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March 2009


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Orta J. Reijngoud Well Engineering March 2009 Abandonment (TS12) NOTE: In the EPE Wells organization.80. the ‘Custodian’ is the ‘Technical Expert’ and the ‘Owner’ is the ‘Level 1 Technical Authority’. DEP 38. de Lange Well Engineering March 2005 Abandonment (TS12) Revisions Title Custodian Owner Discipline Date Well J.00. Schoenmakers R. as defined in TS01 ‘How to Use EPE Wells Technical Standards’ EPE Wells Well Abandonment .19 EPE March 2009 Page 2 INFORMATION ON STANDARD Original Issue Title Custodian Owner Discipline Date Well A.

the Principal will expect them to follow those design and engineering practices which will achieve the same level of integrity as reflected in the EPE DEPs. The copyright of EPE DEPs vests in EP Europe. This is of particular importance where EPE DEPs may not cover every requirement or diversity of condition at each locality. 2) Other parties who are authorized to use EPE DEPs subject to appropriate contractual arrangements (whether as part of a Service Agreement or otherwise). Subject to any particular terms and conditions as may be set forth in specific agreements with users.generally . All administrative queries should be directed to the EPE doc Administrator in EP Europe.holt@shell. regional. When Contractors or Manufacturers/Suppliers use EPE DEPs they shall be solely responsible for the quality of work and the attainment of the required design and engineering standards. The use of EPE DEPs by these operating companies is subject in all respects to the terms and conditions of the relevant Service Agreement. without detracting from his own responsibility. or reference is made to. (functional e-mail address: willy. be disclosed by users to any company or person whomsoever and the EPE DEPs shall be used exclusively for the purpose for which they have been provided to the user. Users shall arrange for EPE DEPs to be held in safe custody and EP Europe may at any time require information satisfactory to them in order to ascertain how users implement this requirement. Consequently. even if it is wholly or partly caused by negligence on the part of EP Europe. application or implementation of any EPE doc. operation and maintenance of processing units and facilities. EPE Wells Well Abandonment . national and industry standards. The system of EPE DEPs is expected to be sufficiently flexible to allow individual operating companies to adapt the information set forth in EPE DEPs to their own environment and requirements. or any other such facility. consult the Principal or its technical advisor. for those requirements not specifically covered. In particular. 3) Contractors/subcontractors and Manufacturers/Suppliers under a contract with users referred to under 1) or 2) which requires that tenders for projects. combination of EPE DEPs or any part thereof. three categories of users of EPE DEPs can be distinguished: 1) Operating companies having a Service Agreement with SIEP.80. and thereby to achieve maximum technical and economic benefit from standardization. construction. international. The right to use EPE DEPs is granted by Operating Companies within EP Europe. Without prejudice to any specific terms in respect of confidentiality under relevant contractual arrangements. The objective is to set the recommended standard for good design and engineering practice applied by Group companies operating an oil refinery. If in doubt. DEP 38. chemical plant. The information set forth in these publications is provided to users for their consideration and decision to implement. oil and gas production facility. without the prior written consent of EP Europe. They shall be returned after use.19 EPE March 2009 Page 3 USER GUIDELINE PREFACE The EPE DEPs (Design and Engineering Practices) are based on the experience acquired during their involvement with the performed on behalf of the said users comply with the relevant standards. materials supplied or . the Contractor or Manufacturer/Supplier EPE DEPs shall not. including any copies which shall only be made by users with the express prior written consent of EP Europe.00. gas handling installation. and they are supplemented with the experience of Group Operating companies. EP Europe disclaim any liability of whatsoever nature for any damage (including injury or death) suffered by any company or person whomsoever as a result of or in connection with the use. under Service Agreements with SIEP. Where appropriate they are based on. The benefit of this disclaimer shall inure in all respects to EP Europe and/or any company affiliated to these companies that may issue EPE DEPs or require the use of EPE DEPs.


