 4. Use the diagrams to help you evaluate each expression. 16 Chapter 1 NEL . Use number lines to evaluate the following expressions. Between which two whole numbers will each sum lie? 1 1 1 5 7 3 a) 4 ⫹8 c) 4 ⫹ 12 e) 34 ⫹ 16 2 6 3 8 10 4 3 1 4 2 1 3 b) 3 ⫹ 6 d) 1 ⫹ 6 f ) 11 ⫹ 41 4 5 5 3 2 5 5. CHECK Your Understanding 1. Evaluate the expressions in question 4. 6. Estimate. 1 1 1 1 5 7 a) 3 ⫺1 c) 8 ⫺ 2 e) 29 ⫺ 23 2 5 4 2 8 16 3 1 7 8 1 2 b) 7 ⫺ 6 d) 4 ⫺ 3 f ) 42 ⫺ 16 4 3 8 9 2 3 7. 1 5 2 a) 2 ⫹ b) 5 ⫺ 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 3 3 2. Evaluate the expressions in question 6.

4 a) a sum of 3 5 4 b) a difference of 3 5 Explain how you chose your numbers. 1 b) If Alexis spent 1 h shopping for clothes. 1. 4 2 2 2 c butter. Alexis left her house at 7:45 p. She returned at 10:30 p. how many cups will there be altogether? 11. Zofia spent 4 h weeding her garden on 3 4 Monday and 1 h on Tuesday. How many 5 hours did she spend weeding her garden altogether? 9. 12. a) Express the time in hours that Alexis spent away from home. to go shopping for clothes.m. c chopped nuts. and 3 c flour to be mixed together 3 in a bowl.m. with different denominators. 2 4 3 2 a) Why is 3 ⫺ 1 the same as ⫹ 1 ? 5 7 7 5 2 5 5 b) Why is 3 ⫺ 1 the same as 3 ⫺ 2? 3 6 6 NEL Rational Numbers 17 . You may use diagrams to show your C explanations. then how much time did 2 she spend doing other things? 1 10. Explain each of the following. When these ingredients are combined. that T have the following properties. A recipe for cookies calls for 1 c chopped dates. 2 3 1 1 c water.1 1 8. Determine two mixed numbers. 1 c sugar.

4 2 i) Find the difference between the whole parts. 5 3 e) Explain why the process in part b) gives the same answer as in part a). he A walks until he is able to run again. His log for one training day is shown to the left. 3 4 2 2 d) Repeat parts a) and b) for 4 ⫺ 2 . How many linear feet of wood will Jane need altogether? (Hint: 1 ft ⫽ 12 in. 9" b) How do you think most people would choose to 7' 16 — solve your question: by creating equivalent fractions for the fraction parts. b) Determine how many laps he walked around the track. a) Create an addition or subtraction question involving mixed numbers. or by renaming the mixed numbers as equivalent improper fractions? Explain. d) If one lap around the school track is 400 m. a) Determine how many laps around the track John ran. 1 3 c) Repeat parts a) and b) for 5 ⫺1 . c) Determine how many more laps John ran than he walked. iii) Subtract the answer in part ii) from the answer in part i).) 15. John trains by running on the school track. 4 2 1 1 b) Recalculate 3 ⫺ 1 by following the steps below. When he gets tired. 1 17. The sum of two mixed numbers is 2 more than the difference. What 2 are the two numbers? 18 Chapter 1 NEL . Extending 1 1 16. Jane is putting wood trim around a doorway like the 1" 38 — 8 one shown to the right. ii) Subtract the fraction in the first mixed number from the fraction in the second mixed number. 14. a) Determine the value of 3 ⫺1 . 13. determine the total distance John travelled.

16 There are different lengths for the markings to represent measurements 1 1 1 1 of . between 0 and 1 inch there are 15 markings to create 16 equal 1 parts. is indicated by the arrows A. 4. 2 4 8 16 1. Most people know their height in feet and inches.5 cm. . The distance between adjacent markings represents of an inch. Before 1970. and C? 2.1 cm. in inches. The distance between adjacent markings represents 1 mm or 0. a) Determine your height in inches. NEL Rational Numbers 19 . and of an inch. Use the photo of the measuring tape to estimate the number of centimetres in one inch. . but not in centimetres.5 cm Recall that between 0 and 1 cm there are nine markings to create ten equal parts. the imperial system was used. 8" 4" 2 "⫽ 1 " 16 ⫽ 8 ⫽ 4 2 5" 7" A B 4 16 48 C 0. Because of this. 1. It represents 5 mm or 0. and it is still widely used in construction. B. 3.1 Curious Math Inches In Canada. B. the metric system is the official system of measurement. b) Use your estimate in question 3 to calculate your height in centimetres. Calculate the total length in inches of A. and C. The marking halfway between 0 and 1 cm is a little longer than the other markings. What measurement. most measuring tapes found in hardware stores are marked in both inches and centimetres. Similarly.

3 2 2 2 2 1 so 2 large boxes fill 2 ⫻ 1 small boxes. 3 3 2 20 Chapter 1 NEL .2 Multiplication and Division of Mixed Numbers GOAL Multiply and divide mixed numbers. Once the transfer is complete. there 3 are a total of 7 small boxes full 4 of cans in the basement. 1. LEARN ABOUT the Math Mario is using small boxes to transfer 2 cans of soup from 2 large boxes in 3 the kitchen of the food shelter to the basement. 1 A large box holds 1 times as many 2 cans as a small box. Carly’s Solution: Representing the product as partial areas 2 1 1 2 ⫻1 A large box holds 1 times as much as a small one. ? How many small boxes of cans were moved to the basement? How many large boxes would hold all the cans that are now in the basement? EXAMPLE 1 Selecting a strategy to multiply mixed numbers Determine how many small boxes the cans in the kitchen of the food shelter will fill.

3 2 2 3 2 2 1 1 3 ⫻ 1 ⫽ 3 ⫹ of 3. 2 ⫻ 1 is less than 3 ⫻ 1 . 2 2 1 So. NEL Rational Numbers 21 . completely fill 4 small boxes. multiplied ⫽ the denominators. 3 2 3 3 ⫽4 The cans in the kitchen of the food shelter will Four small boxes of cans were moved to the basement. Bobby changed the mixed numbers to improper fractions before he multiplied. I simplified by dividing. so I thought that my answer ⫽4 2 was correct. 1.2 2 2— 3 2 large boxes 2 large box — 3 2 1 2 2 To multiply. 4 whole small boxes. I drew a rectangle 2 by 1 . The area 1 1 small box 1 — 3 — 3 3 2 1— 2 told me how many small boxes Mario would fill 1 1 2 1 with soup cans. 2 I decided to rename the mixed numbers as 2 1 8 3 2 ⫻1 ⫽ ⫻ improper fractions because I knew how to multiply 3 2 3 2 entire fractions. Bobby’s Solution: Using a strategy involving improper fractions 2 1 1 2 1 1 I estimate 2 ⫻ 1 to be less than 4 . 8⫻3 ⫽ 3⫻2 24 I multiplied the numerators. the number of small boxes is less than 3 ⫹ 1 . 6 1 4 was less than 4 . 1 small box — — — — — 2 2 2 3 3 2 1 2 1 2 ⫻1 ⫽2⫹ ⫹1⫹ I added the partial areas to get the total area. The cans in the kitchen of the food shelter will fill Four small boxes were moved to the basement. and then.

