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Casing Design i.

If only have to consider shut in conditions, use P-Z diagram
ii. If you have to consider circulating out a kick:
General Notes - Solve bubble equation for hinf
API Casing Range - OR, use P-Z diagram for casing setting depth
Length Avg Length Length Avg Length shown above, but have to iterate for different
Range volumes until right shoe depth is found (time
(m) (m) (ft) (ft)
1 4.9-7.6 6.7 16.1-25 22 consuming!!!)
2 7.6-10.4 9.4 25-34.1 30.8
Load Cases
3 >10.4 12.8 >34.1 42
External Pressure Profile - Drilling
 Mixwater: 8.5ppg, or 0.442psi/ft, Freshwater: 0.433psi/ft
 Initial drilling fluid gradient down to TOC
 1 psi = 6.895 kPa, 1 N = 0.2248 lbf, 1 lbf = 4.448 N
 Pore pressure gradient below TOC if opposite rock
 Mix water gradient below TOC if opposite casing
Design Factors
Tensile = 1.3
Cement Quality
Burst = 1.1
 If not stated, use bond quality that gives worst case
Collapse = 1.0
 If stated in question, use it
TriAxial = 1.25
NOTE: Applies for production, but degrade annular fluid to base density!
Weak Pup Joint
- Bentonite and Brine do not deteriorate, only OBM and
 Look to see if triaxial analysis shows that burst capacity of pup joint is
 If it is still not sufficient, some things to consider if you decide to drill
Good/Bad Cement - No Reservoir
1) Kick drills with crews to minimize size of influx
 If weak pup joint is not strong enough for full displacement to gas, but Annulus Fluid
is strong enough to withstand a reasonable size kick:
1) Basically, there is no correct answer, although some good TOC
qualifiers should be noted. Evan a compromise of drilling to the Low Perm Form Cmt Mixwater
top of the sand/shale sequence prior to re-assessing the
situation with respect to equipment availability could be
considered justified. Low Perm Form Cmt Mixwater
2) If drilling is suspended immediately and remedial work executed,
this could take several days just to mobilize the equipment and
personnel required, and several more for the actual operations. Low Perm Form Cmt Mixwater
3) The open hole section drilled to this point may be lost due to
formation instability during repair and will have to be re-drilled
4) But can't just say full evacuation to gas is not realistic, have to Good Cement - Low Pressure Reservoir
a. Is it exploration or development well (quality offset)
Annulus Fluid
b. Rig kick detection equipment
c. Rig crew experience and performance
d. What MW is possible based on formation strength TOC
e. Calculate the max allowable kick volume Low Perm Form Connect Lines
f. If you recommend to drill ahead, clearly state the risks

Casing Seat Selection with Kick High Perm Form Low Pressure Gradient
 If swabbed kick, assume you strip back to bottom and therefore
Low Perm Form Cmt Mixwater
 If drilling kick, kick intensity = Pdp, therefore Po=Pdp+1D

1. Plot formation strength gradient
2. Calculate hkick, kick, and Ptopkick=Po-hkickkick Good Cement - High Pressure Reservoir

 kick  1 
P ann  Pdp , Annulus Fluid
h kick
Vinf Connect Lines
hkick  Low Perm Form
Cap OH / DC
High Pressure
3. Given Vkick and knowing Po, choose a new depth for kick: High Perm Form Gradient
a) Influx on bottom
b) Bottom of influx at top of drill collars
c) 1000ft intervals above TD Low Perm Form Cmt Mixwater

