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List of missions to Mars

Launches to Mars
Decade
1960s 13
1970s 11
1980s 2
1990s 8
2000s 8
2010s 5
Mars and its moons have been a target for many
spacecraft, with flyby, orbiter, lander and rover
missions visiting the planet.[1][2] In addition, two
spacecraft, Rosetta and Dawn, have made flybys to
get gravity assists for other missions; the former en
route to comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, and
the latter en route to asteroid 4 Vesta and dwarf
planet Ceres. Three missions were dedicated to
Phobos, but they did not achieve their targets. A
number of Mars orbiters include some study of
Martian system especially imaging Phobos and
Deimos, but there has been no dedicated mission to
Deimos

Missions
Spacecraft Launch Date Operator Mission[1] Outcome[3] Remarks Carrier ro

OKB-1
1M No.1 10 October 1960 Flyby Launch failure Failed to orbit Molniya
Soviet Union

OKB-1
1M No.2 14 October 1960 Flyby Launch failure Failed to orbit Molniya
Soviet Union

Booster stage
("Block L")
2MV-4 No.1 24 October 1962 Soviet Union Flyby Launch failure Molniya
disintegrated in
LEO

Mars 1 Communications
1 November 1962 Soviet Union Flyby Spacecraft failure Molniya
(2MV-4 No.2) lost before flyby

2MV-3 No.1 4 November 1962 Soviet Union Lander Launch failure Never left LEO Molniya

NASA Payload fairing
Mariner 3 5 November 1964 Flyby Launch failure Atlas LV-3 Ag
United States failed to separate

Closest approach
NASA
Mariner 4 28 November 1964 Flyby Successful at 01:00:57 UTC Atlas LV-3 Ag
United States
on 15 July 1965

Zond 2 Communications
30 November 1964 Soviet Union Flyby Spacecraft failure Molniya
(3MV-4A No.2) lost before flyby

NASA
Mariner 6 25 February 1969 Flyby Successful Atlas SLV-3C
United States

2M No.521 27 March 1969 Soviet Union Orbiter Launch failure Failed to orbit Proton-K

NASA
Mariner 7 27 March 1969 Flyby Successful Atlas SLV-3C
United States
2M No.522 2 April 1969 Soviet Union Orbiter Launch failure Failed to orbit Proton-K

NASA
Mariner 8 9 May 1971 Orbiter Launch failure Failed to orbit Atlas SLV-3C
United States

Never left LEO;
Kosmos 419 booster stage
10 May 1971 Soviet Union Orbiter Launch failure Proton-K
(3MS No.170) burn timer set
incorrectly

Entered orbit on
27 November
1971, operated
for 362 orbits.
Mars 2
19 May 1971 Soviet Union Orbiter Mostly successful Mapping Proton-K
(4M No.171)
operations
unsuccessful due
to dust storms on
the surface[4]

Deployed from
Mars 2, failed to
Mars 2 lander
19 May 1971 Soviet Union Lander Spacecraft failure land during Proton-K
(SA 4M No.171)
attempt on 27
November 1971

Entered orbit on 2
December 1971,
operated for 20
Mars 3 orbits.[5] Mapping
28 May 1971 Soviet Union Orbiter Mostly successful Proton-K
(4M No.172) operations
unsuccessful due
to dust storms on
the surface[6]

Deployed from
Mars 3; landed at
13:52 UTC on 2
Mars 3 lander December 1971;
28 May 1971 Soviet Union Lander Partial failure Proton-K
(SA 4M No.172) contact lost 14.5
seconds after
transmission
start

Prop-M Rover rover
28 May 1971 Soviet Union Rover Spacecraft failure Failed to deploy Proton-K
(SA 4M No.172)

Entered orbit on
14 November
NASA [7]
Mariner 9 30 May 1971 Orbiter Successful 1971, deactivated Atlas SLV-3C
United States
516 days after
entering orbit

Mars 4 Failed to perform
(3MS No.52S) 21 July 1973 Soviet Union Orbiter Spacecraft failure orbital insertion Proton-K
burn

Failed after 9
Mars 5 days in Mars
25 July 1973 Soviet Union Orbiter Partial failure Proton-K
(3MS No.53S) orbit; returned
180 frames

