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Educational policies and initiatives of the

European Union
In the European Union education is the responsibility of Member States; European Union institutions play a supporting role.
According to Art. 165 of theTreaty on the Functioning of the European Union,the Community

“ shall contribute to the development of quality education by encouraging cooperation
between Member States,through actions such as promoting the mobility of citizens,
designing joint study programmes, establishing networks, exchanging information or
teaching languages of the European Union. The Treaty also contains a commitment
to promote life-long learning for all citizens of the Union. ”
The EU also funds educational, vocational and citizenship-building programmes which encourage EU citizens to take advantage of
opportunities which the EU offers its citizens to live, study and work in other countries. The best known of these is the Erasmus
programme, under which more than 3,000,000 students have taken part in inter-university exchange and mobility over the last 20
years. Since 2000, conscious of the importance of Education and Training for their economic and social objectives, EU Member
States have begun working together to achieve specific goals in the field of Education. By sharing examples of good policy practice,
by taking part in Peer Learning activities, by setting benchmarks and by tracking progress against key indicators, the 28 Member
States aim to respond coherently to common challenges, whilst retaining their individual sovereignty in the field of Education policy.
This strategy is referred to as the Education and Training 2020 programme (ET2020), which is an update of the Education and
Training 2010 programme.[1] The European Union is also a partner in various inter-governmental projects, including the Bologna
Process whose purpose is to create a European higher education area by harmonising academic degree structures and standards as
well as academic quality assurance standards throughout EU Member States and in other European countries.

Contents
Building a Europe of knowledge
Education and training policy
Target setting
Policy discussions
Networking
Education and training programmes
Inside the EU
Outside the EU
See also
References
Further reading
External links

Building a Europe of knowledge
The European Union adopted its first education programme (the COMETT programme, designed to stimulate contacts and exchanges
between universities and industry) in July 1987. This programme was rapidly followed by the ERASMUS programme, which
promoted inter-university contacts and cooperation, as well as substantial student mobility (as, in 1989, did the "Youth for Europe"

Early School Leavers : less than 10% of school pupils should leave school before the end of compulsory schooling 2 . universities or training centres as well as between the political authorities responsible for these areas in the different Member States.to 34-year-olds with an initial vocational qualification should have spent some time studying or training abroad Since 2012. This is done using the process known as theOpen Method of Coordination. These programmes were adopted by the EU countries but with considerable support from the European Parliament which made budgets available even before the legal instruments had been adopted.[2] The European Commission and the European Union's Member States worked together on a report for the Spring 2001 European Council. at which the EU's Heads of State and Government asked the Education Ministers of the EU to reflect on the "concrete objectives" of education systems with a view to improving them. and a substantial programme to support exchanges. the EU's first youth exchange support scheme).[9] The benchmark on Early school leavers and the benchmark onTertiary education attainmentare also Europe 2020 targets.[5][6][7][8][9] The Commission seeks to encourage Member States to improve the quality of their education and training systems in two main ways: through a process of setting targets and publishing the position of Member States in achieving them and by stimulating debate on subjects of common interest. upper secondary education completion.[10] [11] Under the current policy framework in Education and Policy (ET2020). formal or non-formal continuing education or training including in-company skills development) should be not less than 15% per annum 7 . maths and science as measured at level 2 in theOECD's Programme for International Student Assessment 5 . Maths and Science : no more than 15% of 15-year-olds should be low-achievers in reading. science and technology. The European Union has two different types of instrument to increase the quality and openness of the education and training systems of the EU's Member States: a set of policy instruments through which EU countries are encouraged to develop their own education systems and to learn from each other's successes. Since then they have published a series of "Joint Reports" every other year.Adult participation in life-long learning : participation of the 25-64 age group in lifelong learning (i. Education and training policy The European Union's interest in Education policy (as opposed to Education programmes) developed after the Lisbon summit in March 2000. networks and mutual learning between schools. should be employed 6 .Mobility between countries : at least 20% of higher education graduates and 6% of 18.programme. who are no longer in education or training and have successfully completed upper secondary or tertiary education.e.[3] and in 2002 the Spring Summit approved their joint work programme [4] showing how they proposed to take the report's recommendations forward. number of graduates and decrease of gender imbalance in maths. . lifelong learning.[9] progress against benchmarks and core indicators is yearly assessed in the Education and Training Monitor.Employment rate of recent graduates : 82% of the population aged 20–34. Target setting As regards target setting. the seven benchmarks require that by 2020: 1 .Low achievement in Reading.Tertiary education attainment: at least 40% of the population aged 30–34 years should have completed tertiary education 3 .[12] published every autumn by the Directorate-General for Education and Culture in replacement of the Progress Report. low achievers in reading literacy.Early childhood education and care : 95% of children aged 4 to the age when primary education starts should participate in early education 4 . the Member States agreed in the Council on 5 May 2003 on five benchmarks on : early school leavers.