6 I checked my answer using multiplication. 4 22 Chapter 1 NEL . 6 1 I renamed the improper fraction as a mixed number so ⫽5 that I could get a better sense of the number of boxes. Darla’s Solution: Using a strategy involving common denominators 3 1 31 3 7 ⫼1 ⫽ ⫼ 4 2 4 2 31 6 I renamed the fractions as improper fractions with ⫽ ⫼ a common denominator. 2 4 I created a number line divided into intervals of 1 1 2 3 4 5 — 6 fourths. 7— 4 2 4 One fourth was left on the number line when Therefore. since 4 was the lowest common denominator of the fraction parts. the cans in the basement will fill 1 1 I needed a jump of 1 or 6 fourths. I had to divide to 2 1 3 determine how many 1 s were in 7 . so the 5 large boxes. EXAMPLE 2 Selecting a strategy to divide mixed numbers Determine how many large boxes all the cans in the basement will fill. Tony’s Solution: Using a number line model 3 1 3 7 ⫼1 Since there were 7 small boxes and it took 4 2 4 1 1 small boxes to fill a large box. 2 1 6 fraction was . 1 Therefore. 6 Darla and Enid both used division algorithms they had learned before. 2 6 3 Since I got 7 . I knew that my work was correct. I marked off the number of times I could fit the 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 3 3 divisor 1 into the dividend 7 . 4 4 31 I divided the numerators to determine how many ⫽ groups of 6 there were in 31. the cans in the basement will fill 1 1 31 3 31 3 5 ⫻ 1 ⫽ —⫻ ⫽ ⫽7 1 6 2 6 2 4 4 5 large boxes.

2 Enid’s Solution: Using a strategy involving the reciprocal 3 1 31 3 I renamed the mixed numbers as improper 7 ⫼1 ⫽ ⫼ 4 2 4 2 fractions. 3 NEL Rational Numbers 23 . 1. 1 31 2 31 2 31 2 ⫽ ⫻ Since ⫻ ⫽ ⫻ . I simplified the fractions 4 3 4 3 3 4 2 before I multiplied. 31 ⫽ 6 1 ⫽5 I renamed the improper fraction as a mixed number. 4 3 Tina’s solution: Using an area model 1 5— 3 I thought of a rectangle that had 3 a length of 2 units and a width 4 3 1 2— 4 of 5 units. the cans in the basement will fill 1 5 large boxes. 31 2 ⫽ ⫻ I multiplied the first fraction by the reciprocal of the 4 3 second fraction. How could Carly determine the partial areas without drawing all the squares? B. 6 Therefore. How did Bobby’s and Enid’s rearrangement of the numerators and denominators make the multiplication calculations easier? APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 3 Selecting a strategy to determine a product 3 1 Calculate 2 ⫻ 5 . 6 Reflecting A.

24 Chapter 1 NEL . brackets may be used were the whole number or around the second factor. 3 3 (— 1 1) ⫽ — — — 4 3 4 fraction part of each mixed 4 For example: 2 ⫻ 3 ⫽ 2132 . I 4 3 1 multiplied the numerators and the denominators. The dimensions of multiplication sign to express a 2(5) ⫽ 10 2 (— 2 1) ⫽ — each of these smaller rectangles 2 3 3 product. Then. 15 2 1 I added the partial areas to find ⫽ 10 ⫹ ⫹ ⫹ 4 3 4 the total area. number in the product. 3 2 1 ⫽ 10 ⫹ 3 ⫹ ⫹ 4 3 4 3 1 2 ⫽ 10 ⫹ 3 ⫹ ⫹ ⫹ 4 4 3 2 ⫽ 13 ⫹ 1 ⫹ 3 2 ⫽ 14 3 Todd’s Solution: using improper fractions 3 1 I expressed each mixed number 2 ⫻5 as an improper fraction. I 3 15 4 (5) ⫽ 4 — — multiplied the dimensions of each rectangle to find their areas. 1 — I visualized the large rectangle as Communication Tip 5 3 Instead of using the 4 sections. 4 3 11 16 ⫽ ⫻ 4 3 I simplified by dividing 4 into 4 in 4 11 16 the denominator and 4 into 16 ⫽ ⫻ in the numerator. 44 ⫽ 3 2 I simplified by dividing the ⫽ 14 3 numerator by the denominator.

I think 4 the volume might be close to 25 cm3. 64 NEL Rational Numbers 25 . 4 1331 I calculated both powers. 1.2 EXAMPLE 4 Connecting products to powers of mixed numbers Determine the volume of this cube. 3 3 3 ⫽2 ⫻2 ⫻2 The exponent of 3 told me how many 4 4 4 3 factors of 2 were multiplied. 3 2— 4 cm 3 2— 4 cm 3 Paul’s Solution 2— 4 cm V ⫽ s3 3 ˛ 2 is less than 3. 11 11 11 4 ⫽ ⫻ ⫻ 4 4 4 11 ⫻ 11 ⫻ 11 I noticed that the numerators ⫽ 4⫻4⫻4 were the same and so were the 113 denominators. The volume would 4 3 3 ⫽ a2 b be less than 3 cubed or 27. I decided to write ⫽ 3 them each as powers. the volume of the cube 51 is 20 cm3. ⫽ 64 51 This answer seemed reasonable ⫽ 20 because 21 cm3 was not that far 64 from my estimate of 25 cm3. Therefore.

room. 4 24 Determine the number of boards Devon’s father will need for a 10 ft by 1 16 ft room. and ft. and both 11 and 33 by 11. 36 boards for the room. thick. my father will need thought that I was correct. I would need 2 boards for every 2 24 33 11 foot of width. He bought boards that are 3 11 10 ft long. I wrote the ⫽ ⫻ equivalent multiplication by 2 11 11 multiplying by the reciprocal of . 24 3 12 33 24 I simplified by dividing both 2 and 24 ⫽ ⫻ by 2. If the boards were ft 1 11 2 16 ⫼ wide. wide. so I only had to worry about 1 the width. 2 24 33 24 Instead of dividing. 26 Chapter 1 NEL . so I Therefore. 2 Devon’s Solution I estimate the answer to be a The boards are as long as the little more than 32. 2 11 1 1 ⫽ 36 36 was close to my estimate. I would need ⫽ ⫼ 32 boards. EXAMPLE 5 Problem solving using mixed numbers Devon’s father is installing new wood flooring. in. For 16 ft.

dividing the numerators. the partial areas are added together. 1. Need to Know • The most efficient strategy to multiply or divide two mixed numbers is to perform the operations on their equivalent improper fractions. and then.2 In Summary Key Idea • The strategies you use for multiplying and dividing proper and improper fractions can be used to multiply and divide mixed numbers. You can then determine the area of each section of the rectangle. 8 ⫻ 2 can be calculated as follows: 4 3 3 8 — 4 3) 6 2 2(8) 2 (— 4 — 4 2 2 16 2 — 3 6 3 (8) 3 ( 4) — — — — — 3 3 12 Then. The product of the mixed fractions is the sum of these partial areas. 3 2 For example. 3 2 6 16 6 8 ⫻ 2 ⫽ 16 ⫹ ⫹ ⫹ 4 3 4 3 12 3 16 1 ⫽ 16 ⫹ ⫹ ⫹ 2 3 2 1 ⫽ 16 ⫹ 2 ⫹ 5 3 1 ⫽ 23 3 • One way you can divide one fraction by another is by multiplying the first fraction by the reciprocal of the second fraction. NEL Rational Numbers 27 . • Another way you can divide one fraction by another is by renaming the fractions as equivalent fractions with the same denominator. • You can model the product of two mixed numbers as the area of a rectangle in which the numbers are the length and width.