operate. Note that the absolute minimum standard shall always be in compliance with the local laws and regulations in force in each EPE country. The EPE Wells Technical Standards are intended to clarify and meet these local regulations at the time of writing. fluids and pressures permanently i. which may interfere with shipping. could cause ‘cratering’ at shallow depths. INTRODUCTION. loss of company reputation. annuli or fractures created during the drilling and production phases of the well. The consequences of a discharge of hydrocarbons from an abandoned well are likely to have a high impact: these would include pollution damage. which.00.e.How to Use the Technical Standards). the ‘rules’) that each of us has a responsibility to comply with in order to ensure that the technical integrity of our activities is not compromised. The 'shall' statements do not mean that other approaches cannot be considered: the main point is that if they are not complied with then a risk assessment has to be carried-out in the form of a 'Dispensation or Deviation' to the standards. This implies that there is no intention of ever re-entering the well or abandoned hole in case of a sidetrack. The purpose of this document is to define the minimum requirements for abandoning a well so that the chance of the following hazards occurring is as low as reasonably practicable: • a leak of well fluids to the environment. EPE Wells Well Abandonment . which is intended to help engineers and supervisors working in the region carry out their jobs more efficiently. ‘forever’. The document interprets and clarifies the various external guidelines from an EPE perspective. modify and abandon wells in the EPE business region.e. written in the prevailing language of that country. in turn. underground ‘blow-out’. • the unintended flow of fluids underground through holes. at the time an activity is carried-out. and very high clean-up and relief-well drilling costs. In this Technical Standard ‘Well Abandonment’ refers to those activities that are necessary to isolate permeable zones. prosecution by the Authorities and a threat of losing our License to Operate. and shall not be seen as an alternative to them. and underground ‘charging’ of formations. which could result in serious drilling problems in offset wells. • leaving well-related equipment close to the seabed or ground level. farming or building activities. DEP 38. which has to be approved by the appropriate authorities in the organization (refer to TS01 .80. It is also intended to raise awareness of the need to incorporate future abandonment plans in the original well design in order to optimise lifecycle costs. Failure to do this could result in the pollution of shallow water-bearing formations by hydrocarbons moving from deeper zones. PURPOSE AND SCOPE The EPE Wells Technical Standards define the minimum standards that shall be applied when we design. and then restore the well site to its finally abandoned condition. construct. The documents contain the 'shall' statements (i.19 EPE March 2009 Page 5 1.

00. These activities may be part of preparations to re-use part of a well or to restore the well site to its finally abandoned condition. Maximum anticipated pressure∆ – is the maximum anticipated pressure that could reasonably be expected to develop below a permanent barrier in the future as a result of formation fluids migrating beneath the barrier. which is typically 1. Well Abandonment∆ – refers to those activities that are necessary to isolate permeable zones.45psi/ft) for the EPE region. A permanent barrier must extend across the full cross section of the well. whichever is shallower. the chance of it ever being exceeded is less than 1%. Overpressured Zones∆ – Zones where the pressure within the water leg of a permeable zone is in excess of the normal. include all annuli. 7. Suspended well∆ (in the context of well abandonment) – State of a well as being partially abandoned by permanent barriers with the intent to re-enter the well for further development or continue abandonment activities. 3. 6. Permeable Zone∆ – Any zone in the well where there is possibility of fluid movement on application of a pressure differential. regional hydrostatic pressure gradient. The Secondary barrier is the next barrier above the highest point of potential influx.01 bar/10m (0. A permeable zone is considered hydrocarbon bearing∆ if movable hydrocarbons are present or likely to be present in the future. produced water or cuttings re-injection. The determination of this requires an assessment with petroleum development engineers in order to consider factors such as the future likelihood of secondary or tertiary recovery. 4.19 EPE March 2009 Page 6 1. From a well engineering design point of view.1 DEFINITIONS 1. with no intention of ever re-entering the abandoned part of the wellbore. EPE Wells Well Abandonment . Highest Point of Potential Inflow ∆ – The top of a permeable zone or top perforation. carbon dioxide sequestration and whether a zone is permeable or not.e. The secondary barrier shall be capable of containing a leak through the primary barrier. fluids and pressures permanently i. and be placed across a suitable formation in terms of strength and permeability. Permanent Barrier∆ – is a verified barrier that will maintain a permanent seal against fluid movement. DEP 38.e. aquifer recovery strength. Primary barrier∆ – is the first permanent barrier above the point of potential influx. 8. Unless the conductor and wellhead is removed the well is not fully abandoned but suspended.80. 2. The delta triangle symbol ∆ is used in this document to identify definitions. the maximum anticipated pressure shall be based on the P1 pressure supplied by the reservoir engineer. 5. ‘forever’. i.