000 young people each year to do an apprenticeship or internship in another EU country. This paper was generally welcomed by Member States but it drew criticism from some (in particular Germany and Austria) who felt [13] that it commented negatively on their education and training systems. has helped over 2. launched in 1987 (and discontinued in 1995). Jean Monnet. Since then. The Commission has published such papers over many years. The sub-programme which supports teaching about Europe in higher education is named after the French politician and architect ofEuropean Unity. in addition to the thrice yearly meetings of the "Education Council" within the EU's own institutional system. F. but until the Lisbon Summit in March 2000. and will continue until projects launched in its final year 2013 are closed - probably in 2016. poet.5 million school students take part in joint projects across boundaries. . Similar programmes have been running ever since. philosopher and thinker. the Erasmus university exchange programme was launched in the same year. teaching about the EU in universities. the Commission has supported a variety of networking systems between Ministers (and Ministries) in the EU's Member States. The Erasmus programme (named after Desiderius Erasmus. The vocational education and training programme is named after the renaissance inventor and all-rounder Leonardo da Vinci. however. Member States have become more open to mutual exchange and learning. which has become a symbol of Europe in universities. the Commission also publishes policy papers designed to encourage the EU's Member States to look more closely at particular areas of their education and training policy. A recent example (late 2006) may be found in the Communication on "Efficiency and equity in European education and training systems". named after the 15th century Czech teacher. through regular meetings of Director Generals for Higher Education or for Vocational Education and Training to more specialised networks or "clusters" within the "Education and Training 2010 programme" in areas such as key competences. and a 'horizontal' programme for policy development. adopted on 7 May 1990 by the Council as part of the assistance provided by the European Community of the day to the countries breaking free of Soviet rule. foreign language learning or the [14] recognition of informal and non-formal qualifications. has been the icon of university exchange programmes since its launch in 1987. These range from biennial meetings of Ministers responsible for Vocational Education and Training (the "Copenhagen Process"). the 16th century Dutch humanist and theologian). adult education. universities and higher education. The schools exchange programme. the 19th century Danish theologian. and as from 2007 all the education and training programmes were brought together in one single programme. It currently helps around 75. Grundtvig. Outside the EU The first EU programme to promote educational exchange and cooperation between educational institutions inside the EU and those outside it was the TEMPUS programme. helps those involved in adult education to have access to similar international experience. named after Pastor N.Policy discussions In addition to the measurement of progress. the Lifelong Learning Programme 2007-2013. S. Education and training programmes Inside the EU The first European Union exchange programmes were the COMETT Programme for Industry-University links and exchanges. The adult education programme. few were widely followed. vocational education and training. Some two million students have so far spent a fully accredited period of between 3 months and an academic year in another EU university under the programme.[15] The Lifelong Learning programme comprises separate sub- programmes for schools. The programme entered into force on 1 January 2007. Networking Finally. scientist and educator John Amos Comenius. and a number of Commission papers have had significant impact.

but will be renewed and revised as from 2007. and by 1993 the number of participating countries had grown from five at the start to eleven. The programme was subsequently enlarged to include the Newly Independent States of the former Soviet Union. It also provides Individual Mobility Grants to enable individuals to travel to or from Europe in connection with these themes. The Erasmus programme .relating to primary and secondary education. in 2003 the European Union launched the Erasmus Mundus programme. Europe Study Centre (ESC) has lately come up as a reputed and dependable company in Indian providing end to end services in the European overseas education field helping Indian students to avail the Erasmus Mundus benefits.relating to adult education. The programme was an immediate success.[16] and finally to cover the Mediterranean countries. a project to ensure the place of European Universities as centres of excellence across the world. and to enable partnerships between European universities and those in other countries. sometimes time-limited. again to include the countries of the Western Balkans. See also Pepin. The Grundtvig programme . few of which had by then undergone serious change since Soviet domination.[19] the Asia-Link programme. to improve academic management (e. Luce (2006). The Commission has announced its intention to propose a further period. These included the ALFA/ALBAN programmes with Latin American universities. The Leonardo da Vinci programme . The programme had strong support both from the Council of Ministers and from the European Parliament.[17] The TEMPUS programme[18] currently supports projects run by consortia of universities in the EU and in partner countries which aim to update curricula and teaching methods.g. The TEMPUS programme is still running.[21] The first phase of Erasmus Mundus will finish in 2008.[20] and others. Finally. TEMPUS was followed by a series of smaller programmes built more round the mobility of academics towards the EU. systems of quality assessment and assurance).. an impression strengthened by the fact that they were managed by the European Commission's development assistance service EuropeAid rather than (like TEMPUS or Erasmus Mundus programme) by its Education and Culturedepartment. and to promote the higher education priorities of its partner countries. and that a bottom-up process through partnerships with individual universities in these countries would provide a counterweight to the influence of the much less trusted Ministries. Luxembourg: European Commission. to attract the best students from around the world to Europe. strategic development plans. Ploteus The TEMPUS programme Cultural policies of the European Union European Cross Media Academy .The idea behind TEMPUS was that individual universities in the European Community could contribute to the process of rebuilding free and effective university systems in partner countries. The history of European cooperation in education and training.relating to higher education.relating to vocational education and training. ISBN 92- 894-8986-3 Directorate-General for Education and Culture Bologna process Education and Training 2010 Lisbon Strategy European credit transfer system European Day of Languages European Studies European School European higher education area The Eurydice Network Global Education Network Europe Lifelong Learning Programme 2007-2013 The Comenius programme . A number of these appear to have been set up as a means ofdevelopment assistancerather than with the development of universities as such.