CHECK Your Understanding 1. 1 5 1 9 a) 2 ⫻2 c) 5 ⫼ 5 6 2 10 7 3 5 5 b) 5 ⫻ 6 d) 8 ⫼ 1 8 4 6 8 28 Chapter 1 NEL . 2 5 3. a) State the multiplication problem represented by each area model. b) Use the model to determine each product. Use improper fractions to calculate 7 ⫻2 . i) 3 2 — ii) 5 1 — 5 2 1 3(1) 2 (1) — 1 (2) 5 2 5(2) — 2 2 2 — — 3 — (2) 5 3 3 — 1 — — (3) 4 2 4 2 3 3( — 3 ) 5(— 4 ) 6. State the division problem and its answer shown by the number line. b) Use the model to determine the product. 15 25 PRACTISING 5. a) State the multiplication problem represented by the following area model. Calculate 1 ⫼ 1 by multiplying by the reciprocal. 3 — 6 4 3 4 6(4) 4 (4) — 2 3 — 2 4 ( 3) — — 3 2 6(— 3) 1 2 2. 3 1 2 3 — 5 1 0 1 2 3 4 4— 2 7 11 4. Estimate.

use the strategy in 3 12 2 1 part a) to evaluate  . b) Determine the number of blocks Gavin used to make his patio. Calculate each power. NEL Rational Numbers 29 . 2 2 a) Determine the width of his patio. 2 7 2䊏 1 䊏 54 1 2 䊏2 a) a b  7 b) a 2 b  4 c) a 6 b  2 3 3 2 2 3 3 9. 4 2 42 i)  and 9 3 93 28 4 28  4 ii)  and 15 5 15  5 35 5 35  5 iii)  and 48 12 48  12 2 8 b) Show how you could rewrite as .2 7. 2 2 1 1 The area of his patio is 175 sq ft and the length is 19 ft. K 3 3 2 5 a) 7 3 b) 1 ⫼ 5 5 4 3 6 1 13. a) Show that the two calculations are equivalent in each set below. 3 4 12. 2 4 2 2 2 1 a) 2  c) 9 2 e) 8  10 5 5 3 3 3 2 1 4 7 5 3 2 b) 1  3 d) 2  3 f) 8  5 4 5 8 6 4 5 11. Calculate each quotient. Calculate each product. and then. b) Determine the area of the chicken coop. Gavin made a patio area out of square blocks that are 1 ft by 1 ft. 1. 1 2 3 11 1 1 a) 2 4 c) 6 e) 4 5 6 3 4 12 8 3 3 2 1 3 2 7 b) 1  2 d) 5  3 f) 2  2 4 3 9 4 7 8 8. A 2 a) Determine the perimeter of the chicken coop. 1 1 14. 3 3 5 3 1 3 a) a b b) a b c) a 3 b 4 2 5 10. A farmer made a square chicken coop with a length of 6 yd. Determine the value that makes each equation true. Calculate.

What are two possibilities for the mixed number? 1 3 23. 1 15. 2 —" 19. Show that dividing a number by 5 gives the same answer as C 2 2 multiplying the number by . Sherri divided a mixed number by 2 . i) 3— 1 2 ii) 3 1 iii) 6 —4 × 2 —1 = 2 × 5— 3 = 4— 6= 4 1— 5 4 2 1 1 5— 3 = × 1— 6= 2— 4= b) Describe the connection between the number represented by the rectangle and the number represented by the triangle. 4 Determine the number of large bottles that would hold the same 1 amount as 10 small bottles. (Hint: 1 sq ft ⫽ 144 sq in. The quotient was a whole 4 number larger than 10. how do you know that 4  10 3 4 1 has to be less than ? 2 21. Which whole numbers can replace the box to make the product of 3 5 3 and 䊏 greater than 25? 4 17.90 per square foot. A rectangle measuring 8 units by 3 units is to be completely 4 4 covered by squares that are all the same size. a) In each case. A large bottle holds 1 times the amount of liquid of a small bottle. 11 1 16.) 2 1 20. Without calculating the quotient. but why is this not always an efficient method? Extending 3 22. determine the numbers represented by the rectangle T and the triangle. Some people multiply fractions by first renaming them as equivalent fractions with a common denominator. What are the largest possible dimensions of the squares? 30 Chapter 1 NEL . They get the correct answer. c) Create a question of your own that shows this connection. Determine the replacement cost of glass for the entertainment centre 1" 7 2 12 8 42 — shown if it costs \$3. 3 18.

3 Integer Operations with Powers GOAL Evaluate integer expressions involving order of operations and powers. Michelle’s Solution I applied the order of operations ⫺24 ⫹ 1⫺1 ⫺ 1 2 3 ⫹ 51⫺22 4 to calculate the answer. not ⫺2. I calculated 24 ⫽ 16. For the first power. I treated it as ⫺124 2 . Suppose you won a contest and you had to answer this question: ⫺24 ⫹ 1⫺1 ⫺ 1 2 3 ⫹ 51⫺2 2 4 ? What is the answer to the skill-testing question? EXAMPLE 1 Using the order of operations to evaluate an expression Determine the correct answer to ⫺24 ⫹ 1⫺1 ⫺ 1 2 3 ⫹ 51⫺22 4. LEARN ABOUT the Math Many contests make you answer a skill-testing question before you can claim your prize. ⫽ 56 NEL Rational Numbers 31 . 1. the base of the power was 2. ⫽ ⫺24 ⫹ 1 ⫺2 2 3 ⫹ 51⫺22 4 I did the subtraction first because it was in the brackets. since there ⫽ ⫺16 ⫹ 1⫺2 2 3 ⫹ 51⫺2 2 4 were no brackets. I calculated ⫽ ⫺16 ⫹ 1⫺8 2 ⫹ 51 16 2 1⫺22 4 ⫽ 1⫺22 1⫺2 2 1⫺22 1⫺22 ⫽ 16. I multiplied it by ⫺1. and then. So. I calculated ⫽ ⫺16 ⫹ 1 ⫺8 2 ⫹ 51⫺22 4 1⫺22 3 ⫽ 1⫺22 1⫺2 2 1⫺22 or ⫺8. ⫽ ⫺16 ⫹ 1⫺8 2 ⫹ 80 I multiplied before adding.

I did the subtraction in the ⫽ ⫺34 ⫹ 1⫺2 ⫹ 642 ⫹ 116 brackets. ⫽ ⫺15 32 Chapter 1 NEL . How is the use of the order of operations to evaluate an integer expression similar to evaluating a whole number expression? How is it different? APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 2 Selecting a strategy to calculate an expression with powers Calculate ⫺34 ⫹ 3⫺2 ⫺ 1⫺4 2 3 4 ⫹ 116. I knew that when the base is negative and the exponent is odd. I calculated the power before the subtraction because I followed ⫽ ⫺34 ⫹ 3⫺2 ⫺ 1 ⫺64 2 4 ⫹ 116 the order of operations. Why is the value of ⫺2m never positive for any value of m? C. I calculated the square root ⫽ ⫺81 ⫹ 62 ⫹ 4 before adding. I ⫽ ⫺34 ⫹ 62 ⫹ 116 added its opposite. 4. and so on. If m is 1. 3. Reflecting A. To subtract ⫺64. ⫽ ⫺81 ⫹ 62 ⫹ 116 I calculated the power. 2. Anthony’s Solution: Applying the order of operations ⫺34 ⫹ 3 ⫺2 ⫺ 1⫺4 2 3 4 ⫹ 116 In the square brackets. how can you predict the sign of 1⫺2 2 m? B. the answer is negative. there was a subtraction and a power.

For example: 3 12 ⫹ 32 ⫻ 34 2 ⫽ 35 ⫻ 34 2 ⫽ 152 ⫽ 225 • When a square root sign covers an expression. To evaluate an algebraic expression for given values of the variables. Peng used her graphing calculator to calculate the answer. Peng’s Solution: Using a calculator with brackets keys My calculator only had round brackets so I had to be careful to make sure that the brackets matched the order in the original expression. Tech Support I also had to make sure that I Many graphing calculators use used the negative sign key to a key with a negative sign enter negative numbers instead inside brackets (-) to of the subtraction key. Add and Subtract from left to right. This results in a numerical expression that can be calculated following the order of operations. NEL Rational Numbers 33 . Perform the operations in Brackets first. • When there are multiple brackets. Many scientific and graphing calculators are programmed to follow the order of operations. it contains the expression just like brackets. 1. substitute these given values into the expression. Divide and Multiply from left to right.3 Communication Tip • You can use the memory aid BEDMAS to remember the rules for order of operations. Calculate Exponents and square roots next. complete the operations in the inner brackets first. distinguish it from subtraction – .