present a potential leak path and are not considered sealing in the long term due to corrosion. Metals. and this principle is adopted in this technical standard.e. • All primary cementation(s) in the annuli • The tubulars that cross the permanent barrier are considered sealing if embedded in cement on both sides (‘sandwiched’). and minimal shrinkage on set. EPE Wells Well Abandonment . hard cement’. i. A permanent barrier comprises of a number of elements. DEP 38.e. a metal casing ‘sandwich’ between a long. in cement 100 m MD of good quality Casings. It is imperative that the cement plug is properly engineered.80.19 EPE March 2009 Page 7 2. and particularly old casing and completion tubulars. i. placement inaccuracy. sub-optimal tubular centralisation. clean adequate strength primary slumping and gas surfaces. placed on a solid base with good fluid and wall cake removal and rock/steel adhesion. to contain future cementation migration while setting water wet pressures Figure 1 Permanent Abandonment Barrier schematic “Restoring the Cap Rock” The industry currently accepts that an abandonment plug is synonymous with ‘good quality. The along hole length of a permanent barrier is an important design feature to offset uncertainty in terms of cement contamination. i. However. it must be capable of doing its job ‘forever’. Impermeable & and strength) and cement movement. the two barriers may be combined into one placement with adequate redundancy. tubing cement. without movement due to weight differences or gas/fluid migration.00. good cement plug on the inside and a long. Cement must be allowed to set undisturbed.e. well executed and verified. • The formation that is impermeable and of sufficient strength to contain the maximum anticipated pressure Best Practices Barrier Elements Sealing Abandonment plug Tubing sealed with Height at least cement. The intent is that if the primary barrier leaks then the secondary barrier is capable of preventing the uncontrolled flow of fluids. good annular cement sheath on the outside is acceptable as an element of a permanent barrier. Under certain conditions. EPE WELL ABANDONMENT PHILOSOPHY AND GUIDANCE NOTES The EPE well abandonment requirements are based on the general principle of using two independent barriers to prevent the uncontrolled flow of hydrocarbons or over-pressured water / brine into the external environment. each of which requires to be sealing in the long term (see Fig 1): • The abandonment plug. something that provides similar physical and chemical properties to the rock it is replacing. embedded in cement Sealing primary cementations Plug Depth determined by Pipe stand-off formation Formation: (impermeability Support to prevent Good bond. It is recognised that new technology may provide abandonment plugs with better sealing capabilities or better verification techniques in the future but this is beyond the scope of this document. The barrier for a final well abandonment has to be permanent.