Contact lost
upon landing,
atmospheric data
Mars 6 Lander
5 August 1973 Soviet Union Spacecraft failure mostly Proton-K
(3MP No.50P) Flyby
unreadable. Flyby
bus collected
data.[8]

Separated from
coast stage
Mars 7 Lander prematurely,
9 August 1973 Soviet Union Spacecraft failure Proton-K
(3MP No.51P) Flyby failed to enter
Martian
atmosphere

NASA Operated for
Viking 1 orbiter 20 August 1975 Orbiter Successful Titan IIIE Cent
United States 1385 orbits

Deployed from
NASA Viking 1 orbiter,
Viking 1 lander 20 August 1975 Lander Successful Titan IIIE Cent
United States operated for
2245 sols

NASA Operated for 700
Viking 2 orbiter 9 September 1975 Orbiter Successful Titan IIIE Cent
United States orbits

Deployed from
NASA Viking 2 orbiter,
Viking 2 lander 9 September 1975 Lander Successful Titan IIIE Cent
United States operated for
1281 sols

Communications
lost before
Phobos 1 Orbiter
7 July 1988 Soviet Union Spacecraft failure reaching Mars; Proton-K
(1F No.101) Phobos lander
failed to enter
orbit

Orbital
observations
Phobos 2 Orbiter successful,
12 July 1988 Soviet Union Partial failure Proton-K
(1F No.102) Phobos lander communications
lost before
landing

Lost
NASA communications
Mars Observer 25 September 1992 Orbiter Spacecraft failure Commercial T
United States before orbital
insertion
Mars Global Surveyor 7 November 1996 NASA Orbiter Successful Operated for Delta II 7925
United States seven years

Mars 96 Rosaviakosmos Orbiter
16 November 1996 Launch failure Never left LEO Proton-K
(M1 No.520) Russia Penetrators

Landed at
NASA
Mars Pathfinder 4 December 1996 Lander Successful 19.13°N 33.22°W Delta II 7925
United States
on 4 July 1997[9]

NASA Operated for 84
Sojourner 4 December 1996 Rover Successful Delta II 7925
United States days[10]

Ran out of fuel
Nozomi ISAS
3 July 1998 Orbiter Spacecraft failure before reaching M-V
(PLANET-B) Japan
Mars

Approached
Mars too closely
during orbit
NASA insertion attempt
Mars Climate Orbiter 11 December 1998 Orbiter Spacecraft failure Delta II 7425
United States due to unit
conversion error
and burned up in
the atmosphere

NASA
Mars Polar Lander 3 January 1999 Lander Spacecraft failure Failed to land Delta II 7425
United States

Deployed from
NASA
Deep Space 2 3 January 1999 Penetrator Spacecraft failure MPL, no data Delta II 7425
United States
returned

Expected to
NASA remain
Mars Odyssey 7 April 2001 Orbiter Operational Delta II 7925
United States operational until
2025.

Enough fuel to
ESA remain
Mars Express 2 June 2003 Orbiter Operational Soyuz-FG
Europe operational until
2026.

Deployed from
Mars Express.
Successful
ESA landing, but two
Beagle 2 2 June 2003 Lander Lander failure Soyuz-FG
Europe solar panels
failed to deploy,
obstructing its
communications.

Landed on
Spirit NASA January 4, 2004.
10 June 2003 Rover Successful Delta II 7925
(MER-A) United States Operated for
2208 sols
Opportunity 8 July 2003 NASA Rover Operational Landed on Delta II 7925H
(MER-B) United States January 25, 2004

Flyby in February
ESA 2007 en route to
Rosetta 2 March 2004 Gravity assist Successful Ariane 5G+
Europe 67P/Churyumov–
Gerasimenko[11]

Mars
NASA Entered orbit on
Reconnaissance 12 August 2005 Orbiter Operational Atlas V 401
United States March 10, 2006
Orbiter

Landed on May
25, 2008.
NASA
Phoenix 4 August 2007 Lander Successful End of mission Delta II 7925
United States
November 2,
2008

Flyby in February
NASA 2009 en route to
Dawn 27 September 2007 Gravity assist Successful Delta II 7925H
United States 4 Vesta and
Ceres