3. 31⫺64 2 ⫹ 16 ⫽ I used the order of operations to ⫺8 evaluate the expressions in the ⫺192 ⫹ 16 numerator and the denominator ⫽ ⫺8 separately. 2. 31⫺42 3 ⫹ 16 I used brackets to show where I ⫽ substituted the values for the ⫺12 2 3 variables. ⫺y 3 Talia’s Solution I knew that a fraction represents a division and that the 3x 3 ⫹ 16 numerator and denominator ⫺y 3 have to be evaluated before the division can be done. Then. then 1a2 is positive if n is even and negative if n is odd. In Summary Key Idea • You can use the same order of operations (BEDMAS) for integer expressions as you used for whole number expressions. ⫺176 ⫽ I knew that dividing integers ⫺8 with the same sign gave a ⫽ 22 positive result. follow the order of operations. and so on: • 1⫺a2 ⫽ 1⫺a2 1⫺a2 1⫺a2 p 1⫺a2 n 3n factors 4 For example: 1⫺22 3 ⫽ 1⫺22 1⫺22 1⫺2 2 • ⫺a ⫽ ⫺1a 2 n n For example: ⫺24 ⫽ ⫺124 2 • If a 6 0. 4. Need to Know • For exponent n ⫽ 1. EXAMPLE 3 Evaluating an expression in fraction form 3x 3 ⫹ 16 Evaluate the expression when x ⫽ ⫺4 and y ⫽ 2. n For example: 1⫺22 4 ⫽ 16 and 1⫺2 2 3 ⫽ ⫺8 • You can evaluate an expression for given values for the variable(s) by replacing each variable with its numeric value in brackets. 34 Chapter 1 NEL .

a) ⫺72 ⫺ 21⫺3 2 3 b) ⫺42 ⫺ 1⫺4 2 2 ⫺ 42 PRACTISING 4. Without calculating. making the necessary corrections. Show the steps required to evaluate the following expressions.3 CHECK Your Understanding 1. a) 䊏3 ⫽ 27 c) ⫺䊏2 ⫽ ⫺25 e) 䊏5 ⫽ 32 b) 1⫺3 2 䊏 ⫽ ⫺27 d) ⫺4䊏 ⫽ ⫺64 f ) 䊏5 ⫽ ⫺32 6. Find the error in each solution. Evaluate. Determine the values. A Redo the solution. a) ⫺4 35 ⫺ 21⫺3 2 4 b) ⫺213 2 2 ⫽ ⫺4331⫺3 2 4 ⫽ 1⫺6 2 2 ⫽ ⫺41⫺92 ⫽ 36 ⫽ 36 NEL Rational Numbers 35 . 1. determine the answers in question 1. Calculate. a) ⫺23 c) ⫺1⫺2 2 3 e) ⫺1⫺22 4 b) 1⫺22 3 d) ⫺24 f ) ⫺1⫺24 2 2. 8. Evaluate each expression without using a calculator. 3. ⫺4115 2 20 ⫺1016 2 a) b) c) ⫺10 21⫺52 ⫺31⫺2 2 5. Without using a calculator. state whether the answer will be positive or negative. Explain what was done incorrectly. Determine the value that makes each equation true. a) ⫺53 c) ⫺43 e) ⫺1⫺3 2 4 b) 1⫺6 2 2 d) 1⫺4 2 3 f ) ⫺1⫺32 3 7. Solving the equation 䊏2 ⫽ 64 gives two possible integer values. a) 51⫺2 2 3 d) ⫺23 ⫺ 1⫺10 ⫹ 52 2 1⫺2 2 2 ⫺ 22 b) ⫺41⫺5 2 ⫺ 1⫺33 2 e) ⫺32 33 ⫹ 317 2 31⫺5 2 2 c) 3⫺21⫺1 2 3 4 6 f) ⫹ ⫺24 ⫺15 9.

How could you get the power in part b) just by looking at the question in part a)? 15. or zero. negative. C Claire’s calculations Robin’s calculations 51⫺2 2 ⫺ 31⫺2 2 51⫺22 ⫺ 31⫺2 2 ⫽ ⫺10 ⫹ 6 ⫽ 21⫺2 2 ⫽ ⫺4 ⫽ ⫺4 Both students are correct. For each situation below. Explain Robin’s reasoning. Evaluate 312n 2 ⫺ 2n and 2n⫹1 for various values of n. 1⫺3 2 9 1⫺32 8 1⫺32 5 i) ii) iii) 1⫺3 2 7 1⫺32 4 1⫺32 b) Express each answer in part a) as a power with a base of 1⫺32 . decide T whether ⫺bn ⫹ 1⫺b2 n is positive. i) 1⫺2 2 3 1⫺2 2 4 ii) 1⫺22 2 1⫺2 2 6 iii) 1⫺2 2 1⫺22 5 b) Express each answer in part a) as a power with a base of 1⫺22 . Evaluate the expression ⫺y 2 ⫺ 4x 3 when x ⫽ ⫺2 and y ⫽ 3. K 13. 10. a) Use a calculator to calculate the following. Extending 14. Explain your reasoning. c) Look for patterns. c) Look for patterns. b) The exponent is an even number. Both Claire and Robin calculated 51⫺22 ⫺ 31⫺22 . How could you get the power in part b) just by looking at the question in part a)? 16. 81x ⫹ y 2 2 a) x 2 ⫹ y 3 c) 2y 5 ⫺ 13 ⫺ x2 2 e) x2 y5 ⫹ y3 ⫹ y b) 5y 3 1⫺x 4 2 d) x 2 ⫹ 3 5x ⫺ 21y ⫺ x2 4 f) y6 ⫹ y4 ⫹ y2 12. a) Use a calculator to calculate the following. Evaluate each expression when x ⫽ ⫺2 and y ⫽ ⫺1. 11. a) The exponent is an odd number. Assume b and n are positive integers. a) What pattern do you notice? b) Why does the pattern work? 36 Chapter 1 NEL .

You • Try Mid-Chapter Review can add or subtract the whole number parts and the fraction parts Questions 1 to 4. multiply as if they were ordinary fractions. improper fraction. same denominator for the fraction parts of the mixed numbers. EXAMPLE 6 2 1 3 4 ⫹5 7 ⫺2 7 3 3 4 18 14 4 9 ⫽4 ⫹5 ⫽7 ⫺2 21 21 12 12 32 16 9 ⫽9 ⫽6 ⫺2 21 12 12 11 7 ⫽ 10 ⫽4 21 12 Q: What strategies can you use to multiply mixed numbers? Study Aid A1: The most efficient method is to write each mixed number as an • See Lesson 1. separately. Examples 1 and 3. but this often results in having to work with large numerators. A: The most efficient method is to create equivalent fractions with the Examples 1 and 2. EXAMPLE 1 2 4 ⫻3 2 3 9 11 ⫽ ⫻ 2 3 3 9 11 ⫽ ⫻ 2 3 1 33 ⫽ 2 1 ⫽ 16 2 NEL Rational Numbers 37 . Then. • Try Mid-Chapter Review Questions 5 and 7. You may be able to simplify parts of the fractions prior to multiplying.1.2. 1 Mid-Chapter Review FREQUENTLY ASKED Questions Q: What strategies can you use to add or subtract mixed Study Aid numbers? • See Lesson 1. Rename mixed numbers when necessary. You can also rename the mixed numbers as improper fractions with a common denominator.

multiply the dividend by the reciprocal of the • Try Mid-Chapter Review divisor. EXAMPLE 1 2 11 11 5 ⫼3 ⫽ ⫼ 2 3 2 3 1 11 3 ⫽ ⫻ 2 11 1 3 ⫽ 2 1 ⫽1 2 38 Chapter 1 NEL . You may be able to simplify parts of the fractions prior to Questions 6 and 7. and then.2. multiplying to get the final result. Use the model to determine the partial areas and add them to calculate the final product. A2: You can use a rectangular area model to represent the product of two mixed numbers. fractions. A1: The most efficient method is to rename the mixed numbers as improper Example 2. EXAMPLE 2 1 3 ⫻4 3 2 1 4 — 2 1 3 3 4(3) ⫽ 12 2 (3) — ⫽— 2 2 1 — 2 1 2 ( 3) — — ⫽— 3 3 2 8 4(— 3) ⫽ — 3 8 3 1 ⫽ 12 ⫹ ⫹ ⫹ 3 2 3 3 8 1 ⫽ 12 ⫹ ⫹ ⫹ 2 3 3 3 9 ⫽ 12 ⫹ ⫹ 2 3 1 ⫽ 12 ⫹ 1 ⫹ 3 2 1 ⫽ 16 2 Q: What strategies can you use to divide mixed numbers? Study Aid • See Lesson 1.