the compressive strength development of samples of the pumped slurry may be used to augment volume records and tagging. However. if not all. • If a cement plug is set inside a cemented casing on a previously tagged and pressure tested mechanical plug (or cement plug) then it is unnecessary to tag and pressure test the plug provided the placement and other quality aspects of the job are acceptable. micro-annuli.19 EPE March 2009 Page 8 cleanliness. The minimum length should be viewed in this context and may have to be increased as the situation dictates. mud channels. tagging to confirm the position and hardness of the plug is deemed to be an acceptable means of verification. at least 100 m (330 ft) of cement plug verified by tagging. EPE Wells Well Abandonment . As mentioned in the introduction.g. The compressive strength development of a sample of the pumped slurry may augment the tagging. such as selecting suitable cement and planning annular cement tops to be sufficiently high. otherwise the job has to be repeated. tubulars and fluids are often left downhole and rig-less work is maximised. • In open hole it is usually impractical to carryout a pressure or inflow test to verify the plug because the exposed formation above the plug may fracture or collapse. where the following requirements cannot be met it is perfectly acceptable to carry out a risk assessment in order to demonstrate that an alternative approach is as low as reasonably practicable: standards should never be seen as a substitute for good engineering judgment made by competent people who have been provided with specific information. Successful primary cementation of production casings is particularly important from an abandonment perspective. • Inflow testing is the ideal means of verification but it is often impractical to create the required drawdown (e.00. In this case. However. but not its hardness. the quality of cement near the base is unlikely to be as good as at the tagged depth. • Pressure testing is a suitable method if a leak path to open formation is present below the cement plug. Contamination and poor bonding are hazards to be mitigated. Many. provided the plug is long enough. the work is often organised in campaigns of similar work. All verification methods have their limitations. It is recognised that during the operational life of a well the down-hole mechanical status often changes from the original plan and this is why abandonments are highly well specific.80. Annulus pressure may develop due to a failed primary cementation during production or even during abandonment after cutting a casing shallow. • Tagging with wire line will verify a minimum depth of the plug. this leaves 100 ft (30 m) of ‘good’ cement below the bit. etc. The consequences of a leaking well – requiring re-entry and re-abandonment – are very expensive and can present additional HSE risks. The Oil and Gas UK (OGUK) guidelines for example call for at least 100 ft (30 m) of ‘good’ cement. which compromises the requirement. Also. indicating that the primary cementation was unable to support the weight of the casing. DEP 38. Combined with volume records this can provide a verification of the height of the annulus cement. The approach taken for the EPE requirement in this case is based on the latest NORSOK standard i. As a general rule to improve the cost effectiveness of abandonments. The definitions of the minimum acceptable length and quality of a ‘good’ cement plug and annular column vary across the guidelines and legislation found in the three main EPE operating units. The test pressure may be limited by the risks of bursting the casing or inducing a micro- annulus. Example: a 500 ft (150 m) plug is set in open hole as per OGUK guidelines and hard cement is not tagged until 400 ft (120 m) below the theoretical top. Quality Assurance of abandonment cement plugs is an important requirement. Engineering judgment has to be applied so that the annular cement column is adequate but not so long that there is a risk of inducing losses at the shoe. ‘absolute minimum’ and should not be used as a basic standard for planning purposes. but alternative techniques have been employed as well.e. sub-hydrostatic using nitrogen) and it puts a high collapse loading on the casing. Pressure or inflow testing and tagging to confirm location and hardness are basic techniques for the verification of the plug’s sealing capability. • As a less preferred but acceptable verification method. the intent is that this is an. tasks may be performed by well intervention techniques. formation properties. The final well abandonment must be considered during the initial design. In theory. Small leak paths through the barrier may not be detected. depending on well integrity and as-built status.

