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US government made bitcoin in order to consolidate power

yeah its been a spec i left on from before i had a few plays with it. sadly, i sold off most at aprox $100 -
would have about $2mm currently... your logic makes sense that there are more scenarios, higher
probability of those scenarios, and only one out of the events has to occur. it can only do about 5-10
transactions /second % expensive.
I would guess that even if everything goes right you still have legislative risk on multiple fronts.

While i was glancing over an IMF report on cryptocurency and bitcoin from jan 2016 Goldman Sachs
applied for a patent on its blockchain-based settlement system (SETLCoin)in late 2015.. what is so odd
is 20min ago i saw blankein basically shaking his head about bitcoin, how he doesnt know and cant
read the future. Mike bloomberg then starts talking about blockchain and telling blankfein how it could
change the banking sector and he still acts like goldman doesnt eve look at the technology. i read all
these kids thinking that the banking/ruling/plutocratic classs is finished, and its going to be utopia now.

There something that smells off to me. That new crypto curency gets formedpayment form gets started,
and we dont shut it down, but other countries do. Just one of the money grubbing politicians in the right
place would have to be given carot/stick. These people prob finessed this whole game plan; spoofed
right up to cyper punks and the anarchist then to the the tech ppl who dont like government/ banking
cartels bring it to the world and champion it - until the majority bids it up just in tuime for the fatf
Bitcoin transactions are not considered safe until after 6 transaction confirmation.

by killing off btc and integrating the central banking system into a cryptocurrency. Spoon feeding the
government-hating early adopters "decentralization' then the crowd bids it up to crazy amounts, and
you no longer have cash, and replacing USD as reserve currency.
"We are literally in a race between our ability to build and deploy technology, and their ability to build
and deploy laws and treaties. "Security without Identification: Transaction Systems to Make Big
Brother Obsolete" We are defending our privacy with cryptography, with anonymous mail forwarding
systems, with digital signatures, and with electronic money.

Huge poiny was taxes
"Privacy is necessary for an open society in the electronic age. When my identity is revealed by the
underlying mechanism of the transaction, I have no privacy.The obstacles are political -- some of the
most powerful forces in government are devoted to the control of these tools. In short, there is a war
going on between those who would liberate crypto and those who would suppress it.Though the
battleground seems remote, the stakes are not: The outcome of this struggle may determine the amount
of freedom our society will grant us in the 21st century. To the Cypherpunks, freedom is an issue worth
some risk.
The FATF’s “guidelines” of bitcoin are predicted to have the same effect as BitLicense had on New
York-based bitcoin startups – this time on a global scale.Despite the report’s persistent connection of
bitcoin to money laundering and terrorist financing cases, the report does point out positive usages and
applications of the technology behind digital currencies.

"The FATF’s “guidelines” of bitcoin are predicted to have the same effect as BitLicense had on New
York-based bitcoin startups – this time on a global scale.Despite the report’s persistent connection of
bitcoin to money laundering and terrorist financing cases, the report does point out positive usages and
applications of the technology behind digital currencies."
Then some criis will ocurr and they will claim that all the other currencies and soverign bodies are
stagnatng the currency - put most of the world thru a harsh depression first so the ey are ready to take
any solution.

International bodies have a role to play in strengthening the international community’s
understanding of VCs more broadly. Several international bodies have already issued reports on
VCs and have served as international fora for discussion (for example, the FATF, the Committee
on Payments and Market Infrastructures in Basel, the European Commission, the European
Central Bank, and the World Bank).FATF has issued guidance to member jurisdictions on the manner
in which national
AML/CFT frameworks should be applied

The FATF’s “guidelines” of bitcoin are predicted to have the same effect as BitLicense had on New
York-based bitcoin startups – this time on a global scale.Despite the report’s persistent connection of
bitcoin to money laundering and terrorist financing cases, the report does point out positive usages and
applications of the technology behind digital currencies.

kThe G-8 and G-20 endorsed pursuing the “5×5 objective,” which aims to reduce the global average
cost of sending
remittances from about 10 percent in 2009 to 5 percent in

David Chaum was the most notable early champion of the Cypherpunks’ goal of realising a digital
currency in ‘Digicash’. In some ways, Digicash was a spectacular failure, sometimes unfairly attributed
to Chaum’s greed; but in the best ways, its failure was instructive because it demonstrated perfectly that
a privately issued digital currency could not survive the legal system’s onslaught of regulations (AML
and KYC in particular). Exactly the same story has been seen being played out again and again, with e-
gold’s failure, whose CEO Douglas Jackson narrowly avoided being sent to jail, and more recently with
the Liberty Reserve Dollar and Arthur Budovsky‘s arrest.

US government’s use of FISA, the ‘Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act’ of 1978 (amended much
since 9/11) which effectively enables the US government to make requests for information about a
private company’s data.