EXAMPLE 1 2 11 11 5 ⫼3 ⫽ ⫼ 2 3 2 3 33 22 ⫽ ⫼ 6 6 ⫽ 33 ⫼ 22 11 ⫽1 22 1 ⫽1 2 Q: What strategies can you use to evaluate integer expressions Study Aid with powers? • See Lesson 1. replace each variable with its numeric value in brackets. Then. 2. Mid-Chapter Review A2: You can first rename the mixed numbers as equivalent improper fractions with the same denominator. Solution 1x ⫺ y2 2 ⫹ 1x ⫹ y2 3 ⫽ 3 1⫺32 ⫺ 122 4 2 ⫹ 3 1⫺3 2 ⫹ 12 2 4 3 ⫽ 1⫺5 2 2 ⫹ 1⫺12 3 ⫽ 25 ⫹ 1⫺1 2 ⫽ 24 NEL Rational Numbers 39 . EXAMPLE Evaluate 1x ⫺ y2 2 ⫹ 1x ⫹ y2 3 when x ⫽ ⫺3 and y ⫽ 2. and 3. Examples 1. divide the numerators.3. Questions 12 and 13. • Try Mid-Chapter Review follow the order of operations. A: When you evaluate an expression for given values for the variable(s). and then.

Suppose the onscreen 4. a) 5 ⫼ c) 6 ⫼2 4 2 3 6 ⫺3 152 1⫺12 4 3 ⫺ 21⫺42 3 1 3 5 1 b) ⫼5 d) 10 ⫼ 5 13. calculator. and z ⫽ ⫺1. a) x 2 ⫹ y 2 ⫹ z 2 c) ⫺x 3 1 1 2 x ⫺ y2 a) 6 ⫻ 䊏 ⫽ 19 c) 䊏 ⫼ 5 ⫽ 4 4 8 3 3 b) 2 3x ⫺ 1 y ⫺ z2 4 4 d) 2z ⫺ x ⫹ y 1 5 3 1 b) 䊏 ⫻ 1 ⫽ d) 7 ⫼ 䊏 ⫽ 5 4 8 4 6 40 Chapter 1 NEL . The shelves are to be equally 1 1 3 2 spaced in the cupboard. Calculate each quotient without using a the same value as 82. John works part-time at a restaurant. 8 11 5 3 3 2 1 5 a) 1⫺112 2 c) ⫺72 b) 1 ⫻ 1 d) 7 ⫻ 4 b) 1⫺42 3 d) ⫺63 5 7 5 6 11. 3 1 2 1 12. Lesson 1. calculator. Determine at least four other powers that have 6.2 that can fit on the 5. Why does it make sense that 3 ⫺ 2 has the cursor represents any 11 5 4 — 64 " 3 1 numeric character. 3 1— 8" same answer as ⫹ ? 1 8" Determine the number — 4 5 of numeric characters 2" Lesson 1. Evaluate when x ⫽ 2. How much space is a) 7 ⫹2 c) 6 ⫺6 above or below each shelf? 3 2 4 3 2 3 1 4 b) 4 ⫹ 1 d) 9 ⫺ 4 5 4 7 5 2.3 5 4 3 1 a) 2 ⫻ c) 2 ⫻3 10.PRACTICE Questions Lesson 1. y ⫽ ⫺3. Calculate each product without using a calculator screen. her cupboard. On Friday 29 —"1 2 1 5" — he worked 3 h and on Saturday he 8 4 1 worked 6 h. 2 4 8 3 Do not use a calculator. Determine the value that makes each 2y ⫹ 4z equation true. Melissa is adjusting the two removable shelves in 1. 3. 7. Calculate. Answer the following skill-testing question. Explain how you can use estimation to tell that your answers in question 1 are reasonable.1 8. Calculate. How many hours did he work 2 altogether? 1 1 9.

I marked the –20 –10 0 10 20 opposite of the value because I can read fractions more easily if rational number they are positive. I estimated the a number that can be expressed 3 as the quotient of two integers positive value to be about 18 . but is closer to 19 °C.. 18 must be the same 4 3 as 18  because it was 4 farther to the left of 0 than 18. Its opposite is  . was 18 . ˚C ? What might the temperature be? 30 EXAMPLE 1 Using a number line to represent rational 25 numbers 20 15 10 Determine a possible temperature value that is between 18 °C and 5 19 °C. 3 So. 4 4 NEL Rational Numbers 41 . 3 75 4 So. This meant 18 4 4 4 from zero (e.g. LEARN ABOUT the Math Shahreen looked at the thermometer outside. 3 18 is a rational number because it 3 75 75 4 18 is . The temperature was a rational number between 18 °C and 19 °C. 6 and 6 are 3 opposites) was just as far from zero as 18 4 but in the negative direction. 18   . 1. 4 4 4 75 can also be expressed as  .4 Rational Numbers GOAL Connect rational numbers to other number systems. where the divisor is not 0 4 3 opposites A possible temperature value between I knew that the opposite of 18 4 two numbers with opposite 3 3 3 signs that are the same distance 18 °C and 19 °C is 18 °C. 0 -5 Mark’s Solution: Using fractions and a number line -10 -15 -20 3 –18 — 18 — 3 I marked the approximate position 4 4 of the temperature value on a number line. Then. It was closer to 19 °C.

9 I marked the approximate position of the temperature –20 –10 0 10 20 value on a number line. I estimated the positive value to be about 18. 10 10 Reflecting A. 10 10 10 189 189 is  .9 but in the negative direction.9   .9 was 18. So.9 must be the same as 18  0. was as far from zero as 18. 189 9 189 18. 18. I marked the opposite of the value because I can read decimals more easily if they are positive. So. 18. Why is 20 less than 18.9 is a rational number because it As a mixed number.9. How would you describe how to place a “negative fraction” like 2  on a number line? 5 B. George’s Solution: Using decimals and a number line –18. A possible temperature value is I knew that the opposite of 18.9 °C. Then.9 18.9 18. How are rational numbers similar to fractions and integers? How are they different? 42 Chapter 1 NEL . This meant 18. Its opposite can also be expressed as  . 18.9 because it was farther to the left of 0 than 18.9.9  18 or .9? C.9 even though 20 is greater than 18.

a number line is a useful tool to use. and ⫺ represent the same 3 ⫺3 3 rational number.4 APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 2 Representing rational numbers as decimals Which of the following represent the same rational number? ⫺2 2 2 3 ⫺3 3 . 1. As a decimal. and a pair ⫺2 of negatives would give a 3 positive answer.5 negative answer. . ⫽ 1.6. 2 I put a bar above the digit that ⫽ ⫺0. so 3 3 2 ⫺ ⫽ ⫺0. When it is necessary to compare the size of two or more rational numbers. ⫽ 0.6 ⫺3 repeated. .6 3 3 2 2 of . 3 3 ⫽ ⫺1. .6 denominator to rename each 3 rational number as a decimal.5 2 ⫺2 2 2 .⫺ . NEL Rational Numbers 43 . 3 ⫺3 3 ⫺2 ⫺2 2 Abby’s Solution ⫺2 I divided the numerator by the ⫽ ⫺0.5 I knew that having one negative ⫺2 in the fraction would give a ⫺3 ⫽ 1. numbers were equivalent. 2 2 I knew that ⫺ was the opposite ⫺ ⫽ ⫺0. ⫺3 3 I compared the decimal values to and represent the same ⫺2 2 determine which rational rational number.6. .

