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Casing Design i.

If only have to consider shut in conditions, use P-Z diagram
ii. If you have to consider circulating out a kick:
General Notes - Solve bubble equation for hinf
API Casing Range - OR, use P-Z diagram for casing setting depth
Length Avg Length Length Avg Length shown above, but have to iterate for different
Range volumes until right shoe depth is found (time
(m) (m) (ft) (ft)
1 4.9-7.6 6.7 16.1-25 22 consuming!!!)
2 7.6-10.4 9.4 25-34.1 30.8
3 >10.4 12.8 >34.1 42
External Pressure Profile - Drilling
 Mixwater: 8.5ppg, or 0.442psi/ft, Freshwater: 0.433psi/ft
 Initial drilling fluid gradient down to TOC
 1 psi = 6.895 kPa, 1 N = 0.2248 lbf, 1 lbf = 4.448 N
 Pore pressure gradient below TOC if opposite rock
 Mix water gradient below TOC if opposite casing
Design Factors
Tensile = 1.3
Cement Quality
Burst = 1.1
 If not stated, use bond quality that gives worst case
Collapse = 1.0
 If stated in question, use it
TriAxial = 1.25
NOTE: Applies for production, but degrade annular fluid to base density!
Weak Pup Joint
- Bentonite and Brine do not deteriorate, only OBM and
 Look to see if triaxial analysis shows that burst capacity of pup joint is
polymer
sufficient
 If it is still not sufficient, some things to consider if you decide to drill
1) Kick drills with crews to minimize size of influx
 If weak pup joint is not strong enough for full displacement to gas, but Annulus Fluid
is strong enough to withstand a reasonable size kick:
1) Basically, there is no correct answer, although some good TOC
qualifiers should be noted. Evan a compromise of drilling to the Low Perm Form Cmt Mixwater
top of the sand/shale sequence prior to re-assessing the
situation with respect to equipment availability could be
considered justified. Low Perm Form Cmt Mixwater
2) If drilling is suspended immediately and remedial work executed,
this could take several days just to mobilize the equipment and
personnel required, and several more for the actual operations. Low Perm Form Cmt Mixwater
3) The open hole section drilled to this point may be lost due to
formation instability during repair and will have to be re-drilled
4) But can't just say full evacuation to gas is not realistic, have to Good Cement - Low Pressure Reservoir
consider:
a. Is it exploration or development well (quality offset)
Annulus Fluid
b. Rig kick detection equipment
c. Rig crew experience and performance
d. What MW is possible based on formation strength TOC
e. Calculate the max allowable kick volume Low Perm Form Connect Lines
f. If you recommend to drill ahead, clearly state the risks

Casing Seat Selection with Kick High Perm Form Low Pressure Gradient
 If swabbed kick, assume you strip back to bottom and therefore
Po=1D
Low Perm Form Cmt Mixwater
 If drilling kick, kick intensity = Pdp, therefore Po=Pdp+1D

2. Calculate hkick, kick, and Ptopkick=Po-hkickkick Good Cement - High Pressure Reservoir

 kick  1 
P ann  Pdp , Annulus Fluid
h kick
TOC
Vinf Connect Lines
hkick  Low Perm Form
Cap OH / DC
High Pressure
3. Given Vkick and knowing Po, choose a new depth for kick: High Perm Form Gradient
a) Influx on bottom
b) Bottom of influx at top of drill collars
c) 1000ft intervals above TD Low Perm Form Cmt Mixwater

4. Calculate the new volume of kick
Poor Cement - Low Pressure Reservoir
PBtmKick VNew  Po VKick
5. Calculate new influx density
Annulus Fluid
 V
Inf  Kick Kick TOC
VNew Low Perm Form Cmt Mixwater
6. Calculate new height of bubble, using calculated volume
7. Calculate pressure at top of bubble Low Pressure
PTop  PBtmKick  hNew  New High Perm Form Gradient
8. Repeat steps for every depth.
9. Point where line crosses formation strength line is minimum Low Perm Form Cmt Mixwater
Annulus Fluid
casing depth point.
10. Table: TOC
DBtmBubble PBtm Bubble Vnew InfNew hNew PTopBubble Depth PTop Poor Cement - High Pressure Reservoir
Low Perm Form Cmt Mixwater
Decide Calc Calc Calc Calc Calc/Plot Calc/Plot

Kick Tolerance High Pressure
 Given shoe depth and formation strength, must determine max influx