In April 2013 a study from the university of Chicago released a document which concerned how the
IMF could potentially address the threat that Bitcoin now poses to the global economy in its capacity to
launch speculative attacks on national currencies. The technicality is that they (the IMF) cannot buy

stuff like that. Free from all the laws designed to prevent market instability in the real world. assassination markets. The loser? The residents.” The European Central Bank classifies bitcoin as a convertible decentralized virtual currency. but you can cut off any appendages that reach into meatspace (to use a term that I really don't like). So perhaps buying a bunch of Bitcoin over time. This is a dilemma for the IMF. That is. bitcoin is taxed as a property. asks from any business in the world to file all transactions with US citizens. CFTC. child pornography.[6]:6 In July 2014 the European Banking Authority advised European banks not to deal in virtual currencies such as bitcoin until a regulatory regime was in place. but I have read very few critiscisms of bitcoin from ‘the Establishment’ other than Paul Krugman’s famous dismissal of it.[28] The Commodity Futures Trading Commission. even if they can't actually touch the technical foundation of the cryptocurrency itself. The loser? EU residents. Per IRS. I think generally the community nexus of socially inclined economists would say that a deflationary currency is unworkable and/or undesirable. a powerful. a sort of tech stock cum commodity item. “if the invention is antithetical to big government and government issued money. that cannot buy things that people of other countries can. etc. people who have a real-world address to ship things from. European Union asks from any business in the world to send VAT to the state of the client. and then selling them all at once. Treasury classified bitcoin as a convertible decentralized virtual currency in 2013. because they cannot buy things that people from other countries can. Get it embedded in the average person's mind that Bitcoin = Currency for Criminals. Fabricate a case if you have to.S. hostile government could probably do quite a bit of damage to the Bitcoin *economy*. (2) Try to destabilize the value of Bitcoin. classified bitcoin as a commodity in September 2015. which is precisely the point. I would try a three-pronged attack: (1) Attack. Or buying and hoarding Bitcoins. The result? All small companies that cannot afford the bureaucratic costs.. Publicize the hell out of its uses for hard drugs. The IRS in the USA. if I were a government that saw Bitcoin as a threat. You may not be able to attack the part of the Bitcoin system that lives entirely in the Internet. and puts them directly at odds with the Cypherpunks’ politics.[29] In September 2016. . rich. (3) Finally. using anti–money laundering laws. causing market crashes. attack the *image* of Bitcoin. Stephen Gornick points out that this is already occurring.Bitcoins because it is a stateless currency. and I would tend to agree with them up until the point where the elasticity of the bitcoin system is spread to thinly that deflation slows to 1% a year… at which point it may well become a viable ‘currency’ rather than what it is at the moment. a federal judge ruled that "Bitcoins are funds within the plain meaning of that term Thus. The U. just stopped accepting orders from USA. etc. the entities that allow Bitcoin to interface with the "real" (non-Bitcoin) world. The result? Many businesses do not sell goods to EU member states. and according to their articles of association they can only hold reserves of state-backed currencies. USD–Bitcoin exchanges. In his answer.

why didnt regulators step in beforehand? Did they have pressure to keep it alive? Dont think they will crash btc until society has come around to btc atm’s and using it – so they will prob try to keep it stable as well as the occational run up. And when it comes to USG. and when an owner wants to convert the market value of Bitcoins into goods and services. Chicago fed economist “blockchain is elegant solution to the problem of creating digital crrancy. is pulling a coup when you don't know you're even trying to pull a coup." Ie. This is the costliest option probably because entity will be staking its own investment.creating a successful distributed digital currency is what I call "coup-complete. • Super power entity grabs much of the stake if it is a PoS coin. This allows all financial actions to be tracked by the banks they pass through and gives judiciaries a port-hole into any-and-all’s financial lives. Advances in Cryptology — CRYPTO ’93: 13th Annual International Cryptology – maany issues as well as stephan brands and “untraceble offline cash (whitepaper inAdvances in Cryptology — CRYPTO ’93: 13th Annual International Cryptology Bitfinex – look into who bankrolled them.. There will be eventually better tech from another team. People move to better tech.For now. Gold & other metals wil likely get pushed down real low right before bitcoin falls and rothchilds will be buying . demonetisation of the economy is not impossible and the world is generally moving towards cashless / card-based systems. Tether is closely associated with Bitfinex. Get rid of cash – give central bank more surveillence andstop theuntaxable black markets. Bitcoins can store value making full use of their intrinsic properties such as personal storage on wallets and free international transfers. of course not. Super power entity buys the core developers and stalls the coin. Votes the currency and trolls it. Are coups impossible? No. People move to PoW/PoS hybrid or a better tech. it is fundamentally equivalent to the well-known difficult problem of regime change.Tether is an unregulated cryptocurrency pegged to the US dollar. Shut down operation fails because it is too costly. What's impossible. However as Modi’s India has demonstrated. they can sell their Bitcoin for cash. Shut down operation fails. physical cash can be used as a middleman. as a difficult problem. however. and USD .

If you’re just starting out.Reputable dealers include Apmex. Society needs to rise up and demand we take over our central banking and to not pay the fed. could I even liquidate the position? 1 ounce gold coins might come in handy as a bartering tool during a crisis. Buy land with water? But solid businesses that will do ok in downturn when they sell super cheap. You’re getting thesame amount of gold. Car. they’ll serve as a form of wealth storage in the new modern age of digital wealth. can implement any interest rate. Airlines. These stores get a fecommon gold coins in every week. and Border Gold. Grahams security analysis. Archor-daniel-midland is an ag biz that sells cheap food if I buy a leveraged short index.also known as “numismatics.By buying at a locally owned jewelry store. it’s a great way to buy gold with makes good point that with digital currency you cant have bank runs. Jewelry. and government can tax society however it chooses-always wondered what would plan be so US didnt default on their debt. I think a good sell would be many of the high valued tech stocks esp ones that survive off add revenue. but numismatics cost more because of theircollectible value. Agriculture. If you know what you’re lookingfor.”Here’s the real trouble with numismatic rated coins: you must paysignificantly more for them than regular coins. Homebuilders because rely so much on credit. His chapter 4 – 4 worst sectors to be in: 1. If they don’t. Silver: . Learn more about the first few ppl who introduced the idea of bitcoin delve into when the government seized the gold other central banks already issuing these? The countries we invaded – the couple htat did not have central banking? Author recomends liquidating into cash – but what happens when the government does not allow you to own cash? If banks will no longer take it etc? It will be worthless-well I assume the banks will let u deposit at a bad rate. Business that rely on consumer debt. selling products that arenot needed. Gainesville Coins. But stocks that sell a product ppl need. we recommend avoiding collectable coins.