10 3 2 3 4 Therefore. 5 2 –1 — 4 3 3 4 3 3 4 5 = –1 10 — –1 10 — 1 10 — 1 10 — 1 is the opposite of 1 . Since 1 is to the right of 1 on the 10 5 10 10 3 4 number line. 2. 2. … I numbers a 3 2 5 Rational Numbers numbers of the form where .921. 10 10 Communication Tip Traditionally. 0. 2. Set Definition Examples Symbol Natural Numbers the counting numbers 1.  . … N Whole Numbers the counting numbers and zero 0. 1. 1. 3 . Since 1 is farther 10 10 10 3 4 –2 –1 0 1 2 from zero than 1 .35. 1 is farther from zero 10 10 3 than 1 . 2. 3. 3. 10 5 Andrew’s Solution 2 4 I knew that I could compare these numbers if they 1  1 had equivalent fraction parts. The symbol Q is used for rational numbers because they are a quotient of two integers. sets of numbers have been represented by letters.234 Q b 4 3 8 a and b are integers and b  0 44 Chapter 1 NEL . I renamed the fraction 5 10 2 part for 1 . 8. 2. 3. 3. 1. 3. EXAMPLE 3 Representing rational numbers using a number line 3 2 Determine which number is greater: 1 or 1 . 1 is greater than 1 . 1 7 1 . … W Integers positive and negative whole ….

a) 0. or zero.625 c) 11. Need to Know • Rational numbers can be positive. and their opposites. 1 3 a) c) 5 4 4 5 b) d) 7 7 6 3. 0 For example.252  7  0.35 b) 4. Rename the following rational numbers as decimals. Rename the following rational numbers as quotients of two integers. Rename the following rational numbers as quotients of integers. • Every integer is a rational number because it can be written as a quotient of two integers: itself as the numerator and 1 as the denominator. 1 • To compare rational numbers.4 In Summary Key Idea • Rational numbers include integers. one number is greater than another if it is farther to the right on a number line. their decimal equivalents.25  7  10.25 CHECK Your Understanding 1.46 NEL Rational Numbers 45 . 1 6 a) 2 b) 5 4 7 2. it helps to rename them to a common form. zero can be expressed as . For example: 7  7  a  b 1 1 4 4 1  7  4 Similarly. • A negative mixed number is a subtraction of its parts. negative. fractions. • When comparing rational numbers. for decimals: 7. 1. • The rules for renaming rational numbers are the same as the rules for positive fractions and decimals. either as decimals or as fractions.

4 d) 4 䊏  f ) 2 䊏 2. Use 7. c. d.6 䊏 5 > is the symbol for "greater 5 5 5 than" 1 9 3 < is the symbol for "less than. Identify the values represented by a. 4 4 4 46 Chapter 1 NEL . Two students renamed the mixed number 2 to its corresponding K 2 improper fraction. PRACTISING 4. Explain why 3 can be renamed as 3  and not as 3  . and e. Who did it correctly. b.3 䊏 3.5 c) 1 䊏 1 e) 5. d. or  to make true statements. Tammy Jasmine 12  2  1 2 2   a 2 b 1 1 1 2  2 2 2 2 12  2  1 2 14  1 2  a b  2 2 14  12 3  a b  2 2 5  2 7. a b c d e –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 5. Identify the values represented by a. a b c d e –4 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 1 6. Tammy or Jasmine? Identify the error made in the incorrect solution. as quotients of two integers. c. 6. When reading from left to right: 2 2 3 a) 0 䊏 0.3 2 2 10 1 1 1 8. b. in decimal form." b) 4. Explain how you know each Communication Tip statement is true. and e.

4 2 3 9. a) Name three fractions between and . how do a and b compare? Explain why. 1.833 333 p as a fraction. and Rational Numbers. Natural Numbers. a) 0. d) 1 7 1 000 000 11. Extending 13. Draw a diagram to show the relationship between these sets of numbers: Integers. 10.4333 … b) 0.333 333 p 10 This is the same as: 8 1 1   10 10 3 8 1   10 30 24 1   30 30 25  30 5  6 Use Rhys’s approach to write each of the following as fractions. If a and b are positive numbers and a 6 b. Rhys thought of this as: A 1 0. Use one circle for each set of numbers.16 c) 0. To write 0. C 8 8 b) How would your answers to part a) help you name three rational 2 3 numbers between  and  ? 8 8 c) Are your answers in part a) rational numbers? Explain. c) Two rational numbers are opposites if they have different signs. NEL Rational Numbers 47 .253 12.8  of 0. Whole Numbers. True or false? Justify your answer. T a) All mixed numbers can be renamed as decimals. b) A rational number can be expressed as any integer divided by any other integer.

5 Rational Number Operations GOAL Evaluate expressions involving rational numbers. 10 40 0 20 -10 He found the following conversion formula from a weather website: 0 -20 C ⫽ 3F ⫺ 324 -20 -30 5 -40 -40 9 where C is the temperature in degrees Celsius and F is the temperature in degrees Farenheit. 48 Chapter 1 NEL . I substituted the Fahrenheit C ⫽ 3 1⫺5. 1. thermometer. 40 100 30 Matthew was not sure how cold that was because he was used to 80 60 20 temperature readings measured in degrees Celsius. Ishtar’s Solution: Connecting to integer and fraction operations I estimate ⫺5. LEARN ABOUT the Math ˚F ˚C Matthew was chatting online with his friend Bruce. This would give me a rounding error in my final answer. Bruce said that the temperature outside was ⫺5. who lives in the United 120 50 States. I decided to rename all the ⫽ c a ⫺5 b ⫺ 32 d 5 1 numbers as fractions because 9 2 5 would become a repeating 9 decimal.5 ⴰ F.5 ºF? EXAMPLE 1 Evaluating a rational number expression Determine the Celsius temperature equivalent to ⫺5.5 degrees Fahrenheit.5 2 ⫺ 32 4 5 temperature value into the 9 formula.5 ⴰ F to be about I estimated by looking at the ⫺21 ⴰ C. C temperature 5 =—9 (F temperature – 32) ? What is the Celsius temperature equivalent to –5.

⫺5.5 ⫽ c ⫺ a 5 ⫹ b ⫺ 32 d 5 1 I followed the order of 9 2 operations and did the subtraction within the ⫽ a ⫺5 ⫺ ⫺ 32 b 5 1 9 2 brackets first.83 Since the Fahrenheit temperature was expressed in decimal form.8 ⴰ C. ⫽ a ⫺5 ⫺ 32 ⫺ b 5 1 9 2 ⫽ a ⫺37 ⫺ b 5 1 9 2 ⫽ a ⫺37 b 5 1 9 2 ⫽ a b 5 ⫺75 I decided to multiply using 9 2 improper fractions.5 ⴰ F is equivalent to reasonable because it was close about ⫺20. I decided to rename my answer as a decimal. 6 I renamed the answer as a 5 negative mixed number. NEL Rational Numbers 49 . so that I ⫽ ⫺20 6 could get a better sense of the number of degrees. I thought my answer was Therefore. to my estimate. ⫽ ⫺20. 1. –25 a 2 b 5 –75 ⫽— 9 3 I used what I knew about integers 125 ⫽⫺ to determine the sign.

Calculations involving rational numbers can also be performed using scientific and graphing calculators.5 ⴰ F is equivalent to ⫺20. How did Ishtar use what he knew about fraction operations to complete the calculation? APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 2 Connecting the addition of rational numbers to adding fractions and integers 4 2 Calculate ⫺ ⫹ . Reflecting A.5 into the conversion formula and entered ⫽ 3 1⫺5.8 ⴰ C. Sherry’s Solution: Using a calculator 1F ⫺ 32 2 5 C⫽ 9 I substituted ⫺5.83 ⴰ C or about ⫺20. 1 4 2 greater than . and that ⫹ 2 5 3 must be between 1 and 2. How did Ishtar use what he knew about integer operations to complete the calculation? B. so I assumed it would give the correct answer. ⫺5. 50 Chapter 1 NEL .5 2 ⫺ 324 5 it into my calculator. So. 4 2 ⫺ ⫹ must be between 5 ⫺3 ⫺1 and ⫺2. Therefore. 9 My calculator follows the order of operations. 5 ⫺3 Thai’s Solution 4 2 I estimate the answer to be between I knew that and were each 5 3 ⫺1 and ⫺2.