14) of at least 100 m (330 ft) in length along hole above the highest point of potential inflow or the natural distance between permeable zones∆ to be isolated. 3. and (ii) the formation is impermeable.19 EPE March 2009 Page 9 3. over-pressured water/brine-bearing permeable zones. Compliance with local regulations prevails over the EPE requirements. All permeable zones∆ penetrated by the well shall be isolated from each other and from the seabed or ground level using one permanent barrier∆ as a minimum (i. DEP 38.e. 3.- (ii) a tested retainer base for the plug. cement). Control lines and electrical cables shall not pass through a permanent barrier∆. 3.13 and 3.8 For an open hole. designs. 3. Cost effective abandonment operations shall be considered for all well and sidetrack proposals.5 Hydrocarbon-bearing∆ permeable zones.7 A permanent barrier∆ shall be positioned at a depth where (i) the quality of the primary cementation(s) has been assessed as adequate to create a wall-to-wall barrier (see Fig. The top of primary cementations. i. Its strength exceeds the maximum anticipated pressure∆. 3.3 shall be placed at the casing shoe with at least 50 m of good cement inside the casing. and accurate record keeping are particular areas of attention.4.- (iii) the pipe walls are clean and water wet. Elastomer seals as found in most plugs and packers are not acceptable as permanent barrier materials. This may serve as a primary or a secondary barrier∆ or a combined barrier. See Fig. and programmes. unless it can be demonstrated that cross flow between the zones is acceptable. unless it can be demonstrated that cross flow between formations is acceptable.00. INTERNAL WELLBORE: PERMANENT BARRIER REQUIREMENTS 3.2.9 Tubulars and packers may be left in the well. or permeable pressure-transition zones shall be separated from the seabed or ground level by two permanent barriers. 3. the ‘primary’ and ‘secondary’ barrier may be placed as one long barrier provided the following conditions are met: (i) an adequate redundancy in plug length. the completion design. A barrier in open hole shall isolate any weak formations below the shoe.80. A minimum length of cement of 50 m (165 ft) is acceptable if a cement plug is set inside casing using a mechanical plug or verified cement plug as the foundation. A permanent barrier∆ shall consist of good cement (see also 3.19 or 3. 3. long term access.6 Inside casing. 2).20.3. to be achieved by treatment pills. provided these do not jeopardize the sealing capability of the permanent barrier∆. EPE REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL ABANDONMENT 3. to prevent cement movement and disturbance by fluid ingress during the cement setting process .- (iv) the plug is verified as per 3. ‘primary’∆ and ‘secondary’∆. a permanent barrier∆ as per 3.1. 3. EPE Wells Well Abandonment .e. at least 200 m (660ft) length along hole above the highest point of potential inflow∆ along hole.

such as -in order of preference.10. Materials other than cement shall be subject to an approved deviation. A minimum length of 200 mAH (660 ft) . A stinger shall be the optimum choice for minimising contamination. i. The annulus cement requirements for different barriers may overlap. or (iii) an engineered heavy viscous pill . possibly underreaming (more than ½”).e.(i) a bridge plug. Liner-top packers alone are not acceptable as permanent well barriers. a meaningful inflow or pressure test of the cement. cyclic loading. (ii) a viscous reactive pill. 3.adjacent to a cement plug set inside the casing - shall apply if the annular cement column has not been logged.g. The cementation shall be quality-controlled by a designated mud/cement specialist. 3. setting a cement plug across the cut or window extending at least 50 m (165 ft) upwards above the cut/window. secondary or combined barriers.13 The composition and placement of any cement slurry intended for use as a permanent barrier∆ is critical and shall be identified as such in the programme and worksite instructions. DEP 38. ‘Logged good cement’ is defined as >80% Bond Index with no channelling.12 Cemented liner laps shall only be accepted as part of a permanent barrier∆ when there is evidence of good quality cement. packer or bottom of the hole. Slumping of the cement slurry into the hole or annulus is a particular risk to be mitigated using a viscous reactive pill or a (inflatable) bridge plug. the ‘metal sandwich’) then there shall be at least 30 mAH (100 ft) of logged primary cement adjacent to a cement plug set inside the casing. adhere to rock and metal. See Fig 5. at this depth there is usually a suitable formation and good primary cementation for a barrier and re-entry of the well in the worst case is facilitated. EPE Wells Well Abandonment . and ideally not shrink. 3. mud as a base is not acceptable.00.10 has been satisfied.11 Annulus pressure records shall be examined for Sustained Casing Pressure related to formation pressures or hydrocarbons. Cement plugs should be set on a solid base. See Fig. have an in- situ compressive strength comparable with the formation strength at the setting depth.80. and it is verified. When cemented casing forms part of a permanent barrier∆ (i. CO2). It shall be designed so that the hard cement shall be impermeable.e. or a cement bond log as evidence that 3. withstand the anticipated mechanical stresses and chemical conditions in the well (e. CEMENTING REQUIREMENTS 3.14 Placement of the slurry shall be carefully controlled. Cutting casing or section milling shall preferably be done at a depth inside the shoe of the previous casing. Perforating the casing at the depth of a suitable formation and pumping at least 200 mAH (660 ft) of cement into the annulus is an acceptable alternative to cutting/milling provided the annulus surfaces are water wet. H2S. as advised by the Fluids Team. 2 for different configurations of primary. There is a minimum volume of cement slurry that can be mixed and pumped without significant contamination. thermal exposure. Primary cementation that lacks integrity shall be reinstated by recovering the casing or section-milling at least 20 m (65 ft) of casing.19 EPE March 2009 Page 10 ANNULUS: PERMANENT BARRIER REQUIREMENTS 3. the cement slurry is prevented from slumping while setting.