$10.The most common silver coins are1 ounce American Silver Eagles and 1 ounce Canadian Silver MapleLeafs.Pick #3: First Majestic Silver (AG) In more recent times we’ve had.. coinage in 1965 • And. one cannot predict with 100% accuracy how a situation like this will unfold. One market that’s set to create a fresh pack of millionaires right now is the gold mining and silver mining sectors. Junk silver is common U.these silver coins are instantly recognized anywhere in the world. and dollars. known as “majors.000.This is why junk silver is perfect.S.Just like with gold coins. or higher like we think it could.S. dollar and introduce Fedcoin as a second . owning gold can also make you a nice profit.000..S. Other assets that will likely have mad value? Guns and bullets. It comes in dimes...This allows you to buy these types of coins at much smaller premiumsthan something like Silver Eagle coins. coinage—like old quarters and dimes—that contain 90% silverBut this creates a huge opportunity for savvy investors because coincollectors don’t see a lot of value in junk silver.Will they keep the current U. you can buy silver online or with a local dealer. Nixon devaluing the dollar and cutting it loose from gold back in 1971. half-dollars. Source: Wikipedia • The creation of the Federal Reserve in 1913 • Roosevelt confiscating gold back in 1933 • Johnson taking silver out of U. quarters.Pick #1: Franco-NevadaIAMGOLD (IAG) is one of the best mid-tier gold miners we follow. Now.If gold goes to $5. But you can also make profits—potentially much larger profits—in the mining sector that produces gold and silver. Like the government-minted gold coins we discussed earlier. a mid-tier company tends to move higher faster than the largest firms. In a gold bull market. 19 countries around the world right now have implemented negativeinterest rates—with more yet to come. finally.

www. and I enjoyed coming up with an algorithm and seeing it tested on a computer. at U. comprise IDA’s Communications and Computing FFRDC. when he was twenty-three.) He was fired from the I. I couldn’t program to save my life. “Our job was to break other countries’ codes and to design our own.C. Additional requests from NSA in 1984 and 1989 led respectively to what is now called the Center for Computing Sciences in Bowie.” he said. because it remains highly classified. recalled. when Simons was seventeen. After his departure. a mathematician who worked with Simons. who wanted the school to be the “Berkeley of the East. but I was pretty good. Soon.” paper-only currency like the U.S.T. “He already was a combination of ringleader and master of ceremonies and energizer. But what we do know is this: Never in the history of the world has a “fiat. which is based in Princeton. . He also collaborated with Shiing-Shen Chern on the Chern- Simons theory. in its élite cryptography group.D.” Under Simons.” Tony Phillips. Maryland and to a second Center for Communications Research in La Jolla. when it established the Center for Communications Research in Princeton. and fell in love with mathematics. currency outright or perhaps just stop circulating large bills?Or maybe they’ll simply convert our current money supply onto the blockchain “in the name of national security” and gradually remove all paper currency.I. “I was lucky enough to do some very good mathematics while I was there. Simons was named the head of the math department at the State University of New York at Stony Brook. he was working at the federally funded Institute for Defense Analyses.S.” Simons said.” (He could not discuss that work. but I did solve a long-standing problem in the field. “Yeah. which conduct research in cryptology and information operations. While Simons was at Stony Brook. Most have a lifespan of 30–40 he said. the study of surfaces and their shapes in multiple dimensions. New Jersey. one of America’s top math honors. These groups. he won the Veblen Prize. His chairmanship coincided with the era of Nelson Rockefeller. the department expanded and gained in prestige.D. the ambitious governor of New York. dollar survived. IDA’s support of the National Security Agency began at its request in 1959. I was a good mathematician.caseyresearch. simons(the math hedge fund): In 1955. He received his Ph. he enrolled at M. California.alternative currency?Will they ban the current U. Berkeley. in 1968. “I wasn’t the greatest in the world. for work in differential geometry.