⫺40 ⫺16 ⫽ ⫼ 3 9 NEL Rational Numbers 51 . ⫽ I added the numerators. I thought that my ⫽ ⫺1 answer was reasonable. ⫽ ⫺2 a 5 b ⫼ a ⫺1 b 1 1 7 I estimated the answer by 2 3 9 rounding each mixed number to its nearest integer value and got 8 ⫺3152 ⫼ 1⫺2 2 ⫽ 7 .5 4 2 I am used to adding fractions ⫺ ⫹ 5 ⫺3 when both denominators are ⫺4 ⫺2 2 ⫽ ⫹ positive. EXAMPLE 3 Using the order of operations to evaluate a rational number expression 1 1 7 Evaluate ⫺2 x ⫼ y when x ⫽ 5 and y ⫽ ⫺1 . 15 22 7 ⫽⫺ Since ⫺1 was within my 15 15 7 estimate. and then. 1. 15 To evaluate an algebraic expression whose given values for the variables are rational number. 1 ⫽ ⫺ a b ⫼ a ⫺1 b 5 16 7 2 2 3 9 I followed the order of 1 operations the same way I would ⫽ ⫺ ⫼ a ⫺1 b 40 7 if the numbers were all integers 3 9 or fractions. follow the order of operations. I knew that was the 5 3 ⫺3 ⫺2 same as because the 3 quotient of a positive and a negative is negative. substitute the given values. 2 3 9 Uma’s Solution 1 I substituted the given values for ⫺2 x ⫼ y 2 the variables. ⫺12 ⫺10 I created equivalent fractions ⫽ ⫹ using a common denominator 15 15 ⫺12 ⫹ 1⫺102 of 15.

4 2002 ⫺10. 2000 ⫺5. the average noon I decided to round my answer to temperature at the Ottawa airport on one decimal place because all January 1 is ⫺10. the number of temperature readings. given to one decimal place. 52 Chapter 1 NEL .6 Mark’s Solution I divided the sum of the temperatures by 9.7 on January 1 for the years given.0 2004 ⫺4.4 2001 ⫺11. I simplified before I 3 16 1 2 multiplied. 2 1 so I was confident that my answer ⫽7 2 was correct.37 ⴰ C or about the numbers in the table were ⫺10.4 ⴰ C. Determine the average noon temperature 1999 ⫺22. 15 ⫽ 1 2 7 was the same as my estimate.9 2003 ⫺5.7 2005 ⫺2. EXAMPLE 4 Solving a problem involving rational numbers These temperatures were recorded at noon Year Temperature (°C) on January 1 from 1998 to 2006 at Ottawa 1998 ⫺20. 5 3 40 9 I divided by multiplying by the ⫽—⫻— reciprocal. Therefore.9 MacDonald-Cartier International Airport. to determine the average noon temperature.8 2006 ⫺9.

4 1 ⫺4 6 a) ⫺ ⫹ c) ⫻ 3 3 7 ⫺5 ⫼ a⫺ b 3 5 2 5 b) ⫺ d) 4 4 5 8 3.1 2 3.5 2. and rewrite negative fractions with the negative sign in the numerator. Determine the answers in question 4 without using a calculator. Without evaluating.5 In Summary Key Idea • The strategies and order of operations you used for calculations with integers. a) 2.046 d) ⫺ 10 5. Evaluate without using a calculator.5 c) ⫺4. 3 5 answer as 4 8 a) ⫺ a ⫺ b a b 3 5 ⫺3 ⫺5 c) 4 8 4 8 a b a⫺ b ⫺3 5 3 5 b) d) 4 ⫺8 ⫺4 8 PRACTISING 4.37 ⫺ 5. NEL Rational Numbers 53 .64 ⫹ 72. Evaluate without using a calculator. determine which expressions have the same a b.8 2 b) ⫺219.5 2 8 d) ⫺0.9 c) ⫺9. and decimals can be extended to all rational numbers. Estimate the two consecutive integers between which each answer will lie. fractions. Need to Know • Calculations with rational number operations may be simpler to perform if you rename mixed numbers as improper fractions.51⫺10.93 b) ⫺6. 1.2 ⫹ 1⫺2. a) 3. CHECK Your Understanding 1.5 ⫺ 7.

9 temperature on December 25 at 5:00 a.m. 6. and \$2.7 b) ⫺5 ⫹ 2 d) ⫺ 2 3 5 2 2 4 2005 ⫺14. a) In each case. determine the numbers represented by the rectangle and the triangle.45. Calculate. 3 3 a) ⫺1 ⫹ 䊏 ⫽ 1 c) ⫺1 ⫻ 䊏 ⫽ 1 4 4 3 3 b) ⫺1 ⫺ 䊏 ⫽ 1 d) ⫺1 ⫼ 䊏 ⫽ 1 4 4 12.3 8 4 5 4 3 5 f ) ⫺9 ⫺ a ⫺10 b 1 2 6 3 1 3 2004 ⫺35. Determine the average 2000 ⫺23.38. \$1.4 9. Calculate.22 at the start of the week. ⫺\$5. Ontario on December 25 at 5:00 a.38. a) a b a ⫺ b c) 3 a ⫺8 b 5 8 6 1 2 7 e) ⫺4 ⫼ ⫺12 15 7 3 3 12 b) ⫺2 a ⫺1 b ⫼ a ⫺1 b f ) ⫺2 ⫼ a ⫺1 b 1 3 15 1 5 1 d) 2 5 16 24 6 12 3 1 10. The daily changes in selling price for a particular stock during a week were ⫺\$2. The temperature at Moosonee. \$0.0 8.5 3 3 3 1 1 4 a) ⫺ ⫹ 1 2003 ⫺22. Show your work. Yaroslav takes h to cut his family’s front lawn and 1 h to cut the 4 3 back lawn. i) 1 2 ii) –3 — 3= 2 + 5— 4 –6 — ( 4 = 5 × –2 — 1 ) 2 –5 — 3= (––2 —41 ) = b) Describe the connection between the number represented by the rectangle and the number represented by the triangle. Year Temperature (°C) A from 2000 to 2005 is shown in the table. c) ⫺7 ⫹ a ⫺8 b e) ⫺ 3 ⫺ 5 2002 ⫺7. Determine the value that makes each equation true.12. then what was the selling price at the end of the week? b) What was the average daily change in selling price for the stock during this week? 7. for the given years.m. How much longer does it take Yaroslav to cut the back lawn? 11. c) Create a similar question that demonstrates this connection.78. 2001 ⫺10. a) If the selling price of the stock was \$58. Show your work. 54 Chapter 1 NEL .

3 2 ⫹ 5. a) x ⫺ 2y when x ⫽ ⫺9.0 ⴰ C.68 a 2 b 1 16 a) ⫺3. a) The boiling point of water. Then.5 a ⫺ 3 b 7 3 8 4 NEL Rational Numbers 55 . Evaluate each expression for the given values. The formula to convert Celsius temperatures to Fahrenheit 9 temperatures is F ⫽ C ⫹ 32.9 2 b) ⫺0.1 2 f) 21⫺1. Calculate. use a K calculator to complete the calculation.3 2 c) ⫺3.4 ⫹ 2 2 17 b) 5.2 ⫺6 8.7 ⫺ 5.3 ⫺ 0.214. a) Miami.5 13.2 ⫺4. to degrees Fahrenheit 17.41⫺2. Without calculating.21⫺3. determine the sign for each answer.2 ⫺ 10 2 d) 6.5 e) ⫹ ⫺1.2 b) 1x ⫹ y2 1x ⫺ y2 when x ⫽ 2. Evaluate each expression. Use this formula to convert the 5 following. ⫺ 0.5 and y ⫽ ⫺7. Florida’s record high of 98 ⴰ F to degrees Celsius b) Anchorage. to degrees Fahrenheit b) Normal body temperature.8112 2 3. 37.25 a ⫺2 b ⫺ 8. 1.78 and y ⫽ 3.8 c) x 1x ⫹ y2 when x ⫽ ⫺2 and y ⫽ 3 1 3 2 4 x y 1 1 d) ⫹ when x ⫽ ⫺1 and y ⫽ 2 y x 2 4 18. Alaska’s record low of ⫺38 ⴰ F to degrees Celsius c) 0 ⴰ C to degrees Fahrenheit 16. 100 ⴰ C.71⫺9.22 14. Apply the formula to convert the 5 degrees Celsius is C ⫽ 9 following. ⫹ a b ⫻ a ⫺1 b 2 3 2 1 3 5 a) ⫺ ⫹ ⫺2 c) ⫺2 5 ⫺4 3 3 ⫺4 6 b) ⫺ ⫻ 3 ⫼ a ⫺1 b d) ⫺2 ⫻ a 1 ⫺ 5 b 15 1 2 1 3 1 16 5 3 4 4 2 15.1 2 17.5 ⫺ 1⫺2. a) ⫺3. The formula to convert temperatures between degrees Fahrenheit and 1F ⫺ 32 2 .