4. Calculate the new volume of kick
Poor Cement - Low Pressure Reservoir
PBtmKick VNew  Po VKick
5. Calculate new influx density
Annulus Fluid
 V
Inf  Kick Kick TOC
VNew Low Perm Form Cmt Mixwater
6. Calculate new height of bubble, using calculated volume
7. Calculate pressure at top of bubble Low Pressure
PTop  PBtmKick  hNew  New High Perm Form Gradient
8. Repeat steps for every depth.
9. Point where line crosses formation strength line is minimum Low Perm Form Cmt Mixwater
Annulus Fluid
casing depth point.
10. Table: TOC
DBtmBubble PBtm Bubble Vnew InfNew hNew PTopBubble Depth PTop Poor Cement - High Pressure Reservoir
Low Perm Form Cmt Mixwater
Decide Calc Calc Calc Calc Calc/Plot Calc/Plot

Kick Tolerance High Pressure
 Given shoe depth and formation strength, must determine max influx
High Perm Form Gradient
volume allowed (i.e. kick tolerance).
Low Perm Form Cmt Mixwater

evacuation to gas above packer.5 m/sec. not weight.Shoe may not break down since we only know "leak-off" point . it has very little effect on tensile strength. lbs) Vav = Average running speed (m/sec. then all the tension calcs will have to be redone. Ai = X-sectional area of inside of pipe (mm2.0061 x do x  x As (daN) a)Use mud weight to balance high pressures in reservoir.(Pi x Ai)] (daN) you have to check certain criteria:  FP-Test + FStatic < FAllowable Field Units Where: FStatic = WBuoyed + FL FB = [(Pe x Ae) .3) Casing Selection: If tension check proves that the casing is not sufficient.FB + FL + FS (RIH)  Below packer: Displacement to hydrocarbons. whichever is lower RIH: FTOT = Wa . If the weight is increased. but FB = 0. 1. or 3ft/sec  Blowout. etc. then use drag in place of FS to give a higher load. therefore. evac to gas Reciprocate: FTOT = Wa . when reciprocating. This would be the scenario of pulling up. but depleted reservoir encountered instead Field Units b)Plot pore pressure of reservoir. aerated drilling As = x-sectional area (mm2.0001 x [(Pe x Ae) . can be ignored. Immediately after Bumping Plug  Different densities inside and outside of casing  Cement. Service Loads 1. State assumption. deg/100ft)  Air. or weak zone FL = 218 x do x  x As (lbs) c) Extend MW gradient from top of weak zone until intersect y-axis FL = Bending Load (+/-) (daN. in)  Salt Loading  = Dogleg severity (deg/30m. foam. psi) Pi = Internal pressure (kPa. in2) . in2) Pe = External pressure (kPa. if Drag>FS. in2)  Blowout NOTE: Burst o o  Always assume at least 2 doglegs. no internal pressure Total Load Force (FTOT) Burst  Tubing leak at surface + 10% or 1000psi.FB + FL + FS (Reciprocate)  Do not consider salt loading when calculating burst General Notes Drag: Installation load with RIH does not use drag because it works against shock. but internal pressure has test  Shock loads (FS) pressure Pressure Loads/Buoyancy (FB) Pressure Testing SI Units  You always want to test to max anticipated load. push up on bottom of casing Installation Loads  Displacement fluid pushes against any internal upsets  Displacement fluid pushes against ID at plug depth  Self Weight in air (WA)  Bending loads are the same  Pressure (buoyancy) loads (FB)  Bending loads (FL) 2. de-rate load to breakdown at shoe and gas gradient to surface SI Units d)Mention: FS = 6.5ft/sec  Gas lift . However. lbs) Ae = X-sectional area of outside of pipe (mm2. Connections: Make sure you check connections (DF=1. psi) Bending Loads (FL) Internal Pressure Profile .Production As = x-sectional area (m2. not down.1x107 x Vav x As (N) . not at top of reservoir b)Check if shoe breaks down Shock Loads (FS) c) If exceeds shoe strength. no internal pressure  Average reciprocation speeds of 0. Pressure Test after Bump  Dynamic drag loads (only if given)  Same as above. increase the grade. drop in brine height above packer to pore pressure  Assume average running speeds of 1m/sec. in2) Collapse  Evacuation to atmosphere below packer (plugged perforations) NOTE:  Partial or losses. hole bridges. preflush.(Pi x Ai)] (lbs) FP-Test = PTest (ID2)(/4) FB = Pressure Force (daN.Drilling Collapse SI Units  Partial or Total Losses FL = 0.Don't know FSG in exploration wells FS = 2700 x Vav x As (lbs)  Gas kick (if given)  Do not consider salt loading when calculating burst FS = Shock Load (+/-) (N. ft/sec) Internal Pressure Profile . Wear: If it is localized wear.May not deplete gas (could plug/charge up) Field Units . and add 2 to given  Full displacement to gas (shut-in at surface)  a)Use pore pressure at TD. lbs)  Cementing do = Outer diameter of casing (mm.