and following developments in improvised explosive devices worldwide • New technology. angle. and where these perspectives intersect. ITSD concentrates on these areas: • Providing expertise on critical cyber technology procurements via in-depth knowledge of the technology and modern methods for timely acquisition of technology that matters. wavelength. modulation. and policy/law. • Applying world-class talent in content understanding by analyzing Big Data to bring clarity to a world drowning in data Intelligence Analyses Division (IAD) provides the United States Department of Defense. technology. policies. analyzing. and locating (TTL) systems. IDA assumed responsibility for the Science and Technology Policy Institute. ITSD researchers address all aspects of cyber from the perspectives of cyberspace operations.In 2003. examining issues unique to Asian counterterrorism. • Cyberspace operations – tracking. and processes of resource – both people and money – allocation. • Assessing advanced concepts in rapidly changing cyber technologies while identifying and analyzing cyber risks. and measurement and signals intelligence (MASINT) applications. Center for Communications and Computing In 1959. tracking. selling.S. such as the use of tagging. by adversaries as the result of either scientific breakthroughs or novel applications of existing technologies.[9] Cost Analysis and Research Division (CARD) helps guide the Department of Defense and other federal agencies in the decisions. including how terrorist organizations are financed. • Analyzing the workforce to determine if they are ready for cyber challenges and developing training and education programs to ensure we are ready for future cyber challenges. and using cyber weapons on a global basis. Specifically. In particular. which deal with metric. and hydromagnetic data • Surprise technology – unanticipated technologies that might be employed against the U. CARD analysts engage in: Information Technology and Systems Division (ITSD) focuses on cybersecurity and other cyberspace challenges of national and global importance.[15] It was headed by Cornell professor of mathematics J. including the ability to defeat such systems. time dependence. the Intelligence Community. Specific examples of support to our national security include research in the following vital areas: • Countering terrorism. and other cabinet departments research and analyses across a wide array of intelligence issues and disciplines. spatial. and countering digital security threats and identifying and tracking those developing. Barkley . plasma. IDA’s Center for Communications and Computing[14] was formed (as the Communications Research Division) as a private think tank dedicated to helping the National Security Agency solve advanced cryptology problems. a separate FFRDC providing technical and analytic support to the Office of Science and Technology Policy and other executive branch organizations.

They had obviously realized that they were buying a lot of commercial products without any good crypto support. and Princeton mathematician Lee Paul Neuwirth (1977-unknow the research portfolio particularly focuses on the creation and analysis of sophisticated encryption methods.) 2. once the system is known. the development of advanced algorithms and their applications. and christened it as AES or the Advanced Encryption Standard. they can obtain the plain text of every message (not just for a single person) encrypted by that system. and in the following years. an attacker could access your messages. computer network technologies supporting communications security. University of Chicago mathematics chairman Abraham Adrian Albert (1961–1962). who were found guilty of having passed military secrets to the Soviets and executed in 1953. The main problem with DES was the small size of the encryption key. To conclude. NSA analysts Mildred Hayes. which I think is really rare” “one interesting thing that came out recently that indicate a 90s era cryptogrpher was working on some of this stuff. algorithmic and mathematical foundations of cryptology. Leibler (1962–1977). “he is a genius on a lot of dif layers. "Computer Security This collection contains images of the National Institute of Standards and Technology’s (NIST) early work in computer security. history teaches us: 1. most notably Klaus Fuchs—a German-born British physicist who was convicted in 1950 for having given vital atomic-research secrets to the Soviet Union—and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. (This is known as Kerckhoffs's principle. Instructed by the Computer Security Act of 1987 to receive and review Federal security plans for unclassified but sensitive information. University of Illinois/Sandia Corporation mathematician Richard A. They designed a cipher called Lucifer. however. Nonetheless. it accepted Rijndael. Lucifer was eventually accepted and was called DES or the Data Encryption Standard. In 1997. In 1997. As computing power increased it became easy to brute force all different combinations of the key to obtain a possible plain text message. The secrecy of your message should always depend on the secrecy of the key. In 1973. if the attacker can compromise the crypto system itself. DES was broken by an exhaustive search attack. NIST and the National Security Agency . because just like the Caesar cipher. the Nation Bureau of Standards (now called NIST) in the US put out a request for proposals for a block cipher which would become a national standard. and not on the secrecy of the encryption system.Rosser (1958–61). In 2000. and Janice Cram continued their cryptanalytic work right up to the end of the project. NIST again put out a request for proposal for a new block cipher.He used deciphered Soviet cables to build cases against numerous spies. It received 50 submissions. For example. high-speed computing technologies. Related to the above. information processing technologies supporting cyber security. Using "secret crypto" is bad. Angela Nanni. always use ciphers which have been publicly reviewed and have been established as a standard. if your key is compromised. all messages can be decrypted.

.D. when David Kahn had written his monumental history of cryptology.Simmons claimed he learned of PK in Gardner's Sandia) - + Inman has claimed that NSA had a P-K concept in 1966 . the law assigned new responsibilities to NIST to assist U. preventing it from ever being published. 1990 extract – it was like they felt a rush all of a sudden. industry in capitalizing on new technologies developed in the U.Bellovin comments (are good)” “Years before. with some in the NSA trying to slyly suggest that _of course_ they knew about it.. "Did the NSA know about public key ideas before Diffie and Hellman?" + much debate. etc. a Montreal-based startup that delivers innovative identity and access management solutions. after Herbert Yardley wrote about the Black Chamber.contentdm. He holds a Ph. Written in cypher punk meail lst: “2. scientific and technical community at a faster rate.Simmons.5.fits with Dominik's point about sealed cryptosystem boxes with no way to load new keys .” http://nistdigitalarchives. the Justice Department actually did steal the manuscript for his second book.. In addition to explicitly defining and reconfirming the traditional measurement services. The team found considerable uncertainty among the agencies regarding the most effective means to provide for secure computer operations. and some sly and possibly misleading innuendo . the agency had considered placing him under surveillance and conducting a “surreptitious entry” into his Long Island home to steal the manuscript prior to publication. Stefan Brands is the founder and president of Credentica. This article describes the new programs being established at NIST to comply with this mandate and the new organizational unit at NIST that brings together the traditional services and these new programs.oclc. immediately initiated the Computer Security and Privacy Plans (CSPP) review project.and consistent with NSA having essentially sole access to nation's top mathematicians (until Diffies and Hellmans foreswore government funding.S. in cryptography from Technical .cypherspace.S.5.14. thus.htmlhttps://idtrail. Decades earlier. "Did the NSA know about public-key approaches before Diffie and Hellman?" .org/adam/people.” Stefan Brands ecash papers- http://www. the predecessor to NSA.comes up a The Trade Act of 1988 created the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) from the National Bureau of Standards (NBS).13. as a result of the anti- Pentagon feelings of the 70s) 2. and he certainly should've been in a position to know (weapons. team recommendations focused on education. .html Dr.