1 2 a) ⫺ a 2 b ⫹ 1.6. Extending 21. C 5 4 4 1 b) Calculate ⫺2 ⫹ 1 without using a calculator. 19. 5 4 b) Determine the continued fraction representation for 1 . 1 1⫹ 1 1⫹ 2 3 a) Verify that the value of the continued fraction is 1 .32 2 2 3 1 22.53 4 b) ⫺5 ⫹ 3. 3 1 20. Calculate.6 10. 5 4 1 Hint: ⫽ 5 5 4 1 23. 1 ⫹ is an example of a continued fraction. Determine the dimensions of the original rectangle.3 (hours:minutes:seconds). 7 6 c) Use the decimal equivalents for the fractions in parts a) and b) and evaluate each expression. If you increase the width 4 by 12 m and double the length. The winner of the marathon finished in a time of 2:25:55. The width of a rectangle is of the length. a) Calculate ⫺2 ⫹ 1 without using a calculator. d) Would you prefer to do similar calculations using decimal form or fraction form? Explain. Determine how much longer James took to complete the marathon than the winner did. 56 Chapter 1 NEL . you obtain a perimeter of 120 m. James finished a full marathon in a time of 3:57:53.

She changes direction again and walks half as far as her previous distance. Haley’s Solution: Representing the problem using a number line 4 I used a number line to model the problem. ? What fraction around the track is Taylor’s final position? EXAMPLE 1 Solving a problem involving powers of rational numbers Determine Taylor’s final position on the track. 1. 0 1 2 1 — 8 — 8 — 2 1 5 Therefore. Then. 3 2 I used red arrows to show Taylor’s initial 1 direction around the track and blue arrows to show when she walked in the opposite direction. Taylor ended at of the way around the 8 track from where she started. she turns and walks half as far in the other direction. LEARN ABOUT the Math Taylor walks one lap around a track. She changes direction one last time and again walks only half as far as her last distance.6 Powers of Rational Numbers GOAL Evaluate rational number expressions involving powers. NEL Rational Numbers 57 .

Taylor ended at of the way around the quarter of the track.  1  a b  a b  a b 1 1 1 2 4 8  1  a b  a b  a b 4 2 1 I renamed the fractions using a common 8 8 8 denominator of 8 and added them. I used powers with base 1  since she walked half as far each time. Why did Keely evaluate the powers before she added the rational numbers? 58 Chapter 1 NEL .Keely’s Solution: Connecting to powers of integers and fractions 1 2 1 3 After Taylor’s first lap. 8 8 2 4 track from where she started. she would end up somewhere in the third 5 5 1 3 Therefore. I expressed each distance as 1  a b  a b  a b 1 1 2 2 2 a power of  . Reflecting A. I used the negative to represent 2 the change in direction. How is calculating a power with a negative fraction base similar to calculating a power with an integer base? B. Since was between and .  1  a b 3 8 5  8 Because Taylor always walked half of her previous distance. 2 a b a b 1 1 2 2 I expanded the powers using what I had learned a b a b a b 1 1 1 about calculating powers with integer and 2 2 2 fraction bases. my answer seemed reasonable.

 559.  10. 1.625 2 bases.24  21 274. NEL Rational Numbers 59 . Ahmed’s Solution: Using the order of operations 13.5 2 3 I followed the order of operations.24  1 549.625.22 2  216.6 APPLY the Math EXAMPLE 2 Evaluating an expression with negative decimal bases Calculate 13.25 subtracted by adding the opposite. I knew that.53  274.22 2  216. Faith’s Solution: Using a calculator with brackets keys To calculate 13.  10.49 When rational numbers are expressed as decimals in an expression.  10.5 2 3.24  549.5 2 3 I knew that multiplying pairs of negatives gave a positive answer.2 2 2  216. 6.25 2 I multiplied by 2. Also. First I calculated the powers. the answer would be negative. I needed to put the negative bases within brackets before I could enter the exponents. an efficient calculation strategy is to use a calculator. and then.24  216.52 3 using my calculator. if the exponent was odd. for negative integer  10.

1 4 I had to remember that the 96 in 144 the numerator of the first mixed number was also negative. 5 2  a  b 2 7  2 3 4 6 10 2  a  b 2 21  2 3 12 12 I performed the subtraction 31 2  a b 2 within the brackets first.  2  3 144 2 97 I expressed the second fraction  2 6 as a mixed number. 2 3 Calculate 2 3 4 6 Ivan’s Solution 5 2  a 1  b 2 3 To calculate this expression.  2 3 12 2 961 I calculated the power. 3 144 I made sure that the fraction parts 96 97  2 6 had a common denominator 144 144 before adding. 60 Chapter 1 NEL . EXAMPLE 3 Evaluating an expression with negative fraction bases 5 2  a 1  b . Changing fractions into decimal equivalents prior to making calculations can often result in incorrect answers due to rounding errors. Communication Tip If rational numbers are expressed as fractions in an expression. then express your final answer this way as well. I 2 3 4 6 needed to follow the order of operations.

1.6 EXAMPLE 4 Solving a problem involving powers of rational numbers Josée worked at the mall this summer to help pay for her future university education. i  0. Therefore. How much money will her investment be worth in 4 years? Invest to Earn The Magic of Compounding A = P(1 + i)n A = future value of investment P = amount of money invested i = decimal value of the interest rate used each time interest is earned n = number of times interest is earned while money is invested Josée’s Solution A  P 11  i2 n I substituted values for the  300011  0.035 because I had to change the interest rate given as a percentage to decimal form. NEL Rational Numbers 61 .035 2 4 variables. She invested \$3000 in an account earning interest at a rate of 3.57 in four years. nearest penny because the problem is about money. P  3000 because that is the amount of money that I invested. n  4 because I receive interest once a year for 4 years.5% per year. my investment will be I rounded my answer to the worth \$3442.

state if the answer is positive or negative. a If b b 3 9 3 a b   is even.52 c) 14. 2 8 3 27 CHECK Your Understanding 1.125 to evaluate the powers.25 and 4. Without evaluating. Use 4. Need to Know For exponent n ⴝ 1. and so on: Example a n 2 3 a b  a ba b p a b a b  a ba ba b a a a 2 2 2 b b b b 3 3 3 3 3n factors 4 8  27 a n an 2 3 23 a b  n a b  3 b b 3 3 8  27 a n 2 3 a b  a b a b p a b a b  a b a b a b a a a 2 2 2 b b b b 3 3 3 3 3n factors 4 8  27 a n 2 3 a b  a ba b p a b a b  a ba ba b a a a 2 2 2 b b b b 3 3 3 3 3n factors 4 8  27 a n 2 2 4 6 0. 2.52 3 d) 4.5 2 2 b) 4. 3. a) 14.53  91.53 2. 2 2 2 2 2 3 a) a  b c)  a  b e)  a b 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 5 b)  a b d)  a  b f) a b 3 3 3 62 Chapter 1 NEL .52  20. In Summary Key Idea • Powers with rational bases are calculated in the same way as powers with integer bases. then a b is positive if n a b  . and negative if n is odd.