set. subjected to this pressure if the slips fail. DP will be 12. psi) bite. psi)  Problems may be experienced when trying to set packer in Pe = External pressure (kPa.Tension: 1. if test being applied from below). lower pipe and turn to right. different amounts of wear in different locations pressure up the other side to compensate and bleed off in an order that makes sense Biaxial Collapse Design  Always check tensile rating of DP (or compression. pressure up the other side to compensate neutral weight. t = Nominal wall thickness (mm. the pressure test prior to (1.  Always check burst and collapse of DP. If it is a 9. PTest  FYield  1.Question will likely say to disregard wear for collapse Keep DP open . Determine the temperature profile  You can then apply a lower test pressure below the packer. you would prefer to achieve pressure test on the  2t  lower portion of the casing via the green cement pressure Peff  Pe   1  Pi (SI.Wear may be only over a certain interval. and bleed off in an order that makes sense 10. But you would rather not do this because 15. Visually check RTTS slips and rubber element. Release torque and slack off weight onto tool. pumped in order to reach test pressure Burst: Close pipe rams . packer. Lock open circulating valve and ensure J slot in locked sections to ensure a smooth as possible well trajectory position.this will allow mud to flow up the DP and . in) . Casing Selection General Notes: If mud in casing is a high density such that a pressure test General Notes would result in a load that is higher at the bottom of the casing. release RH torque. for Green cmt tests  Casing pressure tests should be carried out for 10 minutes Pressure Testing Prior to Drilling Out  Test to max anticipated burst load that will be seen while drilling the next hole section Good Rotary Tubulars Mgmt & Special Drilling  If going to run a liner next. state that the  out if the packer leaks and pressure is inadvertently exerted reduction in collapse resistance is not directly related to the below the packer % wall thickness reduction and therefore will not attempt to  Calculate (estimate) how much volume is expected to be make relationship.10  Set packer at an intermediate depth (preferable at or below . buckling.00 .Burst rating is directly proportional to wall thickness  Apply pressure to annulus . but rather Armco XT or something test for the regular casing. but use motor in lower sections to 5. Once test completed. reduce rotations in the casing that has already been 6. Determine internal and external pressures that will create buckling. shear tension sleeve and apply 10 cement to crack. If it is a concern.  Doglegs are monitored closely while drilling the upper 3. when drilled through drilling out the casing will be based on the maximum c) The tensile rating of the casing when applying the pressure for drilling the next hole section. similar. d) The rating of the cement plugs.  Casing pressure tests should be carried out for 10 minutes  Hardbanding is flush or slightly under that of the actual tool joint OD.  If possible. subjected to this pressure if the slips fail.1 DF) b) The burst rating for casing allowing for design factor  If going to run a liner next. allowing the 13. 11.30 TOC) . in)  Always make sure to check for drillpipe collapse D = Nominal outside diameter (mm. 7. move.  Always check tensile rating of DP (or compression. Pressure Testing with a Retrievable Packer (RTTS)  Mud motors used to reduce total rotation of drillpipe in Procedure: csg. Calculate the effective collapse pressure: But you would rather not do this because pressure testing against hard cement may cause the cement to crack. has  Check if DP will part if packer slips fail ID  4      ID CSG  ODDP  PTest  2 2 Load on DP = tension as limit 4  Other limiting factors: +Buoyed DP Weight a) 91% of the casing burst rating (based on 1. Monitor pressures and return. reduce doglegs.If question does not say disregard wear.Collapse: 1. Holding RH torque.3   WBuoyed  FL  . and there may be   Always check burst and collapse of DP. 3. Test all surface lines prior to any pressure test.  Design Factors: a retrievable packer must be used . DP will be the greatest differential collapse pressure.Burst: 1. Field) test.  You can then apply a lower test pressure below the 14. Run below setting depth by 15ft. and this may pressure test (above equation) be more than the test for the regular casing. slack off until tool takes weight and DP to move. right hand turns. if test being applied from below). Pick up to depth and set packer with right hand rotation. and this may be more than the tungsten carbide. 1. To open tool prior to POOH. pressure testing against hard cement may cause the 16.Triaxial: 1. Calculate the axial force on the pipe at that depth (static). Close rams and perform test in leak off mode. To POOH pick straight up. allowing the DP to 2. To back out safety joint. Proceed with green  D  Carried out in stages Peff = Effective collapse pressure (kPa.25  Open side outlet valves on the next annulus so there is no pressure build-up in that annulus as a result of the casing Wear expanding during the test (thus. RIH with no right hand rotation. slack off until tool takes weight. Inch upwards until circulation established.  Use of rotary steerable in upper hole sections to 4. psi) high grade casing due to the problem of getting the slips to Pi = Internal pressure (kPa. the pressure test prior to drilling Practices out the casing will be based on the maximum pressure for  Tool joint hardbanding is "casing friendly" and is not drilling the next hole section.  Centralize casing properly 8. next annulus fluid would be Collapse: compressed if not opened to vent) . 4.1) and wear.  Drillpipe rubber protectors (centralizers) are used 2. Open circulating valve by turning to right and picking up to concern. Apply pump pressure. 1.