Brands was affiliated with the Center for Mathematics and Computer Science (CWI) in Amsterdam. Dr. Prior to joining Credentica. Siemens. he published in 1993 forms the core of a full-fledged system implemented and tested by CAFE. Stefan served in 2004 and 2005 on the external advisory committee of the Federal Privacy Commissioner of Canada. Stefan was a senior cryptographer at two pioneering privacy technology companies: Zero- Knowledge Systems (anonymous data transport) and Digicash (electronic cash). Dr. From 1996 to mid-1998. or improvements of Dr. The major areas. Dr. He serves as an Adjunct Professor at the McGill University School of Computer Science in Montreal. an ESPRIT project with 13 academic and commercial member organizations from seven European countries. Stefan maintains a personal blog on identity management and privacy at www. and was written completely from scratch. Brands completed undergraduate degree in Mathematics at the University of Utrecht and received PhD from the Technical University of Eindhoven in 1999. Stefan is an Adjunct Professor in modern cryptology at McGill's School of Computer Science. in mathematics from University of Utrecht. Ron Rivest. In February 2000. Johan Wolfgang Goethe-University (Frankfurt am Mainm). and the University of San for online and offline use and privacy-enhancing credential systems to replace current PKI designs.University of Eindhoven and a M. Credentica web site. in 2002 and serves as its President and Chief Executive Officer. Dr. ETH (Zurich). From February 1992 to February 1996. a Belgian R&D consortium that is designing a next-generation ID In the early nineties. Credentica. and performed consultancy in the area of electronic cash. In this capacity he co- supervises several M.Sc. Brands spent a year working on his thesis and a book on electronic cash. Stefan designed the core e-cash protocols of a chipcard system that was implemented and piloted by two European consortiums that included Gemplus. looks like he foundd credentica in 2002 but sold to microsoft in 08. Brands has presented his work for many institutions and companies including MIT (Boston). as Distinguished Scientist to further develop and implement electronic cash and private credential systems for the online and physical worlds. His research during this period focused on the design of privacy-protecting electronic cash systems and resulted in a number of publications. ENS (Paris). Stefan Brands serves as Scientific Advisor of Trustifi Inc. Stefan is a principal member of "On The Identity Trail" as well as of ADAPID. . published by The MIT Press with a foreword by prof. extensions. Brands' electronic cash techniques. (Available for download from www. Brands pursued several commercial opportunities related to his technology. Following this. The electronic cash system. and PhD students who are conducting cryptographic research in the area of digital identity and privacy. AT&T (New Jersey). Brands founded Credentica Inc.credentica.php. as well as an array of completely new privacy and security techniques.. He is an internationally recognized Cryptographer and his work focuses on privacy. Brands' thesis "Rethinking Public Key Infrastructures and Digital Certificates -. IBM (Zurich). Dr. Retrieved on 29 November 2011. he has worked on include private cash. He is the Owner of eight international patents on electronic cash and digital certificates. Dr. and is the author of a book on multi-party secure electronic authentication.Building in Privacy" dealt with the much broader topic of privacy in electronic communication and transaction mechanisms. Dr. It describes techniques that are generalizations. Dr. did he work on anything after that up til 2011? References 1. Canada.Sc. Brands joined Zero-Knowledge Systems. a developer of Internet privacy and identity-management systems. and several European banks.

(4 April 2008) Microsoft lines up with the good guys on identity tech. Retrieved on 29 November 2011. 3. and the only company with the technology to offer it for both the online and offline worlds.waybackmachine. 4. But they can give that certificate along with a pseudonym. How DigiCash Blew Everything. PKI. in: IEEE Spectrum special issue on electronic money. cars and phones are connected. Mr. February 1997 6. Dr. from the Technical University of Eindhoven in the Netherlands. issuing the equivalent of software keys that are automatically exchanged when purchases are made through a Web browser. Replay. where our homes. might get the equivalent of a key from a government agency that verifies their age for the purpose of buying a movie or joining an online discussion.a collection of five issued patents and a suite of pending privacy patents that represent the future of certified identity-management and electronic cash in the online and offline worlds. Peter. Ars Technica. Brands' patents will empower people to manage their identity and conduct commerce in the online and offline worlds without fearing loss of privacy. Retrieved on 03 October 20151. Digital-certificate companies help verify the identity of Internet users and merchants. Retrieved on 29 November 2011. 2. 7. William. Bright. The Register. a popular authentication technology that uses what code makers call public-key encryption. Retrieved on 29 November 2011. Wall Street Journal. 2000-Leading Internet privacy and identity-management company Zero-Knowledge Systems announced today that Dr. Financial Cryptography Conference-Anguilla. Brands argues. Brands' innovations add strong privacy protection and . has joined the company as Distinguished (7 April 2000). Wall Street Journal: Zero-Knowledge Is Hoping to Cash In On Move to Anonymous Funds for Web. In an increasingly networked world. Mr. digital identity authentication systems and electronic cash. He devised systems of more specialized certificates that can help users disclose data more selectively. Dr. a top cryptographer who specializes in privacy. not their real name or address. NEXT magazine. Unlike current authentication models such as PKI and many early types of electronic cash. Zero-Knowledge Systems: Press Release. The problem. is that certificate issuers store users' names and other personal information that may be unnecessary for many transactions. Brands's doctoral thesis. Heath. Users. British West Indies-February 22. Zero-Knowledge also gained exclusive rights to the Brands patent suite . attempts to rethink the concept of digital certificates. these patents will enable people to ensure privacy and flexibility in their commercial transactions. January 1999 5. Stefan Brands. for example. “Minting” electronic cash by David Chaum and Stefan Brands. (3 March 2010) Microsoft open-sources clever U-Prove identity framework. The patents make Zero-Knowledge one of only two companies capable of developing cryptographically assured private and anonymous e-cash.