Never left LEO
Roskosmos Orbiter (intended to
Fobos-Grunt 8 November 2011 Spacecraft failure Zenit-2M
Russia Phobos sample depart under own
power)

Failure To have been
CNSA
Yinghuo-1 8 November 2011 Orbiter Lost with Fobos- deployed by Zenit-2M
PR China
Grunt Fobos-Grunt

Curiosity
NASA Landed on
(Mars Science 26 November 2011 Rover Operational Atlas V 541
United States August 6, 2012
Laboratory)

Entered orbit on
24 September
Mars Orbiter Mission ISRO
5 November 2013 Orbiter Operational 2014. Mission PSLV-XL
(Mangalyaan) India
extended till
2020.[12]

Orbit insertion on
NASA
MAVEN 18 November 2013 Orbiter Operational September 22, Atlas V 401
United States [13]
2014

ExoMars Trace Gas ESA/Roscosmos Entered orbit on
14 March 2016 Orbiter Operational Proton-M
Orbiter Europe/Russia October 19, 2016

Carried by the
ExoMars Trace
Gas Orbiter.
Lander crashed,
Schiaparelli EDM ESA
14 March 2016 Lander Partial failure but test declared Proton-M
lander Europe
successful as
critical data was
retrieved.[14][15]

Locations of selected Mars landers
and rovers

← Phoenix (2008)

Viking 2 (1976) →

Viking 1 (1976) → ← Sojourner (1997)
← Beagle 2 (2003)

Schiaparelli EDM (2016) → Curiosity (2012) →
↑ Opportunity (2004)
Mars 6 (1973) →
Spirit (2004) ↑

← Mars 3 (1971) Mars 2 (1971) →

Polar Lander (1999) ↓
Deep Space 2 (1999) →

There are a number of derelict orbiters around Mars
Interactive imagemap of the global topography
whose location is notwith
of Mars, overlain known precisely;
locations there is a
of Mars landers
proposalandtorovers (Redfor
search label = Rover;
small Blue label
moons, = rings, and
dust
Lander; bold red/blue = currently active). Hover
old orbiters with the Optical Navigation Camera on
your mouse to see the names of over 25
the Mars Reconnaissance [16] There should be
Orbiter.and
prominent geographic features, click to link
to them. Coloring of the base map indicates
8 derelict Mars orbiters barring unforeseen events if
relative elevations, based on data from the Mars
they have not decayed as of 2016. [17] One example is
Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global
MarinerSurveyor.
9, which entered
Reds Mars
and pinks orbit elevation
are higher in 1971 and is
expected to remain
(+3 km inyellow
to +8 km); orbit isuntil
0 km;approximately
greens and 2022,
blues are lower elevation (down to −8 km).
when the spacecraft is projected to enter the Martian
Whites (>+12 km) and browns (>+8 km) are the
atmosphere
highestand eitherAxes
elevations. burnareuplatitude
or crash
and into the
planet'slongitude;
surface.Poles are not
[18] The shown.
Viking 1 orbiter is predicted
(See also: Mars map & Mars Memorials & Mars Memorials
not to decay until at least 2019.[19] One orbiter that is
map) (view • discuss)
confirmed to have undergone Mars atmospheric
entry is Mars Climate Orbiter.

(see also List of Mars orbiters)

Future missions
In development
Mission Launch Notes Organization

InSight May 5, 2018[20][21] Lander NASA, USA

Emirates Mars Mission July 2020 [22][23][24] Orbiter MBRSC, UAE

Mars 2020 July 2020 Rover NASA, USA

ExoMars 2020 July 2020[25] Lander, rover ESA/ASE, EU

2020 Chinese Mars Mission July/August 2020[26] Orbiter, lander, rover CNSA, PRC

Mars Terahertz Microsatellite[27] July 2020[28] Orbiter NICT, ISSL, Japan

Mangalyaan 2 2022[29][30] Orbiter ISRO, India

Martian Moons Exploration (MMX) 2024[31][32] Orbiter JAXA, Japan

Proposals
Mission Launch Notes Country or Space Agency

NASA 2022 orbiter 2022 Telecomm orbiter[33] NASA, USA

Demo mission 2022 Lander, cargo[34] SpaceX, USA

Mars One, demo mission 2022 Lander Mars One, Netherlands

Crewed mission 2024 Lander, cargo, crew[35] SpaceX, USA

Mars One, ComSat
2024 Orbiter Mars One, Netherlands
mission

Mars One, rover &
2026 Orbiter, lander, rover Mars One, Netherlands
ComSat mission