21 Records of the verification of a permanent barrier shall be stored in the well file. 3. 4. there is no need for the installation of a further environmental cement plug at conductor depth unless required by local regulations or conditions. GRAND PARENT RIGHTS 3.4. but shall be assessed in relation to the presence of a leak path to formation and the risk of damaging the casing or the cementation.e. The required test pressure is provided under Local Variations.80. The depth of the cut may be increased depending on local conditions (e.18 In open hole (or partly open): a permanent barrier∆ shall be verified by tagging to confirm depth and hardness. (NO).19 In cased hole: a cement plug that is part of a permanent barrier shall be verified by tagging and pressure. or future plans for buildings or infrastructure). Job execution records (volumes/losses/pressures) and compressive strength development of the cement slurry sampled while pumping are options available. However.3 (NL).17 If the conductor has not been removed.20.3 (UK)) It is usually not necessary to pressure test a cement plug that is placed on a mechanical plug (or on a cement plug) that has been tagged and pressure tested as above. DEP 38.19 EPE March 2009 Page 11 SURFACE REQUIREMENTS 3.2.5 (isolation of permeable zones) have been satisfied.15 Where articles 3. The minimum requirements are stated in ‘Local Variations’ below.4 and 3.g.3. 3. Across a casing cut or milled window: a cement plug shall be verified as “in cased hole”. 3. provided the placement and other quality aspects of the job are acceptable as per 3. 4. EPE Wells Well Abandonment . (Art.20 Where tagging and pressure/inflow testing would not give meaningful results. then the well is defined as ‘suspended’∆ and shall be monitored as per the requirements of Technical Standard TS09 – Well Integrity. ‘grandparent rights’ apply).00. BARRIER VERIFICATION 3.1. it shall be prevented that environmentally unfriendly fluids left in the well will become a source of pollution.16 Wellhead equipment and casing strings shall be cut and retrieved so that no part of the well shall ever protrude above the seabed or ground level. subject to an approved deviation. 4. 3. active seabed scouring. 3. other verification methods to assess the depth of the plug and its sealing capability are acceptable.or inflow-testing.22 A well that has been partially or fully abandoned in compliance with previous legislation or standards does not need to be re-abandoned to current requirements provided that the risks of loss of containment or obstruction have been assessed as being ‘as low as reasonably practicable’ (i. The delta triangle symbol ∆ is used to identify definitions provided on page 6.

80. If not logged.19 EPE March 2009 Page 12 Fig 2 : Annulus cement opposite an internal plug as part of a permanent barrier Single Barrier The annulus shall contain at least 30 m of good cement >100m opposite the internal plug (solid line). If not logged. DEP 38. the annulus cement >100m opposite and above the internal cement shall exceed 200 m (dashed line) Combined Barrier The annulus shall contain at least 2 x 30 m of good cement opposite the internal plug (solid line). the annulus cement opposite and above the internal cement shall exceed 200 m (dashed line) Single & Secondary The annulus shall contain Barrier at least 2 x 30 m of good cement >50m opposite the internal plugs (solid line). the annulus cement opposite and above the internal cement shall exceed 200 m (dashed line) EPE Wells Well Abandonment .00. >200m If not logged.