worked on electronic systems for allowing consumers to make payments anonymously.enable easy transfer of personal credentials and electronic cash from the online world to the physical and vice-versa. ZKS was featured in Wired magazine as early as 1999 [2] The ZKS Freedom Network was a pioneer of anonymous networking technology. Undeterred. so he was the president of credentica. Some of the enterprise privacy research was also inherited by the IBM Tivoli digital rights management suite. Being based in Canada allowed it to circumvent US ban on strong cryptography.wsj. empowering individuals to disclose specific credentials such as age or gender without revealing other information that could be collected into a e of credit cards over anonymity. considered "munitions" at the time. and helped to draft PIPEDA. During its heyday ZKS captured the media's imagination and successfully drew attention to the privacy risks of unsuspecting internet users. a cryptographer named Stefan Brands who holds five patents for electronic cash and credential systems.. predating the Tor knowledge basically bought digicash by hiring Brands. Once the company was sold to microsoft. http://www. Jonathan Wilkins and Ulf Moller. https://www. where did he work? Maybe he released bitcoin anonmously because he didnt want to get hit with patent issues – and maybe it was microsofts full idea to keep the tech in the dark.zeroknowledge. Anton Stiglic.. The Brands system will allow people to use a smartcard and PDA to authenticate credentials or purchase goods with electronic cash. which sold its its patents to microsoft in 2008 and so did zero-knowledge? .com/media/pressrel. Wiki for zero-knowledge: Zero-Knowledge Systems was one of the first large scale commercial attempts to combine cypherpunk principles with a for-profit technology. Zero-Knowledge unsuccessfully tried to buy DigiCash's patents and then recruited one of its key Other employees included Mike Shaver (chief software officer).[3] Several of the company's employees were from an academic privacy-enhanced technology background: Dr Stefan Brands (senior cryptographer) and cypherpunk background Dr Ian Goldberg (chief scientist) and Dr Adam Back (architect & cryptographer).archive.[4] Stephanie Perrin served as Chief Privacy Officer for the firm before she became Director of Research and Policy at the Office of the Privacy Commissioner of Canada.asp?rel=02222000 Several companies. the Canadian privacy law This confuses me. notably a now-defunct venture called DigiCash Inc. as consumers and merchants chose the conhttps://web.zeroknowledge. Adam Shostack. But those efforts foundered.

2007: Credentica releases SDK. Microsoft aims to integrate the technology into the Windows platform. exponentions. "How does on-line clearing of anonymous digital cash work?" .The issues are familiar: lack of standards. too many reasons! + hard issues.technical developments not final. A daunting prospect. there was no immediate use for . o when IBM researcher Horst Feistel developed a line of key generators to be embedded in IBM computers . including all of the underlying patents and our Java SDK. Brands. etc.Any "launches" will either have to be well-funded. in some quasi-legal or even illegal market (such as gambling). We are announcing our first U-Prove product. We will demonstrate the SDK and its application to government online at the 8th Annual Privacy and Security Conference and Exposition in Victoria.March 6. PDAs. lack of protocols. 2008: Microsoft acquires U-Prove. called Lucifer. "why isn't digital cash being used?" + many reasons. such as Brands) does not now exist.10. See Schneier's book for an introduction. (Note: Credentica will continue to be in operation.There's a lot of math connected with blinding. or done sub rosa.who don't have computers. 12. Chaum. or the various papers of Chaum. and may not exist for several more years. We are proud to announce that Microsoft has acquired our U-Prove technology. murky issues . Brands. etc. I thought it would take "several more years" back in 1988. and variants. Bos. lack of customer experience. well- planned.3. BC. + selling the users . the means to do the local computations . so what do I know?) . etc.) February 13.who want portable versions of the same + The infrastructure for digital money (Chaum anonymous- style. (Of course. . a Java SDK for strong authentication and user-centric data sharing. and likely regulatory hurdles.