36 >28.41-26.2. psi) e. psi) YP = Nominal Yield Strength of pipe (kPa.000psi for L-80 casing SA = Axial stress (kPa.162 0.g.02 production.44-20.98 point.998 0.9x10-6 oF-1 OR 1.576 G105 3.480 Comp = FComp/As C/X95 3.Use temperature at that point in casing 1. Find the compressive bending stress on the ID of the P110 3.44 12. S135 2. 107 225 0. Look at TOC for maximum compressive loading (worst Degree OC Degree OF Relative Strength case).760 S135 3.89 8. Calculate total compressive stress on ID Table 2.0532 9. Find the compressive stress at this point.85 12. Calculate the corrected yield strength for collapse formula  2  YPA    YP x 1  0. Compare against table  = Thermal expansion coefficient Table 2.315 L80 3.133 0. Table 2.0895 3301 22.239 0. Compare this pressure to the maximum expected collapse a = -(218 x 106 x OD x ) [Field] pressure at that point.75 SA    0.6 .053 0.5 . deg/100ft)   D t   8.22 >26.0819 2852 19.029 0.0541 1206 8. lbs) AS = X-sectional area (m. usually bullhead kill after .3 .5.24x10-5 oC-1 D/t Failure Mode Equation AS = X-sectional area of pipe (in2) Grade Yield Plastic Transition Elastic T = Average change in temp (oF) E = 30x106psi OR 2.989 0.106 0.36 production. and reservoir temperature for during C95 0-12.81 14.02 >31. P110 0-12.01-37.071 0. psi)  Triaxial stress analysis addresses two key factors: a) The integration of all stresses in the pipe (VME) b) Analyses service loads. API Transition Collapse Model a = Change in axial stress (kPa.066 0. 80.33 21.2. psi) ID = Inner diameter of casing (m.DLP Grade F G TotalID= Comp + a K55 1.278 0.991 0.22 NOTE: FTemp will be a negative number 10.85-21. K55 2.0360 L80 1.829 a= -(183 x 106 x ID x ) [SI] a = -(218 x 106 x ID x ) [Field] 11.47-31. If the pressure PP is lower.0946 3601 24.1x108 kPa K55 0-14. Find the compressive bending stress on the OD of the Q125 2.  A  FComp = Buoyant Load + FTemp PP  YPA   B  C Temperature de-rated YPA  D t   NOTE: Should be negative number (FTemp is negative) Table 2.0434 NOTE: Should be both negative. De-rate the pipe body yield strength for temperatures effects .47 22.0667 1955 13.21 >37.38 13. Find the maximum burst load.DLP = 6.38-22.665 pipe. in) SA = Axial stress (kPa.DLP 2. the casing is fine.0482 negative G105 2.4 . Q125 3.33-28. Calculate D/t ratio FTemp = Force due to temp change (lbs) 9.181 0. predominately those associated with pressure and temperature changes.0794 2702 18.De-rate YPA that was just calculated tubing leak during production. in)  F  PP  YPA   G Temperature de-rated YPA  = Dogleg severity (deg/30m.91 FTemp  EA S T 232 450 0.630 7.DLP Grade A B C (psi) C (kPa) 6.0615 a= -(183 x 106 x OD x ) [SI] 12. Determine the total compressive load at TOC.41 20. . leading even bigger C/X95 2.5 SA     YP   YP    YPA = Axial equivalent grade (kPa.21 NOTE: Take the average of top & bottom prior to L80 0-13. 7.0515 P110 2. Find the stress change in the uncemented length of pipe.81-25. Find the static buoyant load (ignoring bending) at this 66 150 0. API Plastic Collapse Model 5. design factor for collapse is 1.0582 pipe.124 0.01 25. Calculate the stress at that section Triaxial Burst Design SA = Static Load/AS Load = Buoyant weight of pipe + bending (kN.93 191 375 0. 149 300 0. 21 70 1 3.2. lbs) 6. Remember.95 4.2.0743 2404 16.0.

