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Cementing CEMENTING PRESSURE GRAPHS

BALANCED CEMENT PLUG WWI Just After Plug Bump
 Assumes single stage and cement to surface
Equipment:
 Batch tank
 Enough 5" for 300ft/100m above liner top P
 Section of 3.5"
 Tubing (2.7/8") for stinger
- This is to minimize disturbance of the plug when pulling back Pi due to displacement
- A 2.3/8" stinger is optimal for 6" hole fluid (mud and spacer)
- Tool joints are very bad for cement contamination when pulling
stinger out of cement.
Pann
- The larger the annulus, the better, but if string is too small (i.e.
1.7/8") it can be very fragile and the displacement volume (such (cement)
that the cement is slightly underdisplaced) may become so small Spacer (water)
that it is difficult to control.
Float Collar
Procedure:
1. Make up string (5" DP x 3.5" DP x 2.7/8" Stinger) and RIH.
2. Length of stinger to be such that no DP will be within the cement plug
or spacer when pipe is in the plug. After Pressure Bleed Off
3. Mix and pump 500ft of hi-vis pill and displace with mud.
- Pill acts as a base/bottom retainer for the cement
- Can use bridge plug instead
- Weight of pill should = weight of mud
4. POOH slowly above pill (150-300ft), zero stroke counter, and circulate
B/U (circulate at least 1x bottoms up).
5. Circulate at high rate to aid in hole cleaning.
6. Prepare to pump cement 300ft (min) - 500ft (max). Pi Pann
7. Pump cement on top of hi-vis pill. (cement)
- For kick-off plug, ensure additives for high compressive strength
are used
- Specify silo for cement
- Must check for losses Float Collar
8. Volumes of two spacers are calculated so they occupy the same
height in the annulus and drill pipe respectively once the cement has
been displaced out of the string. P across float collar
9. Ensure that pipe is on bottom and stationary prior to the end of
displacement.
10. Underdisplacement with bbl. Green Cement Pressure Test
- Allows for pipe to be pulled dry P = P-Test Value
- Less likely for plug to be contaminated with mud
11. Pull the string to a safe distance (~200ft) above the TOC, spacer, and
gap, without rotation so the plug doesn't get disturbed.
12. Circulate string volume to ensure all residual cement is displaced out
of the hole and so that no cement bridges are created. Pi
13. Note if cement comes back, and if not, run 50ft deeper and circulate.
This is to ensure that there is a TOC and the hi-vis pill retained the
cement on top of it. Pann
14. Once satisfied with clean returns, drop 2.7/8" or 3.1/2"x5" finned wiper (cement)
dart and pump string volume.
15. Drop sponge ball and pump string volume.
16. Pull up to shoe and flow check.
17. Wait for cement to set
18. Once set, RIH to TOC and tentatively tag (5-10klbs) in order to
confirm setting depth.
19. Have pump trickling, as an increase in pressure will indicate cement Pressure Test After Cement has Set
being tagged.
20. If P-test is required, close annular and test. P = P-Test

GENERAL RULES
 Plugs are always set underdisplaced Pi - In this case
 Select gauge section of hole weighted mud
 Condition mud prior to mixing cement
 Pre-flush volumes should provide 150-200ft of height
 Use dispersant additives to produce dense slurries Pann
 Thickening time of 30mins is recommended (appropriate ELL,
 Assume top 50ft will be contaminated, so use excess slurry i.e. mixwater)

Apply tension with elevators Displacing Cement  When displacing cement. turbulent flow is preferred: .Compensates for elastic stretch . . .Picking up casing at this point may compromise the integrity of the hanger position/sealing or the cement itself.To ensure shoe is not plugged off Scavenger Slurry  Basic recipe for a scavenger slurry: o 1/2 the cement + 2x the mixwater Hanging Casing after Cementing  Why casing is not hung off in slips after a cement job: .To accommodate for cuttings and other fill .<90 ft/min is plug flow Combating Microannulus  To combat microannulus: . . 2) Run the shoetrack empty in the hole and see if it fills up automatically.The string should therefore be suspended in the elevators. Sump Below Shoe  Reasons for having a sump (pocket) below the casing shoe: . GENERAL QUESTIONS Checking Float Equipment  To check that float equipment works: 1) Pick up shoetrack above rig floor and fill it up with mud and see if the mud level drops and mud flows out. .To cover inaccuracies in casing tally .If the hanger has been landed and cementation has been done.Heating up while running and setting of cement .For proper displacement efficiency.>300 ft/min is turbulent flow . This shows that the float did not allow flow up.Slips have downward travel when they are engaged. . the casing is effectively fixed at the wellhead.Pressure test casing directly after bump (green test).Martin Decker will give indications of buoyancy changes .To erode mud cake.To fill up washouts. . .Casing is designed to be in tension .Use detergents in cement. This shows that the floats allow flow down.Ensure casing OD is rough to create good bond. . and this needs to be picked up in order to disengage the slips. .Use spacers to water wet casing body. it shouldn't. . .