3. .it. Not only did they contend that the key length was to NSA's liking. This reason is widely popular. That is. NSA worked closely with IBM to strengthen the algorithm against all except brute force attacks and to strengthen substitution tables. they . but is not always compelling (after all. called S. besides the general attractiveness of a "cool" group such as ours.boxe Scientists charged that NSA had secretly pressured NBS into adopting a nonsecure algorithm.also alleged that the Agency had built a "trap door" i . The first reason is _personal privacy_.There seem to be two main reasons people are drawn to Cypherpunks. and individual choice. tools for ensuring privacy. Personal Privacy and Collapse of Governments . protection from a surveillance society.

in my opinion.. contracts. no laws about campaign law violations (if we were a formal group and lobbied against Senator markets. and other filter agents. 3."uttering a check" . Credentials without identity 3. most of us realize we are on to something that will change--and already is changing--the nature of the balance of power between individuals and larger entities. 3. making it very difficult for governments to interfere or even to enforce laws.and it's how it all got started and evolved ."Cypherpunks break the laws they don't like" monetarizing transactions. a la "Law Merchant" . + caveat emptor (though rating agencies. don't fix it" .9.overlapping many borders."Don't get mad. no organization to administer such things .. etc.4.The second major is personal liberty through reducing the power of governments to coerce and tax. changes in the nature of contract enforcement + (Evidence that this is not hopeless can be found in several places: . to be an Indian giver .? .."if it ain't broke.ironically.4. Privacy. what really powers the list. access. organization.4. etc." all kinds of information...5..4..8.This second view is more controversial. . get voting.4. The Role of Money . antidiscrimination laws. why worry about personal privacy and then join a list that has been identified as a "subversive" group by the Feds? Something to think about.criminal markets.10. where governments obviously cannot be used ." 3. Libertarians and anarchocapitalists are especially drawn to this vision.).. a vision which may bother conventional liberals (when they realize strong crypto means things counter to welfare. reputation will matter even more than it now does) .thus. Digital Free Markets + strong crypto changes the nature and visibility of many economic transactionst.. no nonsense about filling out forms and getting tax exemptions. but is..txt .shopping malls in cyberspace. remailers---digital postage conceivably)http://nakamotoinstitute.. Write code.. Sort of a digital Galt's Gulch. Why is there no formal agenda. AFDC. as it ability to repudiate a identifiable national or regional jurisdiction. .) .11. may be used by wary customers.. While others may phrase it differently. nobody to arrest and hassle. "Cypherpunks write code" . could be hit with the law limiting "special

• updated estate and gift taxes by permitting an unlimited marital deduction. . person exemptions. and by strengthening the individual minimum tax on high-income individuals.3 Advanced Technology Program (ATP) The Trade Act of 1988 Major legislation enacted during chairmanship Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981. Public Law. Public Law. Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982. The 1981 Act encouraged economic growth to the slumping economy by reducing individual income tax rates. The 1982 Act addressed the burgeoning budget deficit by raising revenue by approximately $100 1982). • indexed all the income tax brackets. The 1982 Act accomplished this goal by eliminating many unintended and obsolete tax incentives. 1981).0 Lets not forget his visit to the Council on Foreign Relations ray dillinger and hal finney – do they have any weird affiliations? 3.000.000. and standard deductions • provided more rapid depreciation of business investments • expanded the eligibility for individual retirement accounts (“IRAs”) and increased the annual contribution limit to IRAs to $15. permitting the expensing of business investments. and increasing incentives for individual savings. and reducing the top estate tax rate to 50%. increasing the estate tax exemption to $600. Specifically.Gavin's visit to the CIA: https://bitcointalk. the 1981 Act • reduced the top individual income tax rate to 50% and maximum capital gains rate to 20%. 97-34 (August 13. 97-248 (September 3. It was the first of several critically important deficit-reduction bills enacted during the Rostenkowski chairmanship.

The 1984 Act raised revenues by $50. replacing that system with a system of “backup withholding” and expanded information reporting. domestic crude oil. It drastically reduced the number of deductions and tax brackets. providing comprehensive reform of the federal tax system with the goal of creating a fairer. Public Law. Specifically. 98-369 (July 18.000. 98-21 (April 20. The 1984 Act was another deficit reduction bill driven by two main concerns: (1) the threat to the economy posed by increasing budget deficits and (2) the erosion of the tax base due to the pervasive use of tax shelters. Specifically.000 for married couples. 99-514 (October 22. The 1986 Tax Reform Act was “landmark” legislation. The 1983 Act repealed the requirement for withholding on interest and dividends. (ha he keeps making problems then proposing bullshit solutions Deficit Reduction Act of 1984. and more transparent system. Interest and Dividends Tax Compliance Act of 1983. P. 98-67 (August 5. The 1983 Social Security Act provided solvency for the social security system which was facing bankruptcy before the enactment of this critical bill. 1983). 1986). increased the personal exemption to $2. the Act imposed taxes on chemicals. • reduced the holding period required to qualify for long-term capital gains taxation from one year to six months. and increased the earned income tax credit (“EITC”). • reformed the taxation of U. Specifically. The 1986 Superfund Act imposed taxes on polluting industries such as chemical and petroleum companies to finance the cleanup of toxic waste sires and leaking underground storage facilities. the 1986 Act lowered the top individual marginal tax rate to 28%.7 billion over a four-year period. . 1986). The 1983 Act also enacted various tax and trade incentives to encourage economic development in the Caribbean Basin countries. simpler. Capital gains were taxed at the same rate as ordinary income. the 1984 Act • deleted a variety of tax provisions that were scheduled to take effect in 1984 • increased excise taxes on distilled spirits • reduced various tax shelters used by corporations and businesses to inappropriately reduce their taxes • significantly reformed the taxation of life insurance companies to treat them more like other corporations. Tax Reform Act of 1986.S. Public Law. Public Law. the 1983 Act secured the financial solvency of the Social Security Trust Fund by providing a dependable stream of revenues to the Trust Fund and by rationalizing the benefit structure including the retirement age determining benefit eligibility. 99-499 (October 17. 1984). persons working abroad and foreign corporations doing business in the United States. The sharp decrease in the tax rates applicable to individuals and corporations meant that many other tax preferences (which benefited a small percentage of taxpayers) were no longer necessary. increased the standard deduction to $5. more efficient. Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986.Social Security Amendments of 1983. imported petroleum and other polluting fuels.L. Specifically. 1983). Public Law.