Tagged >50 M Cement retainer.Hydrostatically Tagged and Pressure Tested Pressured Combination Barrier .80.19 EPE March 2009 Page 13 Figure 3a: Typical Open Hole Abandonment Schematic Ground Level or Sea Bed 3m below ground level or 6m below Surface barrier for shallow sea bed permeable zone . bridge plug to Shallow Permeable form a base for cement plug - Zone .Hydrostatically Pressured Hydr.Tagged >100 M. bridge plug to form a base for cement plug - Shallow Permeable Tagged and Pressure Tested Zone . bridge plug to or > 60 M form a base for cement plug - if logged Tagged and Pressure Tested Cap rock Reservoir Open Hole EPE Wells Well Abandonment .Not verified Primary Barrier for reservoir #1 and >50 M secondary for reservoir #2. DEP 38.Tagged Reservoir # 2 Cement plug provides a foundation for the Primary Barrier - Not verified Figure 3b: Possible Open Hole Abandonment Schematic Ground Level or Sea Bed 3m below ground level or 6m below sea bed Surface barrier for shallow permeable zone or possible oil base mud in annulus .base able to Annulus >200 M contain leaking primary barrier - Tagged and Pressure Tested or > 30 M >50 M >100 M Cement plug provides a foundation if logged for the next Barrier .Tagged or sampled cement set >50 M Cement retainer. Reservoir # 1 Primary Barrier for reservoir #2 if >50 M >100 M crossflow between reservoirs is not acceptable .primary and secondary barrier placed together - Tagged or Sampled cement set Annulus > 200 M > 200 M Cement retainer.00.pressured Secondary Barrier .

80.Tagged or Sampled cement set or > 60 M >50 m if logged Primary Barrier . DEP 38.Tagged or Sampled cement set Cement Retainer/Tubing Plug - Tagged and Pressure Tested Cap Rock Barrier between two reservoirs Reservoir # 2 is not required if cross flow is acceptable in short and long term (advised by Petroleum * Engineering discipline) Reservoir # 1 EPE Wells Well Abandonment .Tagged and Annulus pressure tested >200 M >100 M Punched casing Viscous Reactive Pill as Shallow Permeable foundation for cement plug Zone . no hydrocarbons Secondary Barrier .Tagged or Sampled cement set >50 M Cement retainer.19 EPE March 2009 Page 14 Figure 4a: Typical Through-Tubing Cased Hole Abandonment Schematic Ground Level or Sea Bed 3m below ground level or 6m below sea bed Barrier for shallow permeable zone .00. . bridge plug as a foundation for cement plug - Tagged and Pressure Tested Permeable zone hydrostatically pressured. no hydrocarbons Permeable zone hydrostatically pressured.Hydrostatically Punched casing Pressured Combination Barrier . Sampled cement set Annulus > 200 M > 200 m or > 60 M Punched tubing if logged Cement Retainer/Tubing Plug - Tagged and Pressure Tested Cap rock Reservoir Figure 4b: Typical Cased Hole Abandonment Schematic Ground Level or Sea Bed 3m below ground Surface barrier for shallow level or 6m below permeable zone or possible oil sea bed base mud in annulus .primary and secondary barrier placed together - Tagged inside and Pressure Tested tbg and annulus separately.base able to > 50 m contain leaking primary barrier Annulus > 200 M.

DEP 38.base able to contain leak window milled >20 m > 50 m Window > 20 M Inflatable Cement Retainer - Tagged and Pressure Tested CAP ROCK AGAINST FORMATION Barrier .19 EPE March 2009 Page 15 Figure 5: Typical milled window Schematic IN CASING Barrier .00.base able to contain leak > 50 m window milled >20 m > 100 m Underreamed >1/2" Window > 20 M Cement Retainer .Tagged and Pressure Tested CAP ROCK EPE Wells Well Abandonment .80.