Mars One, cargo
2029 Orbiter, lander, cargo, rover Mars One, Netherlands
missions

Sample return phase of the Chinese Mars
2030 CNSA, PRC
exploration program[36]

Mars One, crew one 2031 Orbiter, lander, cargo, crew of 4 Mars One, Netherlands

Mars One, crew two 2033 Orbiter, lander, cargo, crew of 4 Mars One, Netherlands

Crewed phase of the Chinese Mars exploration
2036 CNSA, PRC
program[26]

2040– Crewed phase of the Russian Mars exploration Роскосмос (Roscosmos),
45 program[37] Russian Federation

Missions to the moons of Mars

Phobos' Stickney Crater
Deimos (lower left) and Phobos (lower right) compared with the
asteroid 951 Gaspra

Phobos by Mars Global Surveyor in 1998[38]

Missions dedicated to explore the two moons of
Mars, Phobos and Deimos. Many missions to Mars
have also included dedicated observations of the
Moons, while this section is about missions focused
solely on them. There have been three unsuccessful
dedicated missions and many proposals. Because of
the proximity of the Mars moons to Mars, any
mission to them may also be considered a mission
to Mars from some perspectives.
There have been at least three proposals in the
United States Discovery Program, including PADME,
PANDORA, and MERLIN.[39] The ESA has also
considered a sample return mission, one of the latest
known as Martian Moon Sample Return or MMSR,
and it may use heritage from an asteroid sample
return mission.[40]

Proposal Target Reference
[41]
Aladdin Phobos and Deimos
[42]
DSR Deimos
[43]
Gulliver Deimos
[44]
Hall Phobos and Deimos
[45]
M-PADS Phobos and Deimos
[46]
Merlin Phobos and Deimos

MMSR (2011 ver.) Phobos or Deimos [40]

[47]
OSRIS-REx 2 Phobos or Deimos
[39]
Pandora Phobos and Deimos
[48]
PCROSS Phobos
[49]
Phobos Surveyor Phobos

PRIME Phobos [50]

[51]
Fobos-Grunt 2 Phobos

Phootprint Phobos [52][53]

[54][55]
PADME Phobos and Deimos

In Japan, the Institute of Space and Astronautical
Science (ISAS) is developing a sample return mission
to Phobos,[56][57] due to launch in 2024. This mission
is called Martian Moons Exploration (MMX)[58] and is
proposed as a flagship Strategic Large Mission.[59]
MMX will build on the expertise the Japanese Space
Agency (JAXA) would gain through the Hayabusa 2
and SLIM missions.[60] As of January 2018, MMX is
set for launch in September 2024.[61]

Planned mission Target Reference
[58]
Martian Moons Exploration (MMX) Phobos and Deimos

Three missions to land on Phobos have been
launched; the Phobos program in the late 1980s saw
the launch of Fobos 1 and Fobos 2, while the Fobos-
Grunt sample return mission was launched in 2011.
None of these missions were successful: Fobos 1
failed en route to Mars, Fobos 2 failed shortly before
landing, and Fobos-Grunt never left low Earth orbit.

Launched mission Target Reference

Phobos 1 Phobos

Phobos 2 Phobos

Fobos-Grunt Phobos

Missions sent to the Martian system have returned
data on Phobos and Deimos and missions
specifically dedicated to the moons are a subset of
missions Mars that often include dedicated goals to
acquire data about these moons. An example of this
is the imaging campaigns by Mars Express of the
Mars moons.

Osiris-Rex 2 was a proposal to make OR a double
mission, with the other one collecting samples from
the two Mars moons.[62] In 2012, it was stated that
this mission would be the both quickest and least
expensive way to get samples from the Moons.[63]

The 'Red Rocks Project', a part of Lockheed Martin's
"Stepping stones to Mars" program, proposed to
explore Mars robotically from Deimos.[64][65]

See also
Artificial objects on Mars
Exploration of Mars
Manned mission to Mars
Mars Exploration Rover
Mars flyby
Mars landing
Mars rover

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