He and Rostenkowski were both elected to Congress from Chicago in 1958.3 cents per gallon and the 2. In addition. Such a tax would have been fatal to the exchang In January 1983 Plitt Theaters filed a lawsuit to obtain a permit to demolish the historic Chicago Theater. just bring the papers for the theater project tIn Chicago.5 cents per gallon motor fuels tax was extended. he's Mr. 103-66 (August 10. the Chicago Mercantile Exchange and the Chicago Board of Options Exchange. he still helps out a friend in need. Pucinski returned home after 14 years to serve as an alderman. Pierce phoned Rostenkowski to ask if he could come up and see him. Bush." Pucinski should know. Upon his return every Friday."Money. Now. Rostenkowski met with Mayor Richard J. the congressman replied. W. a seat he held until 1991. Mayor Jane Byrne and other civic leaders appealed to Rostenkowski to assist them in obtaining a federal Urban Development Action Grant to save the theater. . Rostenkowski called his friend Vice President George H. Money and that's 's all that counts March 04. "It's about money. Sure. his voice reduced to a whisper. Daley In the early 1980s Rostenkowski successfully fought off repeated attempts to impose a transaction tax on commodity traders at the Chicago Board of Trade. 1993). The Act also increased the tax rates for the alternative minimum tax (AMT). "represents what's best about Chicago. While Rosty stayed to become chairman of the Ways and Means Committee. The 1993 Act also increased the earned income tax credit (EITC) and extended it to low-income single workers with no children. “If I don’t get that grant. he still serves The Machine. you're going to have one very pissed off chairman of the Ways and Means Committee for your administration's pending tax bill”. Public Law.Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993. at age 74.[32] Rostenkowski considered these zones a Republican gimmick that would help businesses escape taxes without addressing chronic inner-city unemployment." Gidwitz says."Dan Rostenkowski.[33] Shortly thereafter. while increasing the corporate tax rate to 35%." Roman Pucinski is saying as Dan Rostenkowski takes the stage." And what is that? I ask. 1994|By ROGER SIMON CHICAGO -. the gasoline tax was increased by 4. The final deficit reduction act of the Rostenkowski Chairmanship came with the enactment of the 1993 Act which increased individual income tax rates and added two new brackets at the top of the earnings scale. Grants of this kind were being frozen from Chicago by housing secretary Samuel Pierce in reprisal for Rostenkowski's opposition to the Reagan administration's Urban Enterprise Zone bill.

Rostenkowski: The Pursuit of Power and the End of the Old Politics." Clinton said in his Monday speech. clinton. Task Group on . there will be money for one. Josephson effect. president of Wright Junior College. the country will run out of money. Money. "And when we need another expressway in Chicago like Congressman Rostenkowski used to get for us. least-squares adjustment." LeSevour said. where Bill Clinton spoke on Monday. tip oneal. told the audience how the college had needed a new "environmental technology" curriculum. But as long as he is in office. had to smile at that line. especially the money that will fund Clinton's health care reform plan. Where Chicago would put a fifth expressway. Was friends with kennedy. "there will be no money there!" Even Rostenkowski. He certainly understands the value of the money that Rostenkowski's committee controls. "And we received the funds! Several million dollars!" Which is what education is all about." he says.Gidwitz pauses. "But where do we get the money?" Where? Where else? "I went to Congressman Rostenkowski!" LeSevour said. Clinton says. quantum Hall effect. isn't it? Bill Clinton understands the value of money. His dad was an aldermon? CODATA. recommended values of the constants. Even college presidents understand it. "He got us $35 million to help reroute Lake Shore Drive. electrical units. conversion factors. he couldn't tell you. who has been smiling little these days. Book . And we need health care reform. Raymond LeSevour. fundamental physical constants. "Coming up with the program was easy. Which is Rostenkowski's entire campaign platform: I am the spigot through which the dollars flow. Get rid of me and the spigot gets turned off. because if we don't get it.

three new results dominate the analysis: Abstract a value of the Planck constant obtained from a realization of the watt.contentdm.Fundamental Constants We summarize the principal advances made in the fundamental physical constants field since the completion of the 1986 CODATA least-squares adjustment of the constants and discuss their implications for both the 1986 set of recommended values and the next least-squares adjustment. http://cdm16009. the new results lead to values of the constants with uncertainties 5 to 7 times smaller than the uncertainties assigned the 1986 values. Because of their dominant role in determining the values and uncertainties of many of the constants. However. Until then. In general. and a value of the molar gas constant obtained from the speed of sound in ll6/id/72599/rec/34 Kerckhoffs's principle . the changes in the values themselves are less than twice the 1986 assigned one-standard- deviation uncertainties and thus are not highly significant. Although much new data has become available since 1986. a value of the fine-structure constant obtained from the magnetic moment anomaly of the electron.oclc. it is highly desirable that additional results of comparable uncertainty that corroborate these three data items be obtained before the next adjustment is carried out. the 1986 CODATA set of recommended values will remain the set of choice.