1.6 The ‘T’ cement plug shall extend from 50 m below the top-of-liner or stump and to at least 50 m above.80. 4.2 T) and pressure tested to 50 bar for 15 minutes or inflow tested. does not require verification by tagging. Prior to being abandoned. It requires verification as per 4.1.5 of the “Mijnbouw Regeling” and the “Nota van Toelichting”.2. and not exceed burst rating after taking casing wear in to account. A ‘T’ plug as per 4.2. A liner top and cut casing shall be isolated with a ‘T’-plug as per 4. 4. chapter 8. Casing shall be removed from at least 3 m below ground level or at least 6 m below seabed. NETHERLANDS 4.5.2. 4. NORWAY 4.1. The cement plug shall be 100 m long or 50 m if set on a mechanical device. 4.1.3. LOCAL VARIATIONS 4. Chapter 9.2. An offshore well without casings/conductors removed shall be protected by a dome or marked by a buoy. chapter 8.6. DEP The top of cement of the primary cement column shall extend at least 100 m into the previous casing.2. 4. Casing shall be removed from at least 5 m below seabed. 4. or 35 bar for surface casing plugs.1. If this is unproven. EPE Wells Well Abandonment . 4.1.2. 4. Mechanical plugs are an option. as indicated in the Nota van Toelichting. the casing shall be cut as deep as possible and recovered. A plug in the transition from open hole to casing shall extend at least 50 m below the casing shoe.1. 4. 4.00.3. The minimum requirements for well abandonment are detailed in NORSOK Standard D- 010. A cement plug set on a tagged and pressure tested mechanical device inside casing.1. a well shall be filled with a liquid of such specific gravity that any pressure to be expected in the well can be withstood and shall be of such composition that corrosion is prevented and no damage is done to mineral deposits.4.6 is required over the stump. Infrastructure plans on land may require an alternative approach. Combining a primary and a secondary barrier into one large barrier is not allowed. The minimum requirements for well abandonment are detailed in Part 8.7 An environmental plug is required as close as possible below the shallowest casing cut. Permanent barriers∆ shall be tagged and weight tested with at least 100 kN (10.19 EPE March 2009 Page 16 Cased hole cement plugs shall be verified by tagging and pressure testing to 70 bar above the estimated formation strength at the base of the plug. 4. regardless of pressure or flow potential. The complete last open hole section shall be isolated. 4.

Casing should be removed from at least 10 ft (3 m) below seabed. 4. The ‘absolute minimum’ length requirement for ‘good’ cement to constitute a permanent barrier is 100 ft (30 m). As discussed in the guidance notes.4. 4. then the test pressure should exceed the weak point below the barrier by at least 500 psi (35 bar).3.2.00. Where the platform base is planned to remain in place (derogation). the casing/conductor removal requirements are subject to a deviation and a derogation case approved by the regulators.1.3. The requirement to pressure test from above shall be assessed in relation to the risk of bursting the casing or creating a micro-annulus.80. this figure shall not override the EPE requirements for the minimum lengths of cement plugs i. The minimum requirements for well abandonment are detailed in the Oil & Gas UK (formerly UKOOA) “Guidelines for the Suspension and Abandonment of Wells”.19 EPE March 2009 Page 17 UNITED KINGDOM 4. 4.3.3. 100 m or 50 m if set on a mechanical plug. EPE Wells Well Abandonment .e. DEP 38. If a permanent barrier is verified by pressure testing and a leak path into the formation exists below the barrier.3.

europe. Oil & Gas UK Guidelines for the Suspension and Abandonment of Wells. The ‘HSSE’ link can be used to access the Group safety manuals. There are many ways to access the legislation.80. Other Shell Group internal and external standards (e. Legislation can be accessed via the EPE HSE homepage.3. August 2004. which is essential standards and guidance that support this document. (The use of ‘hotlinks’ in the core documents has been avoided as they change frequently and require high maintenance).g. ‘Technology’-‘Wells’-‘Technical Assurance’). the EP manuals) can be accessed via the links on the ‘EP Online’ homepage (e. NORSOK Standard D-010. Dutch Mijnbouw Regeling.19 EPE March 2009 Page 18 5. EPE Wells Well Abandonment . Shell Group (SIEP) documentation (e. December 2002. March such as the EP 95 0000 and 2005 0000 series. and legacy material in NAM. Part 8. DEP 38. SEPNo and Shell Expro.g. ISO/ API publications) can be accessed from sww05. Rev. REFERENCES The main reference documents for this Technical Standard are the latest editions of the SIEP Pressure Control Manual (EP 2002-1500). and these are described in the EPE Wells Technical Standards Website and in TS01 ‘How to Use EPE Technical Standards’.