Republic of Macedonia. Fartusnic. Archived fromthe original (http://ec. "for a full list of current coverage. Retrieved 29 April 2017.pdf)(PDF).europa.htm).1518. 7.Education and training . see.EUR-Lex"(http://eur-lex.EN . Retrieved 2013-03-26. 21. Albania.edu/43341/).European Commission" (http://ec. "EUR-Lex . Brian.europa.html).eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=uriserv:OJ. L.EN . Presidency conclusions and annexes" (http://aei.EUR-Lex"(http://eur-lex.cf paragraphs 24-27 3. Figueira. D.europarl. Serbia.eu/education/programmes/llp/index_en. see the enthusiastic report on the draft Erasmus Mundus programme by Mme Marielle de Sarnez MEP for the European Parliament: [2] (http://www. Randolph. 18. Presidency Conclusions Lisbon European Council 23 and 24 March 2000 (http://www.. 13. "EUR-Lex .euro pa. Retrieved 29 April 2017.europa.52004XG0430(01) . Nieuwenhuis.EN . Retrieved 29 April 2017.INNERPAGE . Retrieved 26 March 2013. 11.eu/education/policies/2010/et_2010 _en. Ec.europa.eu/invest-in-researc h/pdf/download_en/barcelona_european_council.Erasmus+ . 15.52008XG0405(01) . "Capacity Building in the field of higher education . Retrieved 29 April 2017. N.EUR-Lex"(http://eur-lex.52003XG0607(01) .0003.EUR-Lex"(http://eur-lex.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=143457352481 4&uri=CELEX:52010XG0506(01)). 4.europa.. 14. Eduardo.europa.eu. Retrieved 29 April 2017.134.europa. "Stockholm European Council 23-24 March 2001.EUR-Lex"(http://eur-lex. . Montenegro. "EUROPA . Delors Report Franco-German University References 1. Ciprian.EUR-Lex"(http://eur-lex. Brett (2009). "Presidency Conclusions Barcelona European Council 15 and 16 March 2002" (http://ec. 12. 2. 6.52010XG0506(01) .europa. "Education and training policies based on evidence .01. Croatia. 16.ENG).europa. "EUR-Lex .eu/education/too ls/et-monitor_en.htm) .pitt.do?pubRef=-//EP//NONSGML+REPORT+A5- 2003-0087+0+DOC+PDF+V0//EN&language=EN) Further reading Patiniotis. "EUR-Lex .eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=celex:52012XG 0308(01)).52009XG0528(01) . 10.System innovation and evolution in European VET (Vocational Education and Training). "Education and Training Monitor .tempus.eu/europeaid/projects/asia-link/index_en. Retrieved 29 April 2017.eu/educatio n/programmes/tempus/index_en.EN .eu/education/programmes/llp/index_en.europa. Retrieved 29 April 2017.Education and Training .europa. europa.448433.europa.European Commission"(http://ec.EN .archive.eu/ueDocs/c ms_Data/docs/pressData/en/ec/00100-r1. the article of 14 November 2006 in Der Spiegel Online at [1] (http://www. Dillon.Education" (http://ec. Retrieved 29 April 2017. "see official web-site" (http://ec. Retrieved 29 April 2017.htm) .html) .eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=CELEX:52009X G0528(01)).eu.en0. "EUR-Lex .europa.Education and Training . 20. Dougan.C_.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=143457292948 3&uri=CELEX:52004XG0430(01)).EN .00.am/about_tempus.html#partner).html).eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=143457335933 4&uri=CELEX:52008XG0405(01)). 19. Retrieved 29 April 2017. Loek.html)or similar articles in Financial Times Deutschland and Tageszeitung on 15 November 2006.EN . 5.52012XG0308(01) .eu/europeaid/projects/alfa/information_en.spiegel. 9. for example.eu/sides/getDoc. Retrieved 29 April 2017.Educationand training .org/web/201303190908 12/http://ec.htm) . "official web-site" (http://ec. Retrieved 29 April 2017.52006XG0401(01) .2 003.html)on 19 March 2013.EUR-Lex"(http://eur-lex. Comparisons over time and state. Stavroulakis. 8.eu/education/policy/strategic-framework/indicators-benchmarks_en. ISBN 978-973-139-099- 4. "EUR-Lex .de/unispiegel/studi um/0. Ec..europa. Preisinger-Kleine. "EUR-Lex .htm) . Buzău: Alpha MDN. Retrieved 29 April 2017. Bosnia and Herzegovina.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=143457319951 1&uri=CELEX:52006XG0401(01)).europa.europa.01. Retrieved 29 April 2017. Lassnigg.europa. Retrieved 29 April 2017.European Commission" (http://ec. "EUROPA .consilium.The Lifelong learning programme"(https://web. see"(http://www. 17.

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