 VME / OD    tOD  rOD  2    tOD   TotalOD  2    TotalOD  rOD  2 2 NOTE: Every group should be double subtracting to get an addition.91 232 450 0.25.89 NOTE: For example. in2) 13.95 149 300 0. leading even bigger negative 11. a = Change in axial stress (kPa. then casing passes Triaxial Burst Design.93 191 375 0.98 107 225 0. 19. Find the radial stress on the outside of the pipe rOD = -Po (outside pressure during hot kill) 14. Divide the de-rated yield stress by design factor of 1. psi) Ai = Total internal x-sectional area (mm2. Compare against the VME/ID and the VME/OD. If OK. . Find the tangential stress on the outside of the pipe 2Pi A i  Po  A o  A i   tOD  Ao  Ai 15. De-rate the yield stress of the casing for temperature Table 2. deg/100ft) 10.  VME / ID    tID  rID  2    tID   TotalID  2    TotalID  rID  2 2 NOTE: Every group should be double subtracting to get an addition. 17. psi) Po = External pressure (kPa. Find the tangential stress on the inside of the pipe Pi  A i  A o   2Po A o  tID  Ao  Ai Pi = Internal pressure (kPa. in2) Ao = Total external x-sectional area (mm2. Calculate total compressive stress on OD TotalOD = Comp + a NOTE: Should be both negative. in)  = Dogleg severity (deg/30m.000psi for L80 casing 18. 16.3 . psi) OD = Outer diameter of casing (m. Find the Equivalent von Mises stress on the inside of the pipe. Find the Equivalent von Mises stress on the outside of the pipe. 80. Find the radial stress on the inside of the pipe rID = -Pi (will usually be pressure during hot kill) 12.2.DLP Degree OC Degree OF Relative Strength 21 70 1